P2PSIP                                                       C. Jennings
Internet-Draft                                                     Cisco
Intended status:  Standards Track                            B. Lowekamp
Expires:  December 12, 2008                       SIPeerior Technologies
                                                             E. Rescorla
                                                       Network Resonance
                                                                S. Baset
                                                          H. Schulzrinne
                                                     Columbia University
                                                           June 10, 2008

                REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD)

Status of this Memo

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).


   This document defines REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD), a
   peer-to-peer (P2P) signaling protocol for use on the Internet.  A P2P

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   signaling protocol provides its clients with an abstract storage and
   messaging service between a set of cooperating peers that form the
   overlay network.  RELOAD is designed to support a P2P Session
   Initiation Protocol (P2PSIP) network, but can be utilized by other
   applications with similar requirements by defining new usages that
   specify the kinds of data that must be stored for a particular
   application.  RELOAD defines a security model based on a certificate
   enrollment service that provides unique identities.  NAT traversal is
   a fundamental service of the protocol.  RELOAD also allows access
   from "client" nodes which do not need to route traffic or store data
   for others.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.1.  Basic Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.2.  Architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       1.2.1.  Usage Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       1.2.2.  Routing Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       1.2.3.  Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       1.2.4.  Topology Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       1.2.5.  Forwarding Layer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     1.3.  SIP Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     1.4.  Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     1.5.  Structure of This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   3.  Overlay Management Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     3.1.  Security and Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.1.1.  Shared-Key Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.2.  Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.2.1.  Client Routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       3.2.2.  Client Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     3.3.  Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       3.3.1.  Routing Alternatives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     3.4.  Connectivity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     3.5.  Overlay Algorithm Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       3.5.1.  Support for Pluggable Overlay Algorithms  . . . . . .  26
       3.5.2.  Joining, Leaving, and Maintenance Overview  . . . . .  26
     3.6.  First-Time Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       3.6.1.  Initial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       3.6.2.  Enrollment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   4.  Application Support Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     4.1.  Data Storage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       4.1.1.  Storage Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       4.1.2.  Usages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       4.1.3.  Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     4.2.  Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32

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     4.3.  Application Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   5.  P2PSIP Integration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   6.  Overlay Management Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     6.1.  Message Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.1.1.  Request Origination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.1.2.  Message Receipt and Forwarding  . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.1.3.  Response Origination  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     6.2.  Message Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       6.2.1.  Presentation Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
       6.2.2.  Forwarding Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       6.2.3.  Message Contents Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
       6.2.4.  Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
     6.3.  Overlay Topology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
       6.3.1.  Topology Plugin Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
       6.3.2.  Methods and types for use by topology plugins . . . .  52
     6.4.  Forwarding Layer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
       6.4.1.  Transports  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
       6.4.2.  Connection Management Methods . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
   7.  Data Storage Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
     7.1.  Data Signature Computation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
     7.2.  Data Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
       7.2.1.  Single Value  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
       7.2.2.  Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
       7.2.3.  Dictionary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     7.3.  Data Storage Methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       7.3.1.  Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       7.3.2.  Fetch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
       7.3.3.  Remove  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
       7.3.4.  Find  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
   8.  Certificate Store Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
   9.  TURN Server Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
   10. SIP Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  84
     10.1. Registering AORs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
     10.2. Looking up an AOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
     10.3. Forming a Direct Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
     10.4. GRUUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
     10.5. SIP-REGISTRATION Kind Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
   11. Diagnostic Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
     11.1. Diagnostic Metrics for a P2PSIP Deployment  . . . . . . .  91
   12. Chord Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     12.1. Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     12.2. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
     12.3. Redundancy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
     12.4. Joining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
     12.5. Routing Connects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
     12.6. Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
       12.6.1. Sending Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
       12.6.2. Receiving Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95

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       12.6.3. Stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
     12.7. Route Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98
     12.8. Leaving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98
   13. Enrollment and Bootstrap  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98
     13.1. Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  99
     13.2. Overlay Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  99
     13.3. Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
       13.3.1. Self-Generated Credentials  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
     13.4. Joining the Overlay Peer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
   14. Message Flow Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
   15. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
     15.1. Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
     15.2. Attacks on P2P Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
     15.3. Certificate-based Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
     15.4. Shared-Secret Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
     15.5. Storage Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
       15.5.1. Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
       15.5.2. Distributed Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
       15.5.3. Correctness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
       15.5.4. Residual Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
     15.6. Routing Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
       15.6.1. Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
       15.6.2. Admissions Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
       15.6.3. Peer Identification and Authentication  . . . . . . . 115
       15.6.4. Protecting the Signaling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
       15.6.5. Residual Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
     15.7. SIP-Specific Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
       15.7.1. Fork Explosion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
       15.7.2. Malicious Retargeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
       15.7.3. Privacy Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
   16. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
     16.1. Overlay Algorithm Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
     16.2. Data Kind-Id  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
     16.3. Data Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
     16.4. Message Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
     16.5. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
     16.6. Route Log Extension Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
     16.7. reload: URI Scheme  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
       16.7.1. URI Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
   17. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
   18. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
     18.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
     18.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements  . . . . . . . . . 127

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1.  Introduction

   This document defines REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD), a
   peer-to-peer (P2P) signaling protocol for use on the Internet.  It
   provides a generic, self-organizing overlay network service, allowing
   nodes to efficiently route messages to other nodes and to efficiently
   store and retrieve data in the overlay.  RELOAD provides several
   features that are critical for a successful P2P protocol for the

   Security Framework:  A P2P network will often be established among a
      set of peers that do not trust each other.  RELOAD leverages a
      central enrollment server to provide credentials for each peer
      which can then be used to authenticate each operation.  This
      greatly reduces the possible attack surface.

   Usage Model:  RELOAD is designed to support a variety of
      applications, including P2P multimedia communications with the
      Session Initiation Protocol [I-D.ietf-p2psip-concepts].  RELOAD
      allows the definition of new application usages, each of which can
      define its own data types, along with the rules for their use.
      This allows RELOAD to be used with new applications through a
      simple documentation process that supplies the details for each

   NAT Traversal:  RELOAD is designed to function in environments where
      many if not most of the nodes are behind NATs or firewalls.
      Operations for NAT traversal are part of the base design,
      including using ICE to establish new RELOAD or application
      protocol connections as well as tunneling application protocols
      across the overlay.

   High Performance Routing:  The very nature of overlay algorithms
      introduces a requirement that peers participating in the P2P
      network route requests on behalf of other peers in the network.
      This introduces a load on those other peers, in the form of
      bandwidth and processing power.  RELOAD has been defined with a
      simple, lightweight forwarding header, thus minimizing the amount
      of effort required by intermediate peers.

   Pluggable overlay Algorithms:  RELOAD has been designed with an
      abstract interface to the overlay layer to simplify implementing a
      variety of structured (DHT) and unstructured overlay algorithms.
      This specification also defines how RELOAD is used with Chord,
      which is mandatory to implement.  Specifying a default "must
      implement" overlay algorithm will allow interoperability, while
      the extensibility allows selection of overlay algorithms optimized

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      for a particular application.

   These properties were designed specifically to meet the requirements
   for a P2P protocol to support SIP, and this document defines a SIP
   Usage of RELOAD.  However, RELOAD is not limited to usage by SIP and
   could serve as a tool for supporting other P2P applications with
   similar needs.  RELOAD is also based on the concepts introduced in

1.1.  Basic Setting

   In this section, we provide a brief overview of the operational
   setting for RELOAD.  See the concepts document for more details.  A
   RELOAD Overlay Instance consists of a set of nodes arranged in a
   partly connected graph.  Each node in the overlay is assigned a
   numeric Node-ID which, together with the specific overlay algorithm
   in use, determines its position in the graph and the set of nodes it
   connects to.  The figure below shows a trivial example which isn't
   drawn from any particular overlay algorithm, but was chosen for
   convenience of representation.

             +--------+              +--------+              +--------+
             | Node 10|--------------| Node 20|--------------| Node 30|
             +--------+              +--------+              +--------+
                 |                       |                       |
                 |                       |                       |
             +--------+              +--------+              +--------+
             | Node 40|--------------| Node 50|--------------| Node 60|
             +--------+              +--------+              +--------+
                 |                       |                       |
                 |                       |                       |
             +--------+              +--------+              +--------+
             | Node 70|--------------| Node 80|--------------| Node 90|
             +--------+              +--------+              +--------+
                                     | Node 85|

   Because the graph is not fully connected, when a node wants to send a
   message to another node, it may need to route it through the network.
   For instance, Node 10 can talk directly to nodes 20 and 40, but not
   to Node 70.  In order to send a message to Node 70, it would first
   send it to Node 40 with instructions to pass it along to Node 80.
   Different overlay algorithms will have different connectivity graphs,
   but the general idea behind all of them is to allow any node in the

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   graph to efficiently reach every other node within a small number of

   The RELOAD network is not only a messaging network.  It is also a
   storage network.  Records are stored under numeric addresses which
   occupy the same space as node identifiers.  Nodes are responsible for
   storing the data associated with some set of addresses as determined
   by their Node-Id.  For instance, we might say that every node is
   responsible for storing any data value which has an address less than
   or equal to its own Node-Id, but greater than the next lowest
   Node-Id.  Thus, Node-20 would be responsible for storing values

   RELOAD also supports clients.  These are nodes which have Node-Ids
   but do not participate in routing or storage.  For instance, in the
   figure above Node 85 is a client.  It can route to the rest of the
   RELOAD network via Node 80, but no other node will route through it
   and Node 90 is still responsible for all addresses between 81-90.  We
   refer to non-client nodes as peers.

   Other applications (for instance, SIP) can be defined on top of
   RELOAD and use these two basic RELOAD services to provide their own

1.2.  Architecture

   Architecturally RELOAD is divided into several layers, as shown in
   the following figure.

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               +-------+  +-------+
               | SIP   |  | XMPP  |  ...
               | Usage |  | Usage |
               +-------+  +-------+
             -------------------------------------- Message Routing API
               +------------------+   +---------+
               |                  |<->| Storage |
               |                  |   +---------+
               |      Routing     |        ^
               |       Layer      |        v
               |                  |   +---------+
               |                  |<->|Topology |
               |                  |   | Plugin  |
               +------------------+   +---------+
                         ^                 ^
                         v                 |
               +------------------+ <------+
               |    Forwarding    |
               |       Layer      |
             -------------------------------------- Transport API
                +-------+  +------+
                |TLS    |  |DTLS  |  ...
                +-------+  +------+

   The major components of RELOAD are:

   Usage Layer:  Each application defines a RELOAD usage; a set of data
      kinds and behaviors which describe how to use the services
      provided by RELOAD.  These usages all talk to RELOAD through a
      common Message Routing API.

   Routing Layer:  The Routing Layer is responsible for routing messages
      through the overlay.  It also manages request state for the usages
      and forwards Store and Fetch operations to the Storage component.
      It talks directly to the Topology Plugin, which is responsible for
      implementing the specific topology defined by the overlay
      algorithm being used.

   Storage:  The Storage component is responsible for processing
      messages relating to the storage and retrieval of data.  It talks
      directly to the Topology Plugin and the routing layer in order to
      send and receive messages and manage data replication and

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   Topology Plugin:  The Topology Plugin is responsible for implementing
      the specific overlay algorithm being used.  It talks directly to
      the Routing Layer to send and receive overlay management messages,
      to the Storage component to manage data replication, and directly
      to the Forwarding Layer to control hop-by-hop message forwarding.

   Forwarding Layer:  The Forwarding Layer provides packet forwarding
      services between nodes.  It also handles setting up connections
      across NATs using ICE.

1.2.1.  Usage Layer

   The top layer, called the Usage Layer, has application usages---such
   as the SIP Location Usage---that use the abstract Message Routing API
   provided by RELOAD.  The goal of this layer is to implement
   application-specific usages of the generic overlay services provided
   by RELOAD.  The usage defines how a specific application maps its
   data into something that can be stored in the overlay, where to store
   the data, how to secure the data, and finally how applications can
   retrieve and use the data.

   The architecture diagram shows both a SIP usage and an XMPP usage.  A
   single application may require multiple usages, for example a SIP
   application may also require a voicemail usage.  A usage may define
   multiple kinds of data that are stored in the overlay and may also
   rely on kinds originally defined by other usages.

   This draft also defines a Diagnostics Usage, which can be used to
   obtain diagnostic information about a peer in the overlay.  The
   Diagnostics Usage is interesting both to administrators monitoring
   the overlay as well as to some overlay algorithms that base their
   decisions on capabilities and current load of nodes in the overlay.

1.2.2.  Routing Layer

   The Routing Layer provides a generic message routing service for the
   overlay.  Each peer is identified by its location in the overlay as
   determined by its Node-ID.  A component which is a client of the
   Routing Layer can perform two basic functions:

   o  Send a message to a given peer, specified by Node-Id or
   o  Receive messages that other peers sent to a Node-Id or Resource-Id
      for which this peer is responsible.

   All usages are clients of the Routing Layer and use RELOAD's services
   by sending and receiving messages from peers.  For instance, when a

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   usage wants to store data, it does so by sending Store requests.
   Note that the Storage component and the Topology Plugin are
   themselves clients of the Routing Layer, because they need to send
   and receive messages from other peers.

   The Routing Layer provides a fairly generic interface that allows the
   topology plugin control the overlay and resource operations and
   messages.  Since each overlay algorithm is defined and functions
   differently, we generically refer to the table of other peers that
   the overlay algorithm maintains and uses to route requests
   (neighbors) as a Routing Table.  The Routing Layer component makes
   queries to the overlay algorithm to determine the next hop, then
   encodes and sends the message itself.  Similarly, the overlay
   algorithm issues periodic update requests through the logic component
   to maintain and update its Routing Table.

1.2.3.  Storage

   One of the major functions of RELOAD is to allow nodes to store data
   in the overlay and to retrieve data stored by other nodes or by
   themselves.  The Storage component is responsible for processing data
   storage and retrieval messages from other peers.  For instance, the
   Storage component might receive a Store request for a given resource
   from the Routing Layer.  It would then store the data value(s) in its
   local data store and sends a response to the Routing Layer for
   delivery to the requesting peer.

   The node's Node-ID determines the set of resources which it will be
   responsible for storing.  However, the exact mapping between these is
   determined by the overlay algorithm used by the overlay, therefore
   the Storage component always the queries the topology plugin to
   determine where a particular resource should be stored.

1.2.4.  Topology Plugin

   RELOAD is explicitly designed to work with a variety of overlay
   algorithms.  In order to facilitate this, the overlay algorithm
   implementation is provided by a Topology Plugin so that each overlay
   can select an appropriate overlay algorithm that relies on the common
   RELOAD core protocols and code.

   The Topology Plugin is responsible for maintaining the overlay
   algorithm Routing Table, which is consulted by the Routing Layer
   before routing a message.  When connections are made or broken, the
   Forwarding Layer notifies the Topology Plugin, which adjusts the
   routing table as appropriate.  The Topology Plugin will also instruct
   the Forwarding Layer to form new connections as dictated by the
   requirements of the overlay algorithm Topology.

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   As peers enter and leave, resources may be stored on different peers,
   so the Topology Plugin also keeps track of which peers are
   responsible for which resources.  As peers join and leave, the
   Topology Plugin issues resource migration requests as appropriate, in
   order to ensure that other peers have whatever resources they are now
   responsible for.  The Topology Plugin is also responsible for
   providing redundant data storage to protect against loss of
   information in the event of a peer failure and to protect against
   compromised or subversive peers.

1.2.5.  Forwarding Layer

   The Forwarding Layer is responsible for getting a packet to the next
   peer, as determined by the Routing and Storage Layer.  The Forwarding
   Layer establishes and maintains the network connections as required
   by the Topology Plugin.  This layer is also responsible for setting
   up connections to other peers through NATs and firewalls using ICE,
   and it can elect to forward traffic using relays for NAT and firewall

   The Forwarding Layer sits on top of transport layer protocols which
   carry the actual traffic.  This specification defines how to use DTLS
   and TLS to carry RELOAD messages.

1.3.  SIP Usage

   The SIP Usage of RELOAD allows SIP user agents to provide a peer-to-
   peer telephony service without the requirement for permanent proxy or
   registration servers.  In such a network, the RELOAD overlay itself
   performs the registration and rendezvous functions ordinarily
   associated with such servers.

   The SIP Usage involves two basic functions:
   Registration:    SIP UAs can use the RELOAD data storage
      functionality to store a mapping from their AOR to their Node-Id
      in the overlay, and to retrieve the Node-Id of other UAs.
   Rendezvous:    Once a SIP UA has identified the Node-Id for an AOR it
      wishes to call, it can use the RELOAD message routing system to
      set up a direct connection which can be used to exchange SIP

   For instance, Bob could register his Node-Id, "1234", under his AOR,
   "sip:bob@dht.example.com".  When Alice wants to call Bob, she queries
   the overlay for "sip:bob@dht.example.com" and gets back Node-Id 1234.
   She then uses the overlay to establish a direct connection with Bob
   and can use that direct connection to perform a standard SIP INVITE.

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1.4.  Security

   RELOAD's security model is based on each node having one or more
   public key certificates.  In general, these certificates will be
   assigned by a central server which also assigns Node-Ids, although
   self-signed certificates can be used in closed networks.  These
   credentials can be leveraged to provide communications security for
   RELOAD messages.  RELOAD provides communications security at three

   Connection Level:    Connections between peers are secured with TLS
      or DTLS.
   Message Level:    Each RELOAD message must be signed.
   Object Level:    Stored objects must be signed by the storing peer.

