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Versions: 00 01 02                                                      
Disman Working Group                                R. Kavasseri
Internet Draft                                      Cisco Systems, Inc.
Document: draft-ietf-disman-express-mib-v2-02.txt   B. Stewart
Expiration Date: December 2003                      Retired
                                                     June 2003




                  Distributed Management Expression MIB

Status of this Memo

    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
    all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

    Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
    Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
    other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
    Drafts.

    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
    and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
    time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
    material or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''

         The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
         http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

         The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
         http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

    Distribution of this document is unlimited. Please send comments to
    the Distributed Management Working Group, <disman@dorothy.BMC.com>.

Copyright Notice

    Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

    This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB)
    for use with network management protocols in the Internet community.
    In particular, it describes managed objects used for managing
    expressions of MIB objects.  The results of these expressions become











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    MIB objects usable like any other MIB object, such as for the test
    condition for declaring an event.

    The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
    "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
    document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

Table of Contents

    1 The SNMP Management Framework ...............................    2
    2 Overview ....................................................    3
    2.1 Usage .....................................................    4
    2.2 Persistence ...............................................    4
    2.3 Operation .................................................    4
    2.3.1 Sampling ................................................    5
    2.3.2 Wildcards ...............................................    5
    2.3.3 Evaluation ..............................................    5
    2.3.4 Value Identification ....................................    6
    2.4 Subsets ...................................................    6
    2.4.1 No Wildcards ............................................    6
    2.4.2 No Deltas ...............................................    7
    2.5 Structure .................................................    7
    2.5.1 Resource ................................................    7
    2.5.2 Definition ..............................................    7
    2.5.3 Value ...................................................    8
    2.6 Examples ..................................................    8
    2.6.1 Wildcarding .............................................    8
    2.6.2 Calculation and Conditional .............................   10
    3 Definitions .................................................   12
    4 Intellectual Property .......................................   36
    5 Acknowledgements ............................................   37
    6 References ..................................................   37
    7 Security Considerations .....................................   38
    8 Author's Address ............................................   40
    9 Editor's Address ............................................   40
    10 Full Copyright Statement ...................................   41

1.  The SNMP Management Framework

    The SNMP Management Framework presently consists of five major
    components:

     o   An overall architecture, described in RFC 2571 [RFC2571].

     o   Mechanisms for describing and naming objects and events for the





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         purpose of management.  The first version of this Structure of
         Management Information (SMI) is called SMIv1 and described in
         STD 16, RFC 1155 [RFC1155], STD 16, RFC 1212 [RFC1212] and RFC
         1215 [RFC1215].  The second version, called SMIv2, is described
         in STD 58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and
         STD 58, RFC 2580 [RFC2580].

     o   Message protocols for transferring management information.  The
         first version of the SNMP message protocol is called SNMPv1 and
         described in STD 15, RFC 1157 [RFC1157].  A second version of
         the SNMP message protocol, which is not an Internet standards
         track protocol, is called SNMPv2c and described in RFC 1901
         [RFC1901] and RFC 1906 [RFC1906].  The third version of the
         message protocol is called SNMPv3 and described in RFC 1906
         [RFC1906], RFC 2572 [RFC2572] and RFC 2574 [RFC2574].

     o   Protocol operations for accessing management information.  The
         first set of protocol operations and associated PDU formats is
         described in STD 15, RFC 1157 [RFC1157].  A second set of
         protocol operations and associated PDU formats is described in
         RFC 1905 [RFC1905].





























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     o   A set of fundamental applications described in RFC 2573
         [RFC2573] and the view-based access control mechanism described
         in RFC 2575 [RFC2575].

    A more detailed introduction to the current SNMP Management Framework
    can be found in RFC 2570 [RFC2570].

    Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed
    the Management Information Base or MIB.  Objects in the MIB are
    defined using the mechanisms defined in the SMI.

    This memo specifies a MIB module that is compliant to the SMIv2.  A
    MIB conforming to the SMIv1 can be produced through the appropriate
    translations.  The resulting translated MIB must be semantically
    equivalent, except where objects or events are omitted because no
    translation is possible (use of Counter64).  Some machine readable
    information in SMIv2 will be converted into textual descriptions in
    SMIv1 during the translation process.  However, this loss of machine
    readable information is not considered to change the semantics of the
    MIB.

2.  Overview

    Users of MIBs often desire MIB objects that MIB designers have not
    provided.  Furthermore, such needs vary from one management
    philosophy to another.  Rather than fill more and more MIBs with
    standardized objects, the Expression MIB supports externally defined
    expressions of existing MIB objects.

    In the Expression MIB the results of an evaluated expression are MIB
    objects that may be used like any other MIB objects.  These custom-
    defined objects are thus usable anywhere any other MIB object can be
    used.  For example, they can be used by a management application
    directly or referenced from another MIB, such as the Event MIB
    [MIBEventMIB].  They can even be used by the Expression MIB itself,
    forming expressions of expressions.

    The Expression MIB is instrumentation for a relatively powerful,
    complex, high-level application, considerably different from simple
    instrumentation for a communication driver or a protocol.  The MIB is
    appropriate in a relatively powerful, resource-rich managed system
    and not necessarily in a severely limited environment.

    Nevertheless, due to dependencies from the Event MIB [RFC2981] and
    the need to support as low-end a system as possible, the Expression





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    MIB can be somewhat stripped down for lower-power, lower-resource
    implementations, as described in the Subsets section, below.

    Implementation of the Expression MIB in a managed system led to the
    addition of objects that may not have been necessary in an
    application environment with complete knowledge of compiled MIB
    definitions.  This is appropriate since implementation must be
    possible within typical managed systems with some constraints on
    system resources.

2.1.  Usage

    On managed systems that can afford the overhead, the Expression MIB
    is a way to create new, customized MIB objects for monitoring.
    Although these can save some network traffic and overhead on
    management systems, that is often not a good tradeoff for objects
    that are simply to be recorded or displayed.

    An example of a use of the Expression MIB would be to provide custom
    objects for the Event MIB [RFC2981].  A complex expression can
    evaluate to a rate of flow or a boolean and thus be subject to
    testing as an event trigger, resulting in an SNMP notification.
    Without these capabilities such monitoring would be limited to the
    objects in predefined MIBs.  The Expression MIB thus supports
    powerful tools for the network manager faced with the monitoring of
    large, complex systems that can support a significant level of self
    management.

2.2.  Persistence

    Although like most MIBs this one has no explicit controls for the
    persistence of the values set in configuring an expression, a robust,
    polite implementation would certainly not force its managing
    applications to reconfigure it whenever it resets.

    Again, as with most MIBs, it is implementation specific how a system
    provides and manages such persistence.  To speculate, one could
    imagine, for example, that persistence depended on the context in
    which the expression was configured, or perhaps system-specific
    characteristics of the expression's owner.  Or perhaps everything in
    a MIB such as this one, which is clearly aimed at persistent
    configuration, is automatically part of a system's other persistent
    configuration.

2.3.  Operation





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    Most of the operation of the MIB is described or implied in the
    object definitions but a few highlights bear mentioning here.
















































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2.3.1.  Sampling

    The MIB supports three types of object sampling for the MIB objects
    that make up the expression:  absolute, delta, and changed.

    Absolute samples are simply the value of the MIB object at the time
    it is sampled.

    Absolute samples are not sufficient for expressions of counters, as
    counters have meaning only as a delta (difference) from one sample to
    the next.  Thus objects may be sampled as deltas.  Delta sampling
    requires the application to maintain state for the value at the last
    sample, and to do continuous sampling whether or not anyone is
    looking at the results.  It thus creates constant overhead.

