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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12           Informational
Benchmarking Methodology Working Group                      B. Balarajah
Internet-Draft
Obsoletes: 3511 (if approved)                            C. Rossenhoevel
Intended status: Informational                                  EANTC AG
Expires: 20 May 2022                                          B. Monkman
                                                              NetSecOPEN
                                                           November 2021


    Benchmarking Methodology for Network Security Device Performance
                  draft-ietf-bmwg-ngfw-performance-12

Abstract

   This document provides benchmarking terminology and methodology for
   next-generation network security devices including next-generation
   firewalls (NGFW), next-generation intrusion prevention systems
   (NGIPS), and unified threat management (UTM) implementations.  The
   main areas covered in this document are test terminology, test
   configuration parameters, and benchmarking methodology for NGFW and
   NGIPS.  This document aims to improve the applicability,
   reproducibility, and transparency of benchmarks and to align the test
   methodology with today's increasingly complex layer 7 security
   centric network application use cases.  As a result, this document
   makes [RFC3511] obsolete.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 May 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.




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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Testbed Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  DUT/SUT Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.1.  Security Effectiveness Configuration  . . . . . . . .  12
     4.3.  Test Equipment Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.1.  Client Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.2.  Backend Server Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.3.3.  Traffic Flow Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.3.4.  Traffic Load Profile  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   5.  Testbed Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   6.  Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     6.1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     6.2.  Detailed Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.3.  Benchmarks and Key Performance Indicators . . . . . . . .  21
   7.  Benchmarking Tests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     7.1.  Throughput Performance with Application Traffic Mix . . .  23
       7.1.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       7.1.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       7.1.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       7.1.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  25
     7.2.  TCP/HTTP Connections Per Second . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       7.2.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       7.2.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       7.2.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       7.2.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  28
     7.3.  HTTP Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       7.3.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       7.3.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       7.3.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       7.3.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  32
     7.4.  HTTP Transaction Latency  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       7.4.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       7.4.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       7.4.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34



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       7.4.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  35
     7.5.  Concurrent TCP/HTTP Connection Capacity . . . . . . . . .  36
       7.5.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       7.5.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       7.5.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       7.5.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  38
     7.6.  TCP/HTTPS Connections per Second  . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
       7.6.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       7.6.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       7.6.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       7.6.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  42
     7.7.  HTTPS Throughput  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       7.7.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       7.7.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       7.7.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       7.7.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  45
     7.8.  HTTPS Transaction Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       7.8.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       7.8.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       7.8.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       7.8.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  48
     7.9.  Concurrent TCP/HTTPS Connection Capacity  . . . . . . . .  49
       7.9.1.  Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       7.9.2.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       7.9.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       7.9.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . .  51
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   10. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   Appendix A.  Test Methodology - Security Effectiveness
           Evaluation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     A.1.  Test Objective  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     A.2.  Testbed Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     A.3.  Test Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
       A.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters  . . . . . . . . . .  55
       A.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters . . . . . . .  55
     A.4.  Test Results Validation Criteria  . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
     A.5.  Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
     A.6.  Test Procedures and Expected Results  . . . . . . . . . .  57
       A.6.1.  Step 1: Background Traffic  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
       A.6.2.  Step 2: CVE Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
   Appendix B.  DUT/SUT Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58




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1.  Introduction

   18 years have passed since IETF recommended test methodology and
   terminology for firewalls initially ([RFC3511]).  The requirements
   for network security element performance and effectiveness have
   increased tremendously since then.  Security function implementations
   have evolved to more advanced areas and have diversified into
   intrusion detection and prevention, threat management, analysis of
   encrypted traffic, etc.  In an industry of growing importance, well-
   defined, and reproducible key performance indicators (KPIs) are
   increasingly needed as they enable fair and reasonable comparison of
   network security functions.  All these reasons have led to the
   creation of a new next-generation network security device
   benchmarking document, which makes [RFC3511] obsolete.

2.  Requirements

   The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119], [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Scope

   This document provides testing terminology and testing methodology
   for modern and next-generation network security devices that are
   configured in Active ("Inline", see Figure 1 and Figure 2) mode.  It
   covers the validation of security effectiveness configurations of
   network security devices, followed by performance benchmark testing.
   This document focuses on advanced, realistic, and reproducible
   testing methods.  Additionally, it describes testbed environments,
   test tool requirements, and test result formats.

4.  Test Setup

   Test setup defined in this document applies to all benchmarking tests
   described in Section 7.  The test setup MUST be contained within an
   Isolated Test Environment (see Section 3 of [RFC6815]).












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4.1.  Testbed Configuration

   Testbed configuration MUST ensure that any performance implications
   that are discovered during the benchmark testing aren't due to the
   inherent physical network limitations such as the number of physical
   links and forwarding performance capabilities (throughput and
   latency) of the network devices in the testbed.  For this reason,
   this document recommends avoiding external devices such as switches
   and routers in the testbed wherever possible.

   In some deployment scenarios, the network security devices (Device
   Under Test/System Under Test) are connected to routers and switches,
   which will reduce the number of entries in MAC or ARP tables of the
   Device Under Test/System Under Test (DUT/SUT).  If MAC or ARP tables
   have many entries, this may impact the actual DUT/SUT performance due
   to MAC and ARP/ND (Neighbor Discovery) table lookup processes.  This
   document also recommends using test equipment with the capability of
   emulating layer 3 routing functionality instead of adding external
   routers in the testbed.

   The testbed setup Option 1 (Figure 1) is the RECOMMENDED testbed
   setup for the benchmarking test.

   +-----------------------+                   +-----------------------+
   | +-------------------+ |   +-----------+   | +-------------------+ |
   | | Emulated Router(s)| |   |           |   | | Emulated Router(s)| |
   | |    (Optional)     | +----- DUT/SUT  +-----+    (Optional)     | |
   | +-------------------+ |   |           |   | +-------------------+ |
   | +-------------------+ |   +-----------+   | +-------------------+ |
   | |     Clients       | |                   | |      Servers      | |
   | +-------------------+ |                   | +-------------------+ |
   |                       |                   |                       |
   |   Test Equipment      |                   |   Test Equipment      |
   +-----------------------+                   +-----------------------+

                     Figure 1: Testbed Setup - Option 1

   If the test equipment used is not capable of emulating layer 3
   routing functionality or if the number of used ports is mismatched
   between test equipment and the DUT/SUT (need for test equipment port
   aggregation), the test setup can be configured as shown in Figure 2.










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    +-------------------+      +-----------+      +--------------------+
    |Aggregation Switch/|      |           |      | Aggregation Switch/|
    | Router            +------+  DUT/SUT  +------+ Router             |
    |                   |      |           |      |                    |
    +----------+--------+      +-----------+      +--------+-----------+
               |                                           |
               |                                           |
   +-----------+-----------+                   +-----------+-----------+
   |                       |                   |                       |
   | +-------------------+ |                   | +-------------------+ |
   | | Emulated Router(s)| |                   | | Emulated Router(s)| |
   | |     (Optional)    | |                   | |     (Optional)    | |
   | +-------------------+ |                   | +-------------------+ |
   | +-------------------+ |                   | +-------------------+ |
   | |      Clients      | |                   | |      Servers      | |
   | +-------------------+ |                   | +-------------------+ |
   |                       |                   |                       |
   |    Test Equipment     |                   |    Test Equipment     |
   +-----------------------+                   +-----------------------+

                     Figure 2: Testbed Setup - Option 2

4.2.  DUT/SUT Configuration

   A unique DUT/SUT configuration MUST be used for all benchmarking
   tests described in Section 7.  Since each DUT/SUT will have its own
   unique configuration, users SHOULD configure their device with the
   same parameters and security features that would be used in the
   actual deployment of the device or a typical deployment in order to
   achieve maximum network security coverage.  The DUT/SUT MUST be
   configured in "Inline" mode so that the traffic is actively inspected
   by the DUT/SUT.  Also "Fail-Open" behavior MUST be disabled on the
   DUT/SUT.

   Table 1 and Table 2 below describe the RECOMMENDED and OPTIONAL sets
   of network security feature list for NGFW and NGIPS respectively.
   The selected security features SHOULD be consistently enabled on the
   DUT/SUT for all benchmarking tests described in Section 7.

   To improve repeatability, a summary of the DUT/SUT configuration
   including a description of all enabled DUT/SUT features MUST be
   published with the benchmarking results.









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          +============================+=============+==========+
          | DUT/SUT (NGFW) Features    | RECOMMENDED | OPTIONAL |
          +============================+=============+==========+
          | SSL Inspection             |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | IDS/IPS                    |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Anti-Spyware               |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Anti-Virus                 |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Anti-Botnet                |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Web Filtering              |             |    x     |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Data Loss Protection (DLP) |             |    x     |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | DDoS                       |             |    x     |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Certificate Validation     |             |    x     |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Logging and Reporting      |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Application Identification |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+

                      Table 1: NGFW Security Features
























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          +============================+=============+==========+
          | DUT/SUT (NGIPS) Features   | RECOMMENDED | OPTIONAL |
          +============================+=============+==========+
          | SSL Inspection             |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Anti-Malware               |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Anti-Spyware               |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Anti-Botnet                |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Logging and Reporting      |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Application Identification |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Deep Packet Inspection     |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+
          | Anti-Evasion               |      x      |          |
          +----------------------------+-------------+----------+

                      Table 2: NGIPS Security Features

   The following table provides a brief description of the security
   features.

