TCP Maintenance and Minor                                   T. Henderson
Extensions Working Group                                          Boeing
Internet-Draft                                                  S. Floyd
Obsoletes: 3782  (if approved)                                      ICSI
Intended status: Standards Track                               A. Gurtov
Expires:  June 5, 2012                                              HIIT
                                                              Y. Nishida
                                                            WIDE Project
                                                        December 5, 2011

       The NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm


   RFC 5681 documents the following four intertwined TCP
   congestion control algorithms: slow start, congestion avoidance, fast
   retransmit, and fast recovery.  RFC 5681 explicitly allows
   certain modifications of these algorithms, including modifications
   that use the TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) option (RFC 2883),
   and modifications that respond to "partial acknowledgments" (ACKs
   which cover new data, but not all the data outstanding when loss was
   detected) in the absence of SACK.  This document describes a specific
   algorithm for responding to partial acknowledgments, referred to as
   NewReno.  This response to partial acknowledgments was first proposed
   by Janey Hoe.  This document obsoletes RFC 3782.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 5, 2012.

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1.  Introduction

   For the typical implementation of the TCP Fast Recovery algorithm
   described in [RFC5681] (first implemented in the 1990 BSD Reno
   release, and referred to as the Reno algorithm in [FF96]), the TCP
   data sender only retransmits a packet after a retransmit timeout has
   occurred, or after three duplicate acknowledgments have arrived
   triggering the Fast Retransmit algorithm.  A single retransmit
   timeout might result in the retransmission of several data packets,
   but each invocation of the Fast Retransmit algorithm in RFC 5681
   leads to the retransmission of only a single data packet.

   Two problems arise with Reno TCP when multiple packet losses occur
   in a single window.  First, Reno will often take a timeout, as
   has been documented in [Hoe95].  Second, even if a retransmission
   timeout is avoided, multiple fast retransmits and window reductions
   can occur, as documented in [F94].  When multiple packet losses
   occur, if the SACK option [RFC2883] is available, the TCP sender
   has the information to make intelligent decisions about which packets
   to retransmit and which packets not to retransmit during Fast
   Recovery.  This document applies to TCP connections that are
   unable to use the TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) option,
   either because the option is not locally supported or
   because the TCP peer did not indicate a willingness to use SACK.

   In the absence of SACK, there is little information available to the
   TCP sender in making retransmission decisions during Fast
   Recovery.  From the three duplicate acknowledgments, the sender
   infers a packet loss, and retransmits the indicated packet.  After
   this, the data sender could receive additional duplicate
   acknowledgments, as the data receiver acknowledges additional data
   packets that were already in flight when the sender entered Fast

   In the case of multiple packets dropped from a single window of data,
   the first new information available to the sender comes when the
   sender receives an acknowledgment for the retransmitted packet (that
   is, the packet retransmitted when Fast Retransmit was first
   entered).  If there is a single packet drop and no reordering, then
   the acknowledgment for this packet will acknowledge all of the
   packets transmitted before Fast Retransmit was entered.  However, if
   there are multiple packet drops, then the acknowledgment for the
   retransmitted packet will acknowledge some but not all of the packets
   transmitted before the Fast Retransmit.  We call this acknowledgment
   a partial acknowledgment.

   Along with several other suggestions, [Hoe95] suggested that during
   Fast Recovery the TCP data sender responds to a partial
   acknowledgment by inferring that the next in-sequence packet has been
   lost, and retransmitting that packet.  This document describes a
   modification to the Fast Recovery algorithm in RFC 5681 that
   incorporates a response to partial acknowledgments received during
   Fast Recovery.  We call this modified Fast Recovery algorithm
   NewReno, because it is a slight but significant variation of the
   basic Reno algorithm in RFC 5681.  This document does not discuss the
   other suggestions in [Hoe95] and [Hoe96], such as a change to the
   ssthresh parameter during Slow-Start, or the proposal to send a new
   packet for every two duplicate acknowledgments during Fast
   Recovery.  The version of NewReno in this document also draws on
   other discussions of NewReno in the literature [LM97, Hen98].

   We do not claim that the NewReno version of Fast Recovery described
   here is an optimal modification of Fast Recovery for responding to
   partial acknowledgments, for TCP connections that are unable to use
   SACK.  Based on our experiences with the NewReno modification in the
   NS simulator [NS] and with numerous implementations of NewReno, we
   believe that this modification improves the performance of the Fast
   Retransmit and Fast Recovery algorithms in a wide variety of
   scenarios.  Previous versions of this RFC [RFC2582, RFC3782] provide
   simulation-based evidence of the possible performance gains.

