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Versions: 00 01                                                         
Internet Engineering Task Force         Zhang, Sanchez, Salkewicz, Crawley
Internet-Draft                                 Bay Networks, Avici Systems
                                     Redback Networks, Gigapacket Networks
draft-zhang-qos-ospf-01.txt                                September, 1997


                Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF
                             or
                Quality Of Service Path First Routing
                           (QOSPF)





Status Of This Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working
documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
"1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet- Drafts Shadow
Directories on ds.internic.net (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim).


Abstract

This document describes a series of extensions for OSPF[1] and MOSPF[2]
that can be used to provide Quality of Service (QoS) routing in
conjunction with a resource reservation protocol such as RSVP[4] or
other mechanisms that can notify routing of the QoS needs of a data
flow. Advertisements indicating the resources available and the
resources used are advertised to the OSPF routing domain and paths are
computed based on topology information, link resource information, and
the resource requirements of a particular data flow.


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1.0 Introduction


QoS signalling protocols such as RSVP allow the instantiation of network
state to provide a specific service level to a data flow. RSVP is
specifically not a routing protocol but it does have interfaces to
routing in order to determine the forwarding of its own state messages.
Existing routing protocols are usually concerned only with topology
information and not network resources such as bandwidth, thus they all
have their limitations in providing integrated services. The following
figure is a simple illustration:

            +---+    +---+
            |H 1|    |H 2|
            +-+-+    +-+-+
              |        |
        +-----+--------+----+
        |         N1        |
        +-----+--------+----+
              |        |
            +-+-+    +-+-+
            |R 1|    |R 2|
            +-+-+    +-+-+
              \       /
       metric 1\     /metric 2
                \   /
                +---+
                |R 3|
                +-+-+
                  |
       +----------+--------+
       |         N2        |
       +-----+--------+----+
             |        |
           +-+-+    +-+-+
           |H 3|    |H 4|
           +---+    +---+

       FIGURE 1. Example Topology

Suppose host H1 is sending data to host H3 at rate R. The routing
protocol in use gives the shortest path as defined by the metrics,
H1-->R1-->R3-->H3. However, even if R1 does not have adequate resources
on its interface to R3 to handle the flow at the rate R, the route
H1-->R2-->R3-->H3 that does have adequate resources available, is not
used because the routing protocol always uses the shortest path.

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One solution is to let the routing protocols consider network resource
information as well as topology information when they calculate
routes. With the OSPF protocol, complete topology information is used to
calculate routes; in QOSPF, network resource information is added and
used to calculate "QoS routes" that can provide the resources needed for
the flow even though the route may not be strictly the shortest path.


2.0 Protocol Overview

2.1 Network Resource Information

In QOSPF, routers advertise network resource information as well as
topology information. A route for a data flow is calculated based on
topology, network resource information, and QoS requirements (e.g. the
TSpec of the RSVP PATH message) for the flow.

The network resource information includes available link resources on a
router as well as existing link resource reservations on the router. The
resource information is advertised in Link Resource Advertisements
(RES-LSAs) and Resource Reservation Advertisements (RRAs). Another type
of advertisement, Deterministic Area Border Router Advertisements
(DABRA), are needed for inter-area multicast QOSPF.

There are a lot of ways to represent network resource information. In
this document, we use Token Bucket parameters, as in the Controlled-Load
Service model[5]. It is expected that resource advertisements that are
related to other service models could be added over time.

The number of RRAs can easily get huge as the number of reserved flows
and network size grow, presenting a scaling issue. A solution to this
problem is addressed by Explicit Routing, discussed in Section 6.0.

2.2 Route Pinning

Topology and network resource information not only make it possible to
calculate a shortest route that satisfies the required QoS for a flow,
but also makes Route Pinning very easy to achieve. Route pinning means
that an existing route with a reservation will not be replaced by a
better route unless the existing one is no longer usable because of a
topology change directly related to the existing route.

2.3 Data-driven (Source, Destination) Route Computation

MOSPF uses data-driven (source, destination) routing. In other words, a
route is computed when the first packet for a (source, group) pair is
received. This is in contrast to unicast OSPF that pre-computes routes
based on destination only.

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In QOSPF, routing for QoS flows is based on (source, destination), and
routing computations are triggered by external events regardless of
whether the flow is unicast or multicast. The initial trigger for QoS
routing computation comes from a resource reservation protocol such as
an RSVP PATH message.

There are two reasons for (source, destination) routing in unicast QOSPF:

A. Resource reservations and RRAs are generally based on (src, dst);

B. When (source, destination) routing is used, flows with the same
   destination but different sources can follow different paths when
   necessary.

Note the (source, destination) routing used in unicast QOSPF does not
mean that the distribution tree must be rooted at the source. It only
means that the routing table lookup is based upon (source, destination)
rather than just the destination.

3.0  Resource Advertisements

Available and reserved network resources are advertised via Link
Resource Advertisements (RES-LSAs) and Resource Reservation Advertisements
(RRAs), respectively.

3.1  Link Resource Advertisement (RES-LSA)

A RES-LSA is very similar to a Router-LSA. The purpose of the RES-LSA is
to advertise the link resources available for each router in the
network. When calculating QoS routes, RES-LSAs are used instead of
Router-LSAs.

Each QOSPF router originates a RES-LSA for each area, listing the
largest amount of available resources for reservation on each of the
router's interfaces in the area, along with the link's delay
metric. This metric is roughly analogous to the standard OSPF cost
metric but is independent of the standard TOS metric to better
characterize the static delay properties of a link.