   These three levels of security work together to allow peers to verify
   the origin and correctness of data they receive from other peers,
   even in the face of malicious activity by other peers in the overlay.
   RELOAD also provides access control built on top of these
   communications security features.  Because the peer responsible for
   storing a piece of data can validate the signature on the data being
   stored, the responsible peer can determine whether a given operation
   is permitted or not.

   RELOAD also provides a shared secret based admission control feature
   using shared secrets and TLS-PSK.  In order to form a TLS connection
   to any node in the overlay, a new node needs to know the shared
   overlay key, thus restricting access to authorized users.

1.5.  Structure of This Document

   The remainder of this document is structured as follows.

   o  Section 2 provides definitions of terms used in this document.
   o  Section 3 provides an overview of the mechanisms used to establish
      and maintain the overlay.
   o  Section 4 provides an overview of the mechanism RELOAD provides to
      support other applications.
   o  Section 5 provides an overview of the SIP usage for RELOAD.
   o  Section 6 defines the protocol messages that RELOAD uses to
      establish and maintain the overlay.
   o  Section 7 defines the protocol messages that are used to store and
      retrieve data using RELOAD.
   o  Sections 8-10 define three Usages of RELOAD that provide
      certificate storage, SIP, and Diagnostics.
   o  Section 11 defines a specific Topology Plugin using Chord.

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   o  Section 12 defines the mechanisms that new RELOAD nodes use to
      join the overlay for the first time.
   o  Section 13 provides an extended example.
   o  Sections 14 and 15 provide Security and IANA considerations.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   We use the terminology and definitions from the Concepts and
   Terminology for Peer to Peer SIP [I-D.ietf-p2psip-concepts] draft
   extensively in this document.  Other terms used in this document are
   defined inline when used and are also defined below for reference.
   Terms which are new to this document (and perhaps should be added to
   the concepts document) are marked with a (*).

   DHT:  A distributed hash table.  A DHT is an abstract hash table
      service realized by storing the contents of the hash table across
      a set of peers.

   Overlay Algorithm:  An overlay algorithm defines the rules for
      determining which peers in an overlay store a particular piece of
      data and for determining a topology of interconnections amongst
      peers in order to find a piece of data.

   Overlay Instance:  A specific overlay algorithm and the collection of
      peers that are collaborating to provide read and write access to
      it.  There can be any number of overlay instances running in an IP
      network at a time, and each operates in isolation of the others.

   Peer:  A host that is participating in the overlay.  Peers are
      responsible for holding some portion of the data that has been
      stored in the overlay and also route messages on behalf of other
      hosts as required by the Overlay Algorithm.

   Client:  A host that is able to store data in and retrieve data from
      the overlay but which is not participating in routing or data
      storage for the overlay.

   Node:  We use the term "Node" to refer to a host that may be either a
      Peer or a Client.  Because RELOAD uses the same protocol for both
      clients and peers, much of the text applies equally to both.
      Therefore we use "Node" when the text applies to both Clients and
      Peers and the more specific term when the text applies only to

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      Clients or only to Peers.

   Node-ID:  A 128-bit value that uniquely identifies a node.  Node-IDs
      0 and 2^128 - 1 are reserved and are invalid Node-IDs.  A value of
      zero is not used in the wire protocol but can be used to indicate
      an invalid node in implementations and APIs.  The Node-ID of
      2^128-1 is used on the wire protocol as a wildcard. (*)

   Resource:  An object or group of objects associated with a string
      identifier see "Resource Name" below.

   Resource Name:  The (potentially) human readable name by which a
      resource is identified.  In unstructured P2P networks, the
      resource name is used directly as a Resource-Id.  In structured
      P2P networks the resource name can be mapped into a Resource-ID by
      using the string as the input to hash function.  A SIP resource,
      for example, is often identified by its AOR (see Resource Name

   Resource-ID:  A value that identifies some resources and which is
      used as a key for storing and retrieving the resource.  Often this
      is not human friendly/readable.  One way to generate a Resource-ID
      is by applying a mapping function to some other unique name (e.g.,
      user name or service name) for the resource.  The Resource-ID is
      used by the distributed database algorithm to determine the peer
      or peers that are responsible for storing the data for the
      overlay.  In structured P2P networks, resource-IDs are generally
      fixed length and are formed by hashing the resource identifier.
      In unstructured networks, resource identifiers may be used
      directly as resource-IDs and may have variable length.

   Connection Table:  The set of peers to which a node is directly
      connected.  This includes nodes with which Connect handshakes have
      been done but which have not sent any Updates. (*)

   Routing Table:  The set of peers which a node can use to route
      overlay messages.  In general, these peers will all be on the
      connection table but not vice versa, because some peers will have
      Connected but not sent updates.  Peers may send messages directly
      to peers which are on the connection table but may only route
      messages to other peers through peers which are on the routing
      table. (*)

   Destination List:  A list of IDs through which a message is to be
      routed.  A single Node-ID is a trivial form of destination list.

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   Usage:  A usage is an application that wishes to use the overlay for
      some purpose.  Each application wishing to use the overlay defines
      a set of data kinds that it wishes to use.  The SIP usage defines
      the location, certificate, STUN server and TURN server data kinds.

3.  Overlay Management Overview

   The most basic function of RELOAD is as a generic overlay network.
   Nodes need to be able to join the overlay, form connections to other
   nodes, and route messages through the overlay to nodes to which they
   are not directly connected.  This section provides an overview of the
   mechanisms that perform these functions.

3.1.  Security and Identification

   Every node in the RELOAD overlay is identified by one or more Node-
   IDs.  The Node-ID is used for three major purposes:

   o  To address the node itself.
   o  To determine its position in the overlay topology when the overlay
      is structured.
   o  To determine the set of resources for which the node is

   Each node has a certificate [RFC3280] containing one or more Node-
   IDs, which are globally unique.

   The certificate serves multiple purposes:

   o  It entitles the user to store data at specific locations in the
      Overlay Instance.  Each data kind defines the specific rules for
      determining which certificates can access each resource-ID/kind-id
      pair.  For instance, some kinds might allow anyone to write at a
      given location, whereas others might restrict writes to the owner
      of a single certificate.
   o  It entitles the user to operate a node that has a Node-ID found in
      the certificate.  When the node forms a connection to another
      peer, it can use this certificate so that a node connecting to it
      knows it is connected to the correct node.  In addition, the node
      can sign messages, thus providing integrity and authentication for
      messages which are sent from the node.
   o  It entitles the user to use the user name found in the

   If a user has more than one device, typically they would get one

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   certificate for each device.  This allows each device to act as a
   separate peer.

   RELOAD supports two certificate issuance models.  The first is based
   on a central enrollment process which allocates a unique name and
   Node-Id to the node a certificate for a public/private key pair for
   the user.  All peers in a particular Overlay Instance have the
   enrollment server as a trust anchor and so can verify any other
   peer's certificate.

   In some settings, a group of users want to set up an overlay network
   but are not concerned about attack by other users in the network.
   For instance, users on a LAN might want to set up a short term ad hoc
   network without going to the trouble of setting up an enrollment
   server.  RELOAD supports the use of self-generated and self-signed
   certificates.  When self-signed certificates are used, the node also
   generates its own Node-Id and username.  The Node-Id is computed as a
   digest of the public key, to prevent Node-Id theft, however this
   model is still subject to a number of known attacks (most notably
   Sybil attacks [Sybil]) and can only be safely used in closed networks
   where users are mutually trusting.

3.1.1.  Shared-Key Security

   RELOAD also provides an admission control system based on shared
   keys.  In this model, the peers all share a single key which is used
   to authenticate the peer-to-peer connections via TLS-PSK/TLS-SRP.

3.2.  Clients

   RELOAD defines a single protocol that is used both as the peer
   protocol and the client protocol for the overlay.  This simplifies
   implementation, particularly for devices that may act in either role,
   and allows clients to inject messages directly into the overlay.

   We use the term "peer" to identify a node in the overlay that routes
   messages for nodes other than those to which it is directly
   connected.  Peers typically also have storage responsibilities.  We
   use the term "client" to refer to nodes that do not have routing or
   storage responsibilities.  When text applies to both peers and
   clients, we will simply refer to such a device as a "node."

   RELOAD's client support allows nodes that are not participating in
   the overlay as peers to utilize the same implementation and to
   benefit from the same security mechanisms as the peers.  Clients
   possess and use certificates that authorize the user to store data at
   its locations in the overlay.  The Node-ID in the certificate is used
   to identify the particular client as a member of the overlay and to

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   authenticate its messages.

   The remainder of this section discusses how RELOAD supports clients
   in terms of routing issues specific to clients, minimum functionality
   requirements for clients, and alternatives for devices not capable of
   meeting those requirements.

3.2.1.  Client Routing

   There are two routing options by which a client may be located in an

   o  Establish a connection to the peer responsible for the client's
      Node-ID in the overlay.  Then requests may be sent from/to the
      client using its Node-ID in the same manner as if it were a peer,
      because the responsible peer in the overlay will handle the final
      step of routing to the client.
   o  Establish a connection with an arbitrary peer in the overlay
      (perhaps based on network proximity or an inability to establish a
      direct connection with the responsible peer).  In this case, the
      client will rely on RELOAD's Destination List feature to ensure
      reachability.  The client can initiate requests, and any node in
      the overlay that knows the Destination List to its current
      location can reach it, but the client is not directly reachable
      directly using only its Node-ID.  The Destination List required to
      reach it must be learnable via other mechanisms, such as being
      stored in the overlay by a usage, if the client is to receive
      incoming requests from other members of the overlay.

3.2.2.  Client Behavior

   There are a wide variety of reasons a node may act as a client rather
   than as a peer [I-D.pascual-p2psip-clients].  This section outlines
   some of those scenarios and how the client's behavior changes based
   on its capabilities.  Why Not Only Peers?

   For a number of reasons, a particular node may be forced to act as a
   client even though it is willing to act as a peer.  These include:

   o  The node does not have appropriate network connectivity---
      typically because it is behind an overly restrictive NAT, or it
      has a low-bandwidth network connection.
   o  The node may not have sufficient resources, such as computing
      power, storage space, or battery power.

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   o  The overlay algorithm may dictate specific requirements for peer
      selection.  These may include participation in the overlay to
      determine trustworthiness, control the number of peers in the
      overlay to reduce overly-long routing paths, or ensure minimum
      application uptime before a node can join as a peer.

   The ultimate criteria for a node to become a peer are determined by
   the overlay algorithm and specific deployment.  A node acting as a
   client that has a full implementation of RELOAD and the appropriate
   overlay algorithm is capable of locating its responsible peer in the
   overlay and using CONNECT to establish a direct connection to that
   peer.  In that way, it may elect to be reachable under either of the
   routing approaches listed above.  Particularly for overlay algorithms
   that elect nodes to serve as peers based on trustworthiness or
   population, the overlay algorithm may require such a client to locate
   itself at a particular place in the overlay.  Minimum Functionality Requirements for Clients

   A node may act as a client simply because it does not have the
   resources or even an implementation of the topology plugin required
   to acts as a peer in the overlay.  In order to exchange RELOAD
   messages with a peer, a client must meet a minimum level of
   functionality.  Such a client must:

   o  Implement RELOAD's connection-management connections that are used
      to establish the connection with the peer.
   o  Implement RELOAD's data storage and retrieval methods (with client
   o  Be able to calculate Resource-IDs used by the overlay.
   o  Possess security credentials required by the overlay it is

   A client speaks the same protocol as the peers, knows how to
   calculate Resource-IDs, and signs its requests in the same manner as
   peers.  While a client does not necessarily require a full
   implementation of the overlay algorithm, calculating the Resource-ID
   requires an implementation of the appropriate algorithm for the

   RELOAD does not support a separate protocol for clients that do not
   meet these functionality requirements.  Any such extension would
   either entail compromises on the features of RELOAD or require an
   entirely new protocol to reimplement the core features of RELOAD.
   Furthermore, for P2PSIP and many other applications, a native
   application-level protocol already exists that is sufficient for such
   a client, as described in the next section.

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Internet-Draft                   RELOAD                        June 2008  Clients as Application-Level Agents

   SIP defines an extensive protocol for registration and security
   between a client and its registrar/proxy server(s).  Any SIP device
   can act as a client of a RELOAD-based P2PSIP overlay if it contacts a
   peer that implements the server-side functionality required by the
   SIP protocol.  In this case, the peer would be acting as if it were
   the user's peer, and would need the appropriate credentials for that

   Application-level support for clients is defined by a usage.  A usage
   offering support for application-level clients should specify how the
   security of the system is maintained when the data is moved between
   the application and RELOAD layers.

3.3.  Routing

   This section will discuss the requirements RELOAD's routing
   capabilities must meet, then describe the routing features in the
   protocol, and provide a brief overview of how they are used.  The
   section will conclude by discussing some alternative designs and the
   tradeoffs that would be necessary to support them.

   RELOAD's routing capabilities must meet the following requirements:

   NAT Traversal:    RELOAD must support establishing and using
      connections between nodes separated by one or more NATs, including
      locating peers behind NATs for those overlays allowing/requiring
   Clients:    RELOAD must support requests from and to clients that do
      not participate in overlay routing.
   Client promotion:  RELOAD must support clients that become peers at a
      later point as determined by the overlay algorithm and deployment.
   Low state:    RELOAD's routing algorithms must not require
      significant state to be stored on intermediate peers.
   Return routability in unstable topologies:    At some points in
      times, different nodes may have inconsistent information about the
      connectivity of the routing graph.  In all cases, the response to
      a request needs to delivered to the node that sent the request and
      not to some other node.

   To meet these requirements, RELOAD's routing relies on two basic

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   Via Lists:    The forwarding header used by all RELOAD messages
      contains both a Via List (built hop-by-hop as the message is
      routed through the overlay) and a Destination List (providing
      source-routing capabilities for requests and return-path routing
      for responses).
   Route_Query:    The Route_Query method allows a node to query a peer
      for the next hop it will use to route a message.  This method is
      useful for diagnostics and for iterative routing.

   The basic routing mechanism used by RELOAD is Symmetric Recursive.
   We will first describe symmetric routing and then discuss its
   advantages in terms of the requirements discussed above.

   Symmetric recursive routing requires a message follow the path
   through the overlay to the destination without returning to the
   originating node:  each peer forwards the message closer to its
   destination.  The return path of the response is then the same path
   followed in reverse.  For example, a message following a route from A
   to Z through B and X:

   A         B         X         Z

                       Via=A, B

                      Dest=X, B, A
               Dest=B, A

   Note that the preceding Figure does not indicate whether A is a
   client or peer---A forwards its request to B and the response is
   returned to A in the same manner regardless of A's role in the

   This figure shows use of full via-lists by intermediate peers B and
   X. However, if B and/or X are willing to store state, then they may
   elect to truncate the lists, save that information internally (keyed

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   by the transaction id), and return the response message along the
   path from which it was received when the response is received.  This
   option requires greater state on intermediate peers but saves a small
   amount of bandwidth and reduces the need for modifying the message
   enroute.  Selection of this mode of operation is a choice for the
   individual peer---the techniques are mutually interoperable even on a
   single message.  The Figure below shows B using full via lists but X
   truncating them and saving the state internally.

   A         B         X         Z


               Dest=B, A

   For debugging purposes, a Route Log attribute is available that
   stores information about each peer as the message is forwarded.

   RELOAD also supports a basic Iterative routing mode (where the
   intermediate peers merely return a response indicating the next hop,
   but do not actually forward the message to that next hop themselves).
   Iterative routing is implemented using the Route_Query method, which
   requests this behavior.  Note that iterative routing is selected only
   by the initiating node.  RELOAD does not support an intermediate peer
   returning a response that it will not recursively route a normal
   request---the willingness to perform that operation is implicit in
   its role as a peer in the overlay.

3.3.1.  Routing Alternatives

   Significant discussion has been focused on the selection of a routing
   algorithm for P2PSIP.  This section discusses the motivations for
   selection of symmetric recursive routing for RELOAD and describes the
   extensions that would be required to support additional routing

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   Iterative routing has a number of advantages.  It is easier to debug,
   consumes fewer resources on intermediate peers, and allows the
   querying peer to identify and route around misbehaving peers
   [stoica-non-transitive-worlds05].  However, in the presence of NATs
   iterative routing is intolerably expensive because a new connection
   must be established for each hop (using ICE) [bryan-design-hotp2p08].

   Iterative routing is supported through the Route_Query mechanism and
   is primarily intended for debugging.  It is also the most reliable
   technique in the presence of network transitivity because the
   querying peer can evaluate the routing decisions made by the peers at
   each hop, consider alternatives, and detect at what point the
   forwarding path fails.  An algorithm to implement this approach is
   beyond the scope of this draft.  Symmetric vs Forward response

   An alternative to the symmetric recursive routing method used by
   RELOAD is Forward-Only routing, where the response is routed to the
   requester as if it is a new message initiating by the responder (in
   the previous example, Z sends the response to A as if it were sending
   a request).  Forward-only routing requires no state in either the
   message or intermediate peers.

