Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                  C. Filsfils, Ed.
Request for Comments: 9087                                    S. Previdi
Category: Informational                                    G. Dawra, Ed.
ISSN: 2070-1721                                      Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                                E. Aries
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                            D. Afanasiev
                                                                  Yandex
                                                             August 2021


        Segment Routing Centralized BGP Egress Peer Engineering

Abstract

   Segment Routing (SR) leverages source routing.  A node steers a
   packet through a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by
   prepending the packet with an SR header.  A segment can represent any
   instruction, topological or service based.  SR allows for the
   enforcement of a flow through any topological path while maintaining
   per-flow state only at the ingress node of the SR domain.

   The Segment Routing architecture can be directly applied to the MPLS
   data plane with no change on the forwarding plane.  It requires a
   minor extension to the existing link-state routing protocols.

   This document illustrates the application of Segment Routing to solve
   the BGP Egress Peer Engineering (BGP-EPE) requirement.  The SR-based
   BGP-EPE solution allows a centralized (Software-Defined Networking,
   or SDN) controller to program any egress peer policy at ingress
   border routers or at hosts within the domain.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9087.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Problem Statement
     1.2.  Requirements Language
   2.  BGP Peering Segments
   3.  Distribution of Topology and TE Information Using BGP-LS
     3.1.  PeerNode SID to D
     3.2.  PeerNode SID to E
     3.3.  PeerNode SID to F
     3.4.  First PeerAdj to F
     3.5.  Second PeerAdj to F
     3.6.  Fast Reroute (FRR)
   4.  BGP-EPE Controller
     4.1.  Valid Paths from Peers
     4.2.  Intra-Domain Topology
     4.3.  External Topology
     4.4.  SLA Characteristics of Each Peer
     4.5.  Traffic Matrix
     4.6.  Business Policies
     4.7.  BGP-EPE Policy
   5.  Programming an Input Policy
     5.1.  At a Host
     5.2.  At a Router - SR Traffic-Engineering Tunnel
     5.3.  At a Router - Unicast Route Labeled Using BGP (RFC 8277)
     5.4.  At a Router - VPN Policy Route
   6.  IPv6 Data Plane
   7.  Benefits
   8.  IANA Considerations
   9.  Manageability Considerations
   10. Security Considerations
   11. References
     11.1.  Normative References
     11.2.  Informative References
   Acknowledgements
   Contributors
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   The document is structured as follows:

   *  Section 1 states the BGP-EPE problem statement and provides the
      key references.

   *  Section 2 defines the different BGP Peering Segments and the
      semantic associated to them.

   *  Section 3 describes the automated allocation of BGP Peering
      Segment-IDs (SIDs) by the BGP-EPE-enabled egress border router and
      the automated signaling of the external peering topology and the
      related BGP Peering SIDs to the collector [RFC9086].

   *  Section 4 overviews the components of a centralized BGP-EPE
      controller.  The definition of the BGP-EPE controller is outside
      the scope of this document.

   *  Section 5 overviews the methods that could be used by the
      centralized BGP-EPE controller to implement a BGP-EPE policy at an
      ingress border router or at a source host within the domain.  The
      exhaustive definition of all the means to program a BGP-EPE input
      policy is outside the scope of this document.

   For editorial reasons, the solution is described with IPv6 addresses
   and MPLS SIDs.  This solution is equally applicable to IPv4 with MPLS
   SIDs and also to IPv6 with native IPv6 SIDs.

1.1.  Problem Statement

   The BGP-EPE problem statement is defined in [RFC7855].

   A centralized controller should be able to instruct an ingress
   Provider Edge (PE) router or a content source within the domain to
   use a specific egress PE and a specific external interface/neighbor
   to reach a particular destination.

   Let's call this solution "BGP-EPE" for "BGP Egress Peer Engineering".
   The centralized controller is called the "BGP-EPE controller".  The
   egress border router where the BGP-EPE traffic steering functionality
   is implemented is called a BGP-EPE-enabled border router.  The input
   policy programmed at an ingress border router or at a source host is
   called a BGP-EPE policy.