2.  Terminology and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   This document assumes that the reader is familiar with the terms
   FLIGHT SIZE (FlightSize) defined in [RFC5681].  FLIGHT SIZE is
   defined as in [RFC5681] as follows:

         The amount of data that has been sent but not yet cumulatively

   This document defines an additional sender-side state variable
   called RECOVER:

         When in Fast Recovery, this variable records the send sequence
         number that must be acknowledged before the Fast Recovery
         procedure is declared to be over.

3.  The Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery Algorithms in NewReno

3.1.  Protocol Overview

   The basic idea of these extensions to the Fast Retransmit and
   Fast Recovery algorithms described in Section 3.2 of [RFC5681]
   is as follows.  The TCP sender can infer, from the arrival of
   duplicate acknowledgments, whether multiple losses in the same
   window of data have most likely occurred, and avoid taking a
   retransmit timeout or making multiple congestion window reductions
   due to such an event.

   The NewReno modification applies to the Fast Recovery procedure that
   begins when three duplicate ACKs are received and ends when either a
   retransmission timeout occurs or an ACK arrives that acknowledges all
   of the data up to and including the data that was outstanding when
   the Fast Recovery procedure began.

3.2.  Specification

   The procedures specified in Section 3.2 of [RFC5681] are followed
   with the following modifications.

   1)  Initialization of TCP protocol control block:
       When the TCP protocol control block is initialized, Recover is
       set to the initial send sequence number.

   2)  Three duplicate ACKs:
       When the third duplicate ACK is received, the TCP sender first
       checks the value of Recover to see if the Cumulative
       Acknowledgment field covers more than Recover.  If so, the value
       of Recover is incremented to the value of the highest sequence
       number transmitted by the TCP so far.  The TCP then enters Fast
       Retransmit (step 2 of Section 3.2 of [RFC5681]).  If not, the TCP
       does not enter fast retransmit and does not reset ssthresh.

   3)  Response to newly acknowledged data:
       Step 6 of [RFC5681] specifies the response to the next ACK that
       acknowledges previously unacknowledged data.  When an ACK
       arrives that acknowledges new data, this ACK could be the
       acknowledgment elicited by the retransmission from step 2, or
       elicited by a later retransmission.  There are two cases.

       Full acknowledgments:
       If this ACK acknowledges all of the data up to and including
       Recover, then the ACK acknowledges all the intermediate
       segments sent between the original transmission of the lost
       segment and the receipt of the third duplicate ACK.  Set cwnd to
       either (1) min (ssthresh, max(FlightSize, SMSS) + SMSS) or
       (2) ssthresh, where ssthresh is the value set when Fast Retransmit
       was entered, and where FlightSize in (1) is the amount of data
       presently outstanding.  This is termed "deflating" the window.
       If the second option is selected, the implementation
       is encouraged to take measures to avoid a possible burst of
       data, in case the amount of data outstanding in the network is
       much less than the new congestion window allows.  A simple
       mechanism is to limit the number of data packets that can be sent
       in response to a single acknowledgment.  Exit the Fast Recovery

       Partial acknowledgments:
       If this ACK does *not* acknowledge all of the data up to and
       including Recover, then this is a partial ACK.  In this case,
       retransmit the first unacknowledged segment.  Deflate the
       congestion window by the amount of new data acknowledged by the
       cumulative acknowledgment field.  If the partial ACK
       acknowledges at least one SMSS of new data, then add back SMSS
       bytes to the congestion window.  This artificially
       inflates the congestion window in order to reflect the additional
       segment that has left the network.  Send a new segment if
       permitted by the new value of cwnd.  This "partial window
       deflation" attempts to ensure that, when Fast Recovery eventually
       ends, approximately ssthresh amount of data will be outstanding
       in the network.  Do not exit the Fast Recovery procedure (i.e.,
       if any duplicate ACKs subsequently arrive, execute Step 4 of
       Section 3.2 of [RFC5681].

       For the first partial ACK that arrives during Fast Recovery, also
       reset the retransmit timer.  Timer management is discussed in
       more detail in Section 4.

   4)  Retransmit timeouts:
       After a retransmit timeout, record the highest sequence number
       transmitted in the variable Recover and exit the Fast
       Recovery procedure if applicable.