   The drawback of forward-only routing is that it does not work when
   the overlay is unstable.  For example, if A is in the process of
   joining the overlay and is sending a Join request to Z, it is not yet
   reachable via forward routing.  Even if it is established in the
   overlay, if network failures produce temporary instability, A may not
   be reachable (and may be trying to stabilize its network connectivity
   via Connect messages).

   Furthermore, forward-only responses are less likely to reach the
   querying peer than symmetric recursive because the forward path is
   more likely to have a failed peer than the request path (which was
   just tested to route the request) [stoica-non-transitive-worlds05].

   An extension to RELOAD that supports forward-only routing but relies
   on symmetric responses as a fallback would be possible, but due to
   the complexities of determining when to use forward-only and when to
   fallback to symmetric, we have chosen not to include it as an option
   at this point.

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Internet-Draft                   RELOAD                        June 2008  Direct Response

   Another routing option is Direct Response routing, in which the
   response is returned directly to the querying node.  In the previous
   example, if A encodes its IP address in the request, then Z can
   simply deliver the response directly to A. In the absence of NATs or
   other connectivity issues, this is the optimal routing technique.

   The challenge of implementing direct response is the presence of
   NATs.  There are a number of complexities that must be addressed.  In
   this discussion, we will continue our assumption that A issued the
   request and Z is generating the response.

   o  The IP address listed by A may be unreachable, either due to NAT
      or firewall rules.  Therefore, a direct response technique must
      fallback to symmetric response [stoica-non-transitive-worlds05].
      The hop-by-hop ACKs used by RELOAD allow Z to determine when A has
      received the message (and the TLS negotiation will provide earlier
      confirmation that A is reachable), but this fallback requires a
      timeout that will increase the response latency whenever A is not
      reachable from Z.
   o  Whenever A is behind a NAT it will have multiple candidate IP
      addresses, each of which must be advertised to ensure
      connectivity, therefore Z will need to attempt multiple
      connections to deliver the response.
   o  One (or all) of A's candidate addresses may route from Z to a
      different device on the Internet.  In the worst case these nodes
      may actually be running RELOAD on the same port.  Therefore,
      establishing a secure connection to authenticate A before
      delivering the response is absolutely necessary.  This step
      diminishes the efficiency of direct response because multiple
      roundtrips are required before the message can be delivered.
   o  If A is behind a NAT and does not have a connection already
      established with Z, there are only two ways the direct response
      will work.  The first is that A and Z are both behind the same
      NAT, in which case the NAT is not involved.  In the more common
      case, when Z is outside A's NAT, the response will only be
      received if A's NAT implements endpoint-independent filtering.  As
      the choice of filtering mode conflates application transparency
      with security [RFC4787], and no clear recommendation is available,
      the prevalence of this feature in future devices remains unclear.

   An extension to RELOAD that supports direct response routing but
   relies on symmetric responses as a fallback would be possible, but
   due to the complexities of determining when to use direct response
   and when to fallback to symmetric, and the reduced performance for
   responses to peers behind restrictive NATs, we have chosen not to
   include it as an option at this point.

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   SEP [I-D.jiang-p2psip-sep] has proposed implementing a form of direct
   response by having A identify a peer, Q, that will be directly
   reachable by any other peer.  A uses Connect to establish a
   connection with Q and advertises Q's IP address in the request sent
   to Z. Z sends the response to Q, which relays it to A. This then
   reduces the latency to two hops, plus Z negotiating a secure
   connection to Q.

   This technique relies on the relative population of nodes such as A
   that require relay peers and peers such as Q that are capable of
   serving as a relay peer.  It also requires nodes to be able to
   identify which category they are in.  This identification problem has
   turned out to be hard to solve and is still an open area of

   An extension to RELOAD that supports relay peers is possible, but due
   to the complexities of implementing such an alternative, we have not
   added such a feature to RELOAD at this point.

   A concept similar to relay peers, essentially choosing a relay peer
   at random, has previously been suggested to solve problems of
   pairwise non-transitivity [stoica-non-transitive-worlds05], but
   deterministic filtering provided by NATs make random relay peers no
   more likely to work than the responding peer.  Symmetric Route Stability

   A common concern about symmetric recursive routing has been that one
   or more peers along the request path may fail before the response is
   received.  The significance of this problem essentially depends on
   the response latency of the overlay---an overlay that produces slow
   responses will be vulnerable to churn, whereas responses that are
   delivered very quickly are vulnerable only to failures that occur
   over that small interval.

   The other aspect of this issue is whether the request itself can be
   successfully delivered.  Assuming typical connection maintenance
   intervals, the time period between the last maintenance and the
   request being sent will be orders of magnitude greater than the delay
   between the request being forwarded and the response being received.
   Therefore, if the path was stable enough to be available to route the
   request, it is almost certainly going to remain available to route
   the response.

   An overlay that is unstable enough to suffer this type of failure
   frequently is unlikely to be able to support reliable functionality

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   regardless of the routing mechanism.  However, regardless of the
   stability of the return path, studies show that in the event of high
   churn, iterative routing is a better solution to ensure request
   completion [ng-analytical-churn-ieeep2p06]

   Finally, because RELOAD retries the end-to-end request, that retry
   will address the issues of churn that remain.

3.4.  Connectivity Management

   In order to provide efficient routing, a peer needs to maintain a set
   of direct connections to other peers in the Overlay Instance.  Due to
   the presence of NATs, these connections often cannot be formed
   directly.  Instead, we use the Connect request to establish a
   connection.  Connect uses ICE [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-tcp] to establish
   the connection.  It is assumed that the reader is familiar with ICE.

   Say that peer A wishes to form a direct connection to peer B. It
   gathers ICE candidates and packages them up in a Connect request
   which it sends to B through usual overlay routing procedures.  B does
   its own candidate gathering and sends back a response with its
   candidates.  A and B then do ICE connectivity checks on the candidate
   pairs.  The result is a connection between A and B. At this point, A
   and B can add each other to their routing tables and send messages
   directly between themselves without going through other overlay

   There is one special case in which Connect cannot be used:  when a
   peer is joining the overlay and is not connected to any peers.  In
   order to support this case, some small number of "bootstrap nodes"
   need to be publicly accessible so that new peers can directly connect
   to them.  Section 13 contains more detail on this.

   In general, a peer needs to maintain connections to all of the peers
   near it in the Overlay Instance and to enough other peers to have
   efficient routing (the details depend on the specific overlay).  If a
   peer cannot form a connection to some other peer, this isn't
   necessarily a disaster; overlays can route correctly even without
   fully connected links.  However, a peer should try to maintain the
   specified link set and if it detects that it has fewer direct
   connections, should form more as required.  This also implies that
   peers need to periodically verify that the connected peers are still
   alive and if not try to reform the connection or form an alternate

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3.5.  Overlay Algorithm Support

   The Topology Plugin allows RELOAD to support a variety of overlay
   algorithms.  This draft defines a DHT based on Chord [Chord], which
   is mandatory to implement, but the base RELOAD protocol is designed
   to support a variety of overlay algorithms.

3.5.1.  Support for Pluggable Overlay Algorithms

   RELOAD defines three methods for overlay maintenance:  Join, Update,
   and Leave.  However, the contents of those messages, when they are
   sent, and their precise semantics are specified by the actual overlay
   algorithm; RELOAD merely provides a framework of commonly-needed
   methods that provides uniformity of notation (and ease of debugging)
   for a variety of overlay algorithms.

3.5.2.  Joining, Leaving, and Maintenance Overview

   When a new peer wishes to join the Overlay Instance, it must have a
   Node-ID that it is allowed to use.  It uses one of the Node-IDs in
   the certificate it received from the enrollment server.  The details
   of the joining procedure are defined by the overlay algorithm, but
   the general steps for joining an Overlay Instance are:

   o  Forming connections to some other peers.
   o  Acquiring the data values this peer is responsible for storing.
   o  Informing the other peers which were previously responsible for
      that data that this peer has taken over responsibility.

   The first thing the peer needs to do is form a connection to some
   "bootstrap node".  Because this is the first connection the peer
   makes, these nodes must have public IP addresses and therefore can be
   connected to directly.  Once a peer has connected to one or more
   bootstrap nodes, it can form connections in the usual way by routing
   Connect messages through the overlay to other nodes.  Once a peer has
   connected to the overlay for the first time, it can cache the set of
   nodes it has connected to with public IP addresses for use as future
   bootstrap nodes.

   Once the peer has connected to a bootstrap node, it then needs to
   take up its appropriate place in the overlay.  This requires two
   major operations:

   o  Forming connections to other peers in the overlay to populate its
      Routing Table.
   o  Getting a copy of the data it is now responsible for storing and
      assuming responsibility for that data.

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   The second operation is performed by contacting the Admitting Peer
   (AP), the node which is currently responsible for that section of the

   The details of this operation depend mostly on the overlay algorithm
   involved, but a typical case would be:

   1.  JP (Joining Peer) sends a Join request to AP (Admitting Peer)
       announcing its intention to join.
   2.  AP sends a Join response.
   3.  AP does a sequence of Stores to JP to give it the data it will
   4.  AP does Updates to JP and to other peers to tell it about its own
       routing table.  At this point, both JP and AP consider JP
       responsible for some section of the Overlay Instance.
   5.  JP makes its own connections to the appropriate peers in the
       Overlay Instance.

   After this process is completed, JP is a full member of the Overlay
   Instance and can process Store/Fetch requests.

3.6.  First-Time Setup

   Previous sections addressed how RELOAD works once a node has
   connected.  This section provides an overview of how users get
   connected to the overlay for the first time.  RELOAD is designed so
   that users can start with the name of the overlay they wish to join
   and perhaps a username and password, and leverage that into having a
   working peer with minimal user intervention.  This helps avoid the
   problems that have been experienced with conventional SIP clients
   where users are required to manually configure a large number of

3.6.1.  Initial Configuration

   In the first phase of the process, the user starts out with the name
   of the overlay and uses this to download an initial set of overlay
   configuration parameters.  The user does a DNS SRV lookup on the
   overlay name to get the address of a configuration server.  It can
   then connect to this server with HTTPS to download a configuration
   document which contains the basic overlay configuration parameters as
   well as a set of bootstrap nodes which can be used to join the
   overlay. role.

3.6.2.  Enrollment

   If the overlay is using certificate enrollment, then a user needs to
   acquire a certificate before joining the overlay.  The certificate

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   attests both to the user's name within the overlay and to the node-
   ids which they are permitted to operate.  In that case, the
   configuration document will contain the address of an enrollment
   server which can be used to obtain such a certificate.  The
   enrollment server may (and probably will) require some sort of
   username and password before issuing the certificate.  The enrollment
   server's ability to restrict attackers' access to certificates in the
   overlay is one of the cornerstones of RELOAD's security.

4.  Application Support Overview

   RELOAD is not intended to be used alone, but rather as a substrate
   for other applications.  These applications can use RELOAD for a
   variety of purposes:

   o  To store data in the overlay and retrieve data stored by other
   o  As a discovery mechanism for services such as TURN.
   o  To form direct connections which can be used to transmit
      application-level messages.

   This section provides an overview of these services.

4.1.  Data Storage

   RELOAD provides operations to Store, Fetch, and Remove data.  Each
   location in the Overlay Instance is referenced by a Resource-ID.
   However, each location may contain data elements corresponding to
   multiple kinds (e.g., certificate, SIP registration).  Similarly,
   there may be multiple elements of a given kind, as shown below:

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                       |            Resource-ID         |
                       |                                |
                       | +------------+  +------------+ |
                       | |   Kind 1   |  |   Kind 2   | |
                       | |            |  |            | |
                       | | +--------+ |  | +--------+ | |
                       | | | Value  | |  | | Value  | | |
                       | | +--------+ |  | +--------+ | |
                       | |            |  |            | |
                       | | +--------+ |  | +--------+ | |
                       | | | Value  | |  | | Value  | | |
                       | | +--------+ |  | +--------+ | |
                       | |            |  +------------+ |
                       | | +--------+ |                 |
                       | | | Value  | |                 |
                       | | +--------+ |                 |
                       | +------------+                 |

   Each kind is identified by a kind-id, which is a code point assigned
   by IANA.  As part of the kind definition, protocol designers may
   define constraints, such as limits on size, on the values which may
   be stored.  For many kinds, the set may be restricted to a single
   value; some sets may be allowed to contain multiple identical items
   while others may only have unique items.  Note that a kind may be
   employed by multiple usages and new usages are encouraged to use
   previously defined kinds where possible.  We define the following
   data models in this document, though other usages can define their
   own structures:

   single value:  There can be at most one item in the set and any value
      overwrites the previous item.

   array:  Many values can be stored and addressed by a numeric index.

   dictionary:  The values stored are indexed by a key.  Often this key
      is one of the values from the certificate of the peer sending the
      Store request.

   In order to protect stored data from tampering, by other nodes, each
   stored value is digitally signed by the node which created it.  When
   a value is retrieved, the digital signature can be verified to detect

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4.1.1.  Storage Permissions

   A major issue in peer-to-peer storage networks is minimizing the
   burden of becoming a peer, and in particular minimizing the amount of
   data which any peer is required to store for other nodes.  RELOAD
   addresses this issue by only allowing any given node to store data at
   a small number of locations in the overlay, with those locations
   being determined by the node's certificate.  When a peer uses a Store
   request to place data at a location authorized by its certificate, it
   signs that data with the private key that corresponds to its
   certificate.  Then the peer storing the data is able to verify that
   the peer issuing the request is authorized to make that request.
   Each data kind defines the exact rules for determining what
   certificate is appropriate.

   The most natural rule is that a certificate authorizes a user to
   store data keyed with their user name X. This rules is used for all
   the kinds defined in this specification.  Thus, only a user with a
   certificate for "alice@example.org" could write to that location in
   the overlay.  However, other usages can define any rules they choose,
   including publicly writable values.

   The digital signature over the data serves two purposes.  First, it
   allows the peer responsible for storing the data to verify that this
   Store is authorized.  Second, it provides integrity for the data.
   The signature is saved along with the data value (or values) so that
   any reader can verify the integrity of the data.  Of course, the
   responsible peer can "lose" the value but it cannot undetectable
   modify it.

   The size requirements of the data being stored in the overlay are
   variable.  For instance, a SIP AoR and voicemail differ widely in the
   storage size.  RELOAD leaves it to the Usage to address the size
   imbalance of various kinds.

4.1.2.  Usages

   By itself, the distributed storage layer just provides infrastructure
   on which applications are built.  In order to do anything useful, a
   usage must be defined.  Each Usage specifies several things:

   o  Registers kind-id code points for any kinds that the Usage
   o  Defines the data structure for each of the kinds.
   o  Defines access control rules for each kinds.
   o  Provides a size limit for each kinds.

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   o  Defines how the Resource Name is formed that is hashed to form the
      Resource-ID where each kind is stored.
   o  Describes how values will be merged after a network partition.
      Unless otherwise specified, the default merging rule is to act as
      if all the values that need to be merged were stored and that the
      order they were stored in corresponds to the stored time values
      associated with (and carried in) their values.  Because the stored
      time values are those associated with the peer which did the
      writing, clock skew is generally not an issue.  If two nodes are
      on different partitions, clocks, this can create merge conflicts.
      However because RELOAD deliberately segregates storage so that
      data from different users and peers is stored in different
      locations, and a single peer will typically only be in a single
      network partition, this case will generally not arise.

   The kinds defined by a usage may also be applied to other usages.
   However, a need for different parameters, such as different size
   limits, would imply the need to create a new kind.

4.1.3.  Replication

   Replication in P2P overlays can be used to provide:

   persistence:    if the responsible peer crashes and/or if the storing
      peer leaves the overlay
   security:    to guard against DoS attacks by the responsible peer or
      routing attacks to that responsible peer
   load balancing:    to balance the load of queries for popular

   A variety of schemes are used in P2P overlays to achieve some of
   these goals.  Common techniques include replicating on neighbors of
   the responsible peer, randomly locating replicas around the overlay,
   or replicating along the path to the responsible peer.

   The core RELOAD specification does not specify a particular
   replication strategy.  Instead, the first level of replication
   strategies are determined by the overlay algorithm, which can base
   the replication strategy on the its particular topology.  For
   example, Chord places replicas on successor peers, which will take
   over responsibility should the responsible peer fail [Chord].

   If additional replication is needed, for example if data persistence
   is particularly important for a particular usage, then that usage may
   specify additional replication, such as implementing random
   replications by inserting a different well known constant into the
   Resource Name used to store each replicated copy of the resource.
   Such replication strategies can be added independent of the

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   underlying algorithm, and their usage can be determined based on the
   needs of the particular usage.

4.2.  Service Discovery

   RELOAD does not currently define a generic service discovery
   algorithm as part of the base protocol.  A variety of service
   discovery algorithm can be implemented as extensions to the base
   protocol, such as ReDIR [opendht-sigcomm05].

4.3.  Application Connectivity

   There is no requirement that a RELOAD usage must use RELOAD's
   primitives for establishing its own communication if it already
   possesses its own means of establishing connections.  For example,
   one could design a RELOAD-based resource discovery protocol which
   used HTTP to retrieve the actual data.