    +================+================================================+
    | DUT/SUT        | Description                                    |
    | Features       |                                                |
    +================+================================================+
    | SSL Inspection | DUT/SUT intercepts and decrypts inbound HTTPS  |
    |                | traffic between servers and clients.  Once the |
    |                | content inspection has been completed, DUT/SUT |
    |                | encrypts the HTTPS traffic with ciphers and    |
    |                | keys used by the clients and servers.          |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | IDS/IPS        | DUT/SUT detects and blocks exploits targeting  |
    |                | known and unknown vulnerabilities across the   |
    |                | monitored network.                             |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Anti-Malware   | DUT/SUT detects and prevents the transmission  |
    |                | of malicious executable code and any           |
    |                | associated communications across the monitored |
    |                | network.  This includes data exfiltration as   |
    |                | well as command and control channels.          |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Anti-Spyware   | Anti-Spyware is a subcategory of Anti Malware. |
    |                | Spyware transmits information without the      |
    |                | user's knowledge or permission.  DUT/SUT       |



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    |                | detects and block initial infection or         |
    |                | transmission of data.                          |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Anti-Botnet    | DUT/SUT detects traffic to or from botnets.    |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Anti-Evasion   | DUT/SUT detects and mitigates attacks that     |
    |                | have been obfuscated in some manner.           |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Web Filtering  | DUT/SUT detects and blocks malicious website   |
    |                | including defined classifications of website   |
    |                | across the monitored network.                  |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | DLP            | DUT/SUT detects and prevents data breaches and |
    |                | data exfiltration, or it detects and blocks    |
    |                | the transmission of sensitive data across the  |
    |                | monitored network.                             |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Certificate    | DUT/SUT validates certificates used in         |
    | Validation     | encrypted communications across the monitored  |
    |                | network.                                       |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Logging and    | DUT/SUT logs and reports all traffic at the    |
    | Reporting      | flow level across the monitored network.       |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+
    | Application    | DUT/SUT detects known applications as defined  |
    | Identification | within the traffic mix selected across the     |
    |                | monitored network.                             |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------+

                   Table 3: Security Feature Description

   Below is a summary of the DUT/SUT configuration:

   *  DUT/SUT MUST be configured in "inline" mode.

   *  "Fail-Open" behavior MUST be disabled.

   *  All RECOMMENDED security features are enabled.

   *  Logging SHOULD be enabled.  DUT/SUT SHOULD log all traffic at the
      flow level - Logging to an external device is permissible.

   *  Geographical location filtering, and Application Identification
      and Control SHOULD be configured to trigger based on a site or
      application from the defined traffic mix.






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   In addition, a realistic number of access control rules (ACL) SHOULD
   be configured on the DUT/SUT where ACLs are configurable and
   reasonable based on the deployment scenario.  This document
   determines the number of access policy rules for four different
   classes of DUT/SUT: Extra Small (XS), Small (S), Medium (M), and
   Large (L).  A sample DUT/SUT classification is described in
   Appendix B.

   The Access Control Rules (ACL) defined in Figure 3 MUST be configured
   from top to bottom in the correct order as shown in the table.  This
   is due to ACL types listed in specificity decreasing order, with
   "block" first, followed by "allow", representing a typical ACL based
   security policy.  The ACL entries SHOULD be configured with routable
   IP subnets by the DUT/SUT.  (Note: There will be differences between
   how security vendors implement ACL decision making.)  The configured
   ACL MUST NOT block the security and measurement traffic used for the
   benchmarking tests.


































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                                                       +---------------+
                                                       | DUT/SUT       |
                                                       | Classification|
                                                       | # Rules       |
   +-----------+-----------+--------------------+------+---+---+---+---+
   |           | Match     |                    |      |   |   |   |   |
   | Rules Type| Criteria  |   Description      |Action| XS| S | M | L |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Application|Application| Any application    | block| 5 | 10| 20| 50|
   |layer      |           | not included in    |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | the measurement    |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | traffic            |      |   |   |   |   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Transport  |SRC IP and | Any SRC IP subnet  | block| 25| 50|100|250|
   |layer      |TCP/UDP    | used and any DST   |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |DST ports  | ports not used in  |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | the measurement    |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | traffic            |      |   |   |   |   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |IP layer   |SRC/DST IP | Any SRC/DST IP     | block| 25| 50|100|250|
   |           |           | subnet not used    |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | in the measurement |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | traffic            |      |   |   |   |   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Application|Application| Half of the        | allow| 10| 10| 10| 10|
   |layer      |           | applications       |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | included in the    |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | measurement traffic|      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           |(see the note below)|      |   |   |   |   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Transport  |SRC IP and | Half of the SRC    | allow| >1| >1| >1| >1|
   |layer      |TCP/UDP    | IPs used and any   |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |DST ports  | DST ports used in  |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | the measurement    |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | traffic            |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | (one rule per      |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | subnet)            |      |   |   |   |   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |IP layer   |SRC IP     | The rest of the    | allow| >1| >1| >1| >1|
   |           |           | SRC IP subnet      |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | range used in the  |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | measurement        |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | traffic            |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | (one rule per      |      |   |   |   |   |
   |           |           | subnet)            |      |   |   |   |   |
   +-----------+-----------+--------------------+------+---+---+---+---+

                       Figure 3: DUT/SUT Access List



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   Note: If half of the applications included in the measurement traffic
   is less than 10, the missing number of ACL entries (dummy rules) can
   be configured for any application traffic not included in the
   measurement traffic.

4.2.1.  Security Effectiveness Configuration

   The Security features (defined in Table 1 and Table 2) of the DUT/SUT
   MUST be configured effectively to detect, prevent, and report the
   defined security vulnerability sets.  This section defines the
   selection of the security vulnerability sets from Common
   vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) list for the testing.  The
   vulnerability set SHOULD reflect a minimum of 500 CVEs from no older
   than 10 calendar years to the current year.  These CVEs SHOULD be
   selected with a focus on in-use software commonly found in business
   applications, with a Common vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS)
   Severity of High (7-10).

   This document is primarily focused on performance benchmarking.
   However, it is RECOMMENDED to validate the security features
   configuration of the DUT/SUT by evaluating the security effectiveness
   as a prerequisite for performance benchmarking tests defined in the
   section 7.  In case the benchmarking tests are performed without
   evaluating security effectiveness, the test report MUST explain the
   implications of this.  The methodology for evaluating security
   effectiveness is defined in Appendix A.

4.3.  Test Equipment Configuration

   In general, test equipment allows configuring parameters in different
   protocol layers.  These parameters thereby influence the traffic
   flows which will be offered and impact performance measurements.

   This section specifies common test equipment configuration parameters
   applicable for all benchmarking tests defined in Section 7.  Any
   benchmarking test specific parameters are described under the test
   setup section of each benchmarking test individually.

4.3.1.  Client Configuration

   This section specifies which parameters SHOULD be considered while
   configuring clients using test equipment.  Also, this section
   specifies the RECOMMENDED values for certain parameters.  The values
   are the defaults used in most of the client operating systems
   currently.






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4.3.1.1.  TCP Stack Attributes

   The TCP stack SHOULD use a congestion control algorithm at client and
   server endpoints.  The IPv4 and IPv6 Maximum Segment Size (MSS)
   SHOULD be set to 1460 bytes and 1440 bytes respectively and a TX and
   RX initial receive windows of 64 KByte.  Client initial congestion
   window SHOULD NOT exceed 10 times the MSS.  Delayed ACKs are
   permitted and the maximum client delayed ACK SHOULD NOT exceed 10
   times the MSS before a forced ACK.  Up to three retries SHOULD be
   allowed before a timeout event is declared.  All traffic MUST set the
   TCP PSH flag to high.  The source port range SHOULD be in the range
   of 1024 - 65535.  Internal timeout SHOULD be dynamically scalable per
   RFC 793.  The client SHOULD initiate and close TCP connections.  The
   TCP connection MUST be initiated via a TCP three-way handshake (SYN,
   SYN/ACK, ACK), and it MUST be closed via either a TCP three-way close
   (FIN, FIN/ACK, ACK), or a TCP four-way close (FIN, ACK, FIN, ACK).

4.3.1.2.  Client IP Address Space

   The sum of the client IP space SHOULD contain the following
   attributes.

   *  The IP blocks SHOULD consist of multiple unique, discontinuous
      static address blocks.

   *  A default gateway is permitted.

   *  The DSCP (differentiated services code point) marking is set to DF
      (Default Forwarding) '000000' on IPv4 Type of Service (ToS) field
      and IPv6 traffic class field.

   The following equation can be used to define the total number of
   client IP addresses that will be configured on the test equipment.

   Desired total number of client IP = Target throughput [Mbit/s] /
   Average throughput per IP address [Mbit/s]

   As shown in the example list below, the value for "Average throughput
   per IP address" can be varied depending on the deployment and use
   case scenario.

   (Option 1)  DUT/SUT deployment scenario 1 : 6-7 Mbit/s per IP (e.g.
               1,400-1,700 IPs per 10Gbit/s throughput)

   (Option 2)  DUT/SUT deployment scenario 2 : 0.1-0.2 Mbit/s per IP
               (e.g.  50,000-100,000 IPs per 10Gbit/s throughput)





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   Based on deployment and use case scenario, client IP addresses SHOULD
   be distributed between IPv4 and IPv6.  The following options MAY be
   considered for a selection of traffic mix ratio.

   (Option 1)  100 % IPv4, no IPv6

   (Option 2)  80 % IPv4, 20% IPv6

   (Option 3)  50 % IPv4, 50% IPv6

   (Option 4)  20 % IPv4, 80% IPv6

   (Option 5)  no IPv4, 100% IPv6

   Note: The IANA has assigned IP address range for the testing purpose
   as described in Section 8.  If the test scenario requires more IP
   addresses or subnets than the IANA assigned, this document recommends
   using non routable Private IPv4 address ranges or Unique Local
   Address (ULA) IPv6 address ranges for the testing.

4.3.1.3.  Emulated Web Browser Attributes

   The client emulated web browser (emulated browser) contains
   attributes that will materially affect how traffic is loaded.  The
   objective is to emulate modern, typical browser attributes to improve
   realism of the result set.

   For HTTP traffic emulation, the emulated browser MUST negotiate HTTP
   version 1.1 or higher.  Depending on test scenarios and chosen HTTP
   version, the emulated browser MAY open multiple TCP connections per
   Server endpoint IP at any time depending on how many sequential
   transactions need to be processed.  For HTTP/2 or HTTP/3, the
   emulated browser MAY open multiple concurrent streams per connection
   (multiplexing).  If HTTP/3 is used the emulated browser MUST open
   Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC).  HTTP settings such as number
   of connection per server IP, number of requests per connection, and
   number of streams per connection MUST be documented.  This document
   refers to [RFC8446] for HTTP/2 and [RFC9000] for QUIC.  The emulated
   browser SHOULD advertise a User-Agent header.  The emulated browser
   SHOULD enforce content length validation.  Depending on test
   scenarios and selected HTTP version, HTTP header compression MAY be
   set to enable or disable.  This setting (compression enabled or
   disabled) MUST be documented in the report.