    Changed sampling is a simple fallout of delta sampling where rather
    than a difference the result is a boolean indicating whether or not
    the object changed value since the last sample.

2.3.2.  Wildcards

    Wildcards allow the application of a single expression to multiple
    instances of the same MIB object.  The definer of the expression
    indicates this choice and provides a partial object identifier, with
    some or all of the instance portion left off.  The application then
    does the equivalent of GetNext to obtain the object values, thus
    discovering the instances.

    All wildcarded objects in an expression must have the same semantics
    for the missing portion of their object identifiers.  Otherwise, any
    successful evaluation of the wildcarded expression would be the
    result of the accidental matching of the wildcarded portion of the
    object identifiers in the expression.  Such an evaluation will likely
    produce results which are not meaningful.

    The expression can be evaluated only for those instances where all
    the objects in the expression are available with the same value for
    the wildcarded portion of the instance.

2.3.3.  Evaluation

    There are two important aspects of evaluation that may not be
    obvious: what objects and when.

    What objects get used in the evaluation depends on the type of





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    request and whether or not the expression contains wildcarded
    objects.  If the request was a Get, that locks down the instances to
















































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    be used.  If the request was a GetNext or GetBulk, the application
    must work its way up to the next full set of objects for the
    expression.

    Evaluation of expressions happens at two possible times, depending on
    the sampling method (delta or absolute) used to evaluate the
    expression.

    If there are no delta or change values in an expression, the
    evaluation occurs on demand, i.e. when a requester attempts to read
    the value of the expression.  In this case all requesters get a
    freshly calculated value.

    For expressions with delta or change values, evaluation goes on
    continuously, every sample period.  In this case requesters get the
    value as of the last sample period.  For any given sample period of a
    given expression, only those instances exist that provided a full set
    of object values.  It may be possible that a delta expression which
    was evaluated successfully for one sample period may not be
    successfully evaluated in the next sample period.  This may, for
    example, be due to missing instances for some or all of the objects
    in the expression.  In such cases, the value from the previous sample
    period (with the successful evaluation) must not be carried forward
    to the next sample period (with the failed evaluation).

2.3.4.  Value Identification

    Values resulting from expression evaluation are identified with a
    combination of the object identifier (OID) for the data type from
    expValueTable (such as expValueCounter32Val), the expression owner,
    the expression name, and an OID fragment.

    The OID fragment is not an entire OID beginning with iso.dod.org
    (1.3.6).  Rather it begins with 0.0.  The remainder is either another
    0 when there is no wildcarding or the instance that satisfied the
    wildcard if there is wildcarding.

2.4.  Subsets

    To pare down the Expression MIBs complexity and use of resources an
    implementor can leave out various parts.

2.4.1.  No Wildcards

    Leaving out wildcarding significantly reduces the complexity of





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    retrieving values to evaluate expressions and the processing required
    to do so.  Such an implementation would allow expressions made up of
















































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    individual MIB objects but would not be suitable for expressions
    applied across large tables as each instance in the table would
    require a separate expression definition.

    Furthermore it would not be suitable for tables with arbitrary,
    dynamic instances, as expressions definitions could not predict what
    instance values to use.

    An implementation without wildcards might be useful for a self-
    managing system with small tables or few dynamic instances, or one
    that can do calculations only for a few key objects.

2.4.2.  No Deltas

    Leaving out delta processing significantly reduces state that must be
    kept and the burden of ongoing processing even when no one is looking
    at the results.  Unfortunately it also makes expressions on counters
    unusable, as counters have meaning only as deltas.

    An implementation without deltas might be useful for a severely
    limited, self-managing system that has no need for expressions or
    events on counters.  Although conceivable, such systems would be
    rare.

2.5.  Structure

    The MIB has the following sections:

        o   Resource -- management of the MIB's use of system resources.

        o   Definition -- definition of expressions.

        o   Value -- values of evaluated expressions.

2.5.1.  Resource

    The resource section has objects to manage resource usage by
    wildcarded delta expressions, a potential major consumer of CPU and
    memory.

2.5.2.  Definition

    The definition section contains the tables that define expressions.

    The expression table, indexed by expression owner and expression





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    name, contains those parameters that apply to the entire expression,
    such as the expression itself, the data type of the result, and the
    sampling interval if it contains delta or change values.

    The object table, indexed by expression owner, expression name and
    object index within each expression, contains the parameters that
    apply to the individual objects that go into the expression,
    including the object identifier, sample type, discontinuity
    indicator, and such.

2.5.3.  Value

    The value section contains the values of evaluated expressions.

    The value table, indexed by expression owner, expression name and
    instance fragment contains a "discriminated union" of evaluated
    expression results.  For a given expression only one of the columns
    is instantiated, depending on the result data type for the
    expression.  The instance fragment is a constant or the final section
    of the object identifier that filled in a wildcard.

2.6.  Examples

    The examples refer to tables and objects defined below in the MIB
    itself.  They may well make more sense after reading those
    definitions.

2.6.1.  Wildcarding

    An expression may use wildcarded MIB objects that result in multiple
    values for the expression.  To specify a wildcarded MIB object a
    management application leaves off part or all of the instance portion
    of the object identifier, and sets expObjectWildcard to true(1) for
    that object.  For our example we'll use a counter of total blessings
    from a table of people.  Another table, indexed by town and person
    has blessings just from that town.

    So the index clauses are:

        personEntry OBJECT-TYPE
        ...
        INDEX { personIndex }

    And:






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        townPersonEntry OBJECT-TYPE
        ...
        INDEX { townIndex, personIndex }















































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    In our friendly application we may have entered our expression as:

        100 * townPersonBlessings.976.* / personBlessings.*

    What goes in expExpression is:

        100*$1/$2

    For example purposes we'll use some slightly far-fetched OIDs.  The
    People MIB is 1.3.6.1.99.7 and the Town MIB is 1.3.6.1.99.11, so for
    our two counters the OIDs are:

        personBlessings      1.3.6.1.99.7.1.3.1.4
        townPersonBlessings       1.3.6.1.99.11.1.2.1.9

    The rule for wildcards is that all the wildcarded parts have to match
    exactly.  In this case that means we have to hardwire the town and
    only the personIndex can be wildcarded.  So our values for
    expObjectID are:

        1.3.6.1.99.7.1.3.1.4
        1.3.6.1.99.11.1.2.1.9.976

    We're hardwired to townIndex 976 and personIndex is allowed to vary.

    The value of expExpressionPrefix can be either of those two counter
    OIDs (including the instance fragment in the second case), since
    either of them takes you to a MIB definition where you can look at
    the INDEX clause and figure out what's been left off.  What's been
    left off doesn't have to work out to be the same object, but it does
    have to work out to be the same values (semantics) for the result to
    make sense.  Note that the managed system can not typically check
    such semantics and if given nonsense will return nonsense.

    If we have people numbered 6, 19, and 42 in town number 976, the
    successive values of expValueInstance will be:

        0.0.6
        0.0.19
        0.0.42

    So there will be three values in expValueTable, with those OIDs as
    the expValueInstance part of their indexing.







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2.6.2.  Calculation and Conditional

    The following formula for line utilization of a half-duplex link is
    adapted from [PracPersp].

     utilization = (ifInOctets + ifOutOctets) * 800 / seconds / ifSpeed

    The expression results in the percentage line utilization per second.
    The total octets are multiplied by 8 to get bits and 100 to scale up
    the percentage as an integer.