   Step 2 above specifies a check that the Cumulative Acknowledgment
   field covers more than Recover.  Because the acknowledgment field
   contains the sequence number that the sender next expects to receive,
   the acknowledgment "ack_number" covers more than Recover when:

      ack_number - 1 > Recover;

   i.e., at least one byte more of data is acknowledged beyond the
   highest byte that was outstanding when Fast Retransmit was last

   Note that in Step 3 above, the congestion window is deflated after
   a partial acknowledgment is received.  The congestion window was
   likely to have been inflated considerably when the partial
   acknowledgment was received.  In addition, depending on the original
   pattern of packet losses, the partial acknowledgment might
   acknowledge nearly a window of data.  In this case, if the congestion
   window was not deflated, the data sender might be able to send nearly
   a window of data back-to-back.

   This document does not specify the sender's response to duplicate
   ACKs when the Fast Retransmit/Fast Recovery algorithm is not
   invoked.  This is addressed in other documents, such as those
   describing the Limited Transmit procedure [RFC3042].  This document
   also does not address issues of adjusting the duplicate
   acknowledgment threshold, but assumes the threshold specified in
   the IETF standards; the current standard is [RFC5681], which
   specifies a threshold of three duplicate acknowledgments.

   As a final note, we would observe that in the absence of the SACK
   option, the data sender is working from limited information.  When
   the issue of recovery from multiple dropped packets from a single
   window of data is of particular importance, the best alternative
   would be to use the SACK option.

4.  Handling Duplicate Acknowledgments After A Timeout

   After each retransmit timeout, the highest sequence number
   transmitted so far is recorded in the variable "recover".
   If, after a retransmit timeout, the TCP data sender retransmits three
   consecutive packets that have already been received by the data
   receiver, then the TCP data sender will receive three duplicate
   acknowledgments that do not cover more than "recover".  In this
   case, the duplicate acknowledgments are not an indication of a new
   instance of congestion.  They are simply an indication that the
   sender has unnecessarily retransmitted at least three packets.

   However, when a retransmitted packet is itself dropped, the sender
   can also receive three duplicate acknowledgments that do not cover
   more than "recover".  In this case, the sender would have been
   better off if it had initiated Fast Retransmit.  For a TCP that
   implements the algorithm specified in Section 3.2 of this document, the
   sender does not infer a packet drop from duplicate acknowledgments
   in this scenario.  As always, the retransmit timer is the backup
   mechanism for inferring packet loss in this case.

   There are several heuristics, based on timestamps or on the amount of
   advancement of the cumulative acknowledgment field, that allow the
   sender to distinguish, in some cases, between three duplicate
   acknowledgments following a retransmitted packet that was dropped,
   and three duplicate acknowledgments from the unnecessary
   retransmission of three packets [Gur03, GF04].  The TCP sender MAY
   use such a heuristic to decide to invoke a Fast Retransmit in some
   cases, even when the three duplicate acknowledgments do not cover
   more than "recover".

   For example, when three duplicate acknowledgments are caused by the
   unnecessary retransmission of three packets, this is likely to be
   accompanied by the cumulative acknowledgment field advancing by at
   least four segments.  Similarly, a heuristic based on timestamps uses
   the fact that when there is a hole in the sequence space, the
   timestamp echoed in the duplicate acknowledgment is the timestamp of
   the most recent data packet that advanced the cumulative
   acknowledgment field [RFC1323].  If timestamps are used, and the
   sender stores the timestamp of the last acknowledged segment, then
   the timestamp echoed by duplicate acknowledgments can be used to
   distinguish between a retransmitted packet that was dropped and
   three duplicate acknowledgments from the unnecessary
   retransmission of three packets.

4.1.  ACK Heuristic

   If the ACK-based heuristic is used, then following the advancement of
   the cumulative acknowledgment field, the sender stores the value of
   the previous cumulative acknowledgment as prev_highest_ack, and
   stores the latest cumulative ACK as highest_ack.  In addition, the
   following check is performed if, in Step 2 of Section 3.2, the
   Cumulative Acknowledgment field does not cover more than "recover".

   1*)  If the Cumulative Acknowledgment field didn't cover more than
        "recover", check to see if the congestion window is greater
        than SMSS bytes and the difference between highest_ack and
        prev_highest_ack is at most 4*SMSS bytes.  If true, duplicate
        ACKs indicate a lost segment (enter Fast Retransmit).  Otherwise,
        duplicate ACKs likely result from unnecessary retransmissions
        (do not enter Fast Retransmit).

   The congestion window check serves to protect against fast retransmit
   immediately after a retransmit timeout.

