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Versions: 00 01 rfc1855                                                 
IETF RUN Working Group                     Sally Hambridge
Internet-Draft                             Intel Corp. SC3-15
draft-ietf-run-netiquette-guide-01.txt     2880 Northwestern Pkwy
Expires January, 1996                      Santa Clara, CA 95052

                           Netiquette Guidelines

Status of This Memo

     This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
     documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
     areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
     distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. Comments on this
     draft should be sent to ietf-run@mailbag.intel.com.

     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
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     Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
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     To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check
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     ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).


This document provides a minimum set of guidelines for Network
Etiquette (Netiquette) which organizations may take and adapt for
their own use.  As such, it is deliberately written in a bulleted
format to make adaptation easier and to make any particular item
easy (or easier) to find.  It also functions as a minimum set of
guidelines for individuals, both users and administrators.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction                                           page  1

2.0 One-to-One Communication                               page  2

3.0 One-to-Many Communication                              page  5

4.0 Information Services                                   page 10

5.0 Selected Bibliography                                  page 12

1.0  Introduction
In the past, the population of people using the Internet had "grown
up" with the Internet, were technically minded, and understood the
nature of the transport and the protocols.  Today, the community of
Internet users includes people who are new to the environment.  These
"Newbies" are unfamiliar with the culture and don't need to know about
transport and protocols. In order to bring these new users into the
Internet culture quickly, this Guide offers a minimum set of behaviors

which organizations and individuals may take and adapt for their own
use.  Individuals should be aware that no matter who supplies their
Internet access, be it an Internet Service Provider through a private
account, or a student account at a University, or an account through
a corporation, that those organizations have regulation about
ownership of mail and files, about what is proper to post or
send, and how to present yourself.  Be sure to check with the
local authority for specific guidelines.

We've organized this material into three sections: One-to-one
communication, which includes mail and talk; One-to-many
communications, which includes mailing lists, and NetNews;
and Information Services, which includes ftp, WWW, Wais, Gopher,
MUDs and MOOs.   Finally, we have a Selected Bibliography, which may
be used for reference.

2.0  One-to-One Communication (electronic mail, talk)

We define one-to-one communications as those in which a person is
communicating with another person as if face-to-face: a dialog.  In
general, rules of common courtesy for interaction with people should
be in force for any situation and on the Internet it's doubly
important where, for example, body language and tone of voice must be
inferred. For more information on Netiquette for communicating
via electronic mail and talk, check references [1,23,25,27] in the
Selected Bibliography.

2.1 User Guidelines

2.1.1 For mail:

 - Unless you have your own Internet access through an Internet
   provider, be sure to check with your employer about ownership
   of electronic mail. Laws about the ownership of electronic mail
   vary from place to place.

 - Unless you are using an encryption device (hardware or software),
   you should assume that mail on the Internet is not secure.  Never
   put in a mail message anything you would not put on a postcard.

 - Respect the copyright on material that you reproduce.  Almost
   every country has copyright laws.

 - If you are forwarding or re-posting a message you've received, do
   not change the wording.  If the message was a personal message to
   you and you are re-posting to a group, you should ask permission
   first.  You may shorten the message and quote only relevant parts,
   but be sure you give proper attribution.

 - Never send chain letters via electronic mail.  Chain letters
   are forbidden on the Internet.  Your network privileges
   will be revoked.  Notify your local system administrator
   if your ever receive one.

 - A good rule of thumb:  Be conservative in what you send and
   liberal in what you receive.  You should not send heated messages
   (we call these "flames") even if you are provoked.  On the other

   hand, you shouldn't be surprised if you get flamed and it's
   prudent not to respond to flames.

 - In general, it's a good idea to at least check all your mail
   subjects before responding to a message.  Sometimes a person who
   asks you for help (or clarification) will send another message
   which effectively says "Never Mind".  Also make sure that any
   message you respond to was directed to you.  You might be cc:ed
   rather that the primary recipient.

 - Make things easy for the recipient.  Many mailers strip header
   information which includes your return address.  In order to
   ensure that people know who you are, be sure to include a line
   or two at the end of your message with contact information.  You
   can create this file ahead of time and add it to the end of your
   messages.  (Some mailers do this automatically.)  In Internet
   parlance, this is known as a ".sig" or "signature" file.  Your
   .sig file takes the place of your business card.  (And you can
   have more than one to apply in different circumstances.)