   The requirements that have motivated the solution described in this
   document are listed here below:

   *  The solution MUST apply to the Internet use case where the
      Internet routes are assumed to use IPv4 unlabeled or IPv6
      unlabeled.  It is not required to place the Internet routes in a
      VPN Routing and Forwarding (VRF) instance and allocate labels on a
      per-route or per-path basis.

   *  The solution MUST support any deployed Internal BGP (iBGP) schemes
      (Route Reflectors (RRs), confederations, or iBGP full meshes).

   *  The solution MUST be applicable to both routers with external and
      internal peers.

   *  The solution should minimize the need for new BGP capabilities at
      the ingress PEs.

   *  The solution MUST accommodate an ingress BGP-EPE policy at an
      ingress PE or directly at a source within the domain.

   *  The solution MAY support automated Fast Reroute (FRR) and fast
      convergence mechanisms.

   The following reference diagram is used throughout this document.

   +---------+      +------+
   |         |      |      |
   |    H    B------D      G
   |         | +---/| AS 2 |\  +------+
   |         |/     +------+ \ |      |---L/8
   A   AS1   C---+            \|      |
   |         |\\  \  +------+ /| AS 4 |---M/8
   |         | \\  +-E      |/ +------+
   |    X    |  \\   |      K
   |         |   +===F AS 3 |
   +---------+       +------+

                        Figure 1: Reference Diagram

   IP addressing:

   *  C's interface to D: 2001:db8:cd::c/64, D's interface:
      2001:db8:cd::d/64

   *  C's interface to E: 2001:db8:ce::c/64, E's interface:
      2001:db8:ce::e/64

   *  C's upper interface to F: 2001:db8:cf1::c/64, F's interface:
      2001:db8:cf1::f/64

   *  C's lower interface to F: 2001:db8:cf2::c/64, F's interface:
      2001:db8:cf2::f/64

   *  BGP router-ID of C: 192.0.2.3

   *  BGP router-ID of D: 192.0.2.4

   *  BGP router-ID of E: 192.0.2.5

   *  BGP router-ID of F: 192.0.2.6

   *  Loopback of F used for External BGP (eBGP) multi-hop peering to C:
      2001:db8:f::f/128

   *  C's loopback is 2001:db8:c::c/128 with SID 64

   C's BGP peering:

   *  Single-hop eBGP peering with neighbor 2001:db8:cd::d (D)

   *  Single-hop eBGP peering with neighbor 2001:db8:ce::e (E)

   *  Multi-hop eBGP peering with F on IP address 2001:db8:f::f (F)

   C's resolution of the multi-hop eBGP session to F:

   *  Static route to 2001:db8:f::f/128 via 2001:db8:cf1::f

   *  Static route to 2001:db8:f::f/128 via 2001:db8:cf2::f

   C is configured with a local policy that defines a BGP PeerSet as the
   set of peers (2001:db8:ce::e for E and 2001:db8:f::f for F).

   X is the BGP-EPE controller within the AS1 domain.

   H is a content source within the AS1 domain.

1.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  BGP Peering Segments

   As defined in [RFC8402], certain segments are defined by a BGP-EPE-
   capable node and correspond to their attached peers.  These segments
   are called BGP Peering Segments or BGP Peering SIDs.  They enable the
   expression of source-routed inter-domain paths.

   An ingress border router of an AS may compose a list of segments to
   steer a flow along a selected path within the AS, towards a selected
   egress border router C of the AS and through a specific peer.  At
   minimum, a BGP Egress Peer Engineering policy applied at an ingress
   EPE involves two segments: the Node SID of the chosen egress EPE and
   then the BGP Peering Segment for the chosen egress EPE peer or
   peering interface.

   [RFC8402] defines three types of BGP Peering Segments/SIDs: PeerNode
   SID, PeerAdj SID, and PeerSet SID.