A new instance of RES-LSA is originated whenever a new Router-LSA
instance is originated for the area, or whenever the available bandwidth
resource or delay changes (significantly) for a link in the area.

An algorithm may be used so that a new RES-LSA is originated only when
the available bandwidth resource changes significantly. For example, a
router may choose to originate a new RES-LSA only when the change of
available bandwidth on a link exceeds a certain amount or certain
percentage of total/remaining bandwidth on the link. However, this can
cause routers to have incorrect resource information of the router and
the calculated routes may lead to reservation failures. Therefore, if a

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reservation attempt fails on a router, it should immediately advertise
its correct resource information.

Like Router-LSAs, RES-LSAs are flooded throughout a single area.

The format of RES-LSAs is shown in Figure 2.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            LS age             |     Options   |       16      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Link State ID                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Advertising Router                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     LS sequence number                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         LS checksum           |             length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    0    |V|E|B|        0      |            # links            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Link ID                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Link Data                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Link Type     |     0         |        TOS 0 metric           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Link Delay                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Available BW Resource: Token Bucket Depth                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Available BW Resource: Token Bucket Rate                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                       FIGURE 2. Resource LSA

The RES-LSA header is the same as all other LSA headers.

The V-bit, E-bit, B-bit, #Links, Link type, Link ID and Link data are
the same as in a Router LSA.

The available link resource is represented by token bucket parameters,
in IEEE single precision floating point format, as in the
Controlled-Load Service model[5].

The link delay is a static delay metric for the link, in units of
milliseconds.

The RES-LSA could be combined with regular Router-LSA because the delay
and resource information could be encoded as special TOS metrics in

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Router-LSAs.  However this would cause Router-LSAs to be updated much
more frequently and may have some impact to some current OSPF
implementations. Therefore, we choose to use a separate advertisement.

3.2  Resource Reservation Advertisement (RRA)

A Resource Reservation Advertisement describes a router's reservations
for a particular flow (source, destination) on its interfaces within an
area. The purpose of the RRA is to indicate the resources used by a flow
such that other routers are aware of the resources used by the flow when
they calculate or recalculate the tree for the flow. A new RRA is
originated whenever one or more of the router's reservations change in
the area.

Like RES-LSAs, RRAs are flooded throughout a single area.

The format of RRAs is shown in Figure 3.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |            LS age             |     Options   |       15      |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |opaque type: 11|            Opaque ID                          |  A
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   .................................................................  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |                        Destination                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Source                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |dst_prefix_len |src_prefix_len |        0      |   #Links      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |                          Link ID                              |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                         Link Data                             |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   | Link  Type    |     0       |p|           0                   |  B
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |     Reserved BW Resource: Token Bucket Depth                  |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |     Reserved BW Resource: Token Bucket Rate                   |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+

         A. Opaque LSA header         B. Repeated for each link

FIGURE 3.  Resource Reservation Advertisement with its Opaque LSA header

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RRAs are encapsulated in Opaque LSAs with type = 11. The Opaque ID is
chosen by the advertising router and the flooding scope is "area-local".

The Destination and Source are the IP address of the destination and
source of the data flow, respectively, and the dst_prefix_length and
src_prefix_length correspond to the length of the network mask of the
destination and source respectively. Usually they are just 0xffffffff.

The "#Links" is the number of links included in the RRA. For each link,
the Link type, Link ID and Link data are identical to the values used in
the Router LSA.

The P-bit in the 8-bit options field following the "Link Type" is a
pin-flag used for route-pinning discussed in Section 5.

The reserved bandwidth resource is represented by token bucket
parameters, in IEEE single precision floating point format, as in the
Controlled-Load Service model[5].

The reservation information comes from a resource reservation protocol,
such as RSVP or some other mechanism for reserving resources on the
node. Whenever a reservation is made or canceled, QOSPF will originate a
new instance of the RRA for the flow. RSVP SE style reservations can
cause multiple RRAs to be originated depending on the number of PATH
state that is matched, and a RSVP WF style reservation will cause a RRA
with a wildcard source (0) to be originated.

4.0  QOSPF Route Calculation

Input to the QOSPF Dijkstra calculation includes the source and
destination address and the QoS requirements for the flow, which are
currently the token bucket parameters from the RSVP PATH message but
could also come from other triggers.

The QOSPF Dijkstra calculation for an area is performed by processing
the area's RES-LSAs, Network-LSAs, RRAs, and Group-Membership-LSAs. The
latter is only used for the multicast case.

The key difference between the QOSPF Dijkstra and the normal OSPF/MOSPF
Dijkstra is that a router's RES-LSA rather than Router-LSA is used to
discover its neighbors, and links will be ignored if they do not have
sufficient resources (resource available plus already reserved) for the
flow.

To calculate the best or lowest-delay path, the delay metric in RES-LSAs
is used in the same way OSPF uses the TOS zero cost metric of Router-LSAs.

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4.1  Multicast QOSPF

4.1.1  Intra-area Multicast QOSPF

Like in normal MOSPF, the intra-area QoS SPF tree is
forward-linked. This means that the best path is chosen based on the
delay metrics from the source to the target.