   For more common situations, however, the overlay itself is used to
   establish a connection rather than an external authority such as DNS,
   RELOAD provides connectivity to applications using the same Connect
   method as is used for the overlay maintenance.  For example, if a
   P2PSIP node wishes to establish a SIP dialog with another P2PSIP
   node, it will use Connect to establish a direct connection with the
   other node.  This new connection is separate from the peer protocol
   connection, it is a dedicated UDP or TCP flow used only for the SIP
   dialog.  Each usage specifies which types of connections can be
   initiated using Connect.

5.  P2PSIP Integration Overview

   The SIP Usage of RELOAD allows SIP user agents to provide a peer-to-
   peer telephony service without the requirement for permanent proxy or
   registration servers.  In such a network, the RELOAD overlay itself
   performs the registration and rendezvous functions ordinarily
   associated with such servers.

   The basic function of the SIP usage is to allow Alice to start with a
   SIP URI (e.g., "bob@dht.example.com") and end up with a connection
   which Alice's SIP UA can use to pass SIP messages back and forth to
   Bob's SIP UA.  The way this works is as follows:

   1.  Bob, operating Node-ID 1234, stores a mapping from his URI to his
       Node-ID in the overlay.  I.e., "sip:bob@dht.example.com -> 1234".
   2.  Alice, operating Node-ID 5678, decides to call Bob. She looks up
       "sip:bob@dht.example.com" in the overlay and retrieves "1234".

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   3.  Alice uses the overlay to route a Connect message to Bob's peer.
       Bob responds with his own Connect and they set up a direct
       connection, as shown below.

   Alice       Peer1      Overlay     PeerN      Bob
   (5678)                                     (1234)
   Connect ->
             Connect ->
                         Connect ->
                                      Connect ->
                                          <- Connect
                                   <- Connect
                      <- Connect
            <- Connect

   <------------------ ICE Checks ----------------->
   INVITE ----------------------------------------->
   <--------------------------------------------- OK
   ACK -------------------------------------------->
   <------------ ICE Checks for media ------------->
   <-------------------- RTP ---------------------->

   It is important to note that RELOAD's only role here is to set up the
   direct connection between Alice and Bob. As soon as the ICE checks
   complete and the connection is established, then ordinary SIP is
   used.  In particular, the establishment of the media channel for the
   phone call happens via the usual SIP mechanisms, and RELOAD is not
   involved.  Media never goes over the overlay.  After the successful
   exchange of SIP messages, call peers run ICE connectivity checks for

   As well as allowing mappings from AORs to Node-IDs, the SIP Usage
   also allows mappings from AORs to other AORs.  For instance, if Bob
   wanted his phone calls temporarily forwarded to Charlie, he could
   store the mapping "sip:bob@dht.example.com ->
   sip:charlie@dht.example.com".  When Alice wants to call Bob, she
   retrieves this mapping and can then fetch Charlie's AOR to retrieve
   his Node-ID.

6.  Overlay Management Protocol

   This section defines the basic protocols used to create, maintain,
   and use the RELOAD overlay network.  We start by defining how
   messages are transmitted, received, and routed in an existing

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   overlay, then define the message structure, and then finally define
   the messages used to join and maintain the overlay.

6.1.  Message Routing

   This section describes procedures used by nodes to route messages
   through the overlay.

6.1.1.  Request Origination

   In order to originate a message to a given Node-ID or resource-id, a
   node constructs an appropriate destination list.  The simplest such
   destination list is a single entry containing the peer or
   resource-id.  The resulting message will use the normal overlay
   routing mechanisms to forward the message to that destination.  The
   node can also construct a more complicated destination list for
   source routing.

   Once the message is constructed, the node sends the message to some
   adjacent peer.  If the first entry on the destination list is
   directly connected, then the message MUST be routed down that
   connection.  Otherwise, the topology plugin MUST be consulted to
   determine the appropriate next hop.

   Parallel searches for the resource are a common solution to improve
   reliability in the face of churn or of subversive peers.  Parallel
   searches for usage-specified replicas are managed by the usage layer.
   However, a single request can also be routed through multiple
   adjacent peers, even when known to be sub-optimal, to improve
   reliability [vulnerabilities-acsac04].  Such parallel searches MAY BE
   specified by the topology plugin.

   Because messages may be lost in transit through the overlay, RELOAD
   incorporates an end-to-end reliability mechanism.  When an
   originating node transmits a request it MUST set a 3 second timer.
   If a response has not been received when the timer fires, the request
   is retransmitted with the same transaction identifier.  The request
   MAY be retransmitted up to 4 times (for a total of 5 messages).
   After the timer for the fifth transmission fires, the message SHALL
   be considered to have failed.  Note that this retransmission
   procedure is not followed by intermediate nodes.  They follow the
   hop-by-hop reliability procedure described in Section

6.1.2.  Message Receipt and Forwarding

   When a peer receives a message, it first examines the overlay,
   version, and other header fields to determine whether the message is
   one it can process.  If any of these are incorrect (e.g., the message

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   is for an overlay in which the peer does not participate) it is an
   error.  The peer SHOULD generate an appropriate error but if local
   policy can override this in which case the messages is silently

   Once the peer has determined that the message is correctly formatted,
   it examines the first entry on the destination list.  There are three
   possible cases here:

   o  The first entry on the destination list is an id for which the
      peer is responsible.
   o  The first entry on the destination list is a an id for which
      another peer is responsible.
   o  The first entry on the destination list is a private id which is
      being used for destination list compression.

   These cases are handled as discussed below.  Responsible ID

   If the first entry on the destination list is a ID for which the node
   is responsible, there are several sub-cases.
   o  If the entry is a Resource-Id, then it MUST be the only entry on
      the destination list.  If there are other entries, the message
      MUST be silently dropped.  Otherwise, the message is destined for
      this node and it passes it up to the upper layers.
   o  If the entry is a Node-Id which belongs to this node, then the
      message is destined for this node.  If this is the only entry on
      the destination list, the message is destined for this node and is
      passed up to the upper layers.  Otherwise the entry is removed
      from the destination list and the message is passed it to the
      routing layer.  If the message is a response and there is state
      for the transaction ID, the state is reinserted into the
      destination list first.
   o  If the entry is a Node-Id which is not equal to this node, then
      the node MUST drop the message silently unless the Node-Id
      corresponds to a node which is directly connected to this node
      (i.e., a client).  In that case, it MUST forward the message to
      the destination node as described in the next section.

   Note that this implies that in order to address a message to "the
   peer that controls region X", a sender sends to resource-id X, not
   Node-ID X.  Other ID

   If neither of the other two cases applies, then the peer MUST forward
   the message towards the first entry on the destination list.  This

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   means that it MUST select one of the peers to which it is connected
   and which is likely to be responsible for the first entry on the
   destination list.  If the first entry on the destination list is in
   the peer's connection table, then it SHOULD forward the message to
   that peer directly.  Otherwise, it consult the routing table to
   forward the message.

   Any intermediate peer which forwards a RELOAD message MUST arrange
   that if it receives a response to that message the response can be
   routed back through the set of nodes through which the request
   passed.  This may be arranged in one of two ways:

   o  The peer MAY add an entry to the via list in the forwarding header
      that will enable it to determine the correct node.
   o  The peer MAY keep per-transaction state which will allow it to
      determine the correct node.

   As an example of the first strategy, if node D receives a message
   from node C with via list (A, B), then D would forward to the next
   node (E) with via list (A, B, C).  Now, if E wants to respond to the
   message, it reverses the via list to produce the destination list,
   resulting in (D, C, B, A).  When D forwards the response to C, the
   destination list will contain (C, B, A).

   As an example of the second strategy, if node D receives a message
   from node C with transaction ID X and via list (A, B), it could store
   (X, C) in its state database and forward the message with the via
   list unchanged.  When D receives the response, it consults its state
   database for transaction id X, determines that the request came from
   C, and forwards the response to C.

   Intermediate peer which modify the via list are not required to
   simply add entries.  The only requirement is that the peer be able to
   reconstruct the correct destination list on the return route.  RELOAD
   provides explicit support for this functionality in the form of
   private IDs, which can replace any number of via list entries.  For
   instance, in the above example, Node D might send E a via list
   containing only the private ID (I).  E would then use the destination
   list (D, I) to send its return message.  When D processes this
   destination list, it would detect that I is a private ID, recover the
   via list (A, B, C), and reverse that to produce the correct
   destination list (C, B, A) before sending it to C. This feature is
   called List Compression.  I MAY either be a compressed version of the
   original via list or an index into a state database containing the
   original via list.

   Note that if an intermediate peer exits the overlay, then on the
   return trip the message cannot be forwarded and will be dropped.  The

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   ordinary timeout and retransmission mechanisms provide stability over
   this type of failure.  Private ID

   If the first entry on the destination list is a private id (e.g., a
   compressed via list), the peer MUST that entry with the original via
   list that it replaced indexes and then re-examine the destination
   list to determine which case now applies.

6.1.3.  Response Origination

   When a peer sends a response to a request, it MUST construct the
   destination list by reversing the order of the entries on the via
   list.  This has the result that the response traverses the same peers
   as the request traversed, except in reverse order (symmetric
   routing).  Note that this rule will need to be relaxed if other
   routing algorithms are supported.

6.2.  Message Structure

   RELOAD is a message-oriented request/response protocol.  The messages
   are encoded using binary fields.  All integers are represented in
   network byte order.  The general philosophy behind the design was to
   use Type, Length, Value fields to allow for extensibility.  However,
   for the parts of a structure that were required in all messages, we
   just define these in a fixed position as adding a type and length for
   them is unnecessary and would simply increase bandwidth and
   introduces new potential for interoperability issues.

   Each message has three parts, concatenated as shown below:

      |    Forwarding Header    |
      |    Message Contents     |
      |       Signature         |

   The contents of these parts are as follows:

   Forwarding Header:  Each message has a generic header which is used
      to forward the message between peers and to its final destination.
      This header is the only information that an intermediate peer
      (i.e., one that is not the target of a message) needs to examine.

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   Message Contents:  The message being delivered between the peers.
      From the perspective of the forwarding layer, the contents is
      opaque, however, it is interpreted by the higher layers.

   Signature:  A digital signature over the message contents and parts
      of the header of the message.  Note that this signature can be
      computed without parsing the message contents.

   The following sections describe the format of each part of the

6.2.1.  Presentation Language

   Most of the structures defined in this document (with the exception
   of the forwarding header defined in the next section) are defined
   using a C-like syntax based on the presentation language used to
   define TLS.  Advantages of this style include:

   o  It is easy to write and familiar enough looking that most readers
      can grasp it quickly.
   o  The ability to define nested structures allows a separation
      between high-level and low level message structures.
   o  It has a straightforward wire encoding that allows quick
      implementation, but the structures can be comprehended without
      knowing the encoding.

   This presentation is to some extent a placeholder.  We consider it an
   open question what the final protocol definition method and encodings
   use.  We expect this to be a question for the WG to decide.

   Several idiosyncrasies of this language are worth noting.

   o  All lengths are denoted in bytes, not objects.
   o  Variable length values are denoted like arrays with angle
   o  "select" is used to indicate variant structures.

   For instance, "uint16 array<0..2^8-2>;" represents up to 254 bytes
   but only up to 127 values of two bytes (16 bits) each..  Common Definitions

   The following definitions are used throughout RELOAD and so are
   defined here.  They also provide a convenient introduction to how to
   read the presentation language.

   An enum represents an enumerated type.  The values associated with

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   each possibility are represented in parentheses and the maximum value
   is represented as a nameless value, for purposes of describing the
   width of the containing integral type.  For instance, Boolean
   represents a true or false:

          enum { false (0), true(1), (255)} Boolean;

   A boolean value is either a 1 or a 0 and is represented as a single
   byte on the wire.

   The NodeId, shown below, represents a single Node-ID.

              typedef opaque       NodeId[16];

   A NodeId is a fixed-length 128-bit structure represented as a series
   of bytes, most significant byte first.  Note:  the use of "typedef"
   here is an extension to the TLS language, but its meaning should be
   relatively obvious.

   A ResourceId, shown below, represents a single resource-id.

              typedef opaque       ResourceId<0..2^8-1>;

   Like a NodeId, a resource-id is an opaque string of bytes, but unlike
   Node-IDs, resource-ids are variable length, up to 255 bytes (2048
   bits) in length.  On the wire, each ResourceId is preceded by a
   single length byte (allowing lengths up to 255).  Thus, the 3-byte
   value "Foo" would be encoded as:  03 46 4f 4f.

   A more complicated example is IpAddressPort, which represents a
   network address and can be used to carry either an IPv6 or IPv4

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         enum {reserved(0), ip4_address (1), ip6_address (2), (255)}

         struct  {
           uint32                  addr;
           uint16                  port;
         } IPv4AddrPort;

         struct  {
           uint128                 addr;
           uint16                  port;
         } IPv6AddrPort;

         struct {
           AddressType             type;
           uint8                   length;

           select (type) {
             case ipv4_address:
                IPv4AddrPort       v4addr_port;

             case ipv6_address:
                IPv6AddrPort       v6addr_port;

             /* This structure can be extended */

          } IpAddressPort;

   The first two fields in the structure are the same no matter what
   kind of address is being represented:

      the type of address (v4 or v6).

      the length of the rest of the structure.

   By having the type and the length appear at the beginning of the
   structure regardless of the kind of address being represented, an
   implementation which does not understand new address type X can still
   parse the IpAddressPort field and then discard it if it is not

   The rest of the IpAddressPort structure is either an IPv4AddrPort or
   an IPv6AddrPort.  Both of these simply consist of an address

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   represented as an integer and a 16-bit port.  As an example, here is
   the wire representation of the IPv4 address "" with port

              01           ; type    = IPv4
              06           ; length  = 6
              c0 00 02 01  ; address =
              17 d4        ; port    = 6100

6.2.2.  Forwarding Header

   The layout of the forwarding header is shown below.  We present this
   as a bit diagram because it is mostly fixed and to show the
   similarities with other packet headers.

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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      |1|     R       |       E       |       L       |       O       |
   4  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           Overlay                             |
   8  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |               |               |F|L|                           |
      |     TTL       |   Reserved    |R|F|      Fragment Offset      |
      |               |               |A|R|                           |
      |               |               |G|G|                           |
   12 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |               |                                               |
      |    Version    |                    Length                     |
      |               |                                               |
   16 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Transaction ID                         |
      +                                                               +
      |                                                               |
   24 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                               |                               |
      |             Flags             |        Via List Length        |
      |                               |                               |
   28 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                               |
      |    Destination List Length    |
      |                               |
   30 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      //                           Via List                          //
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      //                          Destination List                   //
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      //                          Route Log                          //
      |                                                               |

   The first four bytes identify this message as a RELOAD message.  The
   message is easy to demultiplex from STUN messages by looking at the
   first bit.

   The Overlay field is the 32 bit checksum/hash of the overlay being

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   used.  The variable length string representing the overlay name is
   hashed with SHA-1 and the low order 32 bits are used.  The purpose of
   this field is to allow nodes to participate in multiple overlays and
   to detect accidental misconfiguration.  This is not a security
   critical function.

   TTL (time-to-live) is an 8 bit field indicating the number of
   iterations, or hops, a message can experience before it is discarded.
   The TTL value MUST be decremented by one at every hop along the route
   the message traverses.  If the TTL is 0, the message MUST NOT be
   propagated further and MUST be discarded.  The initial value of the
   TTL should be TBD.

   FRAG is a 1 bit field used to specify if this message is a fragment.

              NOT-FRAGMENT    : 0x0
              FRAGMENT        : 0x1

   LFRG is a 1 bit field used to specify whether this is the last
   fragment in a complete message.

              NOT-LAST-FRAGMENT    : 0x0
              LAST-FRAGMENT        : 0x1

   [[Open Issue:  This is conceptually clear, but the details are still
   lacking.  Need to define the fragment offset and total length be
   encoded in the header.  Right now we have 14 bits reserved with the
   intention that they be used for fragmenting, though additional bytes
   in the header might be needed for fragmentation.]]

   Version is a 7 bit field that indicates the version of the RELOAD
   protocol being used.

              Version0.1       : 0x1

   The message Length is the count in bytes of the size of the message,
   including the header.

   The Transaction ID is a unique 64 bit number that identifies this
   transaction and also serves as a salt to randomize the request and
   the response.  Responses use the same Transaction ID as the request
   they correspond to.  Transaction IDs are also used for fragment

   The flags word contains control flags.  There is one currently
   defined flag.

              ROUTE-LOG       : 0x1

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   The ROUTE-LOG flag indicates that the route log should be included
   (see Section

   The Destination List Length and the Via List Length contain the
   lengths of the route and via lists respectively, in bytes.

   The Via List contains the sequence of destinations through which the
   message has passed.  The via list starts out empty and grows as the
   message traverses each peer.