      Peer Node Segment:  A segment describing a peer, including the SID
         (PeerNode SID) allocated to it

      Peer Adjacency Segment:  A segment describing a link, including
         the SID (PeerAdj SID) allocated to it

      Peer Set Segment:  A segment describing a link or a node that is
         part of the set, including the SID (PeerSet SID) allocated to
         the set

3.  Distribution of Topology and TE Information Using BGP-LS

   In ships-in-the-night mode with respect to the pre-existing iBGP
   design, a Border Gateway Protocol - Link State (BGP-LS) [RFC7752]
   session is established between the BGP-EPE-enabled border router and
   the BGP-EPE controller.

   As a result of its local configuration and according to the behavior
   described in [RFC9086], Node C allocates the following BGP Peering
   Segments [RFC8402]:

   *  A PeerNode segment for each of its defined peers (D: 1012, E: 1022
      and F: 1052).

   *  A PeerAdj segment for each recursing interface to a multi-hop peer
      (e.g., the upper and lower interfaces from C to F in Figure 1).

   *  A PeerSet segment to the set of peers (E and F).  In this case,
      the PeerSet represents a set of peers (E, F) belonging to the same
      AS (AS 3).

   C programs its forwarding table accordingly:

      +================+===========+===============================+
      | Incoming Label | Operation | Outgoing Interface            |
      +================+===========+===============================+
      | 1012           | POP       | link to D                     |
      +----------------+-----------+-------------------------------+
      | 1022           | POP       | link to E                     |
      +----------------+-----------+-------------------------------+
      | 1032           | POP       | upper link to F               |
      +----------------+-----------+-------------------------------+
      | 1042           | POP       | lower link to F               |
      +----------------+-----------+-------------------------------+
      | 1052           | POP       | load balance on any link to F |
      +----------------+-----------+-------------------------------+
      | 1060           | POP       | load balance on any link to E |
      |                |           | or to F                       |
      +----------------+-----------+-------------------------------+

                                 Table 1

   C signals each related BGP-LS instance of Network Layer Reachability
   Information (NLRI) to the BGP-EPE controller.  Each such BGP-LS route
   is described in the following subsections according to the encoding
   details defined in [RFC9086].

3.1.  PeerNode SID to D

   Descriptors:

   *  Local Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN, BGP-LS Identifier):
      192.0.2.3, AS1, 1000

   *  Remote Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN): 192.0.2.4, AS2

   *  Link Descriptors (IPv6 Interface Address, IPv6 Neighbor Address):
      2001:db8:cd::c, 2001:db8:cd::d

   Attributes:

   *  PeerNode SID: 1012

3.2.  PeerNode SID to E

   Descriptors:

   *  Local Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN, BGP-LS Identifier):
      192.0.2.3, AS1, 1000

   *  Remote Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN): 192.0.2.5, AS3

   *  Link Descriptors (IPv6 Interface Address, IPv6 Neighbor Address):
      2001:db8:ce::c, 2001:db8:ce::e

   Attributes:

   *  PeerNode SID: 1022

   *  PeerSetSID: 1060

   *  Link Attributes: see Section 3.3.2 of [RFC7752]

3.3.  PeerNode SID to F

   Descriptors:

   *  Local Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN, BGP-LS Identifier):
      192.0.2.3, AS1, 1000

   *  Remote Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN): 192.0.2.6, AS3

   *  Link Descriptors (IPv6 Interface Address, IPv6 Neighbor Address):
      2001:db8:c::c, 2001:db8:f::f

   Attributes:

   *  PeerNode SID: 1052

   *  PeerSetSID: 1060

3.4.  First PeerAdj to F

   Descriptors:

   *  Local Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN, BGP-LS Identifier):
      192.0.2.3, AS1, 1000

   *  Remote Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN): 192.0.2.6, AS3

   *  Link Descriptors (IPv6 Interface Address, IPv6 Neighbor Address):
      2001:db8:cf1::c, 2001:db8:cf1::f

   Attributes:

   *  PeerAdj-SID: 1032

   *  Link Attributes: see Section 3.3.2 of [RFC7752]