    The following Expression MIB object values implement this as an
    expression for all ifIndexes that directly represent actual hardware.
    Since the octet counters are Counter32 values, they must be delta
    sampled to be meaningful.  The sample period is 6 seconds but for
    accuracy and independence is calculated as a delta of sysUpTime.

    The expObjectTable entry for ifInOctets has an expObjectConditional
    that checks for being a hardware interface.  Only one object in the
    expression needs that check associated, since it applies to the whole
    expression.  Since ifConnectorPresent is a TruthValue with values of
    1 or 2 rather than 0 and non-zero, it must also be in an expression
    rather than used directly for the conditional.

    The interface-specific discontinuity indicator is supplied only for
    ifInOctets since invalidating that sample will invalidate an attempt
    at evaluation, effectively invalidating ifOutOctets as well
    (correctly, because it has the same indicator).

    For notational clarity, in the rest of this document, a string in
    quotes as part of the object instance indicates the value that would
    actually be one subidentifier per byte.  The objects all belong to
    owner "me".

    Also for clarity OIDs are expressed as the object descriptor and
    instance.  In fact they must be supplied numerically, with all
    subidentifiers in place before the part for the particular object and
    instance.

    What the user would set in expExpressionTable:

    expExpression.2."me".4."hard"      = "$1==1"
    expExpressionValueType.2."me".4."hard"  = unsigned32
    expExpressionEntryStatus.2."me"4."hard"   = 'active'






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    expExpression.2."me".4."util"      = "($1+$2)*800/$4/$3"
    expExpressionValueType.2."me".4."util"  = integer32
    expExpressionDeltaInterval.2."me".4."util"   = 6
    expExpressionEntryStatus.2."me"4."util"   = 'active'

    What the user would set in expObjectTable:

    expObjectID.2."me".4."hard".1      = ifConnectorPresent
    expObjectWildcard.2."me".4."hard".1     = 'true'
    expObjectSampleType.2."me".4."hard".1   = 'absoluteValue'
    expObjectEntryStatus.2."me".4."hard".1    = 'active'

    expObjectID.2."me".4."util".1      = ifInOctets
    expObjectWildcard.2."me".4."util".1     = 'true'
    expObjectSampleType.2."me".4."util".1   = 'deltaValue'
    expObjectConditional.2."me".4."util".1  =
    expValueUnsigned32Val.2."me".4."hard".0.0
    expObjectConditionalWildcard.2."me".4."util".1    = 'true'
    expObjectDiscontinuityID.2."me".4."util".1   =
    ifCounterDiscontinuityTime
    expObjectDiscontinuityIDWildcard.2."me".4."util".1     = 'true'
    expObjectEntryStatus.2."me".4."util".1    = 'active'

    expObjectID.2."me".4."util".2      = ifOutOctets
    expObjectWildcard.2."me".4."util".2     = 'true'
    expObjectSampleType.2."me".4."util".2   = 'deltaValue'
    expObjectEntryStatus.2."me".4."util".2    = 'active'

    expObjectID.2."me".4."util".3      = ifSpeed
    expObjectWildcard.2."me".4."util".3     = 'true'
    expObjectSampleType.2."me".4."util".3   = 'absoluteValue'
    expObjectEntryStatus.2."me".4."util".3    = 'active'

    expObjectID.2."me".4."util".4      = sysUpTime.0
    expObjectWildcard.2."me".4."util".4     = 'false'
    expObjectSampleType.2."me".4."util".4   = 'deltaValue'
    expObjectEntryStatus.2."me".4."util".4    = 'active'

    These settings will result in populating one column of expValueTable:

    expValueInteger32Val.2."me".4."util".0.0.?

    The subidentifier represented by "?" above represents one
    subidentifier that takes on a value of ifIndex and identifies a row
    for each ifIndex value where ifConnectorPresent is 'true' and the





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    interface was present for two samples to provide a delta.

















































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    This value could in turn be used as an event threshold [RFC2981] to
    watch for overutilization of all hardware network connections.

3.  Definitions

DISMAN-EXPRESSION-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

IMPORTS
     MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE,
     Integer32, Gauge32, Unsigned32,
     Counter32, Counter64, IpAddress,
     TimeTicks, mib-2, zeroDotZero  FROM SNMPv2-SMI
     RowStatus, TruthValue, TimeStamp    FROM SNMPv2-TC
     sysUpTime                 FROM SNMPv2-MIB
     SnmpAdminString           FROM SNMP-FRAMEWORK-MIB
     MODULE-COMPLIANCE, OBJECT-GROUP     FROM SNMPv2-CONF;

dismanExpressionMIB MODULE-IDENTITY
     LAST-UPDATED "200306130000Z"            -- 13 June 2003
     ORGANIZATION "IETF Distributed Management Working Group"
     CONTACT-INFO "Ramanathan Kavasseri
                   Cisco Systems, Inc.
                   170 West Tasman Drive,
                   San Jose CA 95134-1706.
                   Phone: +1 408 527 2446
                   Email: ramk@cisco.com"
     DESCRIPTION
      "The MIB module for defining expressions of MIB objects for
      management purposes.

      Copyright (C) The Internet Society 2003. This version of this
      MIB module is part of RFC yyyy; see the RFC itself for full
      legal notices."
     -- RFC Ed.: replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this note

-- Revision History
        REVISION     "200306130000Z"            -- 13 June 2003
        DESCRIPTION  "Added copyright statement to the MIB module
                     description."

        REVISION     "200111140000Z" -- 14 November 2001
        DESCRIPTION  "Updated the DESCRIPTION clause of
expValueIpAddressVal,
                     and removed the SIZE restriction of
expValueOctetStringVal."

        REVISION     "200010160000Z" -- 16 October 2000





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        DESCRIPTION  "This is the initial version of this MIB.
                     Published as RFC 2982"
     ::= { mib-2 90 }


dismanExpressionMIBObjects OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
                                             { dismanExpressionMIB 1 }

expResource    OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { dismanExpressionMIBObjects 1 }
expDefine OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { dismanExpressionMIBObjects 2 }
expValue  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { dismanExpressionMIBObjects 3 }

--
-- Resource Control
--

expResourceDeltaMinimum OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Integer32 (-1 | 1..600)
     UNITS       "seconds"
     MAX-ACCESS  read-write
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The minimum expExpressionDeltaInterval this system will
      accept.  A system may use the larger values of this minimum to
      lessen the impact of constantly computing deltas.  For larger
      delta sampling intervals the system samples less often and
      suffers less overhead.  This object provides a way to enforce
      such lower overhead for all expressions created after it is
      set.

      The value -1 indicates that expResourceDeltaMinimum is
      irrelevant as the system will not accept 'deltaValue' as a
      value for expObjectSampleType.

      Unless explicitly resource limited, a system's value for
      this object should be 1, allowing as small as a 1 second
      interval for ongoing delta sampling.

      Changing this value will not invalidate an existing setting
      of expObjectSampleType."
     ::= { expResource 1 }

expResourceDeltaWildcardInstanceMaximum OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Unsigned32
     UNITS       "instances"





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     MAX-ACCESS  read-write
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "For every instance of a deltaValue object, one dynamic instance
      entry is needed for holding the instance value from the previous
      sample, i.e. to maintain state.