 - In general, most people who use the Internet don't have time
   to answer general questions about the Internet and its workings.
   Don't send unsolicited mail asking for information to people
   whose names you might have seen in RFCs or on mailing lists.

 - Remember that people with whom you communicate are located across
   the globe.  If you send a message to which you want an immediate
   response, the person receiving it might be at home asleep when it
   arrives.  Give them a chance to wake up, come to work, and login
   before assuming the mail didn't arrive or that they don't care.

 - Verify all addresses before initiating long or personal discourse.
   It's also a good practice to include the word "Long" in the
   subject header so the recipient knows the message will take time
   to read and respond to. Over 100 lines is considered "long".

 - Know who to contact for help.  Usually you will have resources
   close at hand.  Check locally for people who can help you with
   software and system problems.  Also, know who to go to if you
   receive anything questionable or illegal.  Most sites also
   have "Postmaster" aliased to a knowledgeable user, so you
   can send mail to this address to get help with mail.

 - Remember that the recipient is a human being whose culture,
   language, and humor have different points of reference from your
   own.  Remember that date formats, measurements, and idioms may
   not travel well.   Be especially careful with sarcasm.


 - Use symbols for emphasis.  That *is* what I meant.  Use
   underscores for underlining. _War and Peace_ is my favorite

 - Use smileys to indicate tone of voice, but use them sparingly.
   :-) is an example of a smiley (Look sideways).  Don't assume
   that the inclusion of a smiley will make the recipient happy
   with what you say or wipe out an otherwise insulting comment.

 - Wait overnight to send emotional responses to messages.  If you
   have really strong feelings about a subject, indicate it via
   FLAME ON/OFF enclosures.  For example:
   FLAME ON:  This type of argument is not worth the bandwidth
              it takes to send it.  It's illogical and poorly
              reasoned.  The rest of the world agrees with me.

 - Do not include control characters or non-ASCII attachments in
   messages unless they are MIME attachments or unless your mailer
   encodes these.  If you send encoded messages make sure the
   recipient can decode them.

 - Be brief without being overly terse.  When replying to a message,
   include enough original material to be understood but no more. It
   is extremely bad form to simply reply to a message by including
   all the previous message: edit out all the irrelevant material.

 - Limit line length to fewer than 65 characters and end a line
   with a carriage return.

 - Mail should have a subject heading which reflects
   the content of the message.

 - If you include a signature keep it short.  Rule of thumb
   is no longer than 4 lines.  Remember that many people pay for
   connectivity by the minute, and the longer your message is,
   the more they pay.

 - Just as mail (today) may not be private, mail (and news) are
   (today) subject to forgery and spoofing of various degrees of
   detectability. Apply common sense "reality checks" before
   assuming a message is valid.

 - If you think the importance of a message justifies it, immediately
   reply briefly to an e-mail message, to let the sender know you got
   it, even if you will send a longer reply later.

 - Delivery receipts, non-delivery notices, and vacation programs
   are neither totally standardized nor totally reliable across the
   range of systems connected to Internet mail.  They are invasive
   when sent to mailing lists, and some people consider delivery
   receipts an invasion of privacy.  In short, do not use them.

 - "Reasonable" expectations for conduct via e-mail depend on your
   relationship to a person and the context of the communication.
   Norms learned in a particular e-mail environment may not apply in
   general to your e-mail communication with people across the

 - The cost of delivering an e-mail message is, on the average, paid
   about equally by the sender and the recipient (or their
   organizations). This is unlike other media such as physical mail,
   telephone, TV, or radio.  Sending someone mail may also cost them
   in other specific ways like network bandwidth, disk space or CPU
   usage.  This is a fundamental economic reason why unsolicited
   e-mail advertising is unwelcome (and is forbidden in many contexts).

 - Know how large a message you are sending.  Including large files

   such as Postscript files or programs may make your message so
   large that it cannot be delivered or at least consumes excessive
   resources.  A good rule of thumb would be not to send a file
   larger than 1 Megabyte.  Consider file transfer as an alternative.

 - If your mail system allows you to forward mail, beware the dreaded
   forwarding loop.  Be sure you haven't set up forwarding on several
   hosts so that a message sent to you gets into an endless loop from
   one computer to the next to the next.