3.5.  Second PeerAdj to F

   Descriptors:

   *  Local Node Descriptors (BGP router-ID, ASN, BGP-LS Identifier):
      192.0.2.3 , AS1, 1000

   *  Remote Node Descriptors (peer router-ID, peer ASN): 192.0.2.6, AS3

   *  Link Descriptors (IPv6 Interface Address, IPv6 Neighbor Address):
      2001:db8:cf2::c, 2001:db8:cf2::f

   Attributes:

   *  PeerAdj-SID: 1042

   *  Link Attributes: see Section 3.3.2 of [RFC7752]

3.6.  Fast Reroute (FRR)

   A BGP-EPE-enabled border router MAY allocate an FRR backup entry on a
   per-BGP-Peering-SID basis.  One example is as follows:

   *  PeerNode SID

      1.  If multi-hop, back up via the remaining PeerADJ SIDs (if
          available) to the same peer.

      2.  Else, back up via another PeerNode SID to the same AS.

      3.  Else, pop the PeerNode SID and perform an IP lookup.

   *  PeerAdj SID

      1.  If to a multi-hop peer, back up via the remaining PeerADJ SIDs
          (if available) to the same peer.

      2.  Else, back up via a PeerNode SID to the same AS.

      3.  Else, pop the PeerNode SID and perform an IP lookup.

   *  PeerSet SID

      1.  Back up via remaining PeerNode SIDs in the same PeerSet.

      2.  Else, pop the PeerNode SID and IP lookup.

   Let's illustrate different types of possible backups using the
   reference diagram and considering the Peering SIDs allocated by C.

   PeerNode SID 1052, allocated by C for peer F:

   *  Upon the failure of the upper connected link CF, C can reroute all
      the traffic onto the lower CF link to the same peer (F).

   PeerNode SID 1022, allocated by C for peer E:

   *  Upon the failure of the connected link CE, C can reroute all the
      traffic onto the link to PeerNode SID 1052 (F).

   PeerNode SID 1012, allocated by C for peer D:

   *  Upon the failure of the connected link CD, C can pop the PeerNode
      SID and look up the IP destination address in its FIB and route
      accordingly.

   PeerSet SID 1060, allocated by C for the set of peers E and F:

   *  Upon the failure of a connected link in the group, the traffic to
      PeerSet SID 1060 is rerouted on any other member of the group.

   For specific business reasons, the operator might not want the
   default FRR behavior applied to a PeerNode SID or any of its
   dependent PeerADJ SIDs.

   The operator should be able to associate a specific backup PeerNode
   SID for a PeerNode SID; e.g., 1022 (E) must be backed up by 1012 (D),
   which overrules the default behavior that would have preferred F as a
   backup for E.

4.  BGP-EPE Controller

   In this section, Let's provide a non-exhaustive set of inputs that a
   BGP-EPE controller would likely collect such as to perform the BGP-
   EPE policy decision.

   The exhaustive definition is outside the scope of this document.

4.1.  Valid Paths from Peers

   The BGP-EPE controller should collect all the BGP paths (i.e., IP
   destination prefixes) advertised by all the BGP-EPE-enabled border
   routers.

   This could be realized by setting an iBGP session with the BGP-EPE-
   enabled border router, with the router configured to advertise all
   paths using BGP ADD-PATH [RFC7911] and the original next hop
   preserved.

   In this case, C would advertise the following Internet routes to the
   BGP-EPE controller:

   *  NLRI <2001:db8:abcd::/48>, next hop 2001:db8:cd::d, AS Path
      {AS 2, 4}

      -  X (i.e., the BGP-EPE controller) knows that C receives a path
         to 2001:db8:abcd::/48 via neighbor 2001:db8:cd::d of AS2.

   *  NLRI <2001:db8:abcd::/48>, next hop 2001:db8:ce::e, AS Path
      {AS 3, 4}

      -  X knows that C receives a path to 2001:db8:abcd::/48 via
         neighbor 2001:db8:ce::e of AS2.