      This object limits maximum number of dynamic instance entries
      this system will support for wildcarded delta objects in
      expressions. For a given delta expression, the number of
      dynamic instances is the number of values that meet all criteria
      to exist times the number of delta values in the expression.

      A value of 0 indicates no preset limit, that is, the limit
      is dynamic based on system operation and resources.

      Unless explicitly resource limited, a system's value for
      this object should be 0.

      Changing this value will not eliminate or inhibit existing delta
      wildcard instance objects but will prevent the creation of more
      such objects.

      An attempt to allocate beyond the limit results in expErrorCode
      being tooManyWildcardValues for that evaluation attempt."
     ::= { expResource 2 }

expResourceDeltaWildcardInstances OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Gauge32
     UNITS       "instances"
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The number of currently active instance entries as
      defined for expResourceDeltaWildcardInstanceMaximum."
     ::= { expResource 3 }

expResourceDeltaWildcardInstancesHigh OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Gauge32
     UNITS       "instances"
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The highest value of expResourceDeltaWildcardInstances
      that has occurred since initialization of the managed





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      system."
     ::= { expResource 4 }

expResourceDeltaWildcardInstanceResourceLacks OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Counter32
     UNITS       "instances"
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The number of times this system could not evaluate an
      expression because that would have created a value instance in
      excess of expResourceDeltaWildcardInstanceMaximum."
     ::= { expResource 5 }

--

-- Definition
--
-- Expression Definition Table
--

expExpressionTable OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF ExpExpressionEntry
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "A table of expression definitions."
     ::= { expDefine 1 }

expExpressionEntry OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      ExpExpressionEntry
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "Information about a single expression.  New expressions
      can be created using expExpressionEntryStatus.

      To create an expression first create the named entry in this
      table.  Then use expExpressionName to populate expObjectTable.
      For expression evaluation to succeed all related entries in
      expExpressionTable and expObjectTable must be 'active'.  If
      these conditions are not met the corresponding values in
      expValue simply are not instantiated.

      Deleting an entry deletes all related entries in expObjectTable





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      and expErrorTable.

      Because of the relationships among the multiple tables for an
      expression (expExpressionTable, expObjectTable, and
      expValueTable) and the SNMP rules for independence in setting
      object values, it is necessary to do final error checking when
      an expression is evaluated, that is, when one of its instances
      in expValueTable is read or a delta interval expires.  Earlier
      checking need not be done and an implementation may not impose
      any ordering on the creation of objects related to an
      expression.

      To maintain security of MIB information, when creating a new row in
      this table, the managed system must record the security credentials
      of the requester.  These security credentials are the parameters
      necessary as inputs to isAccessAllowed from the Architecture for

      Describing SNMP Management Frameworks.  When obtaining the objects
      that make up the expression, the system must (conceptually) use
      isAccessAllowed to ensure that it does not violate security.

      The evaluation of the expression takes place under the
      security credentials of the creator of its expExpressionEntry.

      Values of read-write objects in this table may be changed
      at any time."
     INDEX       { expExpressionOwner, expExpressionName }
     ::= { expExpressionTable 1 }

ExpExpressionEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
     expExpressionOwner           SnmpAdminString,
     expExpressionName             SnmpAdminString,
     expExpression                OCTET STRING,
     expExpressionValueType       INTEGER,
     expExpressionComment         SnmpAdminString,
     expExpressionDeltaInterval   Integer32,
     expExpressionPrefix           OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
     expExpressionErrors          Counter32,
     expExpressionEntryStatus     RowStatus
}

expExpressionOwner OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString (SIZE(0..32))
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current





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    DESCRIPTION
      "The owner of this entry. The exact semantics of this
      string are subject to the security policy defined by the
      security administrator."
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 1 }

expExpressionName OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString (SIZE (1..32))
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The name of the expression.  This is locally unique, within
      the scope of an expExpressionOwner."
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 2 }

expExpression OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OCTET STRING (SIZE (1..1024))
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The expression to be evaluated.  This object is the same
      as a DisplayString (RFC 1903) except for its maximum length.

      Except for the variable names the expression is in ANSI C
      syntax.  Only the subset of ANSI C operators and functions
      listed here is allowed.

      Variables are expressed as a dollar sign ('$') and an
      integer that corresponds to an expObjectIndex.  An
      example of a valid expression is:

           ($1-$5)*100

      Expressions must not be recursive, that is although an expression
      may use the results of another expression, it must not contain
      any variable that is directly or indirectly a result of its own
      evaluation. The managed system must check for recursive
      expressions.

      The only allowed operators are:

           ( )
           - (unary)
           + - * / %
           & | ^ << >> ~





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           ! && || == != > >= < <=

      Note the parentheses are included for parenthesizing the
      expression, not for casting data types.

      The only constant types defined are:

           int (32-bit signed)
           long (64-bit signed)
           unsigned int
           unsigned long
           hexadecimal
           character
           string
           oid

      The default type for a positive integer is int unless it is too
      large in which case it is long.

      All but oid are as defined for ANSI C.  Note that a
      hexadecimal constant may end up as a scalar or an array of
      8-bit integers.  A string constant is enclosed in double
      quotes and may contain back-slashed individual characters
      as in ANSI C.

      An oid constant comprises 32-bit, unsigned integers and at
      least one period, for example:

           0.
           .0
           1.3.6.1

      No additional leading or trailing subidentifiers are automatically
      added to an OID constant.  The constant is taken as expressed.

      Integer-typed objects are treated as 32- or 64-bit, signed
      or unsigned integers, as appropriate.  The results of
      mixing them are as for ANSI C, including the type of the
      result.  Note that a 32-bit value is thus promoted to 64 bits
      only in an operation with a 64-bit value.  There is no
      provision for larger values to handle overflow.

      Relative to SNMP data types, a resulting value becomes
      unsigned when calculating it uses any unsigned value,
      including a counter.  To force the final value to be of





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      data type counter the expression must explicitly use the
      counter32() or counter64() function (defined below).

      OCTET STRINGS and OBJECT IDENTIFIERs are treated as
      one-dimensioned arrays of unsigned 8-bit integers and
      unsigned 32-bit integers, respectively.

      IpAddresses are treated as 32-bit, unsigned integers in
      network byte order, that is, the hex version of 255.0.0.0 is
      0xff000000.

      Conditional expressions result in a 32-bit, unsigned integer
      of value 0 for false or 1 for true. When an arbitrary value
      is used as a boolean 0 is false and non-zero is true.

      Rules for the resulting data type from an operation, based on
      the operator:

      For << and >> the result is the same as the left hand operand.

      For &&, ||, ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >= the result is always
      Unsigned32.

      For unary - the result is always Integer32.

      For +, -, *, /, %, &, |, and ^ the result is promoted according
      to the following rules, in order from most to least preferred:

           If left hand and right hand operands are the same type,
           use that.

           If either side is Counter64, use that.

           If either side is IpAddress, use that.

           If either side is TimeTicks, use that.

           If either side is Counter32, use that.

           Otherwise use Unsigned32.

      The following rules say what operators apply with what data
      types.  Any combination not explicitly defined does not work.

      For all operators any of the following can be the left hand or





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      right hand operand: Integer32, Counter32, Unsigned32, Counter64.

      The operators +, -, *, /, %, <, <=, >, and >= work with
      TimeTicks.

      The operators &, |, and ^ work with IpAddress.

      The operators << and >> work with IpAddress but only as the
      left hand operand.

      The + operator performs a concatenation of two OCTET STRINGs or
      two OBJECT IDENTIFIERs.

