\
DetNet Working Group                                             X. Song
Internet-Draft                                                     H. Wu
Intended status: Standards Track                               ZTE Corp.
Expires: 3 November 2022                                        May 2022


         YANG Data Model for DetNet Mapping with Network Slice
             draft-sw-detnet-network-slice-mapping-yang-00

Abstract

   This document considers the applicability of Deterministic Networking
   (DetNet) mapping with network slice in the context of IP/MPLS
   network.  It identifies the mapping requirements and YANG data models
   being defined by the IETF to support the deployment.

   Existing data models are identified for deterministic networking,
   this document outlines the applicability of DetNet for network
   slicing.  It also identifies the features for necessity of mapping
   network slicing with DetNet and indicates where the DetNet YANG might
   be extended.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 2 November 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights



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   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.3.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Applicability of DetNet to Network Slice  . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Use Case  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Modes of IETF Network Slice Selection . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Mapping DetNet with Network Slice . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Mapping Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Mapping Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  YANG Modeling Approach  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  YANG Data Tree  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.1.  Service Mapping Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.2.  Service Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  YANG Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     7.1.  Service Mapping Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     7.2.  Service Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   10. Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Introduction

   Deterministic Networking (DetNet) is a service that can be offered by
   a network to DetNet flows.  As defined in [RFC8655], DetNet flows
   provide deterministic services with guaranteed performance such as
   end-to-end delay and low packet loss rate for unicast or multicast
   data streams.  DetNet assumes that the management controller can
   complete the path selection for the resources required by the service
   as to how to provide the guarantee of the underlying network
   resources to meet the requirement.

   As specified in 3GPP TS 28.530, network slicing is a paradigm where
   logical networks/partitions are created, with appropriate isolation,
   resources and optimized topology to serve a purpose or service



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   category (e.g. use case/traffic category, or for MNO internal
   reasons) or customers (logical system created "on demand").
   [I-D.ietf-teas-ietf-network-slices] provides the definition of
   network slice in the context of IETF network, the main
   characteristics, necessary components and interfaces for the general
   framework and realization involved of IETF Network Slice.  This
   document provides the applicability of DetNet to Network Slice in the
   context of IETF.

2.  Conventions

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.2.  Terminology

   Refer to [RFC8655], [RFC8938] and
   [I-D.ietf-teas-ietf-network-slices], for the key terms used in this
   document.

   The terminology for describing YANG data models is found in
   [RFC7960].

2.3.  Abbreviations

   DetNet: Deterministic Networking

   IETF NS: IETF Network Slice

   MPLS: Multi-Protocol Label Switching

   NETCONF: Network Configuration Protocol

   NRP: Network Resource Partition

   PREOF: Packet Replication, Elimination, and Ordering Functions

   SDP: Service Demarcation Point

   SLE: Service Level Expectation

   SLO: Service Level Objective




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   SSH: transport Secure Shell

   TLS: Transport Layer Security

3.  Applicability of DetNet to Network Slice

3.1.  Problem Statement

   DetNet is a service that provides a reliable or available service to
   DetNet flows through dedicating network resources such as link
   bandwidth, buffer space to DetNet individual flow or DetNet
   aggregation flows.  To realize this object the management and control
   plane of DetNet needs support DetNet flow (including App-layer,
   service-layer and forwarding-layer flow) instantiation, resource
   reservation and allocation, path computation and route steering.  In
   data plane DetNet supports packet replication, elimination and
   ordering function to reduce packet loss rate and jitter performance.
   Refer to [RFC8655] and [RFC8938], DetNet PREOF function for service
   protection in order to reduce packet loss and jitter performance.
   Except service protection, the necessary resource reservation and
   allocation are feasible to eliminate packet congestion and avoiding
   packet loss; optimization for path computation needs be based on a
   set of constraints of some specific network requirements.  To realize
   resource reservation and path computation it's recommended to use
   existing technologies, such as RSVP-TE, BGP, SR, etc.  From the
   discussion on network slicing at IETF TEAS WG we know that the
   resource guarantee of a specific service requires the closed-loop
   management of resource exposure, resource reservation, resource
   occupation, resource optimization and other aspects, and the existing
   technology may not be enough to support that.