   For encrypted traffic, the following attributes SHALL define the
   negotiated encryption parameters.  The test clients MUST use TLS
   version 1.2 or higher.  TLS record size MAY be optimized for the
   HTTPS response object size up to a record size of 16 KByte.  If



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   Server Name Indication (SNI) is required in the traffic mix profile,
   the client endpoint MUST send TLS extension Server Name Indication
   (SNI) information when opening a security tunnel.  Each client
   connection MUST perform a full handshake with server certificate and
   MUST NOT use session reuse or resumption.

   The following TLS 1.2 supported ciphers and keys are RECOMMENDED to
   use for HTTPS based benchmarking tests defined in Section 7.

   1.  ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 with Prime256v1 (Signature Hash
       Algorithm: ecdsa_secp256r1_sha256 and Supported group: secp256r1)

   2.  ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 with RSA 2048 (Signature Hash
       Algorithm: rsa_pkcs1_sha256 and Supported group: secp256r1)

   3.  ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 with Secp521 (Signature Hash
       Algorithm: ecdsa_secp384r1_sha384 and Supported group: secp521r1)

   4.  ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 with RSA 4096 (Signature Hash
       Algorithm: rsa_pkcs1_sha384 and Supported group: secp256r1)

   Note: The above ciphers and keys were those commonly used enterprise
   grade encryption cipher suites for TLS 1.2.  It is recognized that
   these will evolve over time.  Individual certification bodies SHOULD
   use ciphers and keys that reflect evolving use cases.  These choices
   MUST be documented in the resulting test reports with detailed
   information on the ciphers and keys used along with reasons for the
   choices.

   [RFC8446] defines the following cipher suites for use with TLS 1.3.

   1.  TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256

   2.  TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384

   3.  TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256

   4.  TLS_AES_128_CCM_SHA256

   5.  TLS_AES_128_CCM_8_SHA256

4.3.2.  Backend Server Configuration

   This section specifies which parameters should be considered while
   configuring emulated backend servers using test equipment.






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4.3.2.1.  TCP Stack Attributes

   The TCP stack on the server side SHOULD be configured similar to the
   client side configuration described in Section 4.3.1.1.  In addition,
   server initial congestion window MUST NOT exceed 10 times the MSS.
   Delayed ACKs are permitted and the maximum server delayed ACK MUST
   NOT exceed 10 times the MSS before a forced ACK.

4.3.2.2.  Server Endpoint IP Addressing

   The sum of the server IP space SHOULD contain the following
   attributes.

   *  The server IP blocks SHOULD consist of unique, discontinuous
      static address blocks with one IP per server Fully Qualified
      Domain Name (FQDN) endpoint per test port.

   *  A default gateway is permitted.  The DSCP (differentiated services
      code point) marking is set to DF (Default Forwarding) '000000' on
      IPv4 Type of Service (ToS) field and IPv6 traffic class field.

   *  The server IP addresses SHOULD be distributed between IPv4 and
      IPv6 with a ratio identical to the clients distribution ratio.

   Note: The IANA has assigned IP address range for the testing purpose
   as described in Section 8.  If the test scenario requires more IP
   addresses or subnets than the IANA assigned, this document recommends
   using non routable Private IPv4 address ranges or Unique Local
   Address (ULA) IPv6 address ranges for the testing.

4.3.2.3.  HTTP / HTTPS Server Pool Endpoint Attributes

   The server pool for HTTP SHOULD listen on TCP port 80 and emulate the
   same HTTP version and settings chosen by the client (emulated web
   browser).  The Server MUST advertise server type in the Server
   response header [RFC7230].  For HTTPS server, TLS 1.2 or higher MUST
   be used with a maximum record size of 16 KByte and MUST NOT use
   ticket resumption or session ID reuse.  The server SHOULD listen on
   TCP port 443.  The server SHALL serve a certificate to the client.
   The HTTPS server MUST check host SNI information with the FQDN if SNI
   is in use.  Cipher suite and key size on the server side MUST be
   configured similar to the client side configuration described in
   Section 4.3.1.3.








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4.3.3.  Traffic Flow Definition

   This section describes the traffic pattern between client and server
   endpoints.  At the beginning of the test, the server endpoint
   initializes and will be ready to accept connection states including
   initialization of the TCP stack as well as bound HTTP and HTTPS
   servers.  When a client endpoint is needed, it will initialize and be
   given attributes such as a MAC and IP address.  The behavior of the
   client is to sweep through the given server IP space, generating a
   recognizable service by the DUT.  Sequential and pseudorandom sweep
   methods are acceptable.  The method used MUST be stated in the final
   report.  Thus, a balanced mesh between client endpoints and server
   endpoints will be generated in a client IP and port to server IP and
   port combination.  Each client endpoint performs the same actions as
   other endpoints, with the difference being the source IP of the
   client endpoint and the target server IP pool.  The client MUST use
   the server IP address or FQDN in the host header [RFC7230].

4.3.3.1.  Description of Intra-Client Behavior

   Client endpoints are independent of other clients that are
   concurrently executing.  When a client endpoint initiates traffic,
   this section describes how the client steps through different
   services.  Once the test is initialized, the client endpoints
   randomly hold (perform no operation) for a few milliseconds for
   better randomization of the start of client traffic.  Each client
   will either open a new TCP connection or connect to a TCP persistence
   stack still open to that specific server.  At any point that the
   traffic profile may require encryption, a TLS encryption tunnel will
   form presenting the URL or IP address request to the server.  If
   using SNI, the server MUST then perform an SNI name check with the
   proposed FQDN compared to the domain embedded in the certificate.
   Only when correct, will the server process the HTTPS response object.
   The initial response object to the server is based on benchmarking
   tests described in Section 7.  Multiple additional sub-URLs (response
   objects on the service page) MAY be requested simultaneously.  This
   MAY be to the same server IP as the initial URL.  Each sub-object
   will also use a canonical FQDN and URL path, as observed in the
   traffic mix used.

4.3.4.  Traffic Load Profile

   The loading of traffic is described in this section.  The loading of
   a traffic load profile has five phases: Init, ramp up, sustain, ramp
   down, and collection.






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   1.  Init phase: Testbed devices including the client and server
       endpoints should negotiate layer 2-3 connectivity such as MAC
       learning and ARP.  Only after successful MAC learning or ARP/ND
       resolution SHALL the test iteration move to the next phase.  No
       measurements are made in this phase.  The minimum RECOMMENDED
       time for Init phase is 5 seconds.  During this phase, the
       emulated clients SHOULD NOT initiate any sessions with the DUT/
       SUT, in contrast, the emulated servers should be ready to accept
       requests from DUT/SUT or from emulated clients.

   2.  Ramp up phase: The test equipment SHOULD start to generate the
       test traffic.  It SHOULD use a set of the approximate number of
       unique client IP addresses to generate traffic.  The traffic
       SHOULD ramp up from zero to desired target objective.  The target
       objective is defined for each benchmarking test.  The duration
       for the ramp up phase MUST be configured long enough that the
       test equipment does not overwhelm the DUT/SUTs stated performance
       metrics defined in Section 6.3 namely, TCP Connections Per
       Second, Inspected Throughput, Concurrent TCP Connections, and
       Application Transactions Per Second.  No measurements are made in
       this phase.

   3.  Sustain phase: Starts when all required clients are active and
       operating at their desired load condition.  In the sustain phase,
       the test equipment SHOULD continue generating traffic to constant
       target value for a constant number of active clients.  The
       minimum RECOMMENDED time duration for sustain phase is 300
       seconds.  This is the phase where measurements occur.  The test
       equipment SHOULD measure and record statistics continuously.  The
       sampling interval for collecting the raw results and calculating
       the statistics SHOULD be less than 2 seconds.

   4.  Ramp down phase: No new connections are established, and no
       measurements are made.  The time duration for ramp up and ramp
       down phase SHOULD be the same.

   5.  Collection phase: The last phase is administrative and will occur
       when the test equipment merges and collates the report data.

5.  Testbed Considerations

   This section describes steps for a reference test (pre-test) that
   control the test environment including test equipment, focusing on
   physical and virtualized environments and as well as test equipments.
   Below are the RECOMMENDED steps for the reference test.






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   1.  Perform the reference test either by configuring the DUT/SUT in
       the most trivial setup (fast forwarding) or without presence of
       the DUT/SUT.

   2.  Generate traffic from traffic generator.  Choose a traffic
       profile used for HTTP or HTTPS throughput performance test with
       smallest object size.

   3.  Ensure that any ancillary switching or routing functions added in
       the test equipment does not limit the performance by introducing
       network metrics such as packet loss and latency.  This is
       specifically important for virtualized components (e.g.,
       vSwitches, vRouters).

   4.  Verify that the generated traffic (performance) of the test
       equipment matches and reasonably exceeds the expected maximum
       performance of the DUT/SUT.

   5.  Record the network performance metrics packet loss latency
       introduced by the test environment (without DUT/SUT).

   6.  Assert that the testbed characteristics are stable during the
       entire test session.  Several factors might influence stability
       specifically, for virtualized testbeds.  For example, additional
       workloads in a virtualized system, load balancing, and movement
       of virtual machines during the test, or simple issues such as
       additional heat created by high workloads leading to an emergency
       CPU performance reduction.

   The reference test SHOULD be performed before the benchmarking tests
   (described in section 7) start.

6.  Reporting

   This section describes how the benchmarking test report should be
   formatted and presented.  It is RECOMMENDED to include two main
   sections in the report, namely the introduction and the detailed test
   results sections.

6.1.  Introduction

   The following attributes SHOULD be present in the introduction
   section of the test report.