2.1.2 For talk:
Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an
interactive dialogue via computer.

 - Use mixed case  and proper punctuation, as though you were typing
   a letter or sending mail.

 - Don't run off the end of a line and simply let the terminal wrap;
   use a Carriage Return (CR) at the end of the line.  Also, don't
   assume your screen size is the same as everyone else's.  A good
   rule of thumb is to write out no more than 70 characters, and no
   more than 24 lines.

 - Leave some margin; don't write to the edge of the screen.

 - Use two CRs to indicate that you are done and the other person may
   start typing.  (blank line).

 - Always say goodbye, or some other farewell, and wait to see a
   farewell from the other person before killing the session.  This
   is especially important when you are communicating with someone
   a long way away.  Remember that your communication relies on both
   bandwidth (the size of the pipe) and latency (the speed of light).

 - Remember that talk is an interruption to the other person.  Only
   use as appropriate.

 - Talk shows your typing ability.  If you type slowly and make
   mistakes when typing it is often not worth the time of trying to
   correct, as the other person can usually see what you meant.

2.2  Administrator Issues

 - Be sure you have established written guidelines for dealing
   with situations especially illegal, improper, or forged

 - Handle requests in a timely fashion - within 24 hours.

 - Respond promptly to people who have concerns about receiving
   improper or illegal messages.   Requests concerning chain
   letters should be handled immediately.

 - Explain any system rules, such as disk quotas, to your users.
   Make sure they understand implications of requesting files by
   mail such as: Filling up disks; running up phone bills, delaying
   mail, etc.

 - Make sure you have "Postmaster" aliased.

3.0  One-to-Many Communication (Mailing Lists, NetNews)

Any time you engage in One-to-Many communications, all the rules
for mail should also apply.  After all, communicating with many people
via one mail message or post is quite analogous to communicating with
one person with the exception of possibly offending a great
many more people than in one-to-one communication.  Therefore, it's
quite important to know as much as you can about the audience of your

3.1 User Guidelines

3.1.1 General Guidelines for mailing lists and NetNews

 - Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before
   you post anything.  This helps you to get an understanding of
   the culture of the group.

 - Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the
   system users.

 - Consider that a large audience will see your posts.
   That may include your present or your next boss.  Take
   care in what you write.  Remember too, that mailing lists and
   Newsgroups are frequently archived, and that your words may be
   stored for a very long time in a place to which many people have

 - Assume that individuals speak for themselves, and what they
   say does not represent their organization (unless stated

 - Remember that both mail and news take system resources.  Pay
   attention to any specific rules covering their uses your
   organization may have.

 - Messages and articles should be brief and to the point.  Don't
   wander off-topic, don't ramble and don't send mail or post
   messages solely to point out other people's errors in typing
   or spelling.  These, more than any other behavior, mark you
   as an immature beginner.

 - Advertising is welcomed on some lists and Newsgroups, and abhorred
   on others!  This is another example of knowing your audience
   before you post.  Unsolicited advertising which is completely
   off-topic will most certainly guarantee that you get hate mail.

 - If you are posting a reply to a message or a posting be sure you
   summarize the original at the top of the message, or include just
   enough text of the original to give a context.  This will make
   sure readers understand when they start to read your response.
   Since NetNews, especially, is proliferated by distributing the
   postings from one host to another, it is possible to see a

   response to a message before seeing the original.  Giving context
   helps everyone.

 - Again, be sure to have a signature which you attach to your
   message.  This will guarantee that any peculiarities of mailers or
   newsreaders which strip header information will not delete the
   only reference in the message of how people may reach you.

 - Be careful when you reply to messages or postings.  Frequently
   replies are sent back to the address which originated the post -
   which in many cases is the address of a list or group!  You may
   accidentally send a personal response to a great many people,
   embarrassing all involved.  It's best to type in the address
   instead of relying on "reply."

  - If you find a personal message has gone to a list or group, send
    an apology.

  - If you should find yourself in a disagreement with one person,
    make your responses to each other via mail rather than continue to
    send messages to the list or the group.  If you are debating a
    point on which the group might have some interest, you may
    summarize for them later.

 - Don't get involved in flame wars.  Neither post nor respond
   to incendiary material.

 - Avoid sending messages or posting articles which are no more than
   gratuitous replies to replies.