      The operators &, | perform bitwise operations on OCTET STRINGs.
      If the OCTET STRING happens to be a DisplayString the results
      may be meaningless, but the agent system does not check this as
      some such systems do not have this information.

      The operators << and >> perform bitwise operations on OCTET
      STRINGs appearing as the left hand operand.

      The only functions defined are:

           counter32
           counter64
           arraySection
           stringBegins
           stringEnds
           stringContains
           oidBegins
           oidEnds
           oidContains
           average
           maximum
           minimum
           sum
           exists

      The following function definitions indicate their parameters by
      naming the data type of the parameter in the parameter's position
      in the parameter list.  The parameter must be of the type indicated
      and generally may be a constant, a MIB object, a function, or an
      expression.

      counter32(integer) - wrapped around an integer value counter32





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      forces Counter32 as a data type.

      counter64(integer) - similar to counter32 except that the
      resulting data type is 'counter64'.

      arraySection(array, integer, integer) - selects a piece of an
      array (i.e. part of an OCTET STRING or OBJECT IDENTIFIER).  The
      integer arguments are in the range 0 to 4,294,967,295.  The
      first is an initial array index (one-dimensioned) and the second
      is an ending array index.  A value of 0 indicates first or last
      element, respectively.  If the first element is larger than the
      array length the result is 0 length.  If the second integer is
      less than or equal to the first, the result is 0 length.  If the
      second is larger than the array length it indicates last
      element.

      stringBegins/Ends/Contains(octetString, octetString) - looks for
      the second string (which can be a string constant) in the first
      and returns the one-dimensioned arrayindex where the match began.
      A return value of 0 indicates no match (i.e. boolean false).

      oidBegins/Ends/Contains(oid, oid) - looks for the second OID
      (which can be an OID constant) in the first and returns the
      the one-dimensioned index where the match began. A return value
      of 0 indicates no match (i.e. boolean false).

      average/maximum/minimum(integer) - calculates the average,
      minimum, or maximum value of the integer valued object over
      multiple sample times.  If the object disappears for any
      sample period, the accumulation and the resulting value object
      cease to exist until the object reappears at which point the
      calculation starts over.

      sum(integerObject*) - sums all available values of the
      wildcarded integer object, resulting in an integer scalar.  Must
      be used with caution as it wraps on overflow with no
      notification.

      exists(anyTypeObject) - verifies the object instance exists. A
      return value of 0 indicates NoSuchInstance (i.e. boolean
      false)."
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 3 }

expExpressionValueType OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      INTEGER { counter32(1), unsigned32(2), timeTicks(3),





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                  integer32(4), ipAddress(5), octetString(6),
                  objectId(7), counter64(8) }
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The type of the expression value.  One and only one of the
      value objects in expValueTable will be instantiated to match
      this type.

      If the result of the expression can not be made into this type,
      an invalidOperandType error will occur."
     DEFVAL      { counter32 }
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 4 }

expExpressionComment OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "A comment to explain the use or meaning of the expression."
     DEFVAL      { ''H }
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 5 }

expExpressionDeltaInterval OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Integer32 (0..86400)
     UNITS       "seconds"
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "Sampling interval for objects in this expression with
      expObjectSampleType 'deltaValue'.

      This object has no effect if the the expression has no
      deltaValue objects.

      A value of 0 indicates no automated sampling.  In this case
      the delta is the difference from the last time the expression
      was evaluated.  Note that this is subject to unpredictable
      delta times in the face of retries or multiple managers.

      A value greater than zero is the number of seconds between
      automated samples.

      Until the delta interval has expired once the delta for the
      object is effectively not instantiated and evaluating





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      the expression has results as if the object itself were not
      instantiated.

      Note that delta values potentially consume large amounts of
      system CPU and memory.  Delta state and processing must
      continue constantly even if the expression is not being used.
      That is, the expression is being evaluated every delta interval,
      even if no application is reading those values.  For wildcarded
      objects this can be substantial overhead.

      Note that delta intervals, external expression value sampling
      intervals and delta intervals for expressions within other
      expressions can have unusual interactions as they are impossible
      to synchronize accurately.  In general one interval embedded
      below another must be enough shorter that the higher sample
      sees relatively smooth, predictable behavior.  So, for example,
      to avoid the higher level getting the same sample twice, the
      lower level should sample at least twice as fast as the higher
      level does."
     DEFVAL      { 0 }
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 6 }

expExpressionPrefix OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "An object prefix to assist an application in determining
      the instance indexing to use in expValueTable, relieving the
      application of the need to scan the expObjectTable to
      determine such a prefix.

      See expObjectTable for information on wildcarded objects.

      If the expValueInstance portion of the value OID may
      be treated as a scalar (that is, normally, 0) the value of
      expExpressionPrefix is zero length, that is, no OID at all.
      Note that zero length implies a null OID, not the OID 0.0.

      Otherwise, the value of expExpressionPrefix is the expObjectID
      value of any one of the wildcarded objects for the expression.
      This is sufficient, as the remainder, that is, the instance
      fragment relevant to instancing the values, must be the same for
      all wildcarded objects in the expression."
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 7 }





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expExpressionErrors OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Counter32
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The number of errors encountered while evaluating this
      expression.

      Note that an object in the expression not being accessible,
      is not considered an error. An example of an inaccessible
      object is when the object is excluded from the view of the
      user whose security credentials are used in the expression
      evaluation. In such cases, it is a legitimate condition
      that causes the corresponding expression value not to be
      instantiated."
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 8 }

expExpressionEntryStatus OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      RowStatus
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The control that allows creation and deletion of entries."
     ::= { expExpressionEntry 9 }

--
-- Expression Error Table
--

expErrorTable OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF ExpErrorEntry
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "A table of expression errors."
     ::= { expDefine 2 }

expErrorEntry OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      ExpErrorEntry
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "Information about errors in processing an expression.

      Entries appear in this table only when there is a matching





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      expExpressionEntry and then only when there has been an
      error for that expression as reflected by the error codes
      defined for expErrorCode."
     INDEX       { expExpressionOwner, expExpressionName }
     ::= { expErrorTable 1 }

ExpErrorEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
     expErrorTime       TimeStamp,
     expErrorIndex      Integer32,
     expErrorCode       INTEGER,
     expErrorInstance   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
}

expErrorTime OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      TimeStamp
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value of sysUpTime the last time an error caused a
      failure to evaluate this expression."
     ::= { expErrorEntry 1 }

expErrorIndex OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Integer32
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The one-dimensioned character array index into
      expExpression for where the error occurred.  The value
      zero indicates irrelevance."
     ::= { expErrorEntry 2 }

expErrorCode OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      INTEGER {
           invalidSyntax(1),
           undefinedObjectIndex(2),
           unrecognizedOperator(3),
           unrecognizedFunction(4),
           invalidOperandType(5),
           unmatchedParenthesis(6),
           tooManyWildcardValues(7),
           recursion(8),
           deltaTooShort(9),
           resourceUnavailable(10),
           divideByZero(11)





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           }
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The error that occurred.  In the following explanations the
      expected timing of the error is in parentheses.  'S' means
      the error occurs on a Set request.  'E' means the error
      occurs on the attempt to evaluate the expression either due to
      Get from expValueTable or in ongoing delta processing.

      invalidSyntax       the value sent for expExpression is not
                     valid Expression MIB expression syntax
                     (S)
      undefinedObjectIndex     an object reference ($n) in
                     expExpression does not have a matching
                     instance in expObjectTable (E)
      unrecognizedOperator     the value sent for expExpression held an
                     unrecognized operator (S)
      unrecognizedFunction     the value sent for expExpression held an
                     unrecognized function name (S)
      invalidOperandType  an operand in expExpression is not the
                     right type for the associated operator
                     or result (SE)
      unmatchedParenthesis     the value sent for expExpression is not
                     correctly parenthesized (S)
      tooManyWildcardValues    evaluating the expression exceeded the
                     limit set by
                     expResourceDeltaWildcardInstanceMaximum
                     (E)
      recursion      through some chain of embedded
                     expressions the expression invokes itself
                     (E)
      deltaTooShort       the delta for the next evaluation passed
                     before the system could evaluate the
                     present sample (E)
      resourceUnavailable some resource, typically dynamic memory,
                     was unavailable (SE)
      divideByZero        an attempt to divide by zero occurred
                     (E)

      For the errors that occur when the attempt is made to set
      expExpression Set request fails with the SNMP error code
      'wrongValue'.  Such failures refer to the most recent failure to
      Set expExpression, not to the present value of expExpression
      which must be either unset or syntactically correct.