4.1.2  Inter-Area Multicast QOSPF

In MOSPF, for a (source, group) pair, a tree has to be calculated for
each area and then the trees are combined into a global tree. When
calculating a tree for an area, if the source is in another area, the
root of the tree is set to all the ABRs that support MOSPF and have
valid Summary LSAs containing the source.

As shown in Figure 4, suppose the source is in area 0.0.0.0. When R5
and R6 calculate their trees for area 0.0.0.1, they will root the trees
at R2, R3, and R4.

                        +---+   +---+
                        |R 1+---+ H | source
                        +-+-+   +---+
                         /|\
                        / | \
                       /  |  \
                      /   |   \
                     /    |    \
                    /     |     \
                   /      |      \
                  /       |       \
               +-+-+    +-+-+    +-+-+  area 0.0.0.0
          .....|R.2|....|R.3|....|R.4|...................
               +-+-+    +-+-+    +-+-+  area 0.0.0.1
                 \       / \       /
                  \     /   \     /
                   \   /     \   /
                    \ /       \ /
                   +-+-+     +-+-+
                   |R 5|     |R 6|
                   +-+-+     +---+
                     |
                   +-+-+
                   |H 2|
                   +---+

                     FIGURE 4.  A Tree

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In QOSPF, links without adequate resources for a data flow are not
considered. So, in Figure 4, suppose the link R1->R3 does not have
enough bandwidth, then R3 will not be on the multicast tree for area
0.0.0.0 so it will not get the packets. Now when R5 and R6 calculate
trees for area 0.0.0.1, they should root the trees only at R2 and R4.

For this reason, after R2 and R4 finishes calculation for area 0.0.0.0,
they should notify routers in area 0.0.0.1 how to root the tree via
Deterministic ABR-Advertisements (DABRA).

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |            LS age             |     Options   |       15      |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |opaque type: 12|            Opaque ID                          |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                     Advertising Router                        |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  A
   |                     LS sequence number                        |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |         LS checksum           |             length            |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |        flooding scope         |       reserved                |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |                        Destination                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Source                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |src_prefix_len |dst_prefix_len |        0      |   #ABRs       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Flow spec:            Token Bucket Depth                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Flow spec:            Token Bucket Rate                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |                           Router ID                           |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  B
   |                             Delay                             |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+

             A. Opaque LSA header
             B. Repeated for each ABR on the tree

            FIGURE 5. DABRA with its Opaque LSA header

Each ABR on the QoS tree for the "source area" of a flow originates a
DABRA, listing all the ABRs on the tree, and floods it throughout all
"downstream areas". If the source of the flow is in one of the router's
directly attached areas, then the area is the "source area" and all
other areas are "downstream" areas; otherwise (the source is in an area
not directly attached to the router), the backbone area is the "source
area" and all non-backbone areas are "downstream areas".

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4.1.3  Inter-AS Multicast QOSPF

Similar to the inter-area case, there should be a notification about how
to root the tree. The details are not explored in this document.

4.1.4  Detailed Multicast QOSPF Dijkstra Calculation

The following procedure is a modification to section 12.2 in the
Multicast Extensions to OSPF, RFC 1584. It tries to build a multicast
distribution tree that satisfies the bandwidth resource requirement
first, then probably a partial best effort tree to cover the rest of
routers and networks.

Two new states are added to each vertex: the delay from the source to
the vertex, and the resource flag indicating if there is enough
bandwidth resource from the source to the vertex.

1) Initialize the algorithm's data structures as in RFC 1584. Set the
   initial delay to infinity and resource flag to FALSE.

2) Initialize the candidate list as in RFC 1584, with the following
   differences:

   A. In intra-area case, when a Network vertex is put into the
      candidate list, set the resource flag to TRUE and set the delay to
      0.

   B. In intra-area case, when a Router vertex is put into the candidate
      list, If its RES-LSA exists and is valid, set the resource flag to
      TRUE, and set the delay to 0.

   C. In inter-area cases, if the DABRA(s) for this flow exist and
      is/are valid, and the RES-LSA for an area border router that is
      both in one of the DABRAs and in the calculating area exists and
      is valid, set the resource flag of the vertex for the border
      router to TRUE, and set the delay to the delay value from the
      DABRA.

3) If the candidate list is empty, the algorithm terminates.

   Same as RFC 1584.

4) Move the closest candidate vertex to the shortest-path tree.

   If there are vertices with TRUE resource flags, the one with least
   delay is chosen. The same tie-breaker as in RFC 1584 applies.

   Otherwise, the one with least regular OSPF cost is chosen, and the
   same tie-breaker as in RFC 1584 applies.

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5) Examine Vertex V's neighbors for possible inclusion in the candidate
   list.  If V is a router vertex with a TRUE resource flag, consider
   the links in its RES-LSA. Otherwise, consider the links in its
   Router-LSA or Network-LSA.

   Each link (say L) describes a connection to a neighboring vertex (say
   W) or a stub network. Skip links connecting to stub networks.

   If W is already on the SPF tree, or if W's LSA does not contain a
   link back to vertex V (if vertex W is a router vertex use vertex W's
   Router LSA to make this determination as it is irrelevant whether or
   not there is reservable bandwidth in the reverse direction), or if W's
   LSA has LS age of MaxAge, or if W is not multicast capable (indicated
   by the MC-bit in W's Router LSA or RES-LSA's options field), skip the
   link.

   For each remaining link, perform the following:

   a. Calculate the cost between the source and vertex W (forward or
      backward), which is the sum of the cost between the source and V
      and the cost between V and W. Let it be C. Same as in RFC 1584.