   If several ACKs are lost, the sender can see a jump in the cumulative
   ACK of more than three segments, and the heuristic can fail.
   [RFC5681] recommends that a receiver should
   send duplicate ACKs for every out-of-order data packet, such as a
   data packet received during Fast Recovery.  The ACK heuristic is more
   likely to fail if the receiver does not follow this advice, because
   then a smaller number of ACK losses are needed to produce a
   sufficient jump in the cumulative ACK.

4.2.  Timestamp Heuristic

   If this heuristic is used, the sender stores the timestamp of the
   last acknowledged segment.  In addition, the last sentence of step
   2 in Section 3.2 is replaced as follows:

   1**) If the Cumulative Acknowledgment field didn't cover more than
        "recover", check to see if the echoed timestamp in the last
        non-duplicate acknowledgment equals the
        stored timestamp.  If true, duplicate ACKs indicate a lost
        segment (enter Fast Retransmit).  Otherwise, duplicate
        ACKs likely result from unnecessary retransmissions (do not enter
        Fast Retransmit).

   The timestamp heuristic works correctly, both when the receiver
   echoes timestamps as specified by [RFC1323], and by its revision
   attempts.  However, if the receiver arbitrarily echoes timestamps,
   the heuristic can fail.  The heuristic can also fail if a timeout was
   spurious and returning ACKs are not from retransmitted segments.
   This can be prevented by detection algorithms such as [RFC3522].

5.  Implementation Issues for the Data Receiver

   [RFC5681] specifies that "Out-of-order data segments SHOULD be
   acknowledged immediately, in order to accelerate loss recovery."
   Neal Cardwell has noted that some data receivers do not send an
   immediate acknowledgment when they send a partial acknowledgment,
   but instead wait first for their delayed acknowledgment timer to
   expire [C98].  As [C98] notes, this severely limits the potential
   benefit of NewReno by delaying the receipt of the partial
   acknowledgment at the data sender.  Echoing [RFC5681], our
   recommendation is that the data receiver send an immediate
   acknowledgment for an out-of-order segment, even when that
   out-of-order segment fills a hole in the buffer.

6.  Implementation Issues for the Data Sender

   In Section 3, Step 5 above, it is noted that implementations should
   take measures to avoid a possible burst of data when leaving Fast
   Recovery, in case the amount of new data that the sender is eligible
   to send due to the new value of the congestion window is large.  This
   can arise during NewReno when ACKs are lost or treated as pure window
   updates, thereby causing the sender to underestimate the number of
   new segments that can be sent during the recovery procedure.
   Specifically, bursts can occur when the FlightSize is much less than
   the new congestion window when exiting from Fast Recovery.  One
   simple mechanism to avoid a burst of data when leaving Fast Recovery
   is to limit the number of data packets that can be sent in response
   to a single acknowledgment.  (This is known as "maxburst_" in the ns
   simulator.)  Other possible mechanisms for avoiding bursts include
   rate-based pacing, or setting the slow-start threshold to the
   resultant congestion window and then resetting the congestion window
   to FlightSize.  A recommendation on the general mechanism to avoid
   excessively bursty sending patterns is outside the scope of this

   An implementation may want to use a separate flag to record whether
   or not it is presently in the Fast Recovery procedure.  The use of
   the value of the duplicate acknowledgment counter for this purpose is
   not reliable because it can be reset upon window updates and
   out-of-order acknowledgments.

   When updating the Cumulative Acknowledgment field outside of
   Fast Recovery, the "recover" state variable may also need to be
   updated in order to continue to permit possible entry into Fast
   Recovery (Section 3, step 1).  This issue arises when an update
   of the Cumulative Acknowledgment field results in a sequence
   wraparound that affects the ordering between the Cumulative
   Acknowledgment field and the "recover" state variable.  Entry
   into Fast Recovery is only possible when the Cumulative
   Acknowledgment field covers more than the "recover" state variable.