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      Errors that occur during evaluation for a Get* operation return
      the SNMP error code 'genErr' except for 'tooManyWildcardValues'
      and 'resourceUnavailable' which return the SNMP error code
      'resourceUnavailable'."
     ::= { expErrorEntry 3 }

expErrorInstance OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The expValueInstance being evaluated when the error
      occurred.  A zero-length indicates irrelevance."
     ::= { expErrorEntry 4 }

--
-- Object Table
--

expObjectTable OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF ExpObjectEntry
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "A table of object definitions for each expExpression.

      Wildcarding instance IDs:

      It is legal to omit all or part of the instance portion for
      some or all of the objects in an expression. (See the
      DESCRIPTION of expObjectID for details.  However, note that
      if more than one object in the same expression is wildcarded
      in this way, they all must be objects where that portion of
      the instance is the same.  In other words, all objects may be
      in the same SEQUENCE or in different SEQUENCEs but with the
      same semantic index value (e.g., a value of ifIndex)
      for the wildcarded portion."
     ::= { expDefine 3 }

expObjectEntry OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      ExpObjectEntry
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "Information about an object.  An application uses





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      expObjectEntryStatus to create entries in this table while
      in the process of defining an expression.

      Values of read-create objects in this table may be
      changed at any time."
     INDEX       { expExpressionOwner, expExpressionName, expObjectIndex }
     ::= { expObjectTable 1 }

ExpObjectEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
     expObjectIndex                     Unsigned32,
     expObjectID                        OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
     expObjectIDWildcard                TruthValue,
     expObjectSampleType                INTEGER,
     expObjectDeltaDiscontinuityID      OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
     expObjectDiscontinuityIDWildcard   TruthValue,
     expObjectDiscontinuityIDType       INTEGER,
     expObjectConditional               OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
     expObjectConditionalWildcard       TruthValue,
     expObjectEntryStatus               RowStatus
}

expObjectIndex OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Unsigned32 (1..4294967295)
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "Within an expression, a unique, numeric identification for an
      object.  Prefixed with a dollar sign ('$') this is used to
      reference the object in the corresponding expExpression."
     ::= { expObjectEntry 1 }

expObjectID OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The OBJECT IDENTIFIER (OID) of this object.  The OID may be
      fully qualified, meaning it includes a complete instance
      identifier part (e.g., ifInOctets.1 or sysUpTime.0), or it
      may not be fully qualified, meaning it may lack all or part
      of the instance identifier.  If the expObjectID is not fully
      qualified, then expObjectWildcard must be set to true(1).
      The value of the expression will be multiple
      values, as if done for a GetNext sweep of the object.






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      An object here may itself be the result of an expression but
      recursion is not allowed.

      NOTE:  The simplest implementations of this MIB may not allow
      wildcards."
     ::= { expObjectEntry 2 }

expObjectIDWildcard  OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      TruthValue
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
         "A true value indicates the expObjecID of this row is a wildcard
         object. False indicates that expObjectID is fully instanced.
         If all expObjectWildcard values for a given expression are FALSE,
         expExpressionPrefix will reflect a scalar object (i.e. will
         be 0.0).

         NOTE:  The simplest implementations of this MIB may not allow
         wildcards."
     DEFVAL      { false }
     ::= { expObjectEntry 3 }

expObjectSampleType OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      INTEGER { absoluteValue(1), deltaValue(2),
                           changedValue(3) }
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The method of sampling the selected variable.

      An 'absoluteValue' is simply the present value of the object.

      A 'deltaValue' is the present value minus the previous value,
      which was sampled expExpressionDeltaInterval seconds ago.
      This is intended primarily for use with SNMP counters, which are
      meaningless as an 'absoluteValue', but may be used with any
      integer-based value.

      A 'changedValue' is a boolean for whether the present value is
      different from the previous value.  It is applicable to any data
      type and results in an Unsigned32 with value 1 if the object's
      value is changed and 0 if not.  In all other respects it is as a
      'deltaValue' and all statements and operation regarding delta
      values apply to changed values.





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      When an expression contains both delta and absolute values
      the absolute values are obtained at the end of the delta
      period."
     DEFVAL      { absoluteValue }
     ::= { expObjectEntry 4 }

sysUpTimeInstance OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { sysUpTime 0 }

expObjectDeltaDiscontinuityID OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The OBJECT IDENTIFIER (OID) of a TimeTicks, TimeStamp, or
      DateAndTime object that indicates a discontinuity in the value
      at expObjectID.

      This object is instantiated only if expObjectSampleType is
      'deltaValue' or 'changedValue'.

      The OID may be for a leaf object (e.g. sysUpTime.0) or may
      be wildcarded to match expObjectID.

      This object supports normal checking for a discontinuity in a
      counter.  Note that if this object does not point to sysUpTime
      discontinuity checking must still check sysUpTime for an overall
      discontinuity.

      If the object identified is not accessible no discontinuity
      check will be made."
     DEFVAL      { sysUpTimeInstance }
     ::= { expObjectEntry 5 }

expObjectDiscontinuityIDWildcard OBJECT-TYPE
      SYNTAX      TruthValue
      MAX-ACCESS  read-create
      STATUS      current
      DESCRIPTION
      "A true value indicates the expObjectDeltaDiscontinuityID of
      this row is a wildcard object.  False indicates that
      expObjectDeltaDiscontinuityID is fully instanced.

      This object is instantiated only if expObjectSampleType is
      'deltaValue' or 'changedValue'.






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      NOTE:  The simplest implementations of this MIB may not allow
      wildcards."
     DEFVAL      { false }
      ::= { expObjectEntry 6 }

expObjectDiscontinuityIDType OBJECT-TYPE
      SYNTAX      INTEGER { timeTicks(1), timeStamp(2), dateAndTime(3) }
      MAX-ACCESS  read-create
      STATUS      current
      DESCRIPTION
      "The value 'timeTicks' indicates the expObjectDeltaDiscontinuityID
      of this row is of syntax TimeTicks.  The value 'timeStamp' indicates
      syntax TimeStamp.  The value 'dateAndTime indicates syntax
      DateAndTime.

      This object is instantiated only if expObjectSampleType is
      'deltaValue' or 'changedValue'."
     DEFVAL      { timeTicks }
      ::= { expObjectEntry 7 }

expObjectConditional OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The OBJECT IDENTIFIER (OID) of an object that overrides
      whether the instance of expObjectID is to be considered
      usable.  If the value of the object at expObjectConditional
      is 0 or not instantiated, the object at expObjectID is
      treated as if it is not instantiated.  In other words,
      expObjectConditional is a filter that controls whether or
      not to use the value at expObjectID.