 - There are Newsgroups and Mailing Lists which discuss topics
   of  wide varieties of interests.  These represent a diversity of
   lifestyles, religions, and cultures.  Posting articles or sending
   messages to a group whose point of view is offensive to you
   simply to tell them they are offensive is not acceptable.
   Sexually and racially harassing messages may also have legal
   implications.  There is software available to filter items
   you might find objectionable.

3.1.2  Mailing List Guidelines
There are several ways to find information about what mailing
lists exist on the Internet and how to join them.  Make sure you
understand your organization's policy about joining these lists and
posting to them.  In general it is always better to check local
resources first before trying to find information via the Internet.
Nevertheless, there are a set of files posted periodically to
news.answers which list the Internet mailing lists and how to
subscribe to them.  This is an invaluable resource for finding lists
on any topic.  See also references [9,13,15] in the Selected

 - Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate
   address.  Although some mailing list software is smart enough
   to catch these, not all can ferret these out.  It is your
   responsibility to learn how the lists work, and to send the
   correct mail to the correct place.  Although many many mailing
   lists adhere to the convention of having a "-request" alias for

   sending subscribe and unsubscribe messages, not all do.  Be sure
   you know the conventions used by the lists to which you subscribe.

 - Save the subscription messages for any lists you join.  These
   usually tell you how to unsubscribe as well.

 - In general, it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have
   sent them.  Even your system administrator will not be able to get
   a message back once you have sent it.  This means you must make
   sure you really want the message to go as you have written it.

 - The auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house
   communication, but quite annoying when sent to entire mailing
   lists. Examine "Reply-To" addresses when replying to messages
   from lists.  Most auto-replys will go to all members of the

 - Don't send large files to mailing lists when URLs or pointers
   to ftp-able versions will do.

 - Consider unsubscribing or setting a "nomail" option (when it's
   available) when you cannot check your mail for an extended

 - When sending a message to more than one mailing list, especially
   if the lists are closely related, apologize for cross-posting.

 - If you ask a question, be sure to post a summary.  When doing so,
   truly summarize rather than send a cumulation of the messages you

 - Some mailing lists are private.  Do not send mail to these lists
   uninvited.  Do not report mail from these lists to a wider

 - If you are caught in an argument, keep the discussion focused on
   issues rather than the personalities involved.

3.1.3  NetNews Guidelines
NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to
communicate on topics of specific interest.  It is divided into
hierarchies, with the major divisions being: sci - science related
discussions; comp - computer related discussions; news - for
discussions which center around NetNews itself; rec - recreational
activities; soc - social issues; talk - long-winded never-ending
discussions; biz - business related postings; and alt - the alternate
hierarchy.  Alt is so named because creating an alt group does not go
through the same process as creating a group in the other parts of the
hierarchy.  There are also regional hierarchies and your place of
business may have its own groups as well.  Recently, a "humanities"
hierarchy was added, and as time goes on its likely more will be
added.  For longer discussions on News see references [2,8,22,23]
in the Selected Bibliography.

 - In NetNews parlance, "Posting" refers to posting a new article
   to a group, or responding to a post someone else has posted.
   "Cross-Posting" refers to posting a message to more than one
   group.  If you introduce Cross-Posting to a group, or if you
   direct "Followup-To:" in the header of your posting, warn

   readers!  Readers will usually assume that the message was
   posted to a specific group and that followups will go to
   that group.  Headers change this behavior.

 - Read all of a discussion in progress (we call this a thread)
   before posting replies.  Avoid posting "Me Too" messages,
   where content is limited to agreement with previous posts.
   Content of a follow-up post should exceed quoted content.

 - Send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.
   Remember that News has global distribution and the whole world
   probably is NOT interested in a personal response.  However, don't
   hesitate to post when something will be of general interest to the
   Newsgroup participants.

 - Check the "Distribution" section of the header, but don't
   depend on it.  Due to the complex method by which News is
   delivered, Distribution headers are unreliable.  But, if you
   are posting something which will be of interest to a limited
   number or readers, use a distribution line that attempts to
   limit the distribution of your article to those people.  For
   example, set the Distribution to be "nj" if you are posting
   an article that will be of interest to New Jersey readers.