   1.  The time and date of the execution of the tests

   2.  Summary of testbed software and hardware details




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       a.  DUT/SUT hardware/virtual configuration

           *  This section SHOULD clearly identify the make and model of
              the DUT/SUT

           *  The port interfaces, including speed and link information

           *  If the DUT/SUT is a Virtual Network Function (VNF), host
              (server) hardware and software details, interface
              acceleration type such as DPDK and SR-IOV, used CPU cores,
              used RAM, resource sharing (e.g.  Pinning details and NUMA
              Node) configuration details, hypervisor version, virtual
              switch version

           *  details of any additional hardware relevant to the DUT/SUT
              such as controllers

       b.  DUT/SUT software

           *  Operating system name

           *  Version

           *  Specific configuration details (if any)

       c.  DUT/SUT enabled features

           *  Configured DUT/SUT features (see Table 1 and Table 2)

           *  Attributes of the above-mentioned features

           *  Any additional relevant information about the features

       d.  Test equipment hardware and software

           *  Test equipment vendor name

           *  Hardware details including model number, interface type

           *  Test equipment firmware and test application software
              version

       e.  Key test parameters

           *  Used cipher suites and keys

           *  IPv4 and IPv6 traffic distribution




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           *  Number of configured ACL

       f.  Details of application traffic mix used in the benchmarking
           test "Throughput Performance with Application Traffic Mix"
           (Section 7.1)

           *  Name of applications and layer 7 protocols

           *  Percentage of emulated traffic for each application and
              layer 7 protocols

           *  Percentage of encrypted traffic and used cipher suites and
              keys (The RECOMMENDED ciphers and keys are defined in
              Section 4.3.1.3)

           *  Used object sizes for each application and layer 7
              protocols

   3.  Results Summary / Executive Summary

       a.  Results SHOULD resemble a pyramid in how it is reported, with
           the introduction section documenting the summary of results
           in a prominent, easy to read block.

6.2.  Detailed Test Results

   In the result section of the test report, the following attributes
   SHOULD be present for each benchmarking test.

   a.  KPIs MUST be documented separately for each benchmarking test.
       The format of the KPI metrics SHOULD be presented as described in
       Section 6.3.

   b.  The next level of details SHOULD be graphs showing each of these
       metrics over the duration (sustain phase) of the test.  This
       allows the user to see the measured performance stability changes
       over time.

6.3.  Benchmarks and Key Performance Indicators

   This section lists key performance indicators (KPIs) for overall
   benchmarking tests.  All KPIs MUST be measured during the sustain
   phase of the traffic load profile described in Section 4.3.4.  All
   KPIs MUST be measured from the result output of test equipment.

   *  Concurrent TCP Connections





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      The aggregate number of simultaneous connections between hosts
      across the DUT/SUT, or between hosts and the DUT/SUT (defined in
      [RFC2647]).

   *  TCP Connections Per Second

      The average number of successfully established TCP connections per
      second between hosts across the DUT/SUT, or between hosts and the
      DUT/SUT.  The TCP connection MUST be initiated via a TCP three-way
      handshake (SYN, SYN/ACK, ACK).  Then the TCP session data is sent.
      The TCP session MUST be closed via either a TCP three-way close
      (FIN, FIN/ACK, ACK), or a TCP four-way close (FIN, ACK, FIN, ACK),
      and MUST NOT by RST.

   *  Application Transactions Per Second

      The average number of successfully completed transactions per
      second.  For a particular transaction to be considered successful,
      all data MUST have been transferred in its entirety.  In case of
      HTTP(S) transactions, it MUST have a valid status code (200 OK),
      and the appropriate FIN, FIN/ACK sequence MUST have been
      completed.

   *  TLS Handshake Rate

      The average number of successfully established TLS connections per
      second between hosts across the DUT/SUT, or between hosts and the
      DUT/SUT.

   *  Inspected Throughput

      The number of bits per second of examined and allowed traffic a
      network security device is able to transmit to the correct
      destination interface(s) in response to a specified offered load.
      The throughput benchmarking tests defined in Section 7 SHOULD
      measure the average Layer 2 throughput value when the DUT/SUT is
      "inspecting" traffic.  This document recommends presenting the
      inspected throughput value in Gbit/s rounded to two places of
      precision with a more specific Kbit/s in parenthesis.

   *  Time to First Byte (TTFB)

      TTFB is the elapsed time between the start of sending the TCP SYN
      packet from the client and the client receiving the first packet
      of application data from the server or DUT/SUT.  The benchmarking
      tests HTTP Transaction Latency (Section 7.4) and HTTPS Transaction
      Latency (Section 7.8) measure the minimum, average and maximum
      TTFB.  The value SHOULD be expressed in milliseconds.



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   *  URL Response time / Time to Last Byte (TTLB)

      URL Response time / TTLB is the elapsed time between the start of
      sending the TCP SYN packet from the client and the client
      receiving the last packet of application data from the server or
      DUT/SUT.  The benchmarking tests HTTP Transaction Latency
      (Section 7.4) and HTTPS Transaction Latency (Section 7.8) measure
      the minimum, average and maximum TTLB.  The value SHOULD be
      expressed in millisecond.

7.  Benchmarking Tests

7.1.  Throughput Performance with Application Traffic Mix

7.1.1.  Objective

   Using a relevant application traffic mix, determine the sustainable
   inspected throughput supported by the DUT/SUT.

   Based on the test customer's specific use case, testers can choose
   the relevant application traffic mix for this test.  The details
   about the traffic mix MUST be documented in the report.  At least the
   following traffic mix details MUST be documented and reported
   together with the test results:

      Name of applications and layer 7 protocols

      Percentage of emulated traffic for each application and layer 7
      protocol

      Percentage of encrypted traffic and used cipher suites and keys
      (The RECOMMENDED ciphers and keys are defined in Section 4.3.1.3.)

      Used object sizes for each application and layer 7 protocols

7.1.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup MUST be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   benchmarking test specific testbed configuration changes MUST be
   documented.

7.1.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, the benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.






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7.1.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.  In case the DUT/SUT is
   configured without SSL inspection, the test report MUST explain the
   implications of this to the relevant application traffic mix
   encrypted traffic.

7.1.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:

      Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

      Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2

      Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
      Section 4.3.1.2

      Target inspected throughput: Aggregated line rate of interface(s)
      used in the DUT/SUT or the value defined based on requirement for
      a specific deployment scenario

      Initial throughput: 10% of the "Target inspected throughput" Note:
      Initial throughput is not a KPI to report.  This value is
      configured on the traffic generator and used to perform Step 1:
      "Test Initialization and Qualification" described under the
      Section 7.1.4.

      One of the ciphers and keys defined in Section 4.3.1.3 are
      RECOMMENDED to use for this benchmarking test.

7.1.3.3.  Traffic Profile

   Traffic profile: This test MUST be run with a relevant application
   traffic mix profile.

7.1.3.4.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.






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   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of total attempted transactions.

   b.  Number of Terminated TCP connections due to unexpected TCP RST
       sent by DUT/SUT MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out of 100,000
       connections) of total initiated TCP connections.

7.1.3.5.  Measurement

   Following KPI metrics MUST be reported for this benchmarking test:

   Mandatory KPIs (benchmarks): Inspected Throughput, TTFB (minimum,
   average, and maximum), TTLB (minimum, average, and maximum) and
   Application Transactions Per Second

   Note: TTLB MUST be reported along with the object size used in the
   traffic profile.

   Optional KPIs: TCP Connections Per Second and TLS Handshake Rate

7.1.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedures are designed to measure the inspected throughput
   performance of the DUT/SUT at the sustaining period of traffic load
   profile.  The test procedure consists of three major steps: Step 1
   ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the performance value (initial
   throughput) and meets the test results validation criteria when it
   was very minimally utilized.  Step 2 determines the DUT/SUT is able
   to reach the target performance value within the test results
   validation criteria.  Step 3 determines the maximum achievable
   performance value within the test results validation criteria.

   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different IP
   types: IPv4 only, IPv6 only, and IPv4 and IPv6 mixed traffic
   distribution.

7.1.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.










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   Configure traffic load profile of the test equipment to generate test
   traffic at the "Initial throughput" rate as described in
   Section 7.1.3.2.  The test equipment SHOULD follow the traffic load
   profile definition as described in Section 4.3.4.  The DUT/SUT SHOULD
   reach the "Initial throughput" during the sustain phase.  Measure all
   KPI as defined in Section 7.1.3.5.  The measured KPIs during the
   sustain phase MUST meet all the test results validation criteria
   defined in Section 7.1.3.4.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to step 2.

7.1.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to generate traffic at the "Target inspected
   throughput" rate defined in Section 7.1.3.2.  The test equipment
   SHOULD follow the traffic load profile definition as described in
   Section 4.3.4.  The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record
   all specified KPIs.  Continue the test until all traffic profile
   phases are completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT is expected
   to reach the desired value of the target objective ("Target inspected
   throughput") in the sustain phase.  Follow step 3, if the measured
   value does not meet the target value or does not fulfill the test
   results validation criteria.

7.1.4.3.  Step 3: Test Iteration

   Determine the achievable average inspected throughput within the test
   results validation criteria.  Final test iteration MUST be performed
   for the test duration defined in Section 4.3.4.

7.2.  TCP/HTTP Connections Per Second

7.2.1.  Objective

   Using HTTP traffic, determine the sustainable TCP connection
   establishment rate supported by the DUT/SUT under different
   throughput load conditions.

   To measure connections per second, test iterations MUST use different
   fixed HTTP response object sizes (the different load conditions)
   defined in Section 7.2.3.2.







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7.2.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.

7.2.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.2.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.2.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:

   Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

   Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2

   Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
   Section 4.3.1.2

   Target connections per second: Initial value from product datasheet
   or the value defined based on requirement for a specific deployment
   scenario

   Initial connections per second: 10% of "Target connections per
   second" (Note: Initial connections per second is not a KPI to report.
   This value is configured on the traffic generator and used to perform
   the Step1: "Test Initialization and Qualification" described under
   the Section 7.2.4.