      If all the following conditions are met:

         o V has a TRUE resource flag
         o if V is a router vertex, the resource on the link satisfies
           the requirement (the sum of available resource and existing
           reservation for the flow is equal to or greater than the
           requirement)
         o if W is a router vertex, the RES-LSA for W exists and is
           valid

      the delay from the source to W is also calculated as the sum of
      the delay from the source to V and the delay of the link from V to
      W. Let this sum be delay D.

      The delay of link L is 0 if V is a network vertex, otherwise it's
      the delay metric from vertex V's RES-LSA. It is always in the
      forward direction.

   b. If vertex W is not yet on the candidate list then install W on the
      candidate list and modify its parameters as described in RFC
      1584. If the delay D is calculated in step A, record it in W's
      delay state and set W's resource flag to TRUE (step 5d).

   c. Otherwise W is already on the candidate list and there are four
      possibilities:

      o W has a TRUE resource flag and D is NOT calculated in step 5a - W
        is already reachable via a path that has enough resource and
        this new path does not have enough resource - go to next link.

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      o W has a FALSE resource flag and D is calculated - the old path
        does not have enough resource but the new one has enough so it
        should be used - modify W as in RFC 1584, set W's resource flag
        to TRUE and record the delay D (step 5d).

      o W has a FALSE resource flag and D is not calculated - we are now
        building a best effort (partial) tree - process as in RFC 1584 -
        go to next link if the new path has higher cost, or modify W's
        parameters (step 5d) if the new path should be used because of
        either lower cost or a tie-breaker.

      o W has a TRUE resource flag and D is calculated - process as in
        RFC 1584 but use delay instead of regular OSPF cost - go to next
        link if the new path has higher delay, or modify W's parameters
        (step 5d) if the new path should be used because of either lower
        delay or a tie-breaker.

   d. Same as in RFC 1584, plus recording the delay value D and setting
      the resource flag to TURE when necessary.

6) go to step 3.

After the tree for area A is built, the calculating router determines if
area A is used to determine the upstream node in the same way as
described by RFC 1584. If the router is an ABR and area A is the "source
area" for the flow, a DABRA is also originated to advertise all area
border routers that are on the tree and have a TRUE resource flag. It is
flooded to all "downstream areas".

4.2  Unicast QOSPF

In terms of adding to and moving from the candidate list, unicast QOSPF
Dijkstra is very similar to multicast QOSPF so the Dijkstra details are
not discussed here.

4.2.1  Unicast QOSPF Dijkstra is needed in only one area

If the calculating router has multiple areas, then the best effort route
to the destination has to be found first to identify the area that needs
to run the Dijkstra:

1. If the route is an intra-area route, then the area that the route
   belongs to needs to run the Dijkstra to find a QoS route to the
   destination network.

2. If the route is an inter-area route, then backbone area needs to run
   the Dijkstra to find a QoS route to one of the ABRs that advertises
   the best effort route.

3. Suppose the route is an external route. If the ASBR used by the

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   external route is within one of the router's directly attached areas,
   then that area needs to run the Dijkstra to find out a QoS route to
   the ASBR; otherwise, backbone area needs to run the Dijkstra to find
   out a QoS route to one of the ABRs that advertise the ASBR.

Unlike best-effort Dijkstra, a complete tree for the area is not
needed. Once the shortest path to the destination network or the ABR or
the ASBR is found, the Dijkstra terminates.

4.2.2  Inter-area and Inter-AS Unicast QOSPF

In the case that the destination is not in a directly attached area,
things are more complicated because OSPF areas hide detailed topology
and network resource information. Using the topology in Figure 4
again; when R1 calculate a QoS route for (H, H2), it finds a QoS route
to ABR R2 that has a shortest best-effort route the destination, but R2
can not find a QoS route to the destination. R3 has a QoS route to the
destination but the QoS route from R1 to R3 was not calculated.

One way to solve the problem is let R2 send a "summary" to area 0.0.0.0
indicating that it does not have a QoS route for the particular flow, so
R1 will try to find a QoS route to R3. A router should send the summary
to each area that it sends the Type 3 Summary LSAs for the destination
network.  However this may not be good idea because there would be a large
number of such summaries.

4.3  QOSPF Dijkstra Recalculation

Recalculation occurs upon one or more of the following situations:

 o New instances of conventional OSPF/MOSPF LSAs, namely Network-LSAs,
   Summary-LSAs, AS External LSAs and Group-Membership-LSAs in multicast
   case - some or all QOSPF routes need to be recalculated (see MOSPF
   protocol spec for details in multicast case).

 o New instances of RRAs, and DABRAs in multicast case. Only the QOSPF
   routes related to the RRAs and DABRAs need to be recalculated.

 o New instances of RES-LSAs - All QOSPF routes need to be recalculated.

5.0  QOSPF Route Pinning

Route Pinning means that once reservations on a route from a source to a
destination have been made, the route will not be replaced with a better
route, unless the original one is no longer usable. Therefore, a pinned
path may not continue to be the shortest path. Control over route
pinning can be from a number of sources, such as configuration, flags
from a signaling protocol or other administrative controls.

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Because Resource Reservation Advertisements describe existing
reservations, the route pinning algorithm can be accomplished with a
simple modification to the QOSPF Dijkstra algorithm:

When the Dijkstra is run for a flow, if the links with existing
reservations for the flow are preferred the original path is
automatically preserved when possible. This will occur even if a new and
better path is available.