   The Destination List contains a sequence of destinations which the
   message should pass through.  The destination list is constructed by
   the message originator.  The first element in the destination list is
   where the message goes next.  The list shrinks as the message
   traverses each listed peer.  Destination and Via Lists

   The destination list and via lists are sequences of Destination

         enum {reserved(0), peer(2), resource(2), compressed(3), (255) }

         select (destination_type) {
           case peer:
              NodeId               node_id;

           case resource:
              ResourceId           resource_id;

           case compressed:
              opaque               compressed_id;

           /* This structure may be extended with new types */

         } DestinationData;

         struct {
           DestinationType         type;
           uint8                   length;
           DestinationData         destination_data;
         } Destination;

   This is a TLV structure with the following contents:

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      The type of the DestinationData PDU.  This may be one of "peer",
      "resource", or "compressed".

      The length of the destination_data.

      The destination value itself, which is an encoded DestinationData
      structure, depending on the value of "type".

   Note:  This structure encodes a type, length, value.  The length
      field specifies the length of the DestinationData values, which
      allows the addition of new DestinationTypes.  This allows an
      implementation which does not understand a given DestinationType
      to skip over it.

   A DestinationData can be one of three types:

      A Node-ID.

      A compressed list of Node-IDs and/or resources.  Because this
      value was compressed by one of the peers, it is only meaningful to
      that peer and cannot be decoded by other peers.  Thus, it is
      represented as an opaque string.

      The Resource-ID of the resource which is desired.  This type MUST
      only appear in the final location of a destination list and MUST
      NOT appear in a via list.  It is meaningless to try to route
      through a resource.  Route Logging

   The route logging feature provides diagnostic information about the
   path taken by the request so far and in this manner it is similar in
   function to SIP's [RFC3261] Via header field.  If the ROUTE-LOG flag
   is set in the Flags word, at each hop peers MUST append a route log
   entry to the route log element in the header or reject the request.
   The order of the route log entry elements in the message is
   determined by the order of the peers were traversed along the path.
   The first route log entry corresponds to the peer at the first hop
   along the path, and each subsequent entry corresponds to the peer at
   the next hop along the path.  If the ROUTE-LOG flag is set in a
   request, the route log MUST be copied into the response and the

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   ROUTE-LOG flag set so that the originator receives the ROUTE-LOG

   If the responder wishes to have a route log in the reverse direction,
   it MAY set the ROUTE-LOG flag in its response as well.  Note,
   however, that this means that the response will grow on the return
   path, which may potentially mean that it gets dropped due to becoming
   too large for some intermediate hop.  Thus, this option must be used
   with care.

   The route log is defined as follows:

       enum { (255) } RouteLogExtensionType;

       struct {
         RouteLogExtensionType     type;
         uint16                    length;

         select (type){
           /* Extension values go here */
         } extension;
       } RouteLogExtension;

       enum { reserved(0), tcp_tls(1),  udp_dtls(2),  (255)}  Transport;

       struct {
         opaque                 version<0..2^8-1>;    /* A string */
         Transport              transport;            /* TCP or UDP */
         NodeId                 id;
         uint32                 uptime;
         IpAddressPort          address;
         opaque                 certificate<0..2^16-1>;
         RouteLogExtension      extensions<0..2^16-1>;
       } RouteLogEntry;

       struct {
          RouteLogEntry         entries<0..2^16-1>;
       } RouteLog;

   The route log consists of an arbitrary number of RouteLogEntry
   values, each representing one node through which the message has

   Each RouteLogEntry consists of the following values:

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      A textual representation of the software version

      The transport type, currently either "tcp_tls" or "udp_dtls".

      The Node-ID of the peer.

      The uptime of the peer in seconds.

      The address and port of the peer.

      The peer's certificate.  Note that this may be omitted by setting
      the length to zero.

      Extensions, if any.

   Extensions are defined using a RouteLogExtension structure.  New
   extensions are defined by defining a new code point for
   RouteLogExtensionType and adding a new arm to the RouteLogExtension
   structure.  The contents of that structure are:

      The type of the extension.

      The length of the rest of the structure.

      The extension value.

6.2.3.  Message Contents Format

   The second major part of a RELOAD message is the contents part, which
   is defined by MessageContents:

          struct {
            MessageCode            message_code;
            opaque                 payload<0..2^24-1>;
          } MessageContents;

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   The contents of this structure are as follows:

      This indicates the message that is being sent.  The code space is
      broken up as follows.

      0  Reserved

      1 .. 0x7fff  Requests and responses.  These code points are always
         paired, with requests being odd and the corresponding response
         being the request code plus 1.  Thus, "ping_request" (the Ping
         request) has value 1 and "ping_answer" (the Ping response) has
         value 2

      0xffff  Error

      The message body itself, represented as a variable-length string
      of bytes.  The bytes themselves are dependent on the code value.
      See the sections describing the various RELOAD methods (Join,
      Update, Connect, Store, Fetch, etc.) for the definitions of the
      payload contents.  Response Codes and Response Errors

   A peer processing a request returns its status in the message_code
   field.  If the request was a success, then the message code is the
   response code that matches the request (i.e., the next code up).  The
   response payload is then as defined in the request/response

   If the request failed, then the message code is set to 0xffff (error)
   and the payload MUST be an error_response PDU, as shown below.

   When the message code is 0xffff, the payload MUST be an

          public struct {
            uint16             error_code;
            opaque             reason_phrase<0..2^8-1>;  /* String*/
            opaque             error_info<0..65000>;
          } ErrorResponse;

   The contents of this structure are as follows:

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      A numeric error code indicating the error that occurred.

      A free form text string indicating the reason for the response.
      The reason phrase SHOULD BE as indicated in the error code list
      below (e.g., "Moved Temporarily").  [[Open Issue:  These reason
      phrases are pretty useless.  Like the rest of this error system,
      They're a holdover from SIP.  Should we remove?]]

      Payload specific error information.  This MUST be empty (zero
      length) except as specified below.

   The following error code values are defined.  [[TODO:  These are
   currently semi-aligned with SIP codes. that's probably bad and we
   need to fix.]

   302 (Moved Temporarily):  The requesting peer SHOULD retry the
      request at the new address specified in the 302 response message.

   401 (Unauthorized):  The requesting peer needs to sign and provide a
      certificate.  [[TODO:  The semantics here don't seem quite

   403 (Forbidden):  The requesting peer does not have permission to
      make this request.

   404 (Not Found):  The resource or peer cannot be found or does not

   408 (Request Timeout):  A response to the request has not been
      received in a suitable amount of time.  The requesting peer MAY
      resend the request at a later time.

   412 (Precondition Failed):  A request can't be completed because some
      precondition was incorrect.  For instance, the wrong generation
      counter was provided

   498 (Incompatible with Overlay)  A peer receiving the request is
      using a different overlay, overlay algorithm, or hash algorithm.
      [[Open Issue:  What is the best error number and reason phrase to

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6.2.4.  Signature

   The third part of a RELOAD message is the signature, represented by a
   Signature structure.  The message signature is computed over the
   payload and parts of forwarding header.  The payload, in case of a
   Store, may contain an additional signature computed over a StoreReq
   structure.  All signatures are formatted using the Signature element.
   This element is also used in other contexts where signatures are
   needed.  The input structure to the signature computation varies
   depending on the data element being signed.

        enum {reserved(0), signer_identity_peer (1),
              signer_identity_name (2), signer_identity_certificate (3),
              (255)} SignerIdentityType;

        select (identity_type) {
          case signer_identity_peer:
            NodeId               id;

          case signer_identity_name:
            opaque               name<0..2^16-1>;

          case signer_identity_certificate:
            opaque               certificate<0..2^16-1>;

          /* This structure may be extended with new types */
        } SignerIdentityValue;

        struct {
          SignerIdentityType     identity_type;
          uint16                 length;
          SignerIdentityValue    identity[SignerIdentity.length];
        } SignerIdentity;

        struct  {
           SignatureAndHashAlgorithm     algorithm;
           SignerIdentity                identity;
           opaque                        signature_value<0..2^16-1>;
        } Signature;

   The signature construct contains the following values:

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      The signature algorithm in use.  The algorithm definitions are
      found in the IANA TLS SignatureAlgorithm Registry.

      The identity or certificate used to form the signature

      The value of the signature

   A number of possible identity formats are permitted.  The current
   possibilities are:  a Node-ID, a user name, and a certificate.

   For signatures over messages the input to the signature is computed

      overlay + transaction_id + MessageContents + SignerIdentity

   Where overlay and transaction_id come from the forwarding header and
   + indicates concatenation.

   [[TODO:  Check the inputs to this carefully.]]

   The input to signatures over data values is different, and is
   described in Section 7.1.

6.3.  Overlay Topology

   As discussed in previous sections, RELOAD does not itself implement
   any overlay topology.  Rather, it relies on Topology Plugins, which
   allow a variety of overlay algorithms to be used while maintaining
   the same RELOAD core.  This section describes the requirements for
   new topology plugins and the methods that RELOAD provides for overlay
   topology maintenance.

6.3.1.  Topology Plugin Requirements

   When specifying a new overlay algorithm, at least the following need
   to be described:

   o  Joining procedures, including the contents of the Join message.
   o  Stabilization procedures, including the contents of the Update
      message, the frequency of topology probes and keepalives, and the
      mechanism used to detect when peers have disconnected.
   o  Exit procedures, including the contents of the Leave message.

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   o  The length of the Resource-IDs and Node-IDs.  For DHTs, the hash
      algorithm to compute the hash of an identifier.
   o  The procedures that peers use to route messages.
   o  The replication strategy used to ensure data redundancy.

6.3.2.  Methods and types for use by topology plugins

   This section describes the methods that topology plugins use to join,
   leave, and maintain the overlay.  Join

   A new peer (but which already has credentials) uses the JoinReq
   message to join the overlay.  The JoinReq is sent to the responsible
   peer depending on the routing mechanism described in the topology
   plugin.  This notifies the responsible peer that the new peer is
   taking over some of the overlay and it needs to synchronize its

          struct {
             NodeId                joining_peer_id;
             opaque                overlay_specific_data<0..2^16-1>;
          } JoinReq;

   The minimal JoinReq contains only the Node-ID which the sending peer
   wishes to assume.  Overlay algorithms MAY specify other data to
   appear in this request.

   If the request succeeds, the responding peer responds with a JoinAns
   message, as defined below:

          struct {
             opaque                overlay_specific_data<0..2^16-1>;
          } JoinAns;

   If the request succeeds, the responding peer MUST follow up by
   executing the right sequence of Stores and Updates to transfer the
   appropriate section of the overlay space to the joining peer.  In
   addition, overlay algorithms MAY define data to appear in the
   response payload that provides additional info.  Leave

   The LeaveReq message is used to indicate that a node is exiting the
   overlay.  A node SHOULD send this message to each peer with which it
   is directly connected prior to exiting the overlay.

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          public struct {
             NodeId                leaving_peer_id;
             opaque                overlay_specific_data<0..2^16-1>;
          } LeaveReq;

   The default LeaveReq contains only the Node-ID of the leaving peer.
   Overlay algorithms MAY specify other data to appear in this request.

   Upon receiving a Leave request, a peer MUST update its own routing
   table, and send the appropriate Store/Update sequences to re-
   stabilize the overlay.  Update

   Update is the primary overlay-specific maintenance message.  It is
   used by the sender to notify the recipient of the sender's view of
   the current state of the overlay (its routing state) and it is up to
   the recipient to take whatever actions are appropriate to deal with
   the state change.

   The contents of the UpdateReq message are completely overlay-
   specific.  The UpdateAns response is expected to be either success or
   an error.  Route_Query

   The Route_Query request allows the sender to ask a peer where they
   would route a message directed to a given destination.  In other
   words, a RouteQuery for a destination X requests the Node-ID where
   the receiving peer would next route to get to X. A RouteQuery can
   also request that the receiving peer initiate an Update request to
   transfer his routing table.

   One important use of the RouteQuery request is to support iterative
   routing.  The sender selects one of the peers in its routing table
   and sends it a RouteQuery message with the destination_object set to
   the Node-ID or Resource-ID it wishes to route to.  The receiving peer
   responds with information about the peers to which the request would
   be routed.  The sending peer MAY then Connects to that peer(s), and
   repeats the RouteQuery.  Eventually, the sender gets a response from
   a peer that is closest to the identifier in the destination_object as
   determined by the topology plugin.  At that point, the sender can
   send messages directly to that peer.

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   A RouteQueryReq message indicates the peer or resource that the
   requesting peer is interested in.  It also contains a "send_update"
   option allowing the requesting peer to request a full copy of the
   other peer's routing table.

          struct {
            Boolean                send_update;
            Destination            destination;
            opaque                 overlay_specific_data<0..2^16-1>;
          } RouteQueryReq;

   The contents of the RouteQueryReq message are as follows:

      A single byte.  This may be set to "true" to indicate that the
      requester wishes the responder to initiate an Update request
      immediately.  Otherwise, this value MUST be set to "false".

      The destination which the requester is interested in.  This may be
      any valid destination object, including a Node-ID, compressed ids,
      or resource-id.

      Other data as appropriate for the overlay.  Response Definition

   A response to a successful RouteQueryReq request is a RouteQueryAns
   message.  This is completely overlay specific.

6.4.  Forwarding Layer

   Each node maintains connections to a set of other nodes defined by
   the topology plugin.

6.4.1.  Transports

   RELOAD can use multiple transports to send its messages.  Because ICE
   is used to establish connections (see Section, RELOAD
   nodes are able to detect which transports are offered by other nodes
   and establish connections between each other.  Any transport protocol
   needs to be able to establish a secure, authenticated connection, and
   provide data origin authentication and message integrity for

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   individual data elements.  RELOAD currently supports two transport

   o  TLS [REF] over TCP
   o  DTLS [RFC4347] over UDP

   Note that although UDP does not properly have "connections", both TLS
   and DTLS have a handshake which establishes a stateful association, a
   similar stateful construct, and we simply refer to these as
   "connections" for the purposes of this document.  Future Support for HIP

   The P2PSIP Working Group has expressed interest in supporting a HIP-
   based transport.  Such support would require specifying such details

   o  How to issue certificates which provided identities meaningful to
      the HIP base exchange.  We anticipate that this would require a
      mapping between ORCHIDs and NodeIds.
   o  How to carry the HIP I1 and I2 messages.  We anticipate that this
      would require defining a HIP Tunnel usage.
   o  How to carry RELOAD messages over HIP.

   We leave this work as a topic for another draft.  Reliability for Unreliable Transports

   When RELOAD is carried over DTLS or another unreliable transport, it
   needs to be used with a reliability and congestion control mechanism,
   which is provided on a hop-by-hop basis, matching the semantics if
   TCP were used.  The basic principle is that each message, regardless
   of if it carries a request or responses, will get an ACK and be
   reliably retransmitted.  The receiver's job is very simple, limited
   to just sending ACKs.  All the complexity is at the sender side.
   This allows the sending implementation to trade off performance
   versus implementation complexity without affecting the wire protocol.

   In order to support unreliable transport, each message is wrapped in
   a very simple framing layer (FramedMessage) which is only used for
   each hop.  This layer contains a sequence number which can then be
   used for ACKs.  Framed Message Format

   The definition of FramedMessage is:

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         enum {data (128), ack (129), (255)} FramedMessageType;

         struct {
           FramedMessageType       type;

           select (type) {
             case data:
               uint24              sequence;
               opaque              message<0..2^24-1>;

             case ack:
               uint24              ack_sequence;
               uint32              received;
         } FramedMessage;

   The type field of the PDU is set to indicate whether the message is
   data or an acknowledgement.  Note that these values have been set to
   force the first bit to be high, thus allowing easy demultiplexing
   with STUN.  All FramedMessageType values must be > 128.

   If the message is of type "data", then the remainder of the PDU is as

      the sequence number

      the original message that is being transmitted.

   Each connection has it own sequence number.  Initially the value is
   zero and it increments by exactly one for each message sent over that

   When the receiver receive a message, it SHOULD immediately send an
   ACK message.  The receiver MUST keep track of the 32 most recent
   sequence numbers received on this association in order to generate
   the appropriate ack.

   If the PDU is of type "ack", the contents are as follows:


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      The sequence number of the message being acknowledged.

      A bitmask indicating whether or not each of the previous 32
      packets has been received before the sequence number in
      ack_sequence.  The high order bit represents the first packet in
      the sequence space.

   The received field bits in the ACK provide a very high degree of
   redundancy for the sender to figure out which packets the receiver
   received and can then estimate packet loss rates.  If the sender also
   keeps track of the time at which recent sequence numbers were sent,
   the RTT can be estimated.  Retransmission and Flow Control

   Because the receiver's role is limited to providing packet
   acknowledgements, a wide variety of congestion control algorithms can
   be implemented on the sender side while using the same basic wire
   protocol.  It is RECOMMENDED that senders implement TFRC-SP [RFC4828]
   and use the received bitmask to allow the sender to compute packer
   loss event rates.  Senders MUST implement a retransmission and
   congestion control scheme no more aggressive then TFRC-SP.  Fragmentation and Reassembly

   In order to allow transport over datagram protocols, RELOAD messages
   may be fragmented.  If a message is too large for a peer to transmit
   to the next peer it MUST fragment the message.  Note that this
   implies that intermediate peers may re-fragment messages if the
   incoming and outgoing paths have different maximum datagram sizes.
   Intermediate peers SHOULD NOT reassemble fragments.