   The client SHOULD negotiate HTTP and close the connection with FIN
   immediately after completion of one transaction.  In each test
   iteration, client MUST send GET request requesting a fixed HTTP
   response object size.

   The RECOMMENDED response object sizes are 1, 2, 4, 16, and 64 KByte.





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7.2.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   Test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.

   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of total attempted transactions.

   b.  Number of terminated TCP connections due to unexpected TCP RST
       sent by DUT/SUT MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out of 100,000
       connections) of total initiated TCP connections.

   c.  During the sustain phase, traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a
       constant rate (considered as a constant rate if any deviation of
       traffic forwarding rate is less than 5%).

   d.  Concurrent TCP connections MUST be constant during steady state
       and any deviation of concurrent TCP connections SHOULD be less
       than 10%. This confirms the DUT opens and closes TCP connections
       at approximately the same rate.

7.2.3.4.  Measurement

   TCP Connections Per Second MUST be reported for each test iteration
   (for each object size).

7.2.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure the TCP connections per
   second rate of the DUT/SUT at the sustaining period of the traffic
   load profile.  The test procedure consists of three major steps: Step
   1 ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the performance value (Initial
   connections per second) and meets the test results validation
   criteria when it was very minimally utilized.  Step 2 determines the
   DUT/SUT is able to reach the target performance value within the test
   results validation criteria.  Step 3 determines the maximum
   achievable performance value within the test results validation
   criteria.

   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different IP
   types: IPv4 only, IPv6 only, and IPv4 and IPv6 mixed traffic
   distribution.







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7.2.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure the traffic load profile of the test equipment to establish
   "Initial connections per second" as defined in Section 7.2.3.2.  The
   traffic load profile SHOULD be defined as described in Section 4.3.4.

   The DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial connections per second" before
   the sustain phase.  The measured KPIs during the sustain phase MUST
   meet all the test results validation criteria defined in
   Section 7.2.3.3.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT continue to "Step 2".

7.2.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish the target objective ("Target
   connections per second") defined in Section 7.2.3.2.  The test
   equipment SHOULD follow the traffic load profile definition as
   described in Section 4.3.4.

   During the ramp up and sustain phase of each test iteration, other
   KPIs such as inspected throughput, concurrent TCP connections and
   application transactions per second MUST NOT reach the maximum value
   the DUT/SUT can support.  The test results for specific test
   iterations SHOULD NOT be reported, if the above-mentioned KPI
   (especially inspected throughput) reaches the maximum value.
   (Example: If the test iteration with 64 KByte of HTTP response object
   size reached the maximum inspected throughput limitation of the DUT/
   SUT, the test iteration MAY be interrupted and the result for 64
   KByte SHOULD NOT be reported.)

   The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record all specified
   KPIs.  Continue the test until all traffic profile phases are
   completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT is expected
   to reach the desired value of the target objective ("Target
   connections per second") in the sustain phase.  Follow step 3, if the
   measured value does not meet the target value or does not fulfill the
   test results validation criteria.







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7.2.4.3.  Step 3: Test Iteration

   Determine the achievable TCP connections per second within the test
   results validation criteria.

7.3.  HTTP Throughput

7.3.1.  Objective

   Determine the sustainable inspected throughput of the DUT/SUT for
   HTTP transactions varying the HTTP response object size.

7.3.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.

7.3.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.3.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.3.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:

   Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

   Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2

   Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
   Section 4.3.1.2

   Target inspected throughput: Aggregated line rate of interface(s)
   used in the DUT/SUT or the value defined based on requirement for a
   specific deployment scenario






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   Initial throughput: 10% of "Target inspected throughput" Note:
   Initial throughput is not a KPI to report.  This value is configured
   on the traffic generator and used to perform Step 1: "Test
   Initialization and Qualification" described under Section 7.3.4.

   Number of HTTP response object requests (transactions) per
   connection: 10

   RECOMMENDED HTTP response object size: 1, 16, 64, 256 KByte, and
   mixed objects defined in Table 4.

           +=====================+============================+
           | Object size (KByte) | Number of requests/ Weight |
           +=====================+============================+
           | 0.2                 | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 6                   | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 8                   | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 9                   | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 10                  | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 25                  | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 26                  | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 35                  | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 59                  | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+
           | 347                 | 1                          |
           +---------------------+----------------------------+

                          Table 4: Mixed Objects

7.3.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.

   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of attempt transactions.





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   b.  Traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a constant rate (considered as a
       constant rate if any deviation of traffic forwarding rate is less
       than 5%).

   c.  Concurrent TCP connections MUST be constant during steady state
       and any deviation of concurrent TCP connections SHOULD be less
       than 10%. This confirms the DUT opens and closes TCP connections
       at approximately the same rate.

7.3.3.4.  Measurement

   Inspected Throughput and HTTP Transactions per Second MUST be
   reported for each object size.


7.3.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure HTTP throughput of the DUT/
   SUT.  The test procedure consists of three major steps: Step 1
   ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the performance value (Initial
   throughput) and meets the test results validation criteria when it
   was very minimal utilized.  Step 2 determines the DUT/SUT is able to
   reach the target performance value within the test results validation
   criteria.  Step 3 determines the maximum achievable performance value
   within the test results validation criteria.

   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different
   IPv4 and IPv6 traffic distribution and HTTP response object sizes.

7.3.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure traffic load profile of the test equipment to establish
   "Initial inspected throughput" as defined in Section 7.3.3.2.

   The traffic load profile SHOULD be defined as described in
   Section 4.3.4.  The DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial inspected
   throughput" during the sustain phase.  Measure all KPI as defined in
   Section 7.3.3.4.

   The measured KPIs during the sustain phase MUST meet the test results
   validation criteria "a" defined in Section 7.3.3.3.  The test results
   validation criteria "b" and "c" are OPTIONAL for step 1.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".



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7.3.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish the target objective ("Target
   inspected throughput") defined in Section 7.3.3.2.  The test
   equipment SHOULD start to measure and record all specified KPIs.
   Continue the test until all traffic profile phases are completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT is expected
   to reach the desired value of the target objective in the sustain
   phase.  Follow step 3, if the measured value does not meet the target
   value or does not fulfill the test results validation criteria.

7.3.4.3.  Step 3: Test Iteration

   Determine the achievable inspected throughput within the test results
   validation criteria and measure the KPI metric Transactions per
   Second.  Final test iteration MUST be performed for the test duration
   defined in Section 4.3.4.

7.4.  HTTP Transaction Latency

7.4.1.  Objective

   Using HTTP traffic, determine the HTTP transaction latency when DUT
   is running with sustainable HTTP transactions per second supported by
   the DUT/SUT under different HTTP response object sizes.

   Test iterations MUST be performed with different HTTP response object
   sizes in two different scenarios.  One with a single transaction and
   the other with multiple transactions within a single TCP connection.
   For consistency both the single and multiple transaction test MUST be
   configured with the same HTTP version

   Scenario 1: The client MUST negotiate HTTP and close the connection
   with FIN immediately after completion of a single transaction (GET
   and RESPONSE).

   Scenario 2: The client MUST negotiate HTTP and close the connection
   FIN immediately after completion of 10 transactions (GET and
   RESPONSE) within a single TCP connection.

7.4.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.





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7.4.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.4.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.4.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:

   Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

   Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2

   Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
   Section 4.3.1.2


   Target objective for scenario 1: 50% of the connections per second
   measured in benchmarking test TCP/HTTP Connections Per Second
   (Section 7.2)

   Target objective for scenario 2: 50% of the inspected throughput
   measured in benchmarking test HTTP Throughput (Section 7.3)

   Initial objective for scenario 1: 10% of "Target objective for
   scenario 1"

   Initial objective for scenario 2: 10% of "Target objective for
   scenario 2"

   Note: The Initial objectives are not a KPI to report.  These values
   are configured on the traffic generator and used to perform the
   Step1: "Test Initialization and Qualification" described under the
   Section 7.4.4.

   HTTP transaction per TCP connection: Test scenario 1 with single
   transaction and test scenario 2 with 10 transactions.






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   HTTP with GET request requesting a single object.  The RECOMMENDED
   object sizes are 1, 16, and 64 KByte.  For each test iteration,
   client MUST request a single HTTP response object size.

7.4.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   Test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.

   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of attempt transactions.

   b.  Number of terminated TCP connections due to unexpected TCP RST
       sent by DUT/SUT MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out of 100,000
       connections) of total initiated TCP connections.

   c.  During the sustain phase, traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a
       constant rate (considered as a constant rate if any deviation of
       traffic forwarding rate is less than 5%).

   d.  Concurrent TCP connections MUST be constant during steady state
       and any deviation of concurrent TCP connections SHOULD be less
       than 10%. This confirms the DUT opens and closes TCP connections
       at approximately the same rate.

   e.  After ramp up the DUT MUST achieve the "Target objective" defined
       in Section 7.4.3.2 and remain in that state for the entire test
       duration (sustain phase).

7.4.3.4.  Measurement

   TTFB (minimum, average, and maximum) and TTLB (minimum, average and
   maximum) MUST be reported for each object size.

7.4.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure TTFB or TTLB when the DUT/
   SUT is operating close to 50% of its maximum achievable connections
   per second or inspected throughput.  The test procedure consists of
   two major steps: Step 1 ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the
   initial performance values and meets the test results validation
   criteria when it was very minimally utilized.  Step 2 measures the
   latency values within the test results validation criteria.






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   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different IP
   types (IPv4 only, IPv6 only and IPv4 and IPv6 mixed traffic
   distribution), HTTP response object sizes and single and multiple
   transactions per connection scenarios.

7.4.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure traffic load profile of the test equipment to establish
   "Initial objective" as defined in Section 7.4.3.2.  The traffic load
   profile SHOULD be defined as described in Section 4.3.4.

   The DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial objective" before the sustain
   phase.  The measured KPIs during the sustain phase MUST meet all the
   test results validation criteria defined in Section 7.4.3.3.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".

7.4.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish "Target objective" defined in
   Section 7.4.3.2.  The test equipment SHOULD follow the traffic load
   profile definition as described in Section 4.3.4.