   *  NLRI <2001:db8:abcd::/48>, next hop 2001:db8:f::f, AS Path
      {AS 3, 4}

      -  X knows that C has an eBGP path to 2001:db8:abcd::/48 via AS3
         via neighbor 2001:db8:f::f.

   An alternative option would be for a BGP-EPE collector to use the BGP
   Monitoring Protocol (BMP) [RFC7854] to track the Adj-RIB-In of BGP-
   EPE-enabled border routers.

4.2.  Intra-Domain Topology

   The BGP-EPE controller should collect the internal topology and the
   related IGP SIDs.

   This could be realized by collecting the IGP Link-State Database
   (LSDB) of each area or running a BGP-LS session with a node in each
   IGP area.

4.3.  External Topology

   Thanks to the collected BGP-LS routes described in Section 3, the
   BGP-EPE controller is able to maintain an accurate description of the
   egress topology of Node C.  Furthermore, the BGP-EPE controller is
   able to associate BGP Peering SIDs to the various components of the
   external topology.

4.4.  SLA Characteristics of Each Peer

   The BGP-EPE controller might collect Service Level Agreement (SLA)
   characteristics across peers.  This requires a BGP-EPE solution, as
   the SLA probes need to be steered via non-best-path peers.

   Unidirectional SLA monitoring of the desired path is likely required.
   This might be possible when the application is controlled at the
   source and the receiver side.  Unidirectional monitoring dissociates
   the SLA characteristic of the return path (which cannot usually be
   controlled) from the forward path (the one of interest for pushing
   content from a source to a consumer and the one that can be
   controlled).

   Alternatively, Metric Extensions, as defined in [RFC8570], could also
   be advertised using BGP-LS [RFC8571].

4.5.  Traffic Matrix

   The BGP-EPE controller might collect the traffic matrix to its peers
   or the final destinations.  IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
   [RFC7011] is a likely option.

   An alternative option consists of collecting the link utilization
   statistics of each of the internal and external links, also available
   in the current definition in [RFC7752].

4.6.  Business Policies

   The BGP-EPE controller should be configured or collect business
   policies through any desired mechanisms.  These mechanisms by which
   these policies are configured or collected are outside the scope of
   this document.

4.7.  BGP-EPE Policy

   On the basis of all these inputs (and likely others), the BGP-EPE
   controller decides to steer some demands away from their best BGP
   path.

   The BGP-EPE policy is likely expressed as a two-entry segment list
   where the first element is the IGP Prefix-SID of the selected egress
   border router and the second element is a BGP Peering SID at the
   selected egress border router.

   A few examples are provided hereafter:

   *  Prefer egress PE C and peer AS AS2: {64, 1012}. "64" being the SID
      of PE C as defined in Section 1.1.

   *  Prefer egress PE C and peer AS AS3 via eBGP peer 2001:db8:ce::e,
      {64, 1022}.

   *  Prefer egress PE C and peer AS AS3 via eBGP peer 2001:db8:f::f,
      {64, 1052}.

   *  Prefer egress PE C and peer AS AS3 via interface 2001:db8:cf2::f
      of multi-hop eBGP peer 2001:db8:f::f, {64, 1042}.

   *  Prefer egress PE C and any interface to any peer in the group
      1060: {64, 1060}.

   Note that the first SID could be replaced by a list of segments.
   This is useful when an explicit path within the domain is required
   for traffic-engineering purposes.  For example, if the Prefix-SID of
   Node B is 60 and the BGP-EPE controller would like to steer the
   traffic from A to C via B then through the external link to peer D,
   then the segment list would be {60, 64, 1012}.

5.  Programming an Input Policy

   The detailed/exhaustive description of all the means to implement a
   BGP-EPE policy are outside the scope of this document.  A few
   examples are provided in this section.