   Upon receipt of a fragmented message by the intended peer, the peer
   holds the fragments in a holding buffer until the entire message has
   been received.  The message is then reassembled into a single
   unfragmented message and processed.  In order to mitigate denial of
   service attacks, receivers SHOULD time out incomplete fragments.
   [[TODO:  Describe algorithm]]

6.4.2.  Connection Management Methods

   This section defines the methods RELOAD uses to form and maintain
   connections between nodes in the overlay.  Three methods are defined:

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   Connect:    used to form connections between nodes.  When node A
      wants to connect to node B, it sends a Connect message to node B
      through the overlay.  The Connect contains A's ICE parameters.  B
      responds with its ICE parameters and the two nodes perform ICE to
      form connection.
   Ping:    is a simple request/response which is used to verify
      connectivity (analogous to the UNIX ping command) along a path and
      to gather a small amount of information about the resources held
      by the target peer
   Tunnel:    in some cases, it will be too expensive for an application
      layer protocol to set up a connection in order to send a small
      number of messages.  The Tunnel message allows applications to
      route individual application layer protocol messages through the
      overlay.  Connect

   A node sends a Connect request when it wishes to establish a direct
   TCP or UDP connection to another node for the purposes of sending
   RELOAD messages or application layer protocol messages, such as SIP.
   Detailed procedures for the Connect and its response are described in

   A Connect in and of itself does not result in updating the routing
   table of either node.  That function is performed by Updates.  If
   node A has Connected to node B, but not received any Updates from B,
   it MAY route messages which are directly addressed to B through that
   channel but MUST NOT route messages through B to other peers via that
   channel.  The process of Connecting is separate from the process of
   becoming a peer (using Update) to prevent half-open states where a
   node has started to form connections but is not really ready to act
   as a peer.  Request Definition

   A ConnectReq message contains the requesting peer's ICE connection
   parameters formatted into a binary structure.

         typedef opaque            IceCandidate<0..2^16-1>;

         struct  {
           opaque                  ufrag<0..2^8-1>;
           opaque                  password<0..2^8-1>;
           uint16                  application;
           opaque                  role<0..2^8-1>;
           IceCandidate            candidates<0..2^16-1>;
         } ConnectReqAns;

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   The values contained in ConnectReq and ConnectAns are:

      The username fragment (from ICE)

      The ICE password.

      A 16-bit port number.  This port number represents the IANA
      registered port of the protocol that is going to be sent on this
      connection.  For SIP, this is 5060 or 5061, and for RELOAD is TBD.
      By using the IANA registered port, we avoid the need for an
      additional registry and allow RELOAD to be used to set up
      connections for any existing or future application protocol.

      An active/passive/actpass attribute from RFC 4145 [RFC4145].

      One or more ICE candidate values.  Each candidate has an IP
      address, IP address family, port, transport protocol, priority,
      foundation, component ID, STUN type and related address.  The
      candidate_list is a list of string candidate values from ICE.

   These values should be generated using the procedures described in
   Section  Response Definition

   If a peer receives a Connect request, it SHOULD follow the process
   the request and generate its own response with a ConnectReqAns It
   should then begin ICE checks.  When a peer receives a Connect
   response, it SHOULD parse the response and begin its own ICE checks.  Using ICE With RELOAD

   This section describes the profile of ICE that is used with RELOAD.
   RELOAD implementations MUST implement full ICE.  Because RELOAD
   always tries to use TCP and then UDP as a fallback, there will be
   multiple candidates of the same IP version, which requires full ICE.

   In ICE as defined by [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice], SDP is used to carry the
   ICE parameters.  In RELOAD, this function is performed by a binary
   encoding in the Connect method.  This encoding is more restricted
   than the SDP encoding because the RELOAD environment is simpler:

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   o  Only a single media stream is supported.
   o  In this case, the "stream" refers not to RTP or other types of
      media, but rather to a connection for RELOAD itself or for SIP
   o  RELOAD only allows for a single offer/answer exchange.  Unlike the
      usage of ICE within SIP, there is never a need to send a
      subsequent offer to update the default candidates to match the
      ones selected by ICE.

   An agent follows the ICE specification as described in
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice] and [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-tcp] with the changes
   and additional procedures described in the subsections below.  Collecting STUN Servers

   ICE relies on the node having one or more STUN servers to use.  In
   conventional ICE, it is assumed that nodes are configured with one or
   more STUN servers through some out-of-band mechanism.  This is still
   possible in RELOAD but RELOAD also learns STUN servers as it connects
   to other peers.  Because all RELOAD peers implement ICE and use STUN
   keepalives, every peer is a STUN server [I-D.ietf-behave-rfc3489bis].
   Accordingly, any peer a node knows will be willing to be a STUN
   server -- though of course it may be behind a NAT.

   A peer on a well-provisioned wide-area overlay will be configured
   with one or more bootstrap peers.  These peers make an initial list
   of STUN servers.  However, as the peer forms connections with
   additional peers, it builds more peers it can use as STUN servers.

   Because complicated NAT topologies are possible, a peer may need more
   than one STUN server.  Specifically, a peer that is behind a single
   NAT will typically observe only two IP addresses in its STUN checks:
   its local address and its server reflexive address from a STUN server
   outside its NAT.  However, if there are more NATs involved, it may
   discover that it learns additional server reflexive addresses (which
   vary based on where in the topology the STUN server is).  To maximize
   the chance of achieving a direct connection, a peer SHOULD group
   other peers by the peer-reflexive addresses it discovers through
   them.  It SHOULD then select one peer from each group to use as a
   STUN server for future connections.

   Only peers to which the peer currently has connections may be used.
   If the connection to that host is lost, it MUST be removed from the
   list of stun servers and a new server from the same group SHOULD be

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   When a node wishes to establish a connection for the purposes of
   RELOAD signaling or SIP signaling (or any other application protocol
   for that matter), it follows the process of gathering candidates as
   described in Section 4 of ICE [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice].  RELOAD utilizes
   a single component, as does SIP.  Consequently, gathering for these
   "streams" requires a single component.

   An agent MUST implement ICE-tcp [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice], and MUST
   gather at least one UDP and one TCP host candidate for RELOAD and for

   The ICE specification assumes that an ICE agent is configured with,
   or somehow knows of, TURN and STUN servers.  RELOAD provides a way
   for an agent to learn these by querying the overlay, as described in
   Section and Section 9.

   The agent SHOULD prioritize its TCP-based candidates over its UDP-
   based candidates in the prioritization described in Section 4.1.2 of
   ICE [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice].

   The default candidate selection described in Section 4.1.3 of ICE is
   ignored; defaults are not signaled or utilized by RELOAD.  Encoding the Connect Message

   Section 4.3 of ICE describes procedures for encoding the SDP for
   conveying RELOAD or SIP ICE candidates.  Instead of actually encoding
   an SDP, the candidate information (IP address and port and transport
   protocol, priority, foundation, component ID, type and related
   address) is carried within the attributes of the Connect request or
   its response.  Similarly, the username fragment and password are
   carried in the Connect message or its response.  Section
   describes the detailed attribute encoding for Connect.  The Connect
   request and its response do not contain any default candidates or the
   ice-lite attribute, as these features of ICE are not used by RELOAD.
   The Connect request and its response also contain a application
   attribute, with a value of SIP or RELOAD, which indicates what
   protocol is to be run over the connection.  The RELOAD Connect
   request MUST only be utilized to set up connections for application
   protocols that can be multiplexed with STUN.

   Since the Connect request contains the candidate information and
   short term credentials, it is considered as an offer for a single
   media stream that happens to be encoded in a format different than
   SDP, but is otherwise considered a valid offer for the purposes of
   following the ICE specification.  Similarly, the Connect response is

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   considered a valid answer for the purposes of following the ICE

   Similarly, the node MUST implement the active, passive, and actpass
   attributes from RFC 4145 [RFC4145].  However, here they refer
   strictly to the role of active or passive for the purposes of TLS
   handshaking.  The TCP connection directions are signaled as part of
   the ICE candidate attribute.  Verifying ICE Support

   An agent MUST skip the verification procedures in Section 5.1 and 6.1
   of ICE.  Since RELOAD requires full ICE from all agents, this check
   is not required.  Role Determination

   The roles of controlling and controlled as described in Section 5.2
   of ICE are still utilized with RELOAD.  However, the offerer (the
   entity sending the Connect request) will always be controlling, and
   the answerer (the entity sending the Connect response) will always be
   controlled.  The connectivity checks MUST still contain the ICE-
   CONTROLLED and ICE-CONTROLLING attributes, however, even though the
   role reversal capability for which they are defined will never be
   needed with RELOAD.  This is to allow for a common codebase between
   ICE for RELOAD and ICE for SDP.  Connectivity Checks

   The processes of forming check lists in Section 5.7 of ICE,
   scheduling checks in Section 5.8, and checking connectivity checks in
   Section 7 are used with RELOAD without change.  Concluding ICE

   The controlling agent MUST utilize regular nomination.  This is to
   ensure consistent state on the final selected pairs without the need
   for an updated offer, as RELOAD does not generate additional offer/
   answer exchanges.

   The procedures in Section 8 of ICE are followed to conclude ICE, with
   the following exceptions:

   o  The controlling agent MUST NOT attempt to send an updated offer
      once the state of its single media stream reaches Completed.
   o  Once the state of ICE reaches Completed, the agent can immediately
      free all unused candidates.  This is because RELOAD does not have
      the concept of forking, and thus the three second delay in Section

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      8.3 of ICE does not apply.  Subsequent Offers and Answers

   An agent MUST NOT send a subsequent offer or answer.  Thus, the
   procedures in Section 9 of ICE MUST be ignored.  Media Keepalives

   STUN MUST be utilized for the keepalives described in Section 10 of
   ICE.  Sending Media

   The procedures of Section 11 apply to RELOAD as well.  However, in
   this case, the "media" takes the form of application layer protocols
   (RELOAD or SIP for example) over TLS or DTLS.  Consequently, once ICE
   processing completes, the agent will begin TLS or DTLS procedures to
   establish a secure connection.  The nodes MUST verify that the
   certificate presented in the handshake matches the identity of the
   other peer as found in the Connect message.  Once the TLS or DTLS
   signaling is complete, the application protocol is free to use the

   The concept of a previous selected pair for a component does not
   apply to RELOAD, since ICE restarts are not possible with RELOAD.  Receiving Media

   An agent MUST be prepared to receive packets for the application
   protocol (TLS or DTLS carrying RELOAD, SIP or anything else) at any
   time.  The jitter and RTP considerations in Section 11 of ICE do not
   apply to RELOAD or SIP.  Ping

   Ping is used to test connectivity along a path.  A ping can be
   addressed to a specific Node-ID, the peer controlling a given
   location (by using a resource ID) or to the broadcast Node-ID (all
   1s).  In either case, the target Node-IDs respond with a simple
   response containing some status information.  Request Definition

   The PingReq message contains a list (potentially empty) of the pieces
   of status information that the requester would like the responder to

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         enum { responsible_set(1), num_resources(2), (255)}

         struct {
           PingInformationType     requested_info<0..2^8-1>;
         } PingReq

   The two currently defined values for PingInformation are:

      indicates that the peer should Respond with the fraction of the
      overlay for which the responding peer is responsible.

      indicates that the peer should Respond with the number of
      resources currently being stored by the peer.  Response Definition

   A successful PingAns response contains the information elements
   requested by the peer.

          struct {
            PingInformationType    type;

            select (type) {
              case responsible_set:
                uint32             responsible_ppb;

              case num_resources:
                uint32             num_resources;

              /* This type may be extended */

          } PingInformation;

          struct {
            uint64                 response_id;
            PingInformation        ping_info<0..2^16-1>;
          } PingAns;

   A PingAns message contains the following elements:

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      A randomly generated 64-bit response ID.  This is used to
      distinguish Ping responses in cases where the Ping request is

      A sequence of PingInformation structures, as shown below.

   Each of the current possible Ping information types is a 32-bit
   unsigned integer.  For type "responsible_ppb", it is the fraction of
   the overlay for which the peer is responsible in parts per billion.
   For type "num_resources", it is the number of resources the peer is

   The responding peer SHOULD include any values that the requesting
   peer requested and that it recognizes.  They SHOULD be returned in
   the requested order.  Any other values MUST NOT be returned.  Tunnel

   A node sends a Tunnel request when it wishes to exchange application-
   layer protocol messages without the expense of establishing a direct
   connection via Connect or when ICE is unable to establish a direct
   connection via Connect and a TURN relay is not available.  The
   application-level protocols that are routed via the Tunnel request
   are defined by that application's usage.

   Note:  The decision of whether to route application-level traffic
      across the overlay or to open a direct connection requires careful
      consideration of the overhead involved in each transaction.
      Establishing a direct connection requires greater initial setup
      costs, but after setup, communication is faster and imposes no
      overhead on the overlay.  For example, for the SIP usage, an
      INVITE request to establish a voice call might be routed over the
      overlay, a SUBSCRIBE with regular updates would be better used
      with a Connect, and media would both impose too great a load on
      the overlay and likely receive unacceptable performance.  However,
      there may be a tradeoff between locating TURN servers and relying
      on Tunnel for packet routing.

   When a usage requires the Tunnel method, it must specify the specific
   application protocol(s) that will be Tunneled and for each protocol,

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   o  An application attribute that indicates the protocol being
      tunneled.  This the IANA-registered port of the application
   o  The conditions under which the application will be Tunneled over
      the overlay rather than using a direct Connect.
   o  A mechanism for moving future application-level communication from
      Tunneling on the overlay to a direct Connection, or an explanation
      why this is unnecessary.
   o  A means of associating messages together as required for dialog-
      oriented or request/response-oriented protocols.
   o  How the Tunneled message (and associated responses) will be
      delivered to the correct application.  This is particularly
      important if there might be multiple instances of the application
      on or behind a single peer.  Request Definition

   The TunnelReq message contains the application PDU that the
   requesting peer wishes to transmit, along with some control
   information identifying the handling of the PDU.

          struct  {
            uint16                 application;
            opaque                 dialog_id<0..2^8-1>;
            opaque                 application_pdu<0..2^24-1>;
          } TunnelReq;

   The values contained in the TunnelReq are:

      A 16-bit port number.  This port number represents the IANA
      registered port of the protocol that is going to be sent on this
      connection.  For SIP, this is 5060 or 5061, and for RELOAD is TBD.
      By using the IANA registered port, we avoid the need for an
      additional registry and allow RELOAD to be used to set up
      connections for any existing or future application protocol.

      An arbitrary string providing an application-defined way of
      associating related Tunneled messages.  This attribute may also
      encode sequence information as required by the application

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      An application PDU in the format specified by the application.  Response Definition

   A TunnelAns message serves as confirmation that the message was
   received by the destination peer.  It implies nothing about the
   processing of the application.  If the application protocol specifies
   an acknowledgement or confirmation, that must be sent with a separate
   Tunnel request.  The TunnelAns message is empty (has a zero length

7.  Data Storage Protocol

   RELOAD provides a set of generic mechanisms for storing and
   retrieving data in the Overlay Instance.  These mechanisms can be
   used for new applications simply by defining new code points and a
   small set of rules.  No new protocol mechanisms are required.

   The basic unit of stored data is a single StoredData structure:

         struct {
           uint32                  length;
           uint64                  storage_time;
           uint32                  lifetime;
           StoredDataValue         value;
           Signature               signature;
         } StoredData;

   The contents of this structure are as follows:

      The length of the rest of the structure in octets.

      The time when the data was stored in absolute time, represented in
      seconds since the Unix epoch.  Any attempt to store a data value
      with a storage time before that of a value already stored at this
      location MUST generate a 412 error.  This prevents rollback
      attacks.  Note that this does not require synchronized clocks:
      the receiving peer uses the storage time in the previous store,
      not its own clock.

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      The validity period for the data, in seconds, starting from the
      time of store.

      The data value itself, as described in Section 7.2.

      A signature over the data value.  Section 7.1 describes the
      signature computation.  The element is formatted as described in
      Section 6.2.4

   Each resource-id specifies a single location in the Overlay Instance.
   However, each location may contain multiple StoredData values
   distinguished by kind-id.  The definition of a kind describes both
   the data values which may be stored and the data model of the data.
   Some data models allow multiple values to be stored under the same
   kind-id.  Section Section 7.2 describes the available data models.
   Thus, for instance, a given resource-id might contain a single-value
   element stored under kind-id X and an array containing multiple
   values stored under kind-id Y.

7.1.  Data Signature Computation

   Each StoredData element is individually signed.  However, the
   signature also must be self-contained and cover the kind-id and
   resource-id even though they are not present in the StoredData
   structure.  The input to the signature algorithm is:

      resource_id + kind + StoredData

   Where these values are:

      The resource ID where this data is stored.

      The kind-id for this data.

      The contents of the stored data value, as described in the
      previous sections.

   [OPEN ISSUE:  Should we include the identity in the string that forms
   the input to the signature algorithm?.]

   Once the signature has been computed, the signature is represented

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   using a signature element, as described in Section 6.2.4.