   The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record all specified
   KPIs.  Continue the test until all traffic profile phases are
   completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT MUST reach
   the desired value of the target objective in the sustain phase.

   Measure the minimum, average, and maximum values of TTFB and TTLB.

7.5.  Concurrent TCP/HTTP Connection Capacity

7.5.1.  Objective

   Determine the number of concurrent TCP connections that the DUT/ SUT
   sustains when using HTTP traffic.

7.5.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.



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7.5.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.5.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.5.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be noted for this benchmarking test:

      Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

      Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2

      Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
      Section 4.3.1.2

      Target concurrent connection: Initial value from product datasheet
      or the value defined based on requirement for a specific
      deployment scenario.

      Initial concurrent connection: 10% of "Target concurrent
      connection" Note: Initial concurrent connection is not a KPI to
      report.  This value is configured on the traffic generator and
      used to perform the Step1: "Test Initialization and Qualification"
      described under the Section 7.5.4.

      Maximum connections per second during ramp up phase: 50% of
      maximum connections per second measured in benchmarking test TCP/
      HTTP Connections per second (Section 7.2)

      Ramp up time (in traffic load profile for "Target concurrent
      connection"): "Target concurrent connection" / "Maximum
      connections per second during ramp up phase"

      Ramp up time (in traffic load profile for "Initial concurrent
      connection"): "Initial concurrent connection" / "Maximum
      connections per second during ramp up phase"

   The client MUST negotiate HTTP and each client MAY open multiple
   concurrent TCP connections per server endpoint IP.



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   Each client sends 10 GET requests requesting 1 KByte HTTP response
   object in the same TCP connection (10 transactions/TCP connection)
   and the delay (think time) between each transaction MUST be X
   seconds.

   X = ("Ramp up time" + "steady state time") /10

   The established connections SHOULD remain open until the ramp down
   phase of the test.  During the ramp down phase, all connections
   SHOULD be successfully closed with FIN.

7.5.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   Test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.

   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transaction) of total attempted transactions.

   b.  Number of terminated TCP connections due to unexpected TCP RST
       sent by DUT/SUT MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out of 100,000
       connections) of total initiated TCP connections.

   c.  During the sustain phase, traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a
       constant rate (considered as a constant rate if any deviation of
       traffic forwarding rate is less than 5%).

7.5.3.4.  Measurement

   Average Concurrent TCP Connections MUST be reported for this
   benchmarking test.

7.5.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure the concurrent TCP
   connection capacity of the DUT/SUT at the sustaining period of
   traffic load profile.  The test procedure consists of three major
   steps: Step 1 ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the performance
   value (Initial concurrent connection) and meets the test results
   validation criteria when it was very minimally utilized.  Step 2
   determines the DUT/SUT is able to reach the target performance value
   within the test results validation criteria.  Step 3 determines the
   maximum achievable performance value within the test results
   validation criteria.





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   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different
   IPv4 and IPv6 traffic distribution.

7.5.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure test equipment to establish "Initial concurrent TCP
   connections" defined in Section 7.5.3.2.  Except ramp up time, the
   traffic load profile SHOULD be defined as described in Section 4.3.4.

   During the sustain phase, the DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial
   concurrent TCP connections".  The measured KPIs during the sustain
   phase MUST meet all the test results validation criteria defined in
   Section 7.5.3.3.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".

7.5.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish the target objective ("Target
   concurrent TCP connections").  The test equipment SHOULD follow the
   traffic load profile definition (except ramp up time) as described in
   Section 4.3.4.

   During the ramp up and sustain phase, the other KPIs such as
   inspected throughput, TCP connections per second, and application
   transactions per second MUST NOT reach the maximum value the DUT/SUT
   can support.

   The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record KPIs defined in
   Section 7.5.3.4.  Continue the test until all traffic profile phases
   are completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT is expected
   to reach the desired value of the target objective in the sustain
   phase.  Follow step 3, if the measured value does not meet the target
   value or does not fulfill the test results validation criteria.

7.5.4.3.  Step 3: Test Iteration

   Determine the achievable concurrent TCP connections capacity within
   the test results validation criteria.

7.6.  TCP/HTTPS Connections per Second




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7.6.1.  Objective

   Using HTTPS traffic, determine the sustainable SSL/TLS session
   establishment rate supported by the DUT/SUT under different
   throughput load conditions.

   Test iterations MUST include common cipher suites and key strengths
   as well as forward looking stronger keys.  Specific test iterations
   MUST include ciphers and keys defined in Section 7.6.3.2.

   For each cipher suite and key strengths, test iterations MUST use a
   single HTTPS response object size defined in Section 7.6.3.2 to
   measure connections per second performance under a variety of DUT/SUT
   security inspection load conditions.

7.6.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.

7.6.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.6.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.6.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:

   Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

   Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2

   Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
   Section 4.3.1.2

   Target connections per second: Initial value from product datasheet
   or the value defined based on requirement for a specific deployment
   scenario.



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   Initial connections per second: 10% of "Target connections per
   second" Note: Initial connections per second is not a KPI to report.
   This value is configured on the traffic generator and used to perform
   the Step1: "Test Initialization and Qualification" described under
   the Section 7.6.4.

   RECOMMENDED ciphers and keys defined in Section 4.3.1.3

   The client MUST negotiate HTTPS and close the connection with FIN
   immediately after completion of one transaction.  In each test
   iteration, client MUST send GET request requesting a fixed HTTPS
   response object size.  The RECOMMENDED object sizes are 1, 2, 4, 16,
   and 64 KByte.

7.6.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   test duration.

   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of attempt transactions.

   b.  Number of terminated TCP connections due to unexpected TCP RST
       sent by DUT/SUT MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out of 100,000
       connections) of total initiated TCP connections.

   c.  During the sustain phase, traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a
       constant rate (considered as a constant rate if any deviation of
       traffic forwarding rate is less than 5%).

   d.  Concurrent TCP connections MUST be constant during steady state
       and any deviation of concurrent TCP connections SHOULD be less
       than 10%. This confirms the DUT opens and closes TCP connections
       at approximately the same rate.

7.6.3.4.  Measurement

   TCP connections per second MUST be reported for each test iteration
   (for each object size).

   The KPI metric TLS Handshake Rate can be measured in the test using 1
   KByte object size.







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7.6.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure the TCP connections per
   second rate of the DUT/SUT at the sustaining period of traffic load
   profile.  The test procedure consists of three major steps: Step 1
   ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the performance value (Initial
   connections per second) and meets the test results validation
   criteria when it was very minimally utilized.  Step 2 determines the
   DUT/SUT is able to reach the target performance value within the test
   results validation criteria.  Step 3 determines the maximum
   achievable performance value within the test results validation
   criteria.

   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different
   IPv4 and IPv6 traffic distribution.

7.6.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure traffic load profile of the test equipment to establish
   "Initial connections per second" as defined in Section 7.6.3.2.  The
   traffic load profile SHOULD be defined as described in Section 4.3.4.

   The DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial connections per second" before
   the sustain phase.  The measured KPIs during the sustain phase MUST
   meet all the test results validation criteria defined in
   Section 7.6.3.3.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".

7.6.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish "Target connections per second"
   defined in Section 7.6.3.2.  The test equipment SHOULD follow the
   traffic load profile definition as described in Section 4.3.4.

   During the ramp up and sustain phase, other KPIs such as inspected
   throughput, concurrent TCP connections, and application transactions
   per second MUST NOT reach the maximum value the DUT/SUT can support.
   The test results for specific test iteration SHOULD NOT be reported,
   if the above mentioned KPI (especially inspected throughput) reaches
   the maximum value.  (Example: If the test iteration with 64 KByte of
   HTTPS response object size reached the maximum inspected throughput
   limitation of the DUT, the test iteration MAY be interrupted and the
   result for 64 KByte SHOULD NOT be reported).



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   The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record all specified
   KPIs.  Continue the test until all traffic profile phases are
   completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT is expected
   to reach the desired value of the target objective ("Target
   connections per second") in the sustain phase.  Follow step 3, if the
   measured value does not meet the target value or does not fulfill the
   test results validation criteria.

7.6.4.3.  Step 3: Test Iteration

   Determine the achievable connections per second within the test
   results validation criteria.

7.7.  HTTPS Throughput

7.7.1.  Objective

   Determine the sustainable inspected throughput of the DUT/SUT for
   HTTPS transactions varying the HTTPS response object size.

   Test iterations MUST include common cipher suites and key strengths
   as well as forward looking stronger keys.  Specific test iterations
   MUST include the ciphers and keys defined in Section 7.7.3.2.

7.7.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.

7.7.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.7.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.7.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:



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   Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

   Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2

   Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
   Section 4.3.1.2

   Target inspected throughput: Aggregated line rate of interface(s)
   used in the DUT/SUT or the value defined based on requirement for a
   specific deployment scenario.

   Initial throughput: 10% of "Target inspected throughput" Note:
   Initial throughput is not a KPI to report.  This value is configured
   on the traffic generator and used to perform the Step1: "Test
   Initialization and Qualification" described under the Section 7.7.4.

   Number of HTTPS response object requests (transactions) per
   connection: 10

   RECOMMENDED ciphers and keys defined in Section 4.3.1.3

   RECOMMENDED HTTPS response object size: 1, 16, 64, 256 KByte, and
   mixed objects defined in Table 4 under Section 7.3.3.2.

7.7.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.

   a.  Number of failed Application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of attempt transactions.

   b.  Traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a constant rate (considered as a
       constant rate if any deviation of traffic forwarding rate is less
       than 5%).

   c.  Concurrent TCP connections MUST be constant during steady state
       and any deviation of concurrent TCP connections SHOULD be less
       than 10%. This confirms the DUT opens and closes TCP connections
       at approximately the same rate.

7.7.3.4.  Measurement

   Inspected Throughput and HTTP Transactions per Second MUST be
   reported for each object size.