      The OID may be for a leaf object (e.g. sysObjectID.0) or may be
      wildcarded to match expObjectID.  If expObject is wildcarded and
      expObjectID in the same row is not, the wild portion of
      expObjectConditional must match the wildcarding of the rest of
      the expression.  If no object in the expression is wildcarded
      but expObjectConditional is, use the lexically first instance
      (if any) of expObjectConditional.

      If the value of expObjectConditional is 0.0 operation is
      as if the value pointed to by expObjectConditional is a
      non-zero (true) value.






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      Note that expObjectConditional can not trivially use an object
      of syntax TruthValue, since the underlying value is not 0 or 1."
     DEFVAL      { zeroDotZero }
     ::= { expObjectEntry 8 }

  expObjectConditionalWildcard  OBJECT-TYPE
      SYNTAX      TruthValue
      MAX-ACCESS  read-create
      STATUS      current
      DESCRIPTION

      "A true value indicates the expObjectConditional of this row is
      a wildcard object. False indicates that expObjectConditional is
      fully instanced.

      NOTE: The simplest implementations of this MIB may not allow
      wildcards."
     DEFVAL      { false }
      ::= { expObjectEntry 9 }

expObjectEntryStatus OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      RowStatus
     MAX-ACCESS  read-create
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The control that allows creation/deletion of entries.

      Objects in this table may be changed while
      expObjectEntryStatus is in any state."
     ::= { expObjectEntry 10 }

--
-- Expression Value Table
--

expValueTable OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF ExpValueEntry
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "A table of values from evaluated expressions."
     ::= { expValue 1 }

expValueEntry OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      ExpValueEntry





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     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "A single value from an evaluated expression.  For a given
      instance, only one 'Val' object in the conceptual row will be
      instantiated, that is, the one with the appropriate type for
      the value.  For values that contain no objects of
      expObjectSampleType 'deltaValue' or 'changedValue', reading a
      value from the table causes the evaluation of the expression
      for that value.  For those that contain a 'deltaValue' or
      'changedValue' the value read is as of the last sampling
      interval.

      If in the attempt to evaluate the expression one or more
      of the necessary objects is not available, the corresponding
      entry in this table is effectively not instantiated.

      To maintain security of MIB information, when creating a new
      row in this table, the managed system must record the security
      credentials of the requester.  These security credentials are
      the parameters necessary as inputs to isAccessAllowed from
      [RFC2571]. When obtaining the objects that make up the
      expression, the system must (conceptually) use isAccessAllowed to
      ensure that it does not violate security.

      The evaluation of that expression takes place under the
      security credentials of the creator of its expExpressionEntry.

      To maintain security of MIB information, expression evaluation must
      take place using security credentials for the implied Gets of the
      objects in the expression as inputs (conceptually) to
      isAccessAllowed from the Architecture for Describing SNMP
      Management Frameworks.  These are the security credentials of the
      creator of the corresponding expExpressionEntry."
     INDEX       { expExpressionOwner, expExpressionName,
                   IMPLIED expValueInstance }
     ::= { expValueTable 1 }

ExpValueEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
     expValueInstance          OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
     expValueCounter32Val      Counter32,
     expValueUnsigned32Val     Unsigned32,
     expValueTimeTicksVal      TimeTicks,
     expValueInteger32Val      Integer32,
     expValueIpAddressVal      IpAddress,





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     expValueOctetStringVal    OCTET STRING,
     expValueOidVal            OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
     expValueCounter64Val      Counter64
}

expValueInstance OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The final instance portion of a value's OID according to
      the wildcarding in instances of expObjectID for the
      expression.  The prefix of this OID fragment is 0.0,
      leading to the following behavior.

      If there is no wildcarding, the value is 0.0.0.  In other
      words, there is one value which standing alone would have
      been a scalar with a 0 at the end of its OID.

      If there is wildcarding, the value is 0.0 followed by
      a value that the wildcard can take, thus defining one value
      instance for each real, possible value of the wildcard.
      So, for example, if the wildcard worked out to be an ifIndex,
      there is an expValueInstance for each applicable ifIndex."
     ::= { expValueEntry 1 }

expValueCounter32Val OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Counter32
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'counter32'."
     ::= { expValueEntry 2 }

expValueUnsigned32Val OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Unsigned32
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'unsigned32'."
     ::= { expValueEntry 3 }

expValueTimeTicksVal OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      TimeTicks
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only





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     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'timeTicks'."
     ::= { expValueEntry 4 }

expValueInteger32Val OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Integer32
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'integer32'."
     ::= { expValueEntry 5 }

expValueIpAddressVal OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      IpAddress
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'ipAddress'.

      This object type is necessary to support values represented
      using the IpAddress type, which is limited to IPv4.  IPv6
      addressess are represented using the OCTET STRING type, and
      would thus show up as instances of expValueOctetStringVal."
     ::= { expValueEntry 6 }

expValueOctetStringVal OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OCTET STRING
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'octetString'."
     ::= { expValueEntry 7 }

expValueOidVal OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only
     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'objectId'."
     ::= { expValueEntry 8 }

expValueCounter64Val OBJECT-TYPE
     SYNTAX      Counter64
     MAX-ACCESS  read-only





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     STATUS      current
     DESCRIPTION
      "The value when expExpressionValueType is 'counter64'."
     ::= { expValueEntry 9 }

--
-- Conformance
--

dismanExpressionMIBConformance OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
     { dismanExpressionMIB 3 }
dismanExpressionMIBCompliances OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
     { dismanExpressionMIBConformance 1 }
dismanExpressionMIBGroups      OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
     { dismanExpressionMIBConformance 2 }

-- Compliance

dismanExpressionMIBCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
      STATUS current
      DESCRIPTION
           "The compliance statement for entities which implement
           the Expression MIB."
      MODULE    -- this module
           MANDATORY-GROUPS {
                dismanExpressionResourceGroup,
                dismanExpressionDefinitionGroup,
                dismanExpressionValueGroup
           }

      OBJECT         expResourceDeltaMinimum
      SYNTAX         Integer32 (-1 | 60..600)
      DESCRIPTION
           "Implementation need not allow deltas or it may
           implement them and restrict them to higher values."

      OBJECT         expObjectSampleType
      WRITE-SYNTAX   INTEGER { absoluteValue(1) }
      DESCRIPTION
           "Implementation may disallow deltas calculation or
           change detection."

      OBJECT         expObjectIDWildcard
      WRITE-SYNTAX   INTEGER { false(2) }
      DESCRIPTION





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           "Implementation may allow wildcards."

      OBJECT         expObjectDiscontinuityIDWildcard
      WRITE-SYNTAX   INTEGER { false(2) }
      DESCRIPTION
           "Implementation need not allow wildcards."

      OBJECT          expObjectConditionalWildcard
      WRITE-SYNTAX   INTEGER { false(2) }
      DESCRIPTION
           "Implementation need not allow deltas wildcards."

