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Versions: 00 01                                                         
MBONED Working Group                               Hugh LaMaster
Internet Draft                                     Steve Shultz
                                                   NASA ARC/NREN
                                                   John Meylor
                                                   David Meyer
                                                   Cisco Systems

Category                                           Informational
draft-ietf-mboned-mix-01.txt                       June, 1999

               Multicast-Friendly Internet Exchange (MIX)

1. Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

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2. Abstract

   This document describes an architecture for a Multicast-friendly
   Internet eXchange (MIX), and the actual implementation at the NASA
   Ames Research Center Federal Internet eXchange (FIX-West, or FIX).
   The MIX has three objectives: native IP multicast routing, scalable
   interdomain policy-based route exchange, and to allow a variety of
   IGP protocols and topologies for intra-domain use. In support of
   these objectives, the MIX architecture defines the following
   components: a peer-peer routing protocol, a method for multicast
   forwarding, a method for exchanging information about active sources,
   and a medium which provides native multicast.  This document
   describes the protocols and configurations necessary to provide a
   current, working multicast-friendly internet exchange, or MIX.

   This memo is a product of the MBONE Deployment Working Group (MBONED)
   in the Operations and Management Area of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force. Submit comments to <mboned@ns.uoregon.edu> or the


   Thanks to the NASA HPCC program for supporting the NREN staff portion
   of this project; thanks to William P. Jones of the NASA ARC Gateway
   Facility for making the gateway facility available for housing this

3. Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

4. Introduction

   The MIX objective was to use current technology to implement a
   scalable, high-performance, efficient, native IP multicast

   Past experience at ARC, NASA WANs, and at FIX-West, had shown that
   mrouted/DVMRP "Mbone" tunnels were an inefficient of routing
   multicast through an exchange point.  Specifically, at FIX-West, the
   large number of tunnels often resulted in unicast traffic loads on
   the FIX FDDI that were 10 times the underlying multicast load.  In
   addition, some WANs had multiple tunnels criss-crossing the same
   physical links, resulting in wasted WAN bandwidth.  And, the separate
   workstation and router infrastructure for the "Mbone" tunnels created
   numerous problems.  Maintenance of Unix system and tunnel

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   configurations was often ad hoc, because some of the network
   operators lacked the necessary expertise.  And the hardware and
   software configuration and performance of the tunnel infrastructure
   was often out of step with the underlying router-based unicast
   structure. In addition, use of a single, shared, distance-vector IGP
   in the inter-domain space led to instability.

   Therefore, it was desired to implement a new multicast internet
   exchange from the ground up, using current technology, and
   significantly improving performance, efficiency, and reliability.

   Four elements were identified as being necessary for the MIX
   architecture in order to meet the objectives.  These were to define a
   peer-peer routing protocol, a method for multicast forwarding, a
   method for exchanging information about distant sources and groups,
   and a non-switched broadcast medium.

   NASA Ames Research Center hosts the Federal Internet eXchange (FIX-
   West, or, "the FIX") as well as hosting the Ames Internet eXchange
   (AIX), which is connected at high speed to the MAE-West, and, which
   also shares the same address space as the MAE-West. These facilities
   are co-located at the Ames Telecommunications Gateway Facility.  It
   was felt that this would be an excellent location to test the
   viability of the native multicast technologies. The Multicast-
   friendly Internet eXchange (MIX) is co-located adjacent to the FIX
   for easy access from the existing FIX routers.

   Choices were made for each element, and the MIX was implemented
   adjacent to the existing NASA ARC FIX gateway facility.  At the time
   of writing, there are eight direct participants in the MIX, peering
   and exchanging routes and multicast traffic natively, and the
   performance and reliability have already far exceeded the tunneled
   infrastructure the MIX replaced.

5. Requirements and Technology

   In order to meet the objectives for this multicast exchange, all
   peering partners had to agree mutually to standardize on the
   following four elements.  These are:

    - the protocol to be used for multicast route exchange
    - the method for performing multicast forwarding
    - the method for identifying active sources
    - the physical medium for the multicast exchange

   The elements chosen to implement the MIX were BGP4+ (also known as
   "MBGP") for routing and route exchange [BGP4+], PIM-SM for multicast

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   forwarding on the exchange, the MSDP protocol for information on
   sources and groups, and, FDDI for the multicast medium.

5.1. Routing

   Two of the objectives of the MIX were to provide an EGP for scalable
   interdomain policy-based route exchange, and to allow a variety of
   IGP protocols and topologies for intra-domain use.  As with unicast
   interdomain routing, BGP could be used as the EGP to exchange routes
   for multicast.  However, the unicast and multicast routing paths and
   policies would have to be completely congruent.  In practice, this is
   sometimes not the case.  It is possible, however, to take advantage
   of the extensions in BGP4+ to deal with these policy and path

   BGP4+ [BGP4+] describes extensions to (unicast) BGP that allow use of
   the existing BGP machinery to provide the necessary scalability,
   policy control, and route stability features and mechanisms to be
   applied to both unicast and multicast routes consistently.