 - If you feel an article will be of interest to more than one
   Newsgroup, be sure to CROSSPOST the article rather than individually
   post it to those groups.  In general, probably only five-to-six
   groups will have similar enough interests to warrant this.

 - Consider using Reference sources (Computer Manuals, Newspapers,
   help files) before posting a question.  Asking a Newsgroup where
   answers are readily available elsewhere generates grumpy "RTFM"
   (read the fine manual - although a more vulgar meaning of the
   word beginning with "f" is usually implied) messages.

 - Although there are Newsgroups which welcome advertising,
   in general it is considered nothing less than criminal
   to advertise off-topic products.  Sending an advertisement
   to each and every group will pretty much guarantee your loss of

 - If you discover an error in your post, cancel it as soon as

- DO NOT attempt to cancel any articles but your own.  Contact
  your administrator if you don't know how to cancel your post,
  or if some other post, such as a chain letter, needs canceling.

 - If you've posting something and don't see it immediately,
   don't assume it's failed and post it again.

 -  Some groups permit (and some welcome) posts which in other
    circumstances would be considered to be in questionable taste.
    Still, there is no guarantee that all people reading the group
    will appreciate the material as much as you do.  Use the Rotate
    utility (which rotates all the characters in your post by 13
    positions in the alphabet) to avoid offense.

 - In groups which discuss movies or books it is considered essential

   to mark posts which disclose significant content as "Spoilers".
   Put this word in your Subject: line.  You may add blank lines to
   the beginning of your post to keep content out of sight, or you
   may Rotate it.

 - Forging of news articles is generally censured. You can protect
   yourself from forgeries by using software which generates a
   manipulation detection "fingerprint", such as PGP (in the US).

 - Postings via anonymous servers are accepted in some Newsgroups
   and disliked in others.  Material which is inappropriate when
   posted under one's own name is still inappropriate when posted

 - Don't get involved in flame wars.  Neither post nor respond
   to incendiary material.

3.2    Administrator Guidelines

3.2.1 General Issues

 - Clarify any policies your site has regarding its subscription
   to NetNews groups and about subscribing to mailing lists.

 - Clarify any policies your site has about posting to NetNews
   groups or to mailing lists, including use of disclaimers in .sigs.

 - Clarify and publicize archive policy.  (How long are articles

 - Investigate accusations about your users promptly and with an
   open mind.

3.2.2  Mailing Lists

 - Keep mailing lists up to date to avoid the "bouncing mail" problem.

 - Help list owners when problems arise.

 - Inform list owners of any maintenance windows or planned downtime.

 - Be sure to have "-request" aliases for list subscription.

3.2.3. NetNews

 - Publicize the nature of the feed you receive.  If you do not get
   a full feed, people may want to know why not.

 - Be aware that the multiplicity of News Reader clients may cause
   the News Server being blamed for problems in the clients.

 - Honor requests from users immediately if they request cancellation
   of their own posts or invalid posts, such as chain letters.

3.3 Moderator Guidelines

3.3.1 General Guidelines

 - Make sure your FAQ is posted at regular intervals.  Include your
   guidelines for articles/messages.  If you are not the FAQ
   maintainer, make sure they do so.

 - Make sure you maintain a good welcome message, which contains
   subscribe and unsubscribe information.

 - News groups should have their charter/guidelines posted

4.0  Information Services (Gopher, Wais, WWW, ftp, telnet)
In recent Internet history, the 'Net has exploded with new and varied
Information services.  Gopher, Wais, World Wide Web (WWW), Multi-User
Dimensions (MUDs) Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented
(MOOs) are a few of these new areas.  Although the ability to find
information is exploding, "Caveat Emptor" remains constant.  For more
information on these services, check references [14,28] in the
Selected Bibliography.

4.1 User Guidelines

4.1.1. General guidelines

 - Remember that all these services belong to someone else.  The
   people who pay the bills get to make the rules governing usage.

 - If you have problems with any form of information service, start
   problem solving by checking locally:  Check file configurations,
   software setup, network connections, etc.  Do this before assuming
   the problem is at the provider's end and/or is the provider's

 - Although there are naming conventions for file-types used, don't
   depend on these file naming conventions to be enforced.

 - Information services also use conventions, such as www.abc.com.
   While it is useful to know these conventions, again, don't
   necessarily rely on them.

 - Know how file names work on your own system.