Sometimes it is desirable that only part of a QoS distribution tree is
pinned because it is possible to have some receivers that desire pinning and
some that do not. This can also be easily achieved if RSVP or some dynamic
mechanism can signal the desire for route pinning.

Suppose a router/host sends a RESV message to its previous hop router A, and
it indicates in the RESV message that it wants the path to be pinned. Router A
makes the reservation and notifies QOSPF that the path should be pinned.
When A originates an RRA for the flow, it sets the P-bit (pin-flag) in the
reservation for the link. When the route is recalculated, instead of
preferring all links with reservations, only those links with "pinned"
reservation are preferred, hence only part of the route is pinned.

Before the support from a signal protocol is available, a router simply sets
the p-bit in its RRAs to indicate that route pinning should be used if it is
configured so.

5.1  Route Pinning Dijkstra Modification

Their are two changes that are made to the QOSPF Dijkstra algorithm to
implement route pinning.

5.1.1  Adding vertices to the candidate list

When adding a vertex to the candidate list, if its parent has a
reservation for the flow on the link that leads to the vertex, and the
reservation has the P-bit set in the RRA, the vertex is marked as
"reserved"; or, if its parent is a network vertex marked as "reserved",
it is also marked as "reserved".

If a neighbor W, of a vertex V that is just moved to the SPF tree, is
already on the candidate list but not marked as "reserved", and it would
not be updated in the normal Q/MOSPF Dijkstra, it still is updated if
there is a reservation with the P-bit set for the flow on the link from
V to W.

In summary, vertices are moved from the candidate list to the SPF tree in
the order of three preference groups: vertices with the "reserved" marks;
vertices with the TRUE resource flags; and finally the rest best-effort
ones.

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5.1.2  Moving a vertex from the candidate list to the SPF tree

Of those vertices with TRUE resource flags, a vertex marked as
"reserved" is chosen with the smallest delay, even if there is an
un-reserved vertex with a smaller delay. Vertices that are un-reserved
are only moved to the SPF tree when there are no more "reserved"
vertices on the candidate list.

6.0  Explicit Routing OSPF (EROSPF)

QOSPF needs both available resource information and existing resource
reservation information in addition to the normal topology and
membership information. When the size of a routing domain or the number
of QoS data flows increases, there is a scaling problem because it takes
a lot of bandwidth, memory and CPU power to flood, store and process the
resource reservation information even though many of the routers may not
be interested in the information.

To alleviate this scaling problem, Explicit Routing (ER) can be used:
for a flow (source, destination) only the source router(s) (see
Section 6.1.1 and Section 6.2) calculate a route, and then the
forwarding information is distributed to the downstream routers along
the path.

Because other routers do not need to perform the Dijkstra calculation,
they are saved from this possible CPU-intensive computation. In the
QOSPF case, the resource reservation information only needs to be kept
on the source routers, thus saving bandwidth, memory, and CPU
cycles. EROSPF is also applicable to standard MOSPF to reduce the
computation needs of the transit routers.

6.1  Multicast Explicit Routing

The following discussion is in terms of a single area. In the multi-area
case, each area maintains a forwarding table, and a global forwarding
table comes from the merge of all the areas' forwarding tables.

6.1.1  Source Router Determination

The source router for a flow in an area is determined by one of the
following conditions:

  o the source of a flow is on a directly connected network within the
    area.
  o the router is an ABR and the source is not in the area.


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In other words, explicit routes are only calculated by the source router
and the border routers that the flow travels through. It is very
possible to have multiple source routers for a (source, destination)
pair. In this case, each source router will calculate the tree
separately, and then distribute forwarding information (i.e., its
subtree) to the downstream routers on its subtree.

6.1.2  Explicit Routing Advertisements (ERAs)

The forwarding information for a (source, destination) pair is contained
in an Explicit Routing Advertisement (ERA), which is passed in an Opaque
LSA along the subtree described by the ERA. The passing scope is
determined by information contained in the ERA.

There are two kinds of ERAs. One is an Installation-ERA, used to
distribute forwarding information and the other is a Flushing-ERA, used
to flush obsolete forwarding information.

6.1.2.1  Format of Installation-ERA

   The Format of Installation-ERAs is shown in Figure 6:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |            LS age             |     Options   |       15      |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |opaque type: 10|            Opaque ID                          |  A
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   .................................................................  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |                        Destination                            |  *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ERA
   |                          Source                               | hdr
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  *
   |src_prefix_len |dst_prefix_len |        Adjust Offset          |  *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -*
   | in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case| #outgoing intf|  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                   incoming intf address or index              |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  C**
   | out_intf_type |       0       |       chiled offset           |  | *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  | D
   |                   outgoing intf address or index              |  | *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+**

             A. Opaque LSA header          B. ERA header
             C. Repeated for each router on the (sub)tree
             D. Repeated for each outgoing interface

                FIGURE 6. Format of Installation-ERA

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ERAs are carried in Opaque LSAs with the Opaque type 10. The Opaque ID
is chosen by its originator. The flooding scope is no-flooding, meaning
that the receiver should not flood it out. However, when the receiver
parses the ERA, it will build new ERA(s) off the received one and send
out new ones with the same Opaque LSA header and ERA header (see
Section 6.1.6).