   Refer to [I-D.ietf-teas-ietf-network-slices] the network slicing
   technology can provide necessary network resources to meet the
   service requirements of users while realizing the SLO/SLE
   requirements for user services.  By applying network slicing
   technology to DetNet, resource guarantee can be achieved for
   deterministic networking services.  On the other hand, network
   slicing with ultra-high reliability or ultra-low latency guarantee
   requires the processing of packets with the help of DetNet-specific
   queuing technology.

3.2.  Use Case

   Refer to [RFC8578] provides DetNet use cases which include DetNet
   applied to Network Slicing described in section 10:

   *  Resource isolation across slices.




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   *  Deterministic services within slices.

   With the applicability of DetNet to Network Slice, not only the
   network capability (such as end-to-end latency, bounded jitter and
   low packet loss ratio) the DetNet concerns be satisfied, but also the
   necessary network resource reserved and allocated the IETF Network
   Slice concerns to be supported.  There are also limitations for
   DetNet applied to Network Slicing, e.g., mainly used for latency-
   sensitive service, only support P2P and P2MP connectivity, etc.  The
   resolve for these limitations are out of the scope of this document.
   This document mainly outlines the applicability of DetNet to Network
   Slice for latency-sensitive service.

3.3.  Modes of IETF Network Slice Selection

   This document provides three modes of IETF Network Slice selection
   operations as associated with DetNet follows.  Additional modes may
   be defined in the future.

   *  New IETF Network Slice Binding - A customer may request a DetNet
      service with requirements guarantee, e.g., end-to-end latency,
      latency variation, jitter, etc.  To satisfy the customer's
      requirements on network resource it's recommended to bind DetNet
      flows with an IETF Network Slice instance.  The YANG model
      described in Section 5 of this document provides the mapping
      between DetNet flows with anew IETF Network Slice.

   *  IETF Network Slice Sharing - A customer may request a DetNet
      service with requirement guarantee where a new IETF Network Slice
      do not need to be created but be shared with other multiple DetNet
      flows.  The mapping YANG model described in Section 5 of this
      document provides the mapping between DetNet flows with an IETF
      Network Slice in use.  No modification of the properties of an
      IETF Network Slice is allowed in this mode.

   *  IETF Network Slice Modification - This mode allows the
      modification of the properties of the existing IETF Network Slice
      (e.g., bandwidth, latency, etc.).

   IETF Network Slice Mapping Template - A policy profile which contains
   network constraints and optimization criteria is used for mapping
   DetNet flows to one/more certain IETF Network Slice instance.

4.  Mapping DetNet with Network Slice







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4.1.  Mapping Requirements

   DetNet service is per flow (including app-layer, service-layer and
   forwarding-layer flow), performs traffic processing based on the
   identification for flow/flow aggregation.  Differences in IETF
   Network Slice service are considered in terms of Network Resource
   Partition.  [I-D.bestbar-teas-ns-packet] introduces a mechanism to
   associate Network Resource Partition (NRP) with Slice-Flow Aggregate.
   If DetNet applied to IETF Network Slice, the DetNet-flow/flow
   aggregation is considered as the slice-flow/flow aggregation over the
   underlying NRP.

   Requirements for Network Slice mapping with deterministic networking
   services:

   *  The mapping of deterministic services with underlying network
      slice resources is necessary.  It may include:

      -  Service endpoint mapping between DetNet Edge Node and IETF
         Network Slice SDP.

      -  Access service mapping between DetNet UNI and IETF Network
         Slice AC.

      -  Instance mapping between DetNet-flow/flow aggregations with
         IETF Network Slice.

   *  The creation request for network slice instance to be bounded with
      one specific deterministic flow/flow aggregation instances should
      be supported.

   *  The sharing of network slice instance for one or more
      deterministic flow/flow aggregation instances SHOULD be supported.

   *  Configurations for a new network slice instance to provide
      necessary underlying resource to deterministic services is
      necessary.