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7.7.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure consists of three major steps: Step 1 ensures the
   DUT/SUT is able to reach the performance value (Initial throughput)
   and meets the test results validation criteria when it was very
   minimally utilized.  Step 2 determines the DUT/SUT is able to reach
   the target performance value within the test results validation
   criteria.  Step 3 determines the maximum achievable performance value
   within the test results validation criteria.

   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different
   IPv4 and IPv6 traffic distribution and HTTPS response object sizes.

7.7.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure traffic load profile of the test equipment to establish
   "Initial throughput" as defined in Section 7.7.3.2.

   The traffic load profile SHOULD be defined as described in
   Section 4.3.4.  The DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial throughput"
   during the sustain phase.  Measure all KPI as defined in
   Section 7.7.3.4.

   The measured KPIs during the sustain phase MUST meet the test results
   validation criteria "a" defined in Section 7.7.3.3.  The test results
   validation criteria "b" and "c" are OPTIONAL for step 1.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".

7.7.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish the target objective ("Target
   inspected throughput") defined in Section 7.7.3.2.  The test
   equipment SHOULD start to measure and record all specified KPIs.
   Continue the test until all traffic profile phases are completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT is expected
   to reach the desired value of the target objective in the sustain
   phase.  Follow step 3, if the measured value does not meet the target
   value or does not fulfill the test results validation criteria.







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7.7.4.3.  Step 3: Test Iteration

   Determine the achievable average inspected throughput within the test
   results validation criteria.  Final test iteration MUST be performed
   for the test duration defined in Section 4.3.4.

7.8.  HTTPS Transaction Latency

7.8.1.  Objective

   Using HTTPS traffic, determine the HTTPS transaction latency when
   DUT/SUT is running with sustainable HTTPS transactions per second
   supported by the DUT/SUT under different HTTPS response object size.

   Scenario 1: The client MUST negotiate HTTPS and close the connection
   with FIN immediately after completion of a single transaction (GET
   and RESPONSE).

   Scenario 2: The client MUST negotiate HTTPS and close the connection
   with FIN immediately after completion of 10 transactions (GET and
   RESPONSE) within a single TCP connection.

7.8.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.

7.8.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.8.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.8.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:

   Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

   Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2



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   Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
   Section 4.3.1.2

   RECOMMENDED cipher suites and key sizes defined in Section 4.3.1.3

   Target objective for scenario 1: 50% of the connections per second
   measured in benchmarking test TCP/HTTPS Connections per second
   (Section 7.6)

   Target objective for scenario 2: 50% of the inspected throughput
   measured in benchmarking test HTTPS Throughput (Section 7.7)

   Initial objective for scenario 1: 10% of "Target objective for
   scenario 1"

   Initial objective for scenario 2: 10% of "Target objective for
   scenario 2"

   Note: The Initial objectives are not a KPI to report.  These values
   are configured on the traffic generator and used to perform the
   Step1: "Test Initialization and Qualification" described under the
   Section 7.8.4.

   HTTPS transaction per TCP connection: Test scenario 1 with single
   transaction and scenario 2 with 10 transactions

   HTTPS with GET request requesting a single object.  The RECOMMENDED
   object sizes are 1, 16, and 64 KByte.  For each test iteration,
   client MUST request a single HTTPS response object size.

7.8.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   Test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.

   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of attempt transactions.

   b.  Number of terminated TCP connections due to unexpected TCP RST
       sent by DUT/SUT MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out of 100,000
       connections) of total initiated TCP connections.

   c.  During the sustain phase, traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a
       constant rate (considered as a constant rate if any deviation of
       traffic forwarding rate is less than 5%).




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   d.  Concurrent TCP connections MUST be constant during steady state
       and any deviation of concurrent TCP connections SHOULD be less
       than 10%. This confirms the DUT opens and closes TCP connections
       at approximately the same rate.

   e.  After ramp up the DUT/SUT MUST achieve the "Target objective"
       defined in the parameter Section 7.8.3.2 and remain in that state
       for the entire test duration (sustain phase).

7.8.3.4.  Measurement

   TTFB (minimum, average, and maximum) and TTLB (minimum, average and
   maximum) MUST be reported for each object size.

7.8.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure TTFB or TTLB when the DUT/
   SUT is operating close to 50% of its maximum achievable connections
   per second or inspected throughput.  The test procedure consists of
   two major steps: Step 1 ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the
   initial performance values and meets the test results validation
   criteria when it was very minimally utilized.  Step 2 measures the
   latency values within the test results validation criteria.

   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different IP
   types (IPv4 only, IPv6 only and IPv4 and IPv6 mixed traffic
   distribution), HTTPS response object sizes and single, and multiple
   transactions per connection scenarios.

7.8.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure traffic load profile of the test equipment to establish
   "Initial objective" as defined in the Section 7.8.3.2.  The traffic
   load profile SHOULD be defined as described in Section 4.3.4.

   The DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial objective" before the sustain
   phase.  The measured KPIs during the sustain phase MUST meet all the
   test results validation criteria defined in Section 7.8.3.3.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".







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7.8.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish "Target objective" defined in
   Section 7.8.3.2.  The test equipment SHOULD follow the traffic load
   profile definition as described in Section 4.3.4.

   The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record all specified
   KPIs.  Continue the test until all traffic profile phases are
   completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT MUST reach
   the desired value of the target objective in the sustain phase.

   Measure the minimum, average, and maximum values of TTFB and TTLB.

7.9.  Concurrent TCP/HTTPS Connection Capacity

7.9.1.  Objective

   Determine the number of concurrent TCP connections the DUT/SUT
   sustains when using HTTPS traffic.

7.9.2.  Test Setup

   Testbed setup SHOULD be configured as defined in Section 4.  Any
   specific testbed configuration changes (number of interfaces and
   interface type, etc.)  MUST be documented.

7.9.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

7.9.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT parameters MUST conform to the requirements defined in
   Section 4.2.  Any configuration changes for this specific
   benchmarking test MUST be documented.

7.9.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The following parameters MUST
   be documented for this benchmarking test:

      Client IP address range defined in Section 4.3.1.2

      Server IP address range defined in Section 4.3.2.2



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      Traffic distribution ratio between IPv4 and IPv6 defined in
      Section 4.3.1.2

      RECOMMENDED cipher suites and key sizes defined in Section 4.3.1.3

      Target concurrent connections: Initial value from product
      datasheet or the value defined based on requirement for a specific
      deployment scenario.

      Initial concurrent connections: 10% of "Target concurrent
      connections" Note: Initial concurrent connection is not a KPI to
      report.  This value is configured on the traffic generator and
      used to perform the Step1: "Test Initialization and Qualification"
      described under the Section 7.9.4.

      Connections per second during ramp up phase: 50% of maximum
      connections per second measured in benchmarking test TCP/HTTPS
      Connections per second (Section 7.6)

      Ramp up time (in traffic load profile for "Target concurrent
      connections"): "Target concurrent connections" / "Maximum
      connections per second during ramp up phase"

      Ramp up time (in traffic load profile for "Initial concurrent
      connections"): "Initial concurrent connections" / "Maximum
      connections per second during ramp up phase"

   The client MUST perform HTTPS transaction with persistence and each
   client can open multiple concurrent TCP connections per server
   endpoint IP.

   Each client sends 10 GET requests requesting 1 KByte HTTPS response
   objects in the same TCP connections (10 transactions/TCP connection)
   and the delay (think time) between each transaction MUST be X
   seconds.

   X = ("Ramp up time" + "steady state time") /10

   The established connections SHOULD remain open until the ramp down
   phase of the test.  During the ramp down phase, all connections
   SHOULD be successfully closed with FIN.

7.9.3.3.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   Test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   sustain phase of the traffic load profile.




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   a.  Number of failed application transactions (receiving any HTTP
       response code other than 200 OK) MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out
       of 100,000 transactions) of total attempted transactions.

   b.  Number of terminated TCP connections due to unexpected TCP RST
       sent by DUT/SUT MUST be less than 0.001% (1 out of 100,000
       connections) of total initiated TCP connections.

   c.  During the sustain phase, traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a
       constant rate (considered as a constant rate if any deviation of
       traffic forwarding rate is less than 5%).

7.9.3.4.  Measurement

   Average Concurrent TCP Connections MUST be reported for this
   benchmarking test.

7.9.4.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure the concurrent TCP
   connection capacity of the DUT/SUT at the sustaining period of
   traffic load profile.  The test procedure consists of three major
   steps: Step 1 ensures the DUT/SUT is able to reach the performance
   value (Initial concurrent connection) and meets the test results
   validation criteria when it was very minimally utilized.  Step 2
   determines the DUT/SUT is able to reach the target performance value
   within the test results validation criteria.  Step 3 determines the
   maximum achievable performance value within the test results
   validation criteria.

   This test procedure MAY be repeated multiple times with different
   IPv4 and IPv6 traffic distribution.

7.9.4.1.  Step 1: Test Initialization and Qualification

   Verify the link status of all connected physical interfaces.  All
   interfaces are expected to be in "UP" status.

   Configure test equipment to establish "Initial concurrent TCP
   connections" defined in Section 7.9.3.2.  Except ramp up time, the
   traffic load profile SHOULD be defined as described in Section 4.3.4.

   During the sustain phase, the DUT/SUT SHOULD reach the "Initial
   concurrent TCP connections".  The measured KPIs during the sustain
   phase MUST meet the test results validation criteria "a" and "b"
   defined in Section 7.9.3.3.





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   If the KPI metrics do not meet the test results validation criteria,
   the test procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".

7.9.4.2.  Step 2: Test Run with Target Objective

   Configure test equipment to establish the target objective ("Target
   concurrent TCP connections").  The test equipment SHOULD follow the
   traffic load profile definition (except ramp up time) as described in
   Section 4.3.4.

   During the ramp up and sustain phase, the other KPIs such as
   inspected throughput, TCP connections per second, and application
   transactions per second MUST NOT reach to the maximum value that the
   DUT/SUT can support.

   The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record KPIs defined in
   Section 7.9.3.4.  Continue the test until all traffic profile phases
   are completed.