   It is important for the sender to respond correctly to duplicate ACKs
   received when the sender is no longer in Fast Recovery (e.g., because
   of a Retransmit Timeout).  The Limited Transmit procedure [RFC3042]
   describes possible responses to the first and second duplicate
   acknowledgments.  When three or more duplicate acknowledgments are
   received, the Cumulative Acknowledgment field doesn't cover more
   than "recover", and a new Fast Recovery is not invoked, it is
   important that the sender not execute the Fast Recovery steps (3) and
   (4) in Section 3.  Otherwise, the sender could end up in a chain of
   spurious timeouts.  We mention this only because several NewReno
   implementations had this bug, including the implementation in the NS

   It has been observed that some TCP implementations enter a slow start
   or congestion avoidance window updating algorithm immediately after
   the cwnd is set by the equation found in (Section 3, step 5), even
   without a new external event generating the cwnd change.  Note that
   after cwnd is set based on the procedure for exiting Fast Recovery
   (Section 3, step 5), cwnd SHOULD NOT be updated until a further
   event occurs (e.g., arrival of an ack, or timeout) after this

7.  Security Considerations

   [RFC5681] discusses general security considerations concerning TCP
   congestion control.  This document describes a specific algorithm
   that conforms with the congestion control requirements of [RFC5681],
   and so those considerations apply to this algorithm, too.  There are
   no known additional security concerns for this specific algorithm.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

9.  Conclusions

   This document specifies the NewReno Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery
   algorithms for TCP.  This NewReno modification to TCP can even be
   important for TCP implementations that support the SACK option,
   because the SACK option can only be used for TCP connections when
   both TCP end-nodes support the SACK option.  NewReno performs better
   than Reno (RFC5681) in a number of scenarios discussed in
   previous versions of this RFC ([RFC2582], [RFC3782]).

   A number of options to the basic algorithm presented in Section 3 are
   also referenced in Appendix A to this document.  These include the
   handling of the retransmission timer, the response to partial
   acknowledgments, and whether or not the sender must maintain a state
   variable called Recover.  Our belief is that the differences
   between these variants of NewReno are small compared to the
   differences between Reno and NewReno.  That is, the important thing
   is to implement NewReno instead of Reno, for a TCP connection
   without SACK; it is less important exactly which of the variants of
   NewReno is implemented.

10.  Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to Anil Agarwal, Mark Allman, Armando Caro, Jeffrey Hsu,
   Vern Paxson, Kacheong Poon, Keyur Shah, and Bernie Volz for detailed
   feedback on this document or on its precursor, RFC 2582.  Jeffrey
   Hsu provided clarifications on the handling of the recover variable
   that were applied to RFC 3782 as errata, and now are in Section 8
   of this document.  Yoshifumi Nishida contributed a modification
   to the fast recovery algorithm to account for the case in which
   flightsize is 0 when the TCP sender leaves fast recovery, and the
   TCP receiver uses delayed acknowledgments.  Alexander Zimmermann
   provided several suggestions to improve the clarity of the document.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5681] Allman, M., Paxson, V. and  E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion
             Control", RFC 5681, September 2009.

   [RFC6298] Paxson, V., M. Allman, J. Chu, and M. Sargent, "Computing
             TCP's Retransmission Timer", RFC 6298, June 2011.

11.2.  Informative References

   [C98]     Cardwell, N., "delayed ACKs for retransmitted packets:
             ouch!".  November 1998,  Email to the tcpimpl mailing list,
             archived at "".

   [F98]     Floyd, S., Revisions to RFC 2001, "Presentation to the
             TCPIMPL Working Group", August 1998.  URLs
             "" and

   [F03]     Floyd, S., "Moving NewReno from Experimental to Proposed
             Standard?  Presentation to the TSVWG Working Group", March 2003.
             URLs "" and

   [FF96]    Fall, K. and S. Floyd, "Simulation-based Comparisons of
             Tahoe, Reno and SACK TCP", Computer Communication Review, July 1996.
             URL "".

   [F94]     Floyd, S., "TCP and Successive Fast Retransmits", Technical
             report, October 1994.  URL

   [GF04]    Gurtov, A. and S. Floyd, "Resolving Acknowledgment
             Ambiguity in non-SACK TCP", Next Generation Teletraffic and
             Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking (NEW2AN'04), February
             2004.  URL "

   [Gur03]   Gurtov, A., "[Tsvwg] resolving the problem of unnecessary
             fast retransmits in go-back-N", email to the tsvwg mailing list,
             message ID <>, July 28, 2003.  URL

   [Hen98]   Henderson, T., Re: NewReno and the 2001 Revision. September
             1998.  Email to the tcpimpl mailing list, Message ID
             archived at "".

   [Hoe95]   Hoe, J., "Startup Dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and
             Avoidance Schemes", Master's Thesis, MIT, 1995.

   [Hoe96]   Hoe, J., "Improving the Start-up Behavior of a Congestion
             Control Scheme for TCP", ACM SIGCOMM, August 1996.  URL

   [LM97]    Lin, D. and R. Morris, "Dynamics of Random Early
             Detection", SIGCOMM 97, September 1997.  URL

   [NS]      The Network Simulator (NS).
             URL "".