5.1.  At a Host

   A static IP/MPLS route can be programmed at the host H.  The static
   route would define a destination prefix, a next hop, and a label
   stack to push.  Assuming the same Segment Routing Global Block
   (SRGB), at least on all access routers connecting the hosts, the same
   policy can be programmed across all hosts, which is convenient.

5.2.  At a Router - SR Traffic-Engineering Tunnel

   The BGP-EPE controller can configure the ingress border router with
   an SR traffic-engineering tunnel T1 and a steering policy S1, which
   causes a certain class of traffic to be mapped on the tunnel T1.

   The tunnel T1 would be configured to push the required segment list.

   The tunnel and the steering policy could be configured via multiple
   means.  A few examples are given below:

   *  The Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP)
      according to [RFC8664] and [RFC8281]

   *  NETCONF [RFC6241]

   *  Other static or ephemeral APIs

   Example: at router A (Figure 1).

   Tunnel T1: push {64, 1042}
   IP route L/8 set next-hop T1

5.3.  At a Router - Unicast Route Labeled Using BGP (RFC 8277)

   The BGP-EPE controller could build a unicast route labeled using BGP
   [RFC8277] (from scratch) and send it to the ingress router.

   Such a route would require the following:

   NLRI
      the destination prefix to engineer (e.g., L/8)

   Next Hop
      the selected egress border router: C

   Label
      the selected egress peer: 1042

   Autonomous System (AS) path
      the selected valid AS path

   Some BGP policy to ensure it will be selected as best by the ingress
   router.  Note that as discussed in Section 5 of [RFC8277], the
   comparison of a labeled and unlabeled unicast BGP route is
   implementation dependent and hence may require an implementation-
   specific policy on each ingress router.

   This unicast route labeled using BGP [RFC8277] "overwrites" an
   equivalent or less-specific "best path".  As the best path is
   changed, this BGP-EPE input policy option may influence the path
   propagated to the upstream peer/customers.  Indeed, implementations
   treating the SAFI-1 and SAFI-4 routes for a given prefix as
   comparable would trigger a BGP WITHDRAW of the SAFI-1 route to their
   BGP upstream peers.

5.4.  At a Router - VPN Policy Route

   The BGP-EPE controller could build a VPNv4 route (from scratch) and
   send it to the ingress router.

   Such a route would require the following:

   NLRI
      the destination prefix to engineer: e.g., L/8

   Next Hop
      the selected egress border router: C

   Label
      the selected egress peer: 1042

   Route-Target
      the selected appropriate VRF instance at the ingress router

   AS path
      the selected valid AS path

   Some BGP policy to ensure it will be selected as best by the ingress
   router in the related VRF instance.

   The related VRF instance must be preconfigured.  A VRF fallback to
   the main FIB might be beneficial to avoid replicating all the
   "normal" Internet paths in each VRF instance.

6.  IPv6 Data Plane

   The described solution is applicable to IPv6, either with MPLS-based
   or IPv6-native segments.  In both cases, the same three steps of the
   solution are applicable:

   *  BGP-LS-based signaling of the external topology and BGP Peering
      Segments to the BGP-EPE controller.

   *  Collecting, by the BGP-EPE controller, various inputs to come up
      with a policy decision.

   *  Programming at an ingress router or source host of the desired
      BGP-EPE policy, which consists of a list of segments to push on a
      defined traffic class.

7.  Benefits

   The BGP-EPE solutions described in this document have the following
   benefits:

   *  No assumption on the iBGP design within AS1.

   *  Next-hop-self on the Internet routes propagated to the ingress
      border routers is possible.  This is a common design rule to
      minimize the number of IGP routes and to avoid importing external
      churn into the internal routing domain.

   *  Consistent support for traffic engineering within the domain and
      at the external edge of the domain.

   *  Support for both host and ingress border router BGP-EPE policy
      programming.

   *  BGP-EPE functionality is only required on the BGP-EPE-enabled
      egress border router and the BGP-EPE controller; an ingress policy
      can be programmed at the ingress border router without any new
      functionality.

   *  Ability to deploy the same input policy across hosts connected to
      different routers (assuming the global property of IGP Prefix-
      SIDs).