   Within the test results validation criteria, the DUT/SUT is expected
   to reach the desired value of the target objective in the sustain
   phase.  Follow step 3, if the measured value does not meet the target
   value or does not fulfill the test results validation criteria.

7.9.4.3.  Step 3: Test Iteration

   Determine the achievable concurrent TCP connections within the test
   results validation criteria.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no specific request of IANA.

   The IANA has assigned IPv4 and IPv6 address blocks in [RFC6890] that
   have been registered for special purposes.  The IPv6 address block
   2001:2::/48 has been allocated for the purpose of IPv6 Benchmarking
   [RFC5180] and the IPv4 address block 198.18.0.0/15 has been allocated
   for the purpose of IPv4 Benchmarking [RFC2544].  This assignment was
   made to minimize the chance of conflict in case a testing device were
   to be accidentally connected to part of the Internet.











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9.  Security Considerations

   The primary goal of this document is to provide benchmarking
   terminology and methodology for next-generation network security
   devices for use in a laboratory isolated test environment.  However,
   readers should be aware that there is some overlap between
   performance and security issues.  Specifically, the optimal
   configuration for network security device performance may not be the
   most secure, and vice-versa.  The cipher suites recommended in this
   document are for test purpose only.  The cipher suite recommendation
   for a real deployment is outside the scope of this document.

10.  Contributors

   The following individuals contributed significantly to the creation
   of this document:

   Alex Samonte, Amritam Putatunda, Aria Eslambolchizadeh, Chao Guo,
   Chris Brown, Cory Ford, David DeSanto, Jurrie Van Den Breekel,
   Michelle Rhines, Mike Jack, Ryan Liles, Samaresh Nair, Stephen
   Goudreault, Tim Carlin, and Tim Otto.

11.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to acknowledge the members of NetSecOPEN for their
   participation in the creation of this document.  Additionally, the
   following members need to be acknowledged:

   Anand Vijayan, Chris Marshall, Jay Lindenauer, Michael Shannon, Mike
   Deichman, Ryan Riese, and Toulnay Orkun.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

12.2.  Informative References






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   [RFC2544]  Bradner, S. and J. McQuaid, "Benchmarking Methodology for
              Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2544, March 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2544>.

   [RFC2647]  Newman, D., "Benchmarking Terminology for Firewall
              Performance", RFC 2647, DOI 10.17487/RFC2647, August 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2647>.

   [RFC3511]  Hickman, B., Newman, D., Tadjudin, S., and T. Martin,
              "Benchmarking Methodology for Firewall Performance",
              RFC 3511, DOI 10.17487/RFC3511, April 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3511>.

   [RFC5180]  Popoviciu, C., Hamza, A., Van de Velde, G., and D.
              Dugatkin, "IPv6 Benchmarking Methodology for Network
              Interconnect Devices", RFC 5180, DOI 10.17487/RFC5180, May
              2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5180>.

   [RFC6815]  Bradner, S., Dubray, K., McQuaid, J., and A. Morton,
              "Applicability Statement for RFC 2544: Use on Production
              Networks Considered Harmful", RFC 6815,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6815, November 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6815>.

   [RFC6890]  Cotton, M., Vegoda, L., Bonica, R., Ed., and B. Haberman,
              "Special-Purpose IP Address Registries", BCP 153,
              RFC 6890, DOI 10.17487/RFC6890, April 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6890>.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
              RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [RFC9000]  Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., "QUIC: A UDP-Based
              Multiplexed and Secure Transport", RFC 9000,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9000, May 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9000>.

Appendix A.  Test Methodology - Security Effectiveness Evaluation






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A.1.  Test Objective

   This test methodology verifies the DUT/SUT is able to detect,
   prevent, and report the vulnerabilities.

   In this test, background test traffic will be generated to utilize
   the DUT/SUT.  In parallel, the CVEs will be sent to the DUT/SUT as
   encrypted and as well as clear text payload formats using a traffic
   generator.  The selection of the CVEs is described in Section 4.2.1.

   *  Number of blocked CVEs

   *  Number of bypassed (nonblocked) CVEs

   *  Background traffic performance (verify if the background traffic
      is impacted while sending CVE toward DUT/SUT)

   *  Accuracy of DUT/SUT statistics in term of vulnerabilities
      reporting

A.2.  Testbed Setup

   The same testbed MUST be used for security effectiveness test and as
   well as for benchmarking test cases defined in Section 7.

A.3.  Test Parameters

   In this section, the benchmarking test specific parameters SHOULD be
   defined.

A.3.1.  DUT/SUT Configuration Parameters

   DUT/SUT configuration parameters MUST conform to the requirements
   defined in Section 4.2.  The same DUT configuration MUST be used for
   Security effectiveness test and as well as for benchmarking test
   cases defined in Section 7.  The DUT/SUT MUST be configured in inline
   mode and all detected attack traffic MUST be dropped and the session
   SHOULD be reset

A.3.2.  Test Equipment Configuration Parameters

   Test equipment configuration parameters MUST conform to the
   requirements defined in Section 4.3.  The same client and server IP
   ranges MUST be configured as used in the benchmarking test cases.  In
   addition, the following parameters MUST be documented for this
   benchmarking test:





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   *  Background Traffic: 45% of maximum HTTP throughput and 45% of
      Maximum HTTPS throughput supported by the DUT/SUT (measured with
      object size 64 KByte in the benchmarking tests "HTTP(S)
      Throughput" defined in Section 7.3 and Section 7.7).

   *  RECOMMENDED CVE traffic transmission Rate: 10 CVEs per second

   *  It is RECOMMENDED to generate each CVE multiple times
      (sequentially) at 10 CVEs per second

   *  Ciphers and keys for the encrypted CVE traffic MUST use the same
      cipher configured for HTTPS traffic related benchmarking tests
      (Section 7.6 - Section 7.9)

A.4.  Test Results Validation Criteria

   The following criteria are the test results validation criteria.  The
   test results validation criteria MUST be monitored during the whole
   test duration.

   a.  Number of failed application transaction in the background
       traffic MUST be less than 0.01% of attempted transactions.

   b.  Number of terminated TCP connections of the background traffic
       (due to unexpected TCP RST sent by DUT/SUT) MUST be less than
       0.01% of total initiated TCP connections in the background
       traffic.

   c.  During the sustain phase, traffic SHOULD be forwarded at a
       constant rate (considered as a constant rate if any deviation of
       traffic forwarding rate is less than 5%).

   d.  False positive MUST NOT occur in the background traffic.

A.5.  Measurement

   Following KPI metrics MUST be reported for this test scenario:

   Mandatory KPIs:

   *  Blocked CVEs: It SHOULD be represented in the following ways:

      -  Number of blocked CVEs out of total CVEs

      -  Percentage of blocked CVEs

   *  Unblocked CVEs: It SHOULD be represented in the following ways:




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      -  Number of unblocked CVEs out of total CVEs

      -  Percentage of unblocked CVEs

   *  Background traffic behavior: It SHOULD be represented one of the
      followings ways:

      -  No impact: Considered as "no impact'" if any deviation of
         traffic forwarding rate is less than or equal to 5 % (constant
         rate)

      -  Minor impact: Considered as "minor impact" if any deviation of
         traffic forwarding rate is greater than 5% and less than or
         equal to10% (i.e. small spikes)

      -  Heavily impacted: Considered as "Heavily impacted" if any
         deviation of traffic forwarding rate is greater than 10% (i.e.
         large spikes) or reduced the background HTTP(S) throughput
         greater than 10%

   *  DUT/SUT reporting accuracy: DUT/SUT MUST report all detected
      vulnerabilities.

   Optional KPIs:

   *  List of unblocked CVEs

A.6.  Test Procedures and Expected Results

   The test procedure is designed to measure the security effectiveness
   of the DUT/SUT at the sustaining period of the traffic load profile.
   The test procedure consists of two major steps.  This test procedure
   MAY be repeated multiple times with different IPv4 and IPv6 traffic
   distribution.

A.6.1.  Step 1: Background Traffic

   Generate background traffic at the transmission rate defined in
   Appendix A.3.2.

   The DUT/SUT MUST reach the target objective (HTTP(S) throughput) in
   sustain phase.  The measured KPIs during the sustain phase MUST meet
   all the test results validation criteria defined in Appendix A.4.

   If the KPI metrics do not meet the acceptance criteria, the test
   procedure MUST NOT be continued to "Step 2".





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A.6.2.  Step 2: CVE Emulation

   While generating background traffic (in sustain phase), send the CVE
   traffic as defined in the parameter section.

   The test equipment SHOULD start to measure and record all specified
   KPIs.  Continue the test until all CVEs are sent.

   The measured KPIs MUST meet all the test results validation criteria
   defined in Appendix A.4.

   In addition, the DUT/SUT SHOULD report the vulnerabilities correctly.

Appendix B.  DUT/SUT Classification

   This document aims to classify the DUT/SUT in four different
   categories based on its maximum supported firewall throughput
   performance number defined in the vendor datasheet.  This
   classification MAY help user to determine specific configuration
   scale (e.g., number of ACL entries), traffic profiles, and attack
   traffic profiles, scaling those proportionally to DUT/SUT sizing
   category.

   The four different categories are Extra Small (XS), Small (S), Medium
   (M), and Large (L).  The RECOMMENDED throughput values for the
   following categories are:

   Extra Small (XS) - Supported throughput less than or equal to1Gbit/s

   Small (S) - Supported throughput greater than 1Gbit/s and less than
   or equal to 5Gbit/s

   Medium (M) - Supported throughput greater than 5Gbit/s and less than
   or equal to10Gbit/s

   Large (L) - Supported throughput greater than 10Gbit/s

Authors' Addresses

   Balamuhunthan Balarajah
   Berlin
   Germany

   Email: bm.balarajah@gmail.com







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   Carsten Rossenhoevel
   EANTC AG
   Salzufer 14
   10587 Berlin
   Germany

   Email: cross@eantc.de


   Brian Monkman
   NetSecOPEN
   417 Independence Court
   Mechanicsburg, PA 17050
   United States of America

   Email: bmonkman@netsecopen.org



































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