   [PF01]    Padhye, J. and S. Floyd, "Identifying the TCP Behavior of
             Web Servers", June 2001, SIGCOMM 2001.

   [RFC1323] Jacobson, V., Braden, R. and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions for
             High Performance", RFC 1323, May 1992.

   [RFC2582] Floyd, S. and T. Henderson, "The NewReno Modification to
             TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm", RFC 2582, April 1999.

   [RFC2883] Floyd, S., J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis, and M. Podolsky, "The
             Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) Option for TCP, RFC 2883, July 2000.

   [RFC3042] Allman, M., Balakrishnan, H. and S. Floyd, "Enhancing TCP's
             Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit", RFC 3042, January 2001.

   [RFC3522] Ludwig, R. and M. Meyer, "The Eifel Detection Algorithm for
             TCP", RFC 3522, April 2003.

   [RFC3782] Floyd, S., T. Henderson, and A. Gurtov, "The NewReno
             Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm", RFC 3782, April 2004.

Appendix A.  Additional Information

   Previous versions of this RFC ([RFC2582], [RFC3782]) contained
   additional informative material on the following subjects, and
   may be consulted by readers who may want more information about
   possible variants to the algorithm and who may want references
   to specific [NS] simulations that provide NewReno test cases.

   Section 4 of [RFC3782] discusses some alternative behaviors for
   resetting the retransmit timer after a partial acknowledgment.

   Section 5 of [RFC3782] discusses some alternative behaviors for
   performing retransmission after a partial acknowledgment.

   Section 6 of [RFC3782] describes more information about the
   motivation for the sender's state variable Recover.

   Section 9 of [RFC3782] introduces some NS simulation test
   suites for NewReno.  In addition, references to simulation
   results can be found throughout [RFC3782].

   Section 10 of [RFC3782] provides a comparison of Reno and
   NewReno TCP.

   Section 11 of [RFC3782] listed changes relative to [RFC3782].

Appendix B.  Changes Relative to RFC 3782

   In [RFC3782], the cwnd after Full ACK reception will be set to
   (1) min (ssthresh, FlightSize + SMSS) or (2) ssthresh.  However,
   there is a risk in the first option which results in performance
   degradation.  With the first option, if FlightSize is zero, the
   result will be 1 SMSS. This means TCP can transmit only 1 segment
   at this moment, which can cause delay in ACK transmission at receiver
   due to delayed ACK algorithm.

   The FlightSize on Full ACK reception can be zero in some situations.
   A typical example is where sending window size during fast recovery
   is small. In this case, the retransmitted packet and new data packets
   can be transmitted within a short interval.  If all these packets
   successfully arrive, the receiver may generate a Full ACK that
   acknowledges all outstanding data.  Even if window size is not small,
   loss of ACK packets or receive buffer shortage during fast recovery
   can also increase the possibility of falling into this situation.

   The proposed fix in this document, which sets cwnd to at least 2*SMSS
   if the implementation uses option 1 in the Full ACK case (Section 3.2,
   step 3, option 1), ensures that the sender TCP transmits at least two
   segments on Full ACK reception.

   In addition, errata for RFC3782 (editorial clarification to Section 8
   of RFC2582, which is now Section 6 of this document) has been

   The specification text (Section 3.2 herein) was rewritten to more
   closely track Section 3.2 of [RFC5681].

   Sections 4, 5, 9-11 of [RFC3782] were removed, and instead Appendix
   A of this document was added to back-reference this informative

Appendix C.  Document Revision History

   To be removed upon publication

   | Revision | Comments                                         |
   | draft-00 | RFC3782 errata applied, and changes applied from |
   |          | draft-nishida-newreno-modification-02            |
   | draft-01 | Non-normative sections moved to appendices,      |
   |          | editorial clarifications applied as suggested    |
   |          | by Alexander Zimmermann.                         |
   | draft-02 | Better align specification text with RFC5681.    |
   |          | Replace informative appendices by a new appendix |
   |          | that just provides back-references to earlier    |
   |          | NewReno RFCs.                                    |

Authors' Addresses

   Tom Henderson
   The Boeing Company


   Sally Floyd
   International Computer Science Institute

   Phone: +1 (510) 666-2989

   Andrei Gurtov
   Helsinki Institute for Information Technology
   P.O. Box 19215
   00076 Aalto


   Yoshifumi Nishida
   WIDE Project
   Endo 5322
   Fujisawa, Kanagawa  252-8520