   BGP4+ allows routes to be marked "unicast forwarding", "multicast
   forwarding", or "both unicast and multicast forwarding".  In this
   way, BGP4+ supports different multicast and unicast forwarding paths
   and policies.  This removes the dependency on unicast-only routing.

   The ability of BGP4+ to support separate paths and policies for
   multicast is important for meeting the objectives of the exchange in
   various ways.  It allows for a participant's multicast routing policy
   to be independent of its established unicast routing policy.  This is
   important in order that the exchange can support providers migrating
   to BGP4+ as an IDMR.  This is because it allows for the exchange of
   routes previously exchanged via DVMRP, even though those routes would
   not meet the existing unicast routing policy.  It allows for
   different policy in the interim.  For example, routes may be
   exchanged for BGP4+ multicast forwarding even though they would not
   be permitted under existing unicast routing policy.  BGP4+ also
   provides for the possibility that even after full migration is
   complete, a separate multicast routing policy can be applied.

   The exchange architecture imposes no requirements on the IGP or the
   multicast forwarding protocol or topology used internal to an AS.

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5.2. Multicast Forwarding

   The first requirement for the multicast forwarding protocol is that
   it be able to use routes exchanged via BGP4+.  In addition, there is
   a requirement that the protocol only forward data upon explicit joins
   from participating peers. For these reasons, PIM-SM was selected.

   The use of PIM on a shared LAN has certain consequences. It is
   necessary for all MIX participants to agree on certain configuration
   conventions affecting PIM forwarding on multi-access LANs.  In
   particular, it is necessary to establish a standard protocol "metric
   preference" (also known as "distance" or process "precedence") to be
   used by all peers for the PIM Assert process, because the PIM Assert
   process [PIM-SM] uses the "metric preference" [PIM-SM] as a mechanism
   by which the multicast forwarder is chosen.  If all parties are not
   following the convention, there may be black holes, in which a route
   appears to be valid, but traffic does not flow, or, there may be
   multicast loops, which can have deleterious consequences.

   For the MIX, a standard set of metric preferences are applied to the
   BGP4+ routes as the convention for the PIM forwarding mechanism.

5.3. Active Sources

   There are two current methods for distributing information about
   active sources to participating AS's.  The AS's may be dense-mode
   regions, or, they may contain PIM-SM RP's.  One method is to use
   dense-mode to flood data packets to dense-mode regions and to
   sparse-mode RPs co-located on the exchange.  The second method is to
   use a protocol that allows each AS to share information about the
   sources contained within it without flooding data.

   Recently, a new protocol, MSDP [MSDP] has been proposed that, when
   combined with PIM-SM, allows independent AS's to share information
   about distant sources and groups without flooding. Instead of
   flooding all data, only <S,G> information is flooded, and then, only
   to systems, such as PIM-SM RP's, which require the information.  MSDP
   allows each AS to run its own sparse-mode region, independent of all
   other sparse-mode regions.

   MSDP peering is established by all MIX participants. Most MIX-
   connected AS's are now running sparse-mode internally, or are
   actively migrating.

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5.4. Medium

   A primary objective for a multicast exchange is to provide support
   for native multicast among multiple peering partners.

   There exist a number of unresolved issues regarding use of layer-2
   switched media for multicast at interexchange points, and, until
   these issues are resolved, running native multicast on such media can
   be problematic.

   Fortunately, BGP4+ permits unicast and multicast to be carried on
   different media, permitting a multicast medium to be used
   independently of the unicast medium if necessary.

   A FDDI concentrator was selected for the Ames MIX to provide the
   native multicast exchange medium. It was router-efficient, because it
   permitted the medium to do the multicast packet replication, with a
   single copy from a router being replicated to all neighbors.  And
   FDDI was considered operationally convenient by most of the
   participants.  Unicast traffic continues to be routed over the
   existing unicast exchange media.

   Any medium which supports native multicast at layer 2 can be used
   efficiently.  Other multicast exchanges are using switches with fast
   and gigabit ethernet ports and the switch configured with multicast
   as broadcast.  Use of switching technology to handle layer 3
   multicast requirements for inter-router communication is still
   unresolved.  At some exchanges, native multicast is handled over ATM
   point-point VC's.