The source and destination masks are represented as prefix lengths.

Each ERA describes routers on a route tree. For each router, its
incoming interface and a list of outgoing interfaces are listed. The
interface type is the same as in OSPF Router LSAs. The interface is
represented as one of the following:

  o for a numbered interface, it is the ip address of the upstream (for
    incoming interface) or downstream (for outgoing interface) neighbor.
  o for an unnumbered point-to-point interface, it is the interface
    index.

The offset fields (adjust offset and child offset) are used to encode
the subtree into the ERA body, as explained in Section 6.1.3 and
Section 6.1.6.

6.1.2.2   Flushing-ERA

A Flushing-ERA is used to flush a previously advertised Installation-ERA
when the route changes (see Section 6.1.8). The flushing-ERA uses the
MaxAge instance of the previously advertised ERA with an empty ERA body.

6.1.3  Creating Installation-ERAs

After a source router finishes a route calculation, it builds an ERA to
encode the subtree that has the router itself as the root. The subtree
is traversed in "preorder". In the example in Figure 7 (numbers are
interface addresses or indices), the source router A will build an ERA
listing routers in the order of A,B,D,E,C.

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     ==============+=====================           source net
                   |
                   | 0
                 +-+-+
                 | A |
                 +-+-+
                 1/ \2
                 /   \
              +-+-+ +-+-+
              | B | | C |
              +-+-+ +-+-+
               / \
             3/   \4
           +-+-+ +-+-+
           | D | | E |
           +-+-+ +-+-+

                       FIGURE 7. An example

The "adjust offset" is set to 0 by the source router. Except for the
first router placed into the ERA, when a router is added to the ERA, the
"child offset" of the parent's outgoing interface leading to the router
is set to the offset of the router in the ERA body. Note that all
offsets are relative to the ERA body. After building the whole ERA, the
source router builds one ERA for each subtree under itself and unicasts
the ERA to the root of the subtree, which is the first router listed in
the ERA. For example, router A will build an ERA for the subtree rooted
at B and unicast it to B, and build an ERA for the subtree rooted at C
and unicasts it to C. This building process is pretty simple and is
described in Section 6.1.6. However, the source router only stores
the ERA for the whole tree and not newly built ERAs. The ERA for the
subtree rooted at A is shown in Figure 8.

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     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
    |            LS age             |     Options   |       15      |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
    |opaque type: 10|            Opaque ID                          |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
    .................................................................
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
    |                        Destination                            |  *
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ERA
    |                          Source                               | hdr
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  *
    |src_prefix_len |dst_prefix_len |        Adjust Offset: 0       |  *
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -*
  0 | in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 2|  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  4 |                   incoming intf address or index: 0           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  8 | out_intf_type |       0       |       chiled offset: 24       |  A
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  12|                   outgoing intf address or index: 1           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  16| out_intf_type |       0       |       chiled offset: 64       |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  20|                   outgoing intf address or index: 2           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
  24| in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 2|  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  28|                   incoming intf address or index: 1           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  32| out_intf_type |       0       |       chiled offset: 48       |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  B
  36|                   outgoing intf address or index: 3           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  40| out_intf_type |       0       |       chiled offset: 56       |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
  44|                   outgoing intf address or index: 4           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
  48| in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 0|  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  D
  52|                   incoming intf address or index: 3           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
  56| in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 0|  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  E
  60|                   incoming intf address or index: 4           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
  64| in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 0|  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  C
  68|                   incoming intf address or index: 2           |  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
               FIGURE 8. The ERA for the subtree in Figure 7

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6.1.4  Using Multiple ERAs for Long Routes

The structure and processing of the ERA allows the router computing the
route to encode as much of the route as can fit in a packet. The source
router can send an ERA to a downstream router that is not an immediate
neighbor providing the subtree that continues from the downstream
router. It is not likely that this facility would be used often in many
networks.

6.1.5  Transmitting, acknowledging, and storing of ERAs:

A source router stores in its database ERAs (together with their Opaque
LSA header) for trees with itself as the root. An ERA built for an
immediate downstream neighbor is unicast to the incoming interface of
the first router in the ERA (the first router in the ERA is always the
receiver), encapsulated in an Opaque LSA.

A router also stores in its database ERAs received from its parents, but
not those ERAs built for its downstream neighbors.

The acknowledgment and retransmission mechanism is the same as that used
for conventional LSAs. Since the transmission and acknowledgment of OSPF
LSAs are between adjacent neighbors while sometimes ERAs and DABRAs need
to be sent to non-adjacent routers, a special pair of update/ack packets
are needed for ERAs for DABRAs. See Section 7.3

6.1.6   Processing of Installation-ERAs:

The first listed router in a received ERA is always the receiver itself.

Upon ERA receipt, the forwarding entry for a (source, destination) pair
is installed (or updated) and associated with the ERA.

If there is a previous instance of the Installation-ERA, to each
immediate downstream neighbor listed in the previous instance of the ERA
but not in the new ERA, send a Flushing-ERA with the same header as that
of the previous instance.

For each immediate downstream neighbor listed in the received ERA, a new
ERA is constructed from the received ERA and sent to the incoming
interface of the first listed router in the newly constructed ERA. The
Opaque LSA header and the ERA header remain the same, however. The new
ERA's "adjust offset" is set to the "child offset" associated with the
outgoing interface in the received ERA that leads to the neighbor. The
child offsets are not changed in the new ERA. The subtree for the
neighbor is then copied into the new ERA. The subtree is in the
following range of the RECEIVED ERA BODY:

[child offset - old adjust offset, next child offset - old adjust offset]

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If there is no "next child", then the remaining portion of the ERA body
is copied. Notice that the encoding work done by the source, and the
offset fields make the downstream routers' job a matter of copying and
shifting.

