|Internet-Draft||NSH encapsulation for In-situ OAM||September 2022|
|Brockners & Bhandari||Expires 3 April 2023||[Page]|
- Intended Status:
- Standards Track
Network Service Header (NSH) Encapsulation for In-situ OAM (IOAM) Data
In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (IOAM) is used for recording and collecting operational and telemetry information while the packet traverses a path between two points in the network. This document outlines how IOAM data fields are encapsulated with the Network Service Header (NSH).¶
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.¶
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.¶
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."¶
This Internet-Draft will expire on 3 April 2023.¶
Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.¶
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.¶
In-situ OAM (IOAM), as defined in [RFC9197], is used to record and collect OAM information while the packet traverses a particular network domain. The term "in-situ" refers to the fact that the OAM data is added to the data packets rather than is being sent within packets specifically dedicated to OAM. This document defines how IOAM data fields are transported as part of the Network Service Header (NSH) [RFC8300] encapsulation for the Service Function Chaining (SFC) [RFC7665]. The IOAM-Data-Fields are defined in [RFC9197]. An implementation of IOAM which leverages NSH to carry the IOAM data is available from the FD.io open source software project [FD.io].¶
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.¶
Abbreviations used in this document:¶
The NSH is defined in [RFC8300]. IOAM-Data-Fields are carried as NSH payload using a next protocol header which follows the NSH headers. An IOAM header is added containing the different IOAM-Data-Fields. The IOAM-Data-Fields MUST follow the definitions corresponding to IOAM-Option-Types (e.g., see Section 5 of [RFC9197] and Section 3.2 of [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-direct-export]). In an administrative domain where IOAM is used, insertion of the IOAM header in NSH is enabled at the NSH tunnel endpoints, which also serve as IOAM encapsulating/decapsulating nodes by means of configuration. The operator MUST ensure that all nodes along the service path support IOAM. Otherwise packets with IOAM are likely to be dropped per [RFC8300]. There can be multiple IOAM headers added by encapsulating nodes as configured. The IOAM transit nodes (e.g., an SFF) MUST process all the IOAM headers that are relevant based on its configuration. See [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-deployment] for a discussion of deployment related aspects of IOAM-Data-fields.¶
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+ |Ver|O|U| TTL | Length |U|U|U|U|MD Type| NP = TBD_IOAM | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ N | Service Path Identifier | Service Index | S +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ H | ... | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+ | IOAM-Type | IOAM HDR len | Reserved | Next Protocol | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ I ! | O ! | A ~ IOAM Option and Optional Data Space ~ M | | | | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+ | | | | | Payload + Padding (L2/L3/ESP/...) | | | | | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+¶
The NSH header and fields are defined in [RFC8300]. The O-bit MUST be handled following the rules in [I-D.ietf-sfc-oam-packet]. The "NSH Next Protocol" value (referred to as "NP" in the diagram above) is TBD_IOAM.¶
The IOAM related fields in NSH are defined as follows:¶
- 8-bit field defining the IOAM-Option-Type, as defined in the IOAM Option-Type Registry specified in [RFC9197].¶
- IOAM HDR Len:
- 8 bit Length field contains the length of the IOAM header in 4-octet units.¶
- Reserved bits:
- Reserved bits are present for future use. The reserved bits MUST be set to 0x0 upon transmission and ignored upon receipt.¶
- Next Protocol:
- 8-bit unsigned integer that determines the type of header following IOAM. The semantics of this field are identical to the Next Protocol field in [RFC8300].¶
- IOAM Option and Data Space:
- IOAM-Data-Fields as specified by the IOAM-Type field. IOAM-Data-Fields are defined corresponding to the IOAM-Option-Type (e.g., see Section 5 of [RFC9197] and Section 3.2 of [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-direct-export]).¶
Multiple IOAM-Option-Types MAY be included within the NSH encapsulation. For example, if a NSH encapsulation contains two IOAM-Option-Types before a data payload, the Next Protocol field of the first IOAM option will contain the value of TBD_IOAM, while the Next Protocol field of the second IOAM-Option-Type will contain the "NSH Next Protocol" number indicating the type of the data payload. The applicability of the IOAM Active and Loopback flags [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-flags] is outside the scope of this document and may be specified in the future. When a packet with IOAM is received at an NSH based forwarding node such as an Service Function Forwarder (SFF) that does not understand IOAM header, it SHOULD drop the packet. The mechanism to maintain and notify of such events are outside the scope of this document.¶
IANA is requested to allocate protocol numbers for the following "NSH Next Protocol" related to IOAM:¶
+---------------+-------------+---------------+ | Next Protocol | Description | Reference | +---------------+-------------+---------------+ | x | TBD_IOAM | This document | +---------------+-------------+---------------+¶
IOAM is considered a "per domain" feature, where one or several operators decide on leveraging and configuring IOAM according to their needs. Still, operators need to properly secure the IOAM domain to avoid malicious configuration and use, which could include injecting malicious IOAM packets into a domain. For additional IOAM related security considerations, see Section 10 in [RFC9197]. For additional OAM and NSH related security considerations see Section 5 of [I-D.ietf-sfc-oam-packet].¶
The authors would like to thank Eric Vyncke, Nalini Elkins, Srihari Raghavan, Ranganathan T S, Karthik Babu Harichandra Babu, Akshaya Nadahalli, Stefano Previdi, Hemant Singh, Erik Nordmark, LJ Wobker, Andrew Yourtchenko, Greg Mirsky and Mohamed Boucadair for the comments and advice.¶
In addition to editors listed on the title page, the following people have contributed to this document:¶
Vengada Prasad Govindan Cisco Systems, Inc. Email: email@example.com¶
Carlos Pignataro Cisco Systems, Inc. 7200-11 Kit Creek Road Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 United States Email: firstname.lastname@example.org¶
Hannes Gredler RtBrick Inc. Email: email@example.com¶
John Leddy Email: firstname.lastname@example.org¶
Stephen Youell JP Morgan Chase 25 Bank Street London E14 5JP United Kingdom Email: email@example.com¶
Tal Mizrahi Huawei Network.IO Innovation Lab Israel Email: firstname.lastname@example.org¶
David Mozes Email: email@example.com¶
Petr Lapukhov Facebook 1 Hacker Way Menlo Park, CA 94025 US Email: firstname.lastname@example.org¶
Remy Chang Barefoot Networks 2185 Park Boulevard Palo Alto, CA 94306 US¶
- Boucadair, M., "OAM Packet and Behavior in the Network Service Header (NSH)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-sfc-oam-packet-01, , <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-sfc-oam-packet-01.txt>.
- Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, , <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
- Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, , <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
- Quinn, P., Ed., Elzur, U., Ed., and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Network Service Header (NSH)", RFC 8300, DOI 10.17487/RFC8300, , <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8300>.
- Brockners, F., Ed., Bhandari, S., Ed., and T. Mizrahi, Ed., "Data Fields for In Situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (IOAM)", RFC 9197, DOI 10.17487/RFC9197, , <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9197>.
- "Fast Data Project: FD.io", <https://fd.io/>.
- Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Bernier, D., and T. Mizrahi, "In-situ OAM Deployment", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-deployment-01, , <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-deployment-01.txt>.
- Song, H., Gafni, B., Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., and T. Mizrahi, "In-situ OAM Direct Exporting", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-direct-export-11, , <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-direct-export-11.txt>.
- Mizrahi, T., Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Gafni, B., and M. Spiegel, "In-situ OAM Loopback and Active Flags", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-flags-10, , <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-flags-10.txt>.
- Halpern, J., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service Function Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665, DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, , <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7665>.
This section lists several approaches considered for encapsulating IOAM with NSH and presents the rationale for the approach chosen in this document.¶
An encapsulation of IOAM-Data-Fields in NSH should be friendly to an implementation in both hardware as well as software forwarders and support a wide range of deployment cases, including large networks that desire to leverage multiple IOAM-Data-Fields at the same time.¶
Hardware and software friendly implementation: Hardware forwarders benefit from an encapsulation that minimizes iterative look-ups of fields within the packet: Any operation which looks up the value of a field within the packet, based on which another lookup is performed, consumes additional gates and time in an implementation - both of which are desired to be kept to a minimum. This means that flat TLV structures are to be preferred over nested TLV structures. IOAM-Data-Fields are grouped into several categories, including trace, proof-of-transit, and edge-to-edge. Each of these options defines a TLV structure. A hardware-friendly encapsulation approach avoids grouping these three option categories into yet another TLV structure, but would rather carry the options as a serial sequence.¶
Total length of the IOAM-Data-Fields: The total length of IOAM-Data-Fields can grow quite large in case multiple different IOAM-Data-Fields are used and large path-lengths need to be considered. If for example an operator would consider using the IOAM Trace Option-Type and capture node-id, app_data, egress/ingress interface-id, timestamp seconds, timestamps nanoseconds at every hop, then a total of 20 octets would be added to the packet at every hop. In case this particular deployment would have a maximum path length of 15 hops in the IOAM domain, then a maximum of 300 octets were to be encapsulated in the packet.¶
Different approaches for encapsulating IOAM-Data-Fields in NSH could be considered:¶
- Encapsulation of IOAM-Data-Fields as "NSH MD Type 2" (see [RFC8300], Section 2.5). Each IOAM-Option-Type (e.g., trace, proof-of-transit, and edge-to-edge) would be specified by a type, with the different IOAM-Data-Fields being TLVs within this the particular option type. NSH MD Type 2 offers support for variable length meta-data. The length field is 6-bits, resulting in a maximum of 256 (2^6 x 4) octets.¶
- Encapsulation of IOAM-Data-Fields using the "Next Protocol" field. Each IOAM-Option-Type (e.g trace, proof-of-transit, and edge-to-edge) would be specified by its own "next protocol".¶
- Encapsulation of IOAM-Data-Fields using the "Next Protocol" field. A single NSH protocol type code point would be allocated for IOAM. A "sub-type" field would then specify what IOAM options type (trace, proof-of-transit, edge-to-edge) is carried.¶
The third option has been chosen here. This option avoids the additional layer of TLV nesting that the use of NSH MD Type 2 would result in. In addition, this option does not constrain IOAM data to a maximum of 256 octets, thus allowing support for very large deployments.¶