 - Be aware of conventions used for providing information during
   sessions.  FTP sites usually have files named README in a top
   level directory which have information about the files available.
   But, don't assume that the files are necessarily up-to-date and/or

 - Do NOT assume that ANY information you find is up-to-date and/or
   accurate.  Remember that new technologies allow just about anyone
   to be a publisher, but not all people have discovered the
   responsibilities which accompany publishing.

 - Remember that unless you are sure that security and authentication
   technology is in use, that any information you submit to a system

   is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear", with no
   protection from "sniffers".

 - Since the Internet spans the globe, remember that Information
   Services might reflect culture and life-style markedly different
   from your own community.  Materials you find offensive may
   originate in a geography which finds them acceptable.  Keep an open

 - When accessing a popular site, be sure to use a mirror that's
   close if a list is provided.

 - Do not use someone else's FTP site to deposit materials you
   wish other people to pick up.

4.1.2 Real Time Interactive Services Guidelines (MUDs MOOs IRC)

 - It's not necessary to greet everyone on a channel or room
   personally.  Usually one "Hello" or the equivalent is enough.
   Using the automation features of your client to greet people is
   not acceptable behavior.

 - Warn the participants if you intend to ship large quantities
   of information.  If all consent to receiving it, you may send,
   but sending unwanted information without a warning is considered
   bad form.

 - Don't assume that people who you don't know will want to talk to
   you.  If you feel compelled to send private messages to people you
   don't know, then be willing to accept gracefully the fact that they
   might be busy or simply not want to chat with you.

 - Don't badger other users for personal information such as sex, age,
   or location.  After you have built an acquaintance with another user,
   these questions may be more appropriate, but many people
   hesitate to give this information to people with whom they are
   not familiar.

 - If a user is using a nickname, respect that user's desire for
   anonymity.  Even if you and that person are close friends, it
   is more courteous to use his nickname.  Do not use that
   person's real name online without permission.

4.2 Administrator Guidelines

4.2.1 General Guidelines

 - Make clear what's available for copying and what is not.

 - Describe what's available on your site, and your organization.
   Be sure any general policies are clear.

 - Keep information, especially READMEs, up-to-date.  Provide READMEs
   in plain ascii text.

 - Present a list of mirrors of your site.  Make sure you include

   a statement of copyright applicable to your mirrors.  List
   their update schedule if possible.

 - Make sure that popular (and massive) information has the bandwidth
   to support it.

 - Use conventions for file extensions  - .txt for ascii text; .html
   or .htm for HTML; .ps for Postscript; .pdf for Portable Document
   Format; .sgml or .sgm for SGML; .exe for executables, etc.

 - For files being transferred, try to make filenames unique in the
   first eight characters.

 - When providing information, make sure your site has something
   unique to offer.  Avoid bringing up an information service which
   simply points to other services on the Internet.

 - Remember that setting up an information service is more than just
   design and implementation.  It's also maintenance.

 - Make sure your posted materials are appropriate for the supporting

 - Test applications with a variety of tools.  Don't assume everything
   works if you've tested with only one client.  Also, assume the low
   end of technology for clients and don't create applications which
   can only be used by Graphical User Interfaces.

 - Have a consistent view of your information.  Make sure the look
   and feel stays the same throughout your applications.

 - Be sensitive to the longevity of your information.  Be sure to
   date time-sensitive materials, and be vigilant about keeping
   this information well maintained.

 - Export restrictions vary from country to country.  Be sure you
   understand the implications of export restrictions when you post.

5.0 Selected Bibliography
This bibliography was used to gather most of the information in the
sections above as well as for general reference.  Items not
specifically found in these works were gathered from the IETF-RUN
Working Group's experience.

[ 1]  Angell, David; Brent Heslop. _The Elements of E-mail Style_.
        New York: Addison-Wesley, 1994.

[ 2]  "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet"
         Original author: jerry@eagle.UUCP (Jerry Schwarz)
         Maintained by:  netannounce@deshaw.com (Mark Moraes)
         Archive-name: usenet-faq/part1

[ 3]  Cerf, Vinton.  "Guidelines for Conduct on and Use of
        Internet" at: <URL://http://www.isoc.org/proceedings/

[ 4]  Dern, Daniel.  _The Internet Guide for New Users_. New York:

        McGraw-Hill, 1994.