In the example in Figure 7, A will build two ERAs from the ERA for
itself, one for B and the other for C. The two ERAs are illustrated in
Figure 9.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |            LS age             |     Options   |       15      |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |opaque type: 10|            Opaque ID                          |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                     Advertising Router                        |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                     LS sequence number                        |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |         LS checksum           |             length            |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |        flooding scope         |       reserved                |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |                        Destination                            |  *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  *
   |                          Source                               |  *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  *
   |src_prefix_len |dst_prefix_len |        Adjust Offset: 24      |  *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -*
 0 | in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 2|  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
 4 |                   incoming intf address or index: 1           |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
 8 | out_intf_type |       0       |       chiled offset: 48       |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  B
 12|                   outgoing intf address or index: 3           |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
 16| out_intf_type |       0       |       chiled offset: 56       |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
 20|                   outgoing intf address or index: 4           |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
 24| in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 0|  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  D
 28|                   incoming intf address or index: 3           |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
 32| in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 0|  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  E
 36|                   incoming intf address or index: 4           |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+

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    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |            LS age             |     Options   |       15      |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |opaque type: 10|            Opaque ID                          |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                     Advertising Router                        |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                     LS sequence number                        |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |         LS checksum           |             length            |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |        flooding scope         |       reserved                |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+
   |                        Destination                            |  *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  *
   |                          Source                               |  ERA
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  hdr
   |src_prefix_len |dst_prefix_len |        Adjust Offset:  64     |  *
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -*
 0 | in_intf_type  | mospf_il_type |mospf_init_case|#outgoing if: 0|  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  C
 4 |                   incoming intf address or index: 2           |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -+

            FIGURE 9. ERAs built by A for B and C

6.1.7  Processing of Flushing-ERAs

Upon receipt of a Flushing-ERA, the corresponding Installation-ERA is
found and a MaxAge Flushing-ERA is constructed and sent out with same
header as the existing ERA for each immediate downstream neighbor in the
Installation-ERA. If a forwarding entry exists for the corresponding
Installation-ERA, the forwarding entry's incoming interface is set to
NULL (so that no packets for the (source, group) will be accepted on the
interface) if there are no other Installation-ERAs for the (s, g). If
other Installation-ERAs exist, a new forwarding entry is constructed for
the (source, group) pair. If there is no forwarding entry for the
(source, group), forwarding entry with a NULL incoming interface is
installed to prevent forwarding of any received packet for the (source,
group) pair.

6.1.8  Route Change

For all routers, if the upstream neighbor or interface of the first
router in an ERA goes down, a MaxAge Flushing-ERA is immediately sent to
each immediate downstream neighbor to flush the ERA. This does not need
to wait until the source finishes recalculation.

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When there is a topology change, the source routers recalculate the
tree, and send updated ERAs along their subtrees. New ERAs are carried
in the Opaque LSAs with the same Opaque ID as in the old ones, but with
a larger sequence number.

For all routers, if a previous downstream neighbor is no longer listed
in a newer ERA, a Flushing-ERA with the same header of the previous
instance of the new ERA is sent to the neighbor to flush its
corresponding Installation-ERA.

6.2  Unicast Explicit Routing

While Multicast ER makes sense even if QOSPF is not used, Unicast
Explicit Routing is needed only for QoS routing.

A router is a source router for a unicast flow (source, destination)
when one of the following conditions exists:

  o The source is on one of the router's directly connected networks in
    the area that needs the Dijkstra, or,
  o The source is not in the area, and the router is an ABR.

The multicast ERA is also used for unicast, but in the unicast case, the
"MOSPF IL Type", "MOSPF Init Case", and incoming interface are not used,
and the number of outgoing interface is always 1.

6.3  Changes of behavior of QOSPF if Explicit Routing is used

Explicit Routing is introduced to address QOSPF's scaling problem, but
QOSPF does not logically depend on Explicit Routing. The discussions in
Section 3.0 and Section 4.0 have been assuming that no ER is used.
When ER is used, the following behaviors of QOSPF are changed:

6.3.1  Flooding scope of RRAs

RRAs are no longer flooded throughout an area. Instead, a RRA is sent to
the source router that advertised the explicit route (branch) to the
originator of the RRA. If the source router is on the source network in
the same area, it then uses "link-local" scope to flood the RRAs to
other routers on the source network.

6.3.2  Flooding scope of DABRAs

DABRAs are no longer flooded throughout "downstream areas" of the
"source area". Instead, a DABRA is sent to all the ABRs on the route in
the "source area".

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6.4  Quick Scaling Performance Analysis

The Scaling problems with QOSPF are primarily caused by RRAs, so let's
do a scaling analysis in terms of number of RRAs flooded per second,
based on the following area configuration:

Number of routers in the area:                         R
Average number of routers on a multicast tree:         M = abs(sqr_root(R))
Average number of flows that sources from a router:    F
Period of time during which to set up all the flows:   T = 10 seconds

For each flow, each router has to originate a RRA, so there will be (R *
M * F) RRAs originated.