7.2.  Data Models

   The protocol currently defines the following data models:

   o  single value
   o  array
   o  dictionary

   These are represented with the StoredDataValue structure:

         enum { reserved(0), single_value(1), array(2),
                dictionary(3), (255)} DataModel;

         struct {
           Boolean                exists;
           opaque                 value<0..2^32-1>;
         } DataValue;

         select (DataModel) {
           case single_value:
             DataValue             single_value_entry;

           case array:
             ArrayEntry            array_entry;

           case DictionaryEntry:
             DictionaryEntry       dictionary_entry;

           /* This structure may be extended */
         } StoredDataValue;

   We now discuss the properties of each data model in turn:

7.2.1.  Single Value

   A single-value element is a simple, opaque sequence of bytes.  There
   may be only one single-value element for each resource-id, kind-id

   A single value element is represented as a DataValue, which contains
   the following two values:

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      This value indicates whether the value exists at all.  If it is
      set to False, it means that no value is present.  If it is True,
      that means that a value is present.  This gives the protocol a
      mechanism for indicating nonexistence as opposed to emptiness.

      The stored data.

7.2.2.  Array

   An array is a set of opaque values addressed by an integer index.
   Arrays are zero based.  Note that arrays can be sparse.  For
   instance, a Store of "X" at index 2 in an empty array produces an
   array with the values [ NA, NA, "X"].  Future attempts to fetch
   elements at index 0 or 1 will return values with "exists" set to

   A array element is represented as an ArrayEntry:

          struct {
            uint32                  index;
            DataValue               value;
          } ArrayEntry;

   The contents of this structure are:

      The index of the data element in the array.

      The stored data.

7.2.3.  Dictionary

   A dictionary is a set of opaque values indexed by an opaque key with
   one value for each key. single dictionary entry is represented as

   A dictionary element is represented as a DictionaryEntry:

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          typedef opaque           DictionaryKey<0..2^16-1>;

          struct {
            DictionaryKey          key;
            DataValue              value;
          } DictionaryEntry;

   The contents of this structure are:
      The dictionary key for this value.
      The stored data.

7.3.  Data Storage Methods

   RELOAD provides several methods for storing and retrieving data:

   o  Store values in the overlay
   o  Fetch values from the overlay
   o  Remove values from the overlay
   o  Find the values stored at an individual peer

   These methods are each described in the following sections.

7.3.1.  Store

   The Store method is used to store data in the overlay.  The format of
   the Store request depends on the data model which is determined by
   the kind.  Request Definition

   A StoreReq message is a sequence of StoreKindData values, each of
   which represents a sequence of stored values for a given kind.  The
   same kind-id MUST NOT be used twice in a given store request.  Each
   value is then processed in turn.  These operations MUST be atomic.
   If any operation fails, the state MUST be rolled back to before the
   request was received.

   The store request is defined by the StoreReq structure:

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        struct {
            KindId                 kind;
            DataModel              data_model;
            uint64                 generation_counter;
            StoredData             values<0..2^32-1>;
        } StoreKindData;

        struct {
            ResourceId             resource;
            uint8                  replica_number;
            StoreKindData          kind_data<0..2^32-1>;
        } StoreReq;

   A single Store request stores data of a number of kinds to a single
   resource location.  The contents of the structure are:

      The resource to store at.

      The number of this replica.  When a storing peer saves replicas to
      other peers each peer is assigned a replica number starting from 1
      and sent in the Store message.  This field is set to 0 when a node
      is storing its own data.  This allows peers to distinguish replica
      writes from original writes.

      A series of elements, one for each kind of data to be stored.

   If the replica number is zero, then the peer MUST check that it is
   responsible for the resource and if not reject the request.  If the
   replica number is nonzero, then the peer MUST check that it expects
   to be a replica for the resource and if not reject the request.

   Each StoreKindData element represents the data to be stored for a
   single kind-id.  The contents of the element are:

      The kind-id.  Implementations SHOULD reject requests corresponding
      to unknown kinds unless specifically configured otherwise.

      The data model of the data.  The kind defines what this has to be
      so this is redundant in the case where the software interpreting
      the messages understands the kind.

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      The expected current state of the generation counter
      (approximately the number of times this object has been written,
      see below for details).

      The value or values to be stored.  This may contain one or more
      stored_data values depending on the data model associated with
      each kind.

   The peer MUST perform the following checks:

   o  The kind_id is known and supported.
   o  The data_model matches the kind_id.
   o  The signatures over each individual data element (if any) are
   o  Each element is signed by a credential which is authorized to
      write this kind at this resource-id
   o  For original (non-replica) stores, the peer MUST check that if the
      generation-counter is non-zero, it equals the current value of the
      generation-counter for this kind.  This feature allows the
      generation counter to be used in a way similar to the HTTP Etag
   o  The storage time values are greater than that of any value which
      would be replaced by this Store.  [[OPEN ISSUE:  do peers need to
      save the storage time of Removes to prevent reinsertion?]]

   If all these checks succeed, the peer MUST attempt to store the data
   values.  For non-replica stores, if the store succeeds and the data
   is changed, then the peer must increase the generation counter by at
   least one.  If there are multiple stored values in a single
   StoreKindData, it is permissible for the peer to increase the
   generation counter by only 1 for the entire kind-id, or by 1 or more
   than one for each value.  Accordingly, all stored data values must
   have a generation counter of 1 or greater. 0 is used by other nodes
   to indicate that they are indifferent to the generation counter's
   current value.  For replica Stores, the peer MUST set the generation
   counter to match the generation_counter in the message.  Replica
   Stores MUST NOT use a generation counter of 0.

   The properties of stores for each data model are as follows:


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      A store of a new single-value element creates the element if it
      does not exist and overwrites any existing value. with the new

      A store of an array entry replaces (or inserts) the given value at
      the location specified by the index.  Because arrays are sparse, a
      store past the end of the array extends it with nonexistent values
      (exists=False) as required.  A store at index 0xffffffff places
      the new value at the end of the array regardless of the length of
      the the array.  The resulting StoredData has the correct index
      value when it is subsequently fetched.

      A store of a dictionary entry replaces (or inserts) the given
      value at the location specified by the dictionary key.

   The following figure shows the relationship between these structures
   for an example store which stores the following values at resource

   o  The value "abc" in the single value slot for kind X
   o  The value "foo" at index 0 in the array for kind Y
   o  The value "bar" at index 1 in the array for kind Y

                                    /      \
                                   /        \
                       StoreKindData        StoreKindData
                          kind=X               kind=Y
                    model=Single-Value       model=Array
                            |                    /\
                            |                   /  \
                        StoredData             /    \
                            |                 /      \
                            |           StoredData  StoredData
                     StoredDataValue        |           |
                      value="abc"           |           |
                                            |           |
                                   StoredDataValue  StoredDataValue
                                         index=0      index=1
                                      value="foo"    value="bar"

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   In response to a successful Store request the peer MUST return a
   StoreAns message containing a series of StoreKindResponse elements
   containing the current value of the generation counter for each
   kind-id, as well as a list of the peers where the data was

         struct {
           KindId                  kind;
           uint64                  generation_counter;
           NodeId                  replicas<0..2^16-1>;
         } StoreKindResponse;

         struct {
           StoreKindResponse       kind_responses<0..2^16-1>;
         } StoreAns;

   The contents of each StoreKindResponse are:

      The kind-id being represented.

      The current value of the generation counter for that kind-id.

      The list of other peers at which the data was/will-be replicated.
      In overlays and applications where the responsible peer is
      intended to store redundant copies, this allows the storing peer
      to independently verify that the replicas were in fact stored by
      doing its own Fetch.

   The response itself is just StoreKindResponse values packed end-to-

   If any of the generation counters in the request precede the
   corresponding stored generation counter, then the peer MUST fail the
   entire request and respond with a 412 error.  The error_info in the
   ErrorResponse MUST be a StoreAns response containing the correct
   generation counter for each kind and empty replicas lists.

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7.3.2.  Fetch

   The Fetch request retrieves one or more data elements stored at a
   given resource-id.  A single Fetch request can retrieve multiple
   different kinds.  Request Definition

         struct {
           int32            first;
           int32            last;
         } ArrayRange;

         struct {
           KindId                  kind;
           DataModel               model;
           uint64                  generation;
           uint16                  length;

           select (model) {
             case single_value: ;    /* Empty */

             case array:
                  ArrayRange       indices<0..2^16-1>;

             case dictionary:
                  DictionaryKey    keys<0..2^16-1>;

             /* This structure may be extended */

           } model_specifier;
         } StoredDataSpecifier;

         struct {
           ResourceId              resource;
           StoredDataSpecifier     specifiers<0..2^16-1>;
         } FetchReq;

   The contents of the Fetch requests are as follows:

      The resource ID to fetch from.

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      A sequence of StoredDataSpecifier values, each specifying some of
      the data values to retrieve.

   Each StoredDataSpecifier specifies a single kind of data to retrieve
   and (if appropriate) the subset of values that are to be retrieved.
   The contents of the StoredDataSpecifier structure are as follows:

      The kind-id of the data being fetched.  Implementations SHOULD
      reject requests corresponding to unknown kinds unless specifically
      configured otherwise.

      The data model of the data..  This must be checked against the

      The last generation counter that the requesting peer saw.  This
      may be used to avoid unnecessary fetches or it may be set to zero.

      The length of the rest of the structure, thus allowing

      A reference to the data value being requested within the data
      model specified for the kind.  For instance, if the data model is
      "array", it might specify some subset of the values.

   The model_specifier is as follows:

   o  If the data is of data model single value, the specifier is empty.
   o  If the data is of data model array, the specifier contains of a
      list of ArrayRange elements, each of which contains two integers.
      two integers.  The first integer is the beginning of the range and
      the second is the end of the range. 0 is used to indicate the
      first element and 0xffffffff is used to indicate the final
      element.  The beginning of the range MUST be earlier in the array
      then the end.  The ranges MUST be non-overlapping.
   o  If the data is of data model dictionary then the specifier
      contains a list of the dictionary keys being requested.  If no
      keys are specified, than this is a wildcard fetch and all key-
      value pairs are returned.  [[TODO:  We really need a way to return
      only the keys.  We'll need to modify this.]]

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   The generation-counter is used to indicate the requester's expected
   state of the storing peer.  If the generation-counter in the request
   matches the stored counter, then the storing peer returns a response
   with no StoredData values.

   Note that because the certificate for a user is typically stored at
   the same location as any data stored for that user, a requesting peer
   which does not already have the user's certificate should request the
   certificate in the Fetch as an optimization.  Response Definition

   The response to a successful Fetch request is a FetchAns message
   containing the data requested by the requester.

          struct {
            KindId                 kind;
            uint64                 generation;
            StoredData             values<0..2^32-1>;
          } FetchKindResponse;

          struct {
            FetchKindResponse      kind_responses<0..2^32-1>;
          } FetchAns;

   The FetchAns structure contains a series of FetchKindResponse
   structures.  There MUST be one FetchKindResponse element for each
   kind-id in the request.

   The contents of the FetchKindResponse structure are as follows:

      the kind that this structure is for.

      the generation counter for this kind.

      the relevant values.  If the generation counter in the request
      matches the generation-counter in the stored data, then no
      StoredData values are returned.  Otherwise, all relevant data
      values MUST be returned.  A nonexistent value is represented with
      "exists" set to False.

   There is one subtle point about signature computation on arrays.  If
   the storing node uses the append feature (where the
   index=0xffffffff), then the index in the StoredData that is returned

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   will not match that used by the storing node, which would break the
   signature.  In order to avoid this issue, the index value in array is
   set to zero before the signature is computed.  This implies that
   malicious storing nodes can reorder array entries without being
   detected.  [[OPEN ISSUE:  We've considered a number of alternate
   designs here that would preserve security against this attack if the
   storing node did not use the append feature.  However, they are more
   complicated for one or both sides.  If this attack is considered
   serious, we can introduce one of them.]]

7.3.3.  Remove

   The Remove request is used to remove a stored element or elements
   from the storing peer.  Any successful remove of an existing element
   for a given kind MUST increment the generation counter by at least 1.

         struct {
           ResourceId              resource;
           StoredDataSpecifier     specifiers<0..2^16-1>;
         } RemoveReq;

   A RemoveReq has exactly the same syntax as a Fetch request except
   that each entry represents a set of values to be removed rather than
   returned.  The same kind-id MUST NOT be used twice in a given
   RemoveReq.  Each specifier is then processed in turn.  These
   operations MUST be atomic.  If any operation fails, the state MUST be
   rolled back to before the request was received.

   Before processing the Remove request, the peer MUST perform the
   following checks.

   o  The kind-id is known.
   o  The signature over the message is valid or (depending on overlay
      policy) no signature is required.
   o  The signer of the message has permissions which permit him to
      remove this kind of data.  Although each kind defines its own
      access control requirements, in general only the original signer
      of the data should be allowed to remove it.
   o  If the generation-counter is non-zero, it must equal the current
      value of the generation-counter for this kind.  This feature
      allows the generation counter to be used in a way similar to the
      HTTP Etag feature.

   Assuming that the request is permitted, the operations proceed as

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   A Remove of a single value element causes it not to exist.  If no
   such element exists, then this is a silent success.  Array

   A Remove of an array element (or element range) replaces those
   elements with null elements.  Note that this does not cause the array
   to be packed.  An array which contains ["A", "B", "C"] and then has
   element 0 removed produces an array containing [NA, "B", "C"].  Note,
   however, that the removal of the final element of the array shortens
   the array, so in the above case, the removal of element 2 makes the
   array ["A", "B"].  Dictionary

   A Remove of a dictionary element (or elements) replaces those
   elements with null elements.  If no such elements exist, then this is
   a silent success.  Response Definition

   The response to a successful Remove simply contains a list of the new
   generation counters for each kind-id, using the same syntax as the
   response to a Store request.  Note that if the generation counter
   does not change, that means that the requested items did not exist.
   However, if the generation counter does change, that does not mean
   that the items existed.

         struct {
           StoreKindResponse          kind_responses<0..2^16-1>;
         } RemoveAns;

7.3.4.  Find

   The Find request can be used to explore the Overlay Instance.  A Find
   request for a resource-id R and a kind-id T retrieves the resource-id
   (if any) of the resource of kind T known to the target peer which is
   closes to R. This method can be used to walk the Overlay Instance by
   interactively fetching R_n+1=nearest(1 + R_n).  Request Definition

   The FindReq message contains a series of resource-IDs and kind-ids
   identifying the resource the peer is interested in.

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      struct {
        ResourceID                 resource;
        KindId                     kinds<0..2^8-1>;
      } FindReq;

   The request contains a list of kind-ids which the Find is for, as
   indicated below:

      The desired resource-id

      The desired kind-ids.  Each value MUST only appear once.  Response Definition

   A response to a successful Find request is a FindAns message
   containing the closest resource-id for each kind specified in the

     struct {
       KindId                      kind;
       ResourceID                  closest;
     } FindKindData;

     struct {
       FindKindData                results<0..2^16-1>;
     } FindAns;

   If the processing peer is not responsible for the specified
   resource-id, it SHOULD return a 404 error.

   For each kind-id in the request the response MUST contain a
   FindKindData indicating the closest resource-id for that kind-id
   unless the kind is not allowed to be used with Find in which case a
   FindKindData for that kind-id MUST NOT be included in the response.
   If a kind-id is not known, then the corresponding resource-id MUST be
   0.  Note that different kind-ids may have different closest resource-

   The response is simply a series of FindKindData elements, one per
   kind, concatenated end-to-end.  The contents of each element are:

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      The kind-id.

      The closest resource ID to the specified resource ID.  This is 0
      if no resource ID is known.

   Note that the response does not contain the contents of the data
   stored at these resource-ids.  If the requester wants this, it must
   retrieve it using Fetch.  Defining New Kinds

   A new kind MUST define:

   o  The meaning of the data to be stored.
   o  The kind-id.
   o  The data model (single value, array, dictionary, etc.)
   o  Access control rules for indicating what credentials are allowed
      to read and write that kind-id at a given location.

   While each kind MUST define what data model is used for its data,
   that does not mean that it must define new data models.  Where
   practical, kinds SHOULD use the built-in data models.  However, they
   MAY define any new required data models.  The intention is that the
   basic data model set be sufficient for most applications/usages.

8.  Certificate Store Usage

   The Certificate Store usage allows a peer to store its certificate in
   the overlay, thus avoiding the need to send a certificate in each
   message - a reference may be sent instead.

   A user/peer MUST store its certificate at resource-ids derived from
   two Resource Names:

   o  The user names in the certificate.
   o  The Node-IDs in the certificate.

   Note that in the second case the certificate is not stored at the
   peer's Node-ID but rather at a hash of the peer's Node-ID.  The
   intention here (as is common throughout RELOAD) is to avoid making a
   peer responsible for its own data.

   A peer MUST ensure that the user's certificates are stored in the
   Overlay Instance.  New certificates are stored at the end of the

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   list.  This structure allows users to store and old and new
   certificate the both have the same node-id which allows for migration
   of certificates when they are renewed.

   Kind IDs  This usage defines the CERTIFICATE kind-id to store a peer
      or user's certificate.

   Data Model  The data model for CERTIFICATE data is array.

   Access Control  The CERTIFICATE MUST contain a Node-ID or user name
      which, when hashed, maps to the resource-id at which the value is
      being stored.