6. The NASA Ames Research Center Multicast-Friendly Internet Exchange

   The Ames Multicast-friendly Internet eXchange, or MIX, began with the
   first beta-test trials in March 1998, and became operational,
   exchanging BGP4+ routes externally and using BGP4+ between multiple
   AS's, in May 1998.  NREN implemented BGP4+ and internal BGP4+ and
   began trial external peerings in the same time frame, evolving from
   the first trials, to full deployment by October. As of June 1999,
   there were 10 AS's peering using PIM-SM, BGP4+, and MSDP to actively
   exchange multicast on the MIX FDDI.  One of the AS's, AS10888, acts
   as a gateway between the DVMRP-based "Mbone" and the BGP4+ area.  A
   router within AS10888 has been located on the MIX by NREN. The
   physical and logical topologies are as follows:

LaMaster, Shultz, Meylor, Meyer                                 [Page 6]

Internet Draft        draft-ietf-mboned-mix-02.txt            June, 1999

                               MIX  |  multicast_exchange
                                /         \
                               /           \
                  bgp4+_peer---R             R---bgp4+_peer
                               \           /
                                \         /
                           FIX unicast_exchanges

7. Topology, Architecture, and Special Considerations


    -PIM Asserts and Metric preference

   The PIM Assert mechanism requires that all routing protocols
   "compete" to see which router is allowed for forward onto the shared
   medium.  To first order, the protocol metric preference is used to
   determine the forwarder.  All MIX peers must coordinate routing
   protocol parameters so that one router does not inadvertantly win PIM
   asserts over a neighbor which has a functional path.  This requires
   that BGP4+ routes have preference over other routes, such as BGP,
   OSPF, and DVMRP.  In particular, it was necessary to standardize
   protocol metric preferences, and give BGP4+ routes the lowest,
   preferred, dynamic routing protocol metric preferences.  For this
   reason, the standard set of BGP4+ metric preferences was chosen to be
   less than any other dynamic unicast routing protocol metric
   preferences. Any MIX routers which are using DVMRP must use a DVMRP
   metric preference higher than the BGP4+ metric preferences, rather
   than what many people have used previously as the DVMRP metric
   preference, of 0.


   One transitional requirement is the necessity to have routes to
   "Mbone" sources, that is, sources within the global DVMRP routing
   region.  Currently, the mechanism used is to have a single router in
   AS10888 on the MIX originate MBGP default to all external peers.

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   DVMRP routing

    -DVMRP route redistribution

   At present, all BGP4+ routes tagged with a particular community are
   redistributed at the MIX into DVMRP within AS10888.  This is to
   provide DVMRP region users access to sources originating within AS's
   that are being routed via BGP4+ exclusively. Unless a particular
   community string is set, it is assumed that redistribution is not
   desired.  In the reverse direction, instead of sending DVMRP routes
   into BGP4+, BGP4+ default is originated from the intermediary router.

   In addition, local, stub-region DVMRP routes are redistributed into
   BGP4+ internally by several of the peers.  As long as the regions
   remain stub regions, there is no danger, but, the possibility of a
   backdoor into the Mbone presents an ever-present threat of loops
   unless care is taken to redistribute only the routes which are known
   to be owned within the AS.

8. Conclusions and Recommendations

    -Provide support for native multicast
    -Use BGP4+ as a method of exchanging routes for
     inter-domain multicast
    -Use PIM-SM with MSDP
    -Concurrent use of BGP4+ and DVMRP for inter-domain
     routing is not recommended.  It is strongly
     recommended to use BGP4+ exclusively for inter-domain
     route exchange.

9. Security Considerations

   There are no security considerations unique to the multicast

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10. References

    [DVMRP]   T. Pusateri, "Distance Vector Multicast Routing
                 Protocol", <draft-ietf-idmr-dvmrp-v3-07.txt>,
                 August 1998.

    [BGP4+]   T. Bates, R. Chandra, D. Katz, Y. Rekhter,
                 "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 2283,
                 February 1998.

    [BGP4+2]  T. Bates, R. Chandra, D. Katz, Y. Rekhter,
                 "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", Internet Draft,
                 August 1998.

    [PIM-SM]  D. Estrin, D. Farinacci, A. Helmy, D. Thaler, S. Deering,
                 M. Handley, V. Jacobson, C. Liu, P. Sharma, L. Wei,
                 "Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
                 Protocol Specification", RFC 2362, June 1998.

    [PIM-DM]  S. Deering, D. Estrin, D. Farinacci, V. Jacobson, A.
                 D. Meyer, L. Wei, "Protocol Independent Multicast
                 Version 2 Dense Mode Specification", Internet Draft,
                 <draft-ietf-pim-v2-dm-01.txt>, November 1998.

    [MSDP]    D. Farinacci, Y. Rekhter, P. Lothberg, H. Kilmer, J. Hall,
                 "Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)",
                 <draft-farinacci-msdp-00.txt>, June 1998.

11. Author's Address

   Hugh LaMaster
   Steve Shultz
   NASA Ames Research Center
   Mail Stop 233-21
   Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000
   email: hlamaster@arc.nasa.gov

   David Meyer
   John Meylor
   Cisco Systems
   San Jose, CA
   email: dmm@cisco.com

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