   *  Modification for an existing network slice instance applied to one
      or more DetNet flow SHOULD be supported.

4.2.  Mapping Process

   *  APP-flow packets is instantiated as DetNet service awareness flow.







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   *  If there is an existing IETF Network Slice instance which
      satisfies the network resource requirements of the DetNet
      customer.  After check the feasibility of the IETF Network Slice
      instance bound to DetNet flows, request mapping DetNet-flow/flow
      aggregations with IETF Network Slice instance.

   *  If there is no IETF Network Slice available, a new IETF Network
      Slice instance creation is required.

   *  The mapping of DetNet flow with IETF Network Slice is configured
      and stored in management plane.  The mapping policy of DetNet flow
      associated with underlying network resource partition (NRP) is
      programmed to the DetNet or IETF Network Slice Nodes (such as SDP,
      P nodes, etc.) through YANG data models.

   *  In data plane, the DetNet or IETF Network Slice Nodes complete the
      identification of deterministic service flows (such as IP 6-tuple,
      MPLS labels, etc.) and correspond with one specific network slice
      instance , realize the slice awareness of DetNet flow/flow
      aggregation.  Through the network resource occupation of hop-by-
      hop nodes along the path, network resources required by the
      deterministic networking service flow is guaranteed.

5.  YANG Modeling Approach

   This section provides how the DetNet and IETF Network Slice Service
   mapping parameters are supported using augmentation of the existing
   DetNet service models (i.e., [I-D.ietf-detnet-yang]).  It identifies
   the YANG data models being defined by the IETF to support this
   deployment architecture and specific scenarios relevant for Service
   Providers.

   The below figure shows the modeling approach of the Augmented DetNet
   Model.


             +--------------+        +----------------------+
             |    DetNet    |o-------|                      |
             +--------------+ augment|                      |
                                     |                      |
             +--------------+        |Augmented DetNet Model|
             | DetNet & NS  |------->|                      |
             | Mapping Types| import |                      |
             +--------------+        |                      |
                                     +----------------------+

                        Figure 1: Modeling approach




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6.  YANG Data Tree

6.1.  Service Mapping Types


    module: ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types
      +--rw ns-mapping-templates
         +--rw ns-mapping-template* [id]
            +--rw id                  string
            +--rw description?        string
            +--rw map-type?           identityref
                    +--rw ns-slo-ref?
                            ->/ns:slice-template/ns-slo-sle-templates/id

6.2.  Service Models


module: ietf-ns-detnet-service-mapping
    augment /dnet:detnet:detnet/service:sub-layer
              /service:sub-layer:
      +--rw ns-detnet-mapping
         +--rw ns-mapping
            +--rw map-type?                       identityref
            +--rw ns-id                           string
            +--rw ns-mapping-template-ref?
                    -> /nsdmt:ns-mapping-templates/ns-mapping-template/id
                    {template}?

7.  YANG Data Model

7.1.  Service Mapping Types

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types@2022-03-07.yang"
      module ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types {
        yang-version 1.1;
        namespace
          "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types";
        prefix nsdmt;

        import ietf-network-slice {
          prefix ietf-ns;
          reference
            "I-D.ietf-teas-ietf-network-slice-nbi-yang-01: A YANG Data Model for the IETF Network Slice";
        }

        organization
          "IETF DetNet Working Group";
        contact



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          "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/detnet/>
           WG List:  <mailto:detnet@ietf.org>

           Editor:   Xueyan Song
                     <song.xueyan2@zte.com.cn>
           Editor:   Haisheng Wu
                     <wu.haisheng@zte.com.cn>";
        description
          "This module contains a YANG module for IETF Network Slice & Detnet mapping
           parameters.

           Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
           authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

           Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
           without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
           the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License set
           forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
           Relating to IETF Documents
           (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

           This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see the
           RFC itself for full legal notices.";

        revision 2022-03-27 {
          description
            "Initial revision.";
          reference
            "RFC XXXX:  YANG Data Model for DetNet Mapping with Network Slice";
        }

        /*
         * Features
         */

        feature template {
          description
            "Support Network Slice mapping templates.";
        }

        /*
         * Identity for map-type
         */

        identity map-type {
          description
            "Base identity from which specific map types are derived.";
        }



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        identity new {
          base map-type;
          description
            "The new Network Slice are binded to the service.";
        }

        identity select {
          base map-type;
          description
            "The Detnet service selects an existing Network Slice with no
             modification.";
        }

        identity modify {
          base map-type;
          description
            "The Detnet service selects an existing Network Slice and allows to modify
             the properties of the Network Slice (e.g., SLO)";
        }

        identity none {
          base map-type;
          description
            "The Detnet service is not mapped to any underlying Network Slice";
        }


        /*
         * Typedef
         */

        typedef ns-mapping-template-id {
          type string;
          description
            "Identifier for Network Slice mapping template.";
        }

        /*
         * Groupings
         */

        grouping ns-ref {
          description
            "The reference to Network Slice.";

          leaf ns-mapping-slice-id{
                  type int;
                  description



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                     "Identifier for a Network Slice."
               };

          leaf ns-mapping-template-ref {
            if-feature "template";
            type leafref {
              path "/nsdmt:ns-mapping-templates/"
                 + "nsdmt:ns-mapping-template/nsdmt:id";
            }
            description
              "An identifier to the Network Slice Mapping Template where the Network Slice
               constraints and optimization criteria are specified.";
          }
        }


        grouping ns-mapping {
          description
            "Mapping between Services and network-slice";
          container ns-mapping {
            description
              "Mapping between Services and network-slice";
            leaf map-type {
              type identityref {
                base map-type;
              }
              description
                "Isolation Requirements";
            }
            uses ns-ref;
          }
        }

        //grouping

        container ns-mapping-templates {
          description
            "The network-slice constraints and optimization criteria";
          list ns-mapping-template {
            key "id";
            leaf id {
              type ns-mapping-template-id;
              description
                "Identification of the Template to be used.";
            }
            leaf description {
              type string;
              description



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                "Description of the template.";
            }
            leaf map-type {
              type identityref {
                base map-type;
              }
              must "0 = derived-from-or-self(.,'none')" {
                error-message "The map-type must be other than "
                            + "none";
              }
              description
                "Map type for Network Slice creation/
                 selection.";
            }
             leaf ns-slo-ref{
                        type leafref {
                                    path "/ns:ns-slo-sle-templates/ns-slo-sle-template/id";
                    }

            description
              "List for templates.";
          }
        }
      }
   <CODE ENDS>

7.2.  Service Models

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-ns-detnet-service-mapping@2022-03-27.yang"
      module ietf-ns-detnet-service-mapping {
        yang-version 1.1;
        namespace
          "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-ns-detnet-service-mapping";
        prefix detnet-nssm;


        import ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types {
          prefix nsdmt;
          reference
            "RFC XXXX:  YANG Data Model for DetNet Mapping with Network Slice";
        }
        import ietf-detnet {
          prefix dnet;
          reference
            "draft-ietf-detnet-yang-16.txt: YANG Data Model for Detnet";
        }

        organization



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          "IETF DetNet Working Group";

        contact
          "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/detnet/>
           WG List:  <mailto:detnet@ietf.org>

           Editor:   Xueyan Song
                     <song.xueyan@zte.com.cn>
           Editor:   Haisheng Wu
                     <wu.haisheng@zte.com.cn>";

        description
          "This module contains a YANG module for the mapping of DetNet to the Network Slice.

           Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
           authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

           Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
           without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
           the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License set
           forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
           Relating to IETF Documents
           (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

           This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see the
           RFC itself for full legal notices.";

        revision 2022-03-27 {
          description
            "Initial revision.";
          reference
            "RFC XXXX:  YANG Data Model for DetNet Mapping with Network Slice";
        }


        /*
         * Augmentation to Detnet
         */

        augment "/dnet:detnet:detnet/service:sub-layer"
              + "/service:sub-layer" {
          description
            "Detnet augmented to include Network Slice parameters and mapping";
          container ns-detnet-mapping {
            presence "Indicates Detnet service to Network Slice mapping";
            description
              "Container to augment detnet to Network Slice parameters and mapping";
            uses nsdmt:ns-mapping;



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          }
        }

        //augment

      }
   <CODE ENDS>

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests the IANA to register the following URIs in the
   "IETF XML Registry" [RFC3688].

         URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang: ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types
         Registrant Contact: The IESG.
         XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

         URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-ns-detnet-service-mapping
         Registrant Contact: The IESG.
         XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.


   This document requests the IANA to register the following YANG
   modules in the YANG Module Names registry [RFC7950].

        Name: ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types
        Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang: ietf-ns-detnet-mapping-types
        Prefix: nsdmt
        Reference: [This.I-D]

        Name: ietf-ns-detnet-service-mapping
        Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang: ietf-ns-detnet-service-mapping
        Prefix: detnet-nssm
        Reference: [This.I-D]



9.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations for DetNet are covered in the DetNet
   Architecture [RFC8655] and DetNet Security Considerations [RFC9055]

   The YANG data model specified in this document defines a schema for
   mapping of DetNet with IETF Network Slice via NETCONF [RFC6241] or
   RESTCONF [RFC8040].  For NETCONF to support secure transport Secure
   Shell (SSH) [RFC6242] is mandatory.  For RESTCONF to support secure
   transport TLS [RFC8446] is mandatory.




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10.  Acknowledgement

   The authors appreciate Peng Shaofu and Liu Aihua for useful
   discussions and motivations for this work.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-yang]
              Geng, X., Ryoo, Y., Fedyk, D., Rahman, R., and Z. Li,
              "Deterministic Networking (DetNet) YANG Model", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-detnet-yang-16, 5
              February 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-
              ietf-detnet-yang-16.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-teas-ietf-network-slices]
              Farrel, A., Drake, J., Rokui, R., Homma, S., Makhijani,
              K., Contreras, L. M., and J. Tantsura, "Framework for IETF
              Network Slices", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-teas-ietf-network-slices-10, 27 March 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-teas-ietf-
              network-slices-10.txt>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.






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   [RFC7960]  Martin, F., Ed., Lear, E., Ed., Draegen, T., Ed., Zwicky,
              E., Ed., and K. Andersen, Ed., "Interoperability Issues
              between Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting,
              and Conformance (DMARC) and Indirect Email Flows",
              RFC 7960, DOI 10.17487/RFC7960, September 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7960>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [RFC8655]  Finn, N., Thubert, P., Varga, B., and J. Farkas,
              "Deterministic Networking Architecture", RFC 8655,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8655, October 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8655>.

   [RFC8938]  Varga, B., Ed., Farkas, J., Berger, L., Malis, A., and S.
              Bryant, "Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Data Plane
              Framework", RFC 8938, DOI 10.17487/RFC8938, November 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8938>.

   [RFC9055]  Grossman, E., Ed., Mizrahi, T., and A. Hacker,
              "Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Security
              Considerations", RFC 9055, DOI 10.17487/RFC9055, June
              2021, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9055>.

   [TS_28.530]
              3GPP, "Management and orchestration; Concepts, use cases
              and requirements",
              <https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/
              SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3273>.

11.2.  Informative References










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   [I-D.bestbar-teas-ns-packet]
              Saad, T., Beeram, V. P., Dong, J., Wen, B., Ceccarelli,
              D., Halpern, J., Peng, S., Chen, R., Liu, X., Contreras,
              L. M., Rokui, R., and L. Jalil, "Realizing Network Slices
              in IP/MPLS Networks", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-bestbar-teas-ns-packet-10, 5 May 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-bestbar-teas-ns-
              packet-10.txt>.

   [RFC8578]  Grossman, E., Ed., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases",
              RFC 8578, DOI 10.17487/RFC8578, May 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8578>.

Authors' Addresses

   Xueyan Song
   ZTE Corp.
   Nanjing
   China
   Phone: +86 25 88013062
   Email: song.xueyan2@zte.com.cn


   Haisheng Wu
   ZTE Corp.
   Nanjing
   China
   Email: wu.haisheng@zte.com.cn























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