[ 5]  "Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette"
         Original author: brad@looking.on.ca (Brad Templeton)
         Maintained by:  netannounce@deshaw.com (Mark Moraes)
         Archive-name: emily-postnews/part1

[ 6]  Gaffin, Adam. _Everybody's guide to the Internet_.  Cambridge,
         Mass. : MIT Press, c1994.

[ 7]  "Guidelines for Responsible Use of the Internet"
         from the US house of Representatives gopher, at:

[ 8]  How to find the right place to post (FAQ)
        by buglady@bronze.lcs.mit.edu (Aliza R. Panitz)
        Archive-name: finding-groups/general

[ 9]  Hambridge, Sally, Jeffrey C. Sedayao. "Horses and Barn Doors:
        Evolution of Corporate Guidelines for Internet Usage."
        LISA VII, Usenix, November 1-5, 1993, pp. 9-16.
       <URL: ftp://ftp.intel.com/pub/papers/horses.ps or

[10]  Heslop, Brent D; David Angell.  _The instant Internet guide :
        hands-on global networking_. Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley,

[11]  Horwitz, Stan.  _Internet Etiquette Tips_.

[12]  Internet Activities Board. "Ethics and the Internet". January,
        1989.  RFC 1087. <URL: ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1087.txt>

[13]  Kehoe, Brendan.  _Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner's
        Guide_.  Netiquette information is spread through the chapters
        of this work.  3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,

[14]  Kochmer, Jonathan. _Internet passport : NorthWestNet's guide
        to our world online_.  4th ed.  Bellevue, Wash.:
        NorthWestNet: Northwest Academic Computing Consortium, c1993.

[15]  Krol, Ed.  _The Whole Internet: User's Guide and
        Catalog_.  Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates,

[16]  Lane, Elizabeth S.; Craig Summerhill.  _Internet primer for
        information professionals : a basic guide to Internet networking
        technology_. Westport, CT: Meckler, c1993.

[17]  LaQuey, Tracy.; Jeanne C. Ryer.   _The Internet Companion_.
        Chapter 3 "Communicating with People" pp 41-74. Reading,
        MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

[18]  Mandel, Thomas F. "Surfing the Wild Internet".  SRI International
        Business Intelligence Program, Scan No. 2109.  March, 1993.
        <URL: gopher://gopher.well.sf.ca.us:70/00/Communications/


[19]  Martin, J. "There's Gold in them thar Networks! or Searching for
        Treasure in all the Wrong Places." January, 1993. RFC 1402,
        FYI 10. <URL: ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1402.txt>

[20]  Pioch, Nicolas.  "A short IRC primer." Text conversion
        by Owe Rasmussen.  Edition 1.1b, February 28, 1993.
        <URL: http://www.kei.com/irc/IRCprimer1.1.txt>

[21]  Polly, Jean Armour.  "Surfing the Internet: an Introduction",
        Version 2.0.3.  Revised May 15, 1993.
        <URL: gopher://nysernet.org:70/00/ftp%20archives/
        <URL: ftp://ftp.nysernet.org/pub/resources/guides/

[22]  "A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community"
         Original author: chuq@apple.com (Chuq Von Rospach)
         Maintained by:  netannounce@deshaw.com (Mark Moraes)
         Archive-name: usenet-primer/part1

[23]  Rinaldi, Arlene H. "The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette".
        September 3, 1992.
        <URL: http://www.fau.edu/rinaldi/net/index.htm>

[24]  "Rules for posting to Usenet"
         Original author: spaf@cs.purdue.edu (Gene Spafford)
         Maintained by:  netannounce@deshaw.com (Mark Moraes)
         Archive-name: posting-rules/part1

[25]  Shea, Virginia.  _Netiquette_. San Francisco: Albion Books,

[26]  Strangelove, Michael; with Aneurin Bosley.  _How to Advertise
        on the Internet_.  ISSN 1201-0758

[27]  Tenant, Roy. "Internet Basics". ERIC Clearinghouse of Information
        Resources, EDO-IR-92-7.  September, 1992.
        <URL: gopher://nic.merit.edu:7043/00/introducing.
        <URL: gopher://vega.lib.ncsu.edu:70/00/library/

[28]  Wiggins, Richard W. _The Internet for everyone : a guide for
        users and providers_. New York : McGraw-Hill, c1995.