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

9.  Manageability Considerations

   The BGP-EPE use case described in this document requires BGP-LS
   [RFC7752] extensions that are described in [RFC9086] and that
   consists of additional BGP-LS descriptors and TLVs.  Manageability
   functions of BGP-LS, described in [RFC7752], also apply to the
   extensions required by the EPE use case.

   Additional manageability considerations are described in [RFC9086].

10.  Security Considerations

   [RFC7752] defines BGP-LS NLRI instances and their associated security
   aspects.

   [RFC9086] defines the BGP-LS extensions required by the BGP-EPE
   mechanisms described in this document.  BGP-EPE BGP-LS extensions
   also include the related security.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7752]  Gredler, H., Ed., Medved, J., Previdi, S., Farrel, A., and
              S. Ray, "North-Bound Distribution of Link-State and
              Traffic Engineering (TE) Information Using BGP", RFC 7752,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7752, March 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7752>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8402]  Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Ginsberg, L.,
              Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
              Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI 10.17487/RFC8402,
              July 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8402>.

   [RFC9086]  Previdi, S., Talaulikar, K., Ed., Filsfils, C., Patel, K.,
              Ray, S., and J. Dong, "Border Gateway Protocol - Link
              State (BGP-LS) Extensions for Segment Routing BGP Egress
              Peer Engineering", RFC 9086, DOI 10.17487/RFC9086, August
              2021, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9086>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC7011]  Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken,
              "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
              Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77,
              RFC 7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7011>.

   [RFC7854]  Scudder, J., Ed., Fernando, R., and S. Stuart, "BGP
              Monitoring Protocol (BMP)", RFC 7854,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7854, June 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7854>.

   [RFC7855]  Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B.,
              Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source
              Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement
              and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>.

   [RFC7911]  Walton, D., Retana, A., Chen, E., and J. Scudder,
              "Advertisement of Multiple Paths in BGP", RFC 7911,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7911, July 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7911>.

   [RFC8277]  Rosen, E., "Using BGP to Bind MPLS Labels to Address
              Prefixes", RFC 8277, DOI 10.17487/RFC8277, October 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8277>.

   [RFC8281]  Crabbe, E., Minei, I., Sivabalan, S., and R. Varga, "Path
              Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP)
              Extensions for PCE-Initiated LSP Setup in a Stateful PCE
              Model", RFC 8281, DOI 10.17487/RFC8281, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8281>.

   [RFC8570]  Ginsberg, L., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Giacalone, S., Ward,
              D., Drake, J., and Q. Wu, "IS-IS Traffic Engineering (TE)
              Metric Extensions", RFC 8570, DOI 10.17487/RFC8570, March
              2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8570>.

   [RFC8571]  Ginsberg, L., Ed., Previdi, S., Wu, Q., Tantsura, J., and
              C. Filsfils, "BGP - Link State (BGP-LS) Advertisement of
              IGP Traffic Engineering Performance Metric Extensions",
              RFC 8571, DOI 10.17487/RFC8571, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8571>.

   [RFC8664]  Sivabalan, S., Filsfils, C., Tantsura, J., Henderickx, W.,
              and J. Hardwick, "Path Computation Element Communication
              Protocol (PCEP) Extensions for Segment Routing", RFC 8664,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8664, December 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8664>.

Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Acee Lindem for his comments and
   contribution.

Contributors

   Daniel Ginsburg substantially contributed to the content of this
   document.

Authors' Addresses

   Clarence Filsfils (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Brussels
   Belgium

   Email: cfilsfil@cisco.com


   Stefano Previdi
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Italy

   Email: stefano@previdi.net


   Gaurav Dawra (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   United States of America

   Email: gdawra.ietf@gmail.com


   Ebben Aries
   Juniper Networks
   1133 Innovation Way
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   United States of America

   Email: exa@juniper.net


   Dmitry Afanasiev
   Yandex
   Russian Federation

   Email: fl0w@yandex-team.ru