      ::= { dismanExpressionMIBCompliances 1 }

-- Units of Conformance

dismanExpressionResourceGroup OBJECT-GROUP
      OBJECTS {
           expResourceDeltaMinimum,
           expResourceDeltaWildcardInstanceMaximum,
           expResourceDeltaWildcardInstances,
           expResourceDeltaWildcardInstancesHigh,
           expResourceDeltaWildcardInstanceResourceLacks
      }
      STATUS current
      DESCRIPTION
           "Expression definition resource management."
      ::= { dismanExpressionMIBGroups 1 }

dismanExpressionDefinitionGroup OBJECT-GROUP
      OBJECTS {
           expExpression,
           expExpressionValueType,
           expExpressionComment,
           expExpressionDeltaInterval,
           expExpressionPrefix,
           expExpressionErrors,
           expExpressionEntryStatus,

           expErrorTime,
           expErrorIndex,
           expErrorCode,
           expErrorInstance,

           expObjectID,





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           expObjectIDWildcard,
           expObjectSampleType,
           expObjectDeltaDiscontinuityID,
           expObjectDiscontinuityIDWildcard,
           expObjectDiscontinuityIDType,
           expObjectConditional,
           expObjectConditionalWildcard,
           expObjectEntryStatus
      }
      STATUS current
      DESCRIPTION
           "Expression definition."
      ::= { dismanExpressionMIBGroups 2 }

dismanExpressionValueGroup OBJECT-GROUP
      OBJECTS {
           expValueCounter32Val,
           expValueUnsigned32Val,
           expValueTimeTicksVal,
           expValueInteger32Val,
           expValueIpAddressVal,
           expValueOctetStringVal,
           expValueOidVal,
           expValueCounter64Val
      }
      STATUS current
      DESCRIPTION
           "Expression value."
      ::= { dismanExpressionMIBGroups 3 }

END

4.  Intellectual Property

    The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
    intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
    pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
    this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
    might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
    has made any effort to identify any such rights.  Information on the
    IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
    standards- related documentation can be found in BCP-11.  Copies of
    claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of
    licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to
    obtain a general license or permission for the use of such





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    proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification can
    be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.

    The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
    copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
    rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
    this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF Executive
    Director.

5.  Acknowledgements

    This MIB contains considerable contributions from the Distributed
    Management Design Team (Andy Bierman, Maria Greene, Bob Stewart, and
    Steve Waldbusser), and colleagues at Cisco who did the first
    implementation.

6.  References

    [RFC2571]   Harrington, D., Presuhn, R. and B. Wijnen, "An
                Architecture Describing SNMP Management Frameworks", RFC
                2571, April 1999.

    [RFC1155]   Rose, M. and K. McCloghrie, "Structure and Identification
                of Management Information for TCP/IP-based Internets",
                STD 16, RFC 1155, May 1990.

    [RFC1212]   Rose, M. and K. McCloghrie, "Concise MIB Definitions",
                STD 16, RFC 1212, March 1991.

    [RFC1215]   Rose, M., "A Convention for Defining Traps for use with
                the SNMP", RFC 1215, March 1991.

    [RFC2578]   McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., Schoenwaelder, J., Case, J.,
                Rose, M. and S. Waldbusser, "Structure of Management
                Information Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April
                1999.

    [RFC2579]   McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., Schoenwaelder, J., Case, J.,
                Rose, M. and S. Waldbusser, "Textual Conventions for
                SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

    [RFC2580]   McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., Schoenwaelder, J., Case, J.,
                Rose, M. and S. Waldbusser, "Conformance Statements for
                SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580, April 1999.






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    [RFC1157]   Case, J., Fedor, M., Schoffstall, M. and J. Davin,
                "Simple Network Management Protocol", STD 15, RFC 1157,
                May 1990.















































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    [RFC1901]   Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M. and S. Waldbusser,
                "Introduction to Community-based SNMPv2", RFC 1901,
                January 1996.

    [RFC1906]   Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M. and S. Waldbusser,
                "Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the Simple Network
                Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1906, January 1996.

    [RFC2572]   Case, J., Harrington D., Presuhn R. and B. Wijnen,
                "Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple
                Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 2572, April
                1999.

    [RFC2574]   Blumenthal, U. and B. Wijnen, "User-based Security Model
                (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management
                Protocol (SNMPv3)", RFC 2574, April 1999.

    [RFC1905]   Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M. and S. Waldbusser,
                "Protocol Operations for Version 2 of the Simple Network
                Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1905, January 1996.

    [RFC2573]   Levi, D., Meyer, P. and B. Stewart, "SNMPv3
                Applications", RFC 2573, April 1999.

    [RFC2575]   Wijnen, B., Presuhn, R. and K. McCloghrie, "View-based
                Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple Network
                Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 2575, April 1999.

    [RFC2570]   Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D. and B. Stewart,
                "Introduction to Version 3 of the Internet-standard
                Network Management Framework", RFC 2570, April 1999.

    [RFC1903]   Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M. and S. Waldbusser,
                "Coexistence between Version 1 and version 2 of the
                Internet-standard Network Management Framework", RFC
                1903, January 1996.

    [RFC2981]   Stewart, B., "Event MIB", RFC 2981, October 2000.

    [PracPersp] Leinwand, A. and K. Fang, "Network Management: A
                Practical Perspective", Addison-Wesley Publishing
                Company, Inc., 1993.

7.  Security Considerations






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    Expression MIB security involves two perspectives:  protection of
    expressions from tampering or unauthorized use of resources, and
    protection of the objects used to calculate the expressions.

    Security of expression definitions and results depends on the
    expression owner (expExpressionOwner).  With view-based access
    control [RFC2575] a network manager can control who has what level of
    access to what expressions.

    Access control for the objects within the expression depends on the
    security credentials of the expression creator.  These are the
    security credentials used to get the objects necessary to evaluate
    the expression.  They are the security credentials that were used to
    set the expExpressionEntryStatus object for that expression to
    'active', as recorded by the managed system.

    This means that the results of an expression could potentially be
    made available to someone who does not have access to the raw data
    that went into them.  This could be either legitimate or a security
    violation, depending on the specific situation and security policy.

    To facilitate the provisioning of access control by a security
    administrator for this MIB itself using the View-Based Access Control
    Model (VACM) defined in RFC 2575 [RFC2575] for tables in which
    multiple users may need to independently create or modify entries,
    the initial index is used as an "owner index".  Such an initial index
    has a syntax of SnmpAdminString, and can thus be trivially mapped to
    a securityName or groupName as defined in VACM, in accordance with a
    security policy.

    All entries in related tables belonging to a particular user will
    have the same value for this initial index.  For a given user's
    entries in a particular table, the object identifiers for the
    information in these entries will have the same subidentifiers
    (except for the "column" subidentifier) up to the end of the encoded
    owner index.  To configure VACM to permit access to this portion of
    the table, one would create vacmViewTreeFamilyTable entries with the
    value of vacmViewTreeFamilySubtree including the owner index portion,
    and vacmViewTreeFamilyMask "wildcarding" the column subidentifier.
    More elaborate configurations are possible.










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8.  Author's Address

    Bob Stewart
    Cisco Systems, Inc.
    170 West Tasman Drive
    San Jose, CA 95134-1706
    U.S.A.

9.  Editor's Address

    Ramanathan Kavasseri
    Cisco Systems, Inc.
    170 West Tasman Drive
    San Jose, CA 95134-1706
    U.S.A.

    Phone: +1 408 527 2446
    EMail: ramk@cisco.com
































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10.  Full Copyright Statement

    Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

    This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
    others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
    or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
    and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
    kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
    included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
    document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
    the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
    Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
    developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
    copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
    followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
    English.

    The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
    revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

    This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
    "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
    TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
    BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
    HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
    MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.























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