If explicit routing (ER) is not used, each router will get all the RRAs,
so the R routers will receive (R * F * M - F) RRAs (a router does not
need to receive its own RRAs), i.e, (R * F * M - F)/10 RRAs have to be
transmitted per second.

If ER is used, only the source routers will receive the RRAs. Assuming
those RRAs are sent to the source router following the reversed
multicast path, then at most (1 + 2 +,,, + (M - 2) + (M - 1))
transmissions are needed for each flow, or F * (1 + 2 +... + (M -2) + (M
- 1))/10 RRAs have to be transmitted per second.

Changing the value of R, we have the following result:

Number of routers (R):          9     16     25     36     49    64
Number of RRAs per sec w/ ER:   0.3F  0.6F   1.0F   1.5F   2.1F  2.8F
Number of RRAs per sec w/o ER:  2.6F  6.3F   9.9F   21.5F  34.2F 51.1F

It is clear that QOSPF does not scale without ER but it scales well with ER.

7.0  Changes to OSPF to accommodate QOSPF/ER

Because of the new functionality and new types of LSAs, the following
changes are needed to accommodate QOSPF or ER.

7.1 The Options field

The Options field in OSPF Hello, Database Description packet and all LSAs
indicates what optional capabilities a router supports.

A new bit must be added to the Options field: the Q-bit. If set, it means the
router supports QOSPF and understands RES-LSAs. The Q-bit matters only in
Database Description packets and Router LSAs.

                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
                     | * | Q |DC |EA |N/P|MC | E | * |
                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+-+-+

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When a router exchanges its database with a neighbor, it only sends the
neighbor those types of LSAs that the neighbor understands. If the neighbor
does not set the Q-bit in its Database Description packets, the router
should not include RES-LSAs in its Database Description packets and LS
Update packets.

QOSPF Dijkstra should not be used if there is at least one router that
does not support QOSPF comes up in an area. This is indicated by the
existence of a valid Router-LSA with the Q-bit cleared in the Options field.

However, note that if all multicast-capable routers supports QOSPF, then
the QOSPF Dijkstra for multicast can still be used.


7.3  New Types of OSPF packets

OSPF requires that any LSAs be exchanged between neighbors that are
supposed to become adjacent and a Link State Update/Ack packet would
simply be discarded if it is from a neighbor with a state less than
ExStart.  However, when ER is used, the RRAs and ERAs may be sent to
non-adjacent routers. The solution is to invent a new pair of update/ack
packets that do not require adjacency to transmit/acknowledge RRAs and
ERAs when ER is used. The same acknowledgment/retransmission scheme as
those between adjacent neighbors can be used to ensure reliable
transmission of RRAs and ERAs.

8.0  Security Considerations

Given that QOSPF could be triggered by RSVP, it is expected that the
security mechanisms for RSVP will provide authorization and access
control for QOSPF routing calculations. Additionally, the OSPF security
mechanisms for authenticating neighbors and data received are very
important for explicit routing since ER packets can change forwarding
state in a very direct manner. Especially, since an ERA can be sent to a
router on a different network, ERA packets' authentication should be per
area instead of per interface.

9.0  Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the following people/organizations
for making this protocol come together:

o Tim Trapp of Thompson International for the initial problem,
  constraints, as well as constructive discussions.

o E-Systems, Inc. Particularly, Hai Nguyen, Gerry Rosen, and Thomas
  Grill for their patience and perserverence during some of the
  difficult design and development phases.

o John Krawczyk, Ross Callon, Mohd Bashar, Mike Davis, Ambrose Kwong,
  Billy Ng and Dennis Baker for useful design comments.

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INTERNET DRAFT     draft-zhang-qos-ospf-01.txt           September, 1997

o The IP group and Multimedia group at Bay Networks for lots of coding
  and debugging support.

10.0  Notice Regarding Intellectual Property Rights

Bay Networks may seek patent or other intellectual property protection
for some or all of the technologies disclosed in this document. If any
standards arising from this disclosure are or become protected by one or
more patents assigned to Bay Networks, Bay Networks intends to disclose
those patents and license them on reasonable and non-discriminatory
terms. Future revisions of this draft may contain additional information
regarding specific intellectual property protection sought or received.

11.0  References

1. J. Moy, OSPF Version 2, Request for Comments (RFC) 1583

2. J. Moy, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, Request for Comments(RFC) 1584,
   March 1994.

3. R. Coltun, The OSPF Opaque LSA Option, Internet Draft,
   draft-coltun-ospf-opaque-01.txt

4. R. Braden, L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog, S. Jamin. Resource
   ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) - Version 1 Functional Specification,
   Internet Draft, draft-ietf-rsvp-spec-12.txt, May 1996.

5. J. Wroclawski, Specification of the Controlled-Load Network Element
   Service, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-intserv-ctrl-load-svc-01.txt,
   November, 1995.

12.0  Authors' Addresses

Zhaohui (Jeffrey) Zhang
Bay Networks, Inc.
2 Federal Street
Billerica, MA 01821
+1 508-670-8888
zzhang@baynetworks.com

Cheryl Sanchez
Avici Systems, Inc.
12 Elizabeth Drive.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
+1 508-250-3344
csanchez@Avici.com

Bill Salkewicz, bills@redbacknetworks.com

Eric S. Crawley
Gigapacket Networks, Inc.
25 Porter Road
Littleton, MA 01460
508-486-0665
esc@gigapacket.com

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