9.  TURN Server Usage

   The TURN server usage allows a RELOAD peer to advertise that it is
   prepared to be a TURN server.  When a node starts up, it joins the
   overlay network and forms several connection in the process.  If the
   ICE stage in any of these connection return a reflexive address that
   is not the same as the peers perceived address, then the peers is
   behind a NAT and not an candidate for a TURN server.  Additionally,
   if the peers IP address is in the private address space range, then
   it is not a candidate for a TURN server.  Otherwise, the peer SHOULD
   assume it is a potential TURN server and follow the procedures below.

   If the node is a candidate for a TURN server it will insert some
   pointers in the overlay so that other peers can find it.  The overlay
   configuration file specifies a turnDensity parameter that indicates
   how many times each TURN server should record itself in the overlay.
   Typically this should be set to the reciprocal of the estimate of
   what percentage of peers will act as TURN servers.  For each value,
   called d, between 1 and turnDensity, the peer forms a Resource Name
   by concatenating its peer-ID and the value d.  This Resource Name is
   hashed to form a Resource-ID.  The address of the peer is stored at
   that Resource-ID using type TURN-SERVICE and the TurnServer object:

         struct {
           uint8                   iteration;
           IpAddressAndPort        server_address;
         } TurnServer;

   The contents of this structure are as follows:

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      the d value

      the address at which the TURN server can be contacted.

   Note:  Correct functioning of this algorithm depends critically on
      having turnDensity be an accurate estimate of the true density of
      TURN servers.  If turnDensity is too high, then the process of
      finding TURN servers becomes extremely expensive as multiple
      candidate resource-ids must be probed.

   Peers peers that provide this service need to support the TURN
   extensions to STUN for media relay of both UDP and TCP traffic as
   defined in [I-D.ietf-behave-turn] and [I-D.ietf-behave-tcp].

   [[OPEN ISSUE:  This structure only works for TURN servers that have
   public addresses.  It may be possible to use TURN servers that are
   behind well-behaved NATs by first ICE connecting to them.  If we
   decide we want to enable that, this structure will need to change to
   either be a peer-id or include that as an option.]]

   Kind IDs  This usage defines the TURN-SERVICE kind-id to indicate
      that a peer is willing to act as a TURN server.  The Find command
      MUST return results for the TURN-SERVICE kind-id.
   Data Model  The TURN-SERVICE stores a single value for each
   Access Control  If certificate-based access control is being used,
      stored data of kind TURN-SERVICE MUST be authenticated by a
      certificate which contains a peer-id which when hashed with the
      iteration counter produces the resource-id being stored at.

   Peers can find other servers by selecting a random Resource-ID and
   then doing a Find request for the appropriate server type with that
   Resource-ID.  The Find request gets routed to a random peer based on
   the Resource-ID.  If that peer knows of any servers, they will be
   returned.  The returned response may be empty if the peer does not
   know of any servers, in which case the process gets repeated with
   some other random Resource-ID.  As long as the ratio of servers
   relative to peers is not too low, this approach will result in
   finding a server relatively quickly.

10.  SIP Usage

   The SIP usage allows a RELOAD overlay to be used as a distributed SIP
   registrar/proxy network.  This entails three primary operations:

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   o  Registering one's own AOR with the overlay.
   o  Looking up a given AOR in the overlay.
   o  Forming a direct connection to a given peer.

10.1.  Registering AORs

   In ordinary SIP, a UA registers its AOR and location with a
   registrar.  In RELOAD, this registrar function is provided by the
   overlay as a whole.  To register its location, a RELOAD peer stores a
   SipRegistration structure under its own AOR.  This uses the SIP-
   REGISTRATION kind-id, which is formally defined in Section 10.5.
   Note:  GRUUs are handled via a separate mechanism, as described in
      Section 10.4.

   As a simple example, if Alice's AOR were "sip:alice@dht.example.com"
   and her Node-ID were "1234", she might store the mapping
   "sip:alice@example.org -> 1234".  This would tell anyone who wanted
   to call Alice to contact node "1234".

   RELOAD peers MAY store two kinds of SIP mappings:

   o  From AORs to destination lists (a single Node-ID is just a trivial
      destination list.)
   o  From AORs to other AORs.

   The meaning of the first kind of mapping is "in order to contact me,
   form a connection with this peer."  The meaning of the second kind of
   mapping is "in order to contact me, dereference this AOR".  This
   allows for forwarding.  For instance, if Alice wants calls to her to
   be forwarded to her secretary, Sam, she might insert the following
   mapping "sip:alice@dht.example.org -> sip:sam@dht.example.org".

   The contents of a SipRegistration structure are as follows:

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          enum {sip_registration_uri (1), sip_registration_route (2),
             (255)} SipRegistrationType;

          select (SipRegistration.type) {
            case sip_registration_uri:
              opaque               uri<0..2^16-1>;

            case sip_registration_route:
              opaque               contact_prefs<0..2^16-1>;
              Destination          destination_list<0..2^16-1>;

            /* This type can be extended */

          } SipRegistrationData;

          struct {
             SipRegistrationType   type;
             uint16                length;
             SipRegistrationData   data;
         } SipRegistration;

   The contents of the SipRegistration PDU are:

      the type of the registration

      the length of the rest of the PDU

      the registration data

   o  If the registration is of type "sip_registration_uri", then the
      contents are an opaque string containing the URI.
   o  If the registration is of type "sip_registration_route", then the
      contents are an opaque string containing the callee's contact
      preferences and a destination list for the peer.

   RELOAD explicitly supports multiple registrations for a single AOR.
   The registrations are stored in a Dictionary with the dictionary keys
   being Node-IDs.  Consider, for instance, the case where Alice has two

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   o  her desk phone (1234)
   o  her cell phone (5678)

   Alice might store the following in the overlay at resource

   o  A SipRegistration of type "sip_registration_route" with dictionary
      key "1234" and value "1234".
   o  A SipRegistration of type "sip_registration_route" with dictionary
      key "5678" and value "5678".

   Note that this structure explicitly allows one Node-ID to forward to
   another Node-ID.  For instance, Alice could set calls to her desk
   phone to ring at her cell phone.  It's not clear that this is useful
   in this case, but may be useful if Alice has two AORs.

   In order to prevent hijacking, registrations are subject to access
   control rules.  Before a Store is permitted, the storing peer MUST
   check that:

   o  The certificate contains a username that is a SIP AOR that hashes
      to the resource-id being stored at.
   o  The certificate contains a Node-ID that is the same as the
      dictionary key being stored at.

   Note that these rules permit Alice to forward calls to Bob without
   his permission.  However, they do not permit Alice to forward Bob's
   calls to her.  See Section 15.7.2 for more on this point.

10.2.  Looking up an AOR

   When a RELOAD user wishes to call another user, starting with a non-
   GRUU AOR, he follows the following procedure.  (GRUUs are discussed
   in Section 10.4).

   1.  Check to see if the domain part of the AOR matches the domain
       name of an overlay of which he is a member.  If not, then this is
       an external AOR, and he MUST do one of the following:
       *  Fail the call.
       *  Use ordinary SIP procedures.
       *  Attempt to become a member of the overlay indicated by the
          domain part (only possible if the enrollment procedure defined
          in Section 13.1 indicates that this is a RELOAD overlay.)
   2.  Perform a Fetch for kind SIP-REGISTRATION at the resource-id
       corresponding to the AOR.  This Fetch SHOULD NOT indicate any
       dictionary keys, which will result in fetching all the stored

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   3.  If any of the results of the Fetch are non-GRUU AORs, then repeat
       step 1 for that AOR.
   4.  Once only GRUUs and destination lists remain, the peer removes
       duplicate destination lists and GRUUs from the list and forms a
       SIP connection to the appropriate peers as described in the
       following sections.  If there are also external AORs, the peer
       follows the appropriate procedure for contacting them as well.

10.3.  Forming a Direct Connection

   Once the peer has translated the AOR into a set of destination lists,
   it then uses the overlay to route Connect messages to each of those
   peers.  The "application" field MUST be 5060 to indicate SIP.  If
   certificate-based authentication is in use, the responding peer MUST
   present a certificate with a Node-ID matching the terminal entry in
   the route list.  Note that it is possible that the peers already have
   a RELOAD connection between them.  This MUST NOT be used for SIP
   messages.  However, if a SIP connection already exists, that MAY be
   used.  Once the Connect succeeds, the peer sends SIP messages over
   the connection as in normal SIP.

10.4.  GRUUs

   GRUUs do not require storing data in the Overlay Instance.  Rather,
   they are constructed by embedding a base64-encoded destination list
   in the gr URI parameter of the GRUU.  The base64 encoding is done
   with the alphabet specified in table 1 of RFC 4648 with the exception
   that ~ is used in place of =.  An example GRUU is
   "sip:alice@example.com;gr=MDEyMzQ1Njc4OTAxMjM0NTY3ODk~".  When a peer
   needs to route a message to a GRUU in the same P2P network, it simply
   uses the destination list and connects to that peer.

   Because a GRUU contains a destination list, it MAY have the same
   contents as a destination list stored elsewhere in the resource

   Anonymous GRUUs are done in roughly the same way but require either
   that the enrollment server issue a different Node-ID for each
   anonymous GRUU required or that a destination list be used that
   includes a peer that compresses the destination list to stop the
   Node-ID from being revealed.

10.5.  SIP-REGISTRATION Kind Definition

   The first mapping is provided using the SIP-REGISTRATION kind-id:

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   Kind IDs  The Resource Name for the SIP-REGISTRATION kind-id is the
      AOR of the user.  The data stored is a SipRegistrationData, which
      can contain either another URI or a destination list to the peer
      which is acting for the user.

   Data Model  The data model for the SIP-REGISTRATION kind-id is
      dictionary.  The dictionary key is the Node-ID of the storing
      peer.  This allows each peer (presumably corresponding to a single
      device) to store a single route mapping.

   Access Control  If certificate-based access control is being used,
      stored data of kind-id SIP-REGISTRATION must be signed by a
      certificate which (1) contains user name matching the storing URI
      used as the Resource Name for the resource-id and (2) contains a
      Node-ID matching the storing dictionary key.

   Data stored under the SIP-REGISTRATION kind is of type
   SipRegistration.  This comes in two varieties:

      a URI which the user can be reached at.

      a destination list which can be used to reach the user's peer.

11.  Diagnostic Usage

   The Diagnostic Usage allows a node to report various statistics about
   itself that may be useful for diagnostics or performance management.
   It can be used to discover information such as the software version,
   uptime, routing table, stored resource-objects, and performance
   statistics of a peer.  The usage defines several new kinds which can
   be retrieved to get the statistics and also allows to retrieve other
   kinds that a node stores.  In essence, the usage allows querying a
   node's state such as storage and network to obtain the relevant

   The access control model for all kinds is a local policy defined by
   the peer or the overlay policy.  The peer may be configured with a
   list of users that it is willing to return the information for and
   restrict access to users with that name.  Unless specific policy
   overrides it, data SHOULD NOT be returned for users not on the list.
   The access control can also be determined on a per kind basis - for
   example, a node may be willing to return the software version to any
   users while specific information about performance may not be

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   The following kinds are defined:

   ROUTING_TABLE_SIZE  A single value element containing an unsigned 32-
      bit integer representing the number of peers in the peer's routing

   SOFTWARE_VERSION  A single value element containing a US-ASCII string
      that identifies the manufacture, model, and version of the

   MACHINE_UPTIME  A single value element containing an unsigned 64-bit
      integer specifying the time the nodes has been up in seconds.

   APP_UPTIME  A single value element containing an unsigned 64-bit
      integer specifying the time the p2p application has been up in

   MEMORY_FOOTPRINT  A single value element containing an unsigned 32-
      bit integer representing the memory footprint of the peer program
      in kilo bytes.

      Note:  What's a kilo byte? 1000 or 1024? -- Cullen
      Note:  Good question. 1000 seems like not quite enough room but
         1024 is too much? -- EKR

   DATASIZE_StoreD  An unsigned 64-bit integer representing the number
      of bytes of data being stored by this node.

   INSTANCES_StoreD  An array element containing the number of instances
      of each kind stored.  The array is index by kind-id.  Each entry
      is an unsigned 64-bit integer.

   MESSAGES_SENT_RCVD  An array element containing the number of
      messages sent and received.  The array is indexed by method code.
      Each entry in the array is a pair of unsigned 64-bit integers
      (packed end to end) representing sent and received.

   EWMA_BYTES_SENT  A single value element containing an unsigned 32-bit
      integer representing an exponential weighted average of bytes sent
      per second by this peer.
      sent = alpha x sent_present + (1 - alpha) x sent
      where sent_present represents the bytes sent per second since the
      last calculation and sent represents the last calculation of bytes
      sent per second.  A suitable value for alpha is 0.8.  This value
      is calculated every five seconds.

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   EWMA_BYTES_RCVD  A single value element containing an unsigned 32-bit
      integer representing an exponential weighted average of bytes
      received per second by this peer.  Same calculation as above.

   [[TODO:  We would like some sort of bandwidth measurement, but we're
   kind of unclear on the units and representation.]]

11.1.  Diagnostic Metrics for a P2PSIP Deployment

   (OPEN QUESTION:  any other metrics?)

   Below, we sketch how these metrics can be used.  A peer can use
   EWMA_BYTES_SENT and EWMA_BYTES_RCVD of another peer to infer whether
   it is acting as a media relay.  It may then choose not to forward any
   requests for media relay to this peer.  Similarly, among the various
   candidates for filling up routing table, a peer may prefer a peer
   with a large UPTIME value, small RTT, and small LAST_CONTACT value.

12.  Chord Algorithm

   This algorithm is assigned the name chord-128-2-16+ to indicate it is
   based on Chord, uses SHA-1 then truncates that to 128 bit for the
   hash function, stores 2 redundant copies of all data, and has finger
   tables with at least 16 entries.

12.1.  Overview

   The algorithm described here is a modified version of the Chord
   algorithm.  Each peer keeps track of a finger table of 16 entries and
   a neighborhood table of 6 entries.  The neighborhood table contains
   the 3 peers before this peer and the 3 peers after it in the DHT
   ring.  The first entry in the finger table contains the peer half-way
   around the ring from this peer; the second entry contains the peer
   that is 1/4 of the way around; the third entry contains the peer that
   is 1/8th of the way around, and so on.  Fundamentally, the chord data
   structure can be thought of a doubly-linked list formed by knowing
   the successors and predecessor peers in the neighborhood table,
   sorted by the Node-ID.  As long as the successor peers are correct,
   the DHT will return the correct result.  The pointers to the prior
   peers are kept to enable inserting of new peers into the list
   structure.  Keeping multiple predecessor and successor pointers makes
   it possible to maintain the integrity of the data structure even when
   consecutive peers simultaneously fail.  The finger table forms a skip
   list, so that entries in the linked list can be found in O(log(N))
   time instead of the typical O(N) time that a linked list would

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   A peer, n, is responsible for a particular Resource-ID k if k is less
   than or equal to n and k is greater than p, where p is the peer id of
   the previous peer in the neighborhood table.  Care must be taken when
   computing to note that all math is modulo 2^128.

12.2.  Routing

   If a peer is not responsible for a Resource-ID k, but is directly
   connected to a node with Node-Id k, then it routes the message to
   that node.  Otherwise, it routes the request to the peer in the
   routing table that has the largest Node-ID that is in the interval
   between the peer and k.

12.3.  Redundancy

   When a peer receives a Store request for Resource-ID k, and it is
   responsible for Resource-ID k, it stores the data and returns a
   success response.  [[Open Issue:  should it delay sending this
   success until it has successfully stored the redundant copies?]].  It
   then sends a Store request to its successor in the neighborhood table
   and to that peers successor.  Note that these Store requests are
   addressed to those specific peers, even though the Resource-ID they
   are being asked to store is outside the range that they are
   responsible for.  The peers receiving these check they came from an
   appropriate predecessor in their neighborhood table and that they are
   in a range that this predecessor is responsible for, and then they
   store the data.  They do not themselves perform further Stores
   because they can determine that they are not responsible for the

   Note that a malicious node can return a success response but not
   store the data locally or in the replica set.  Requesting peers which
   wish to ensure that the replication actually occurred SHOULD contact
   each peer listed in the replicas field of the Store response and
   retrieve a copy of the data.  [[TODO:  Do we want to have some
   optimization in Fetch where they can retrieve just a digest instead
   of the data values?]]

12.4.  Joining

   The join process for a joining party (JP) with Node-ID n is as

   1.  JP connects to its chosen bootstrap node.
   2.  JP uses a series of Pings to populate its routing table.
   3.  JP sends Connect requests to initiate connections to each of the
       peers in the connection table as well as to the desired finger
       table entries.  Note that this does not populate their routing

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       tables, but only their connection tables, so JP will not get
       messages that it is expected to route to other nodes.
   4.  JP enters all the peers it contacted into its routing table.
   5.  JP sends a Join to its immediate successor, the admitting peer
       (AP) for Node-ID n.  The AP sends the response to the Join.
   6.  AP does a series of Store requests to JP to store the data that
       JP will be responsible for.
   7.  AP sends JP an Update explicitly labeling JP as its predecessor.
       At this point, JP is part of the ring and responsible for a
       section of the overlay.  AP can now forget any data which is
       assigned to JP and not AP.
   8.  AP sends an Update to all of its neighbors with the new values of
       its neighbor set (including JP).
   9.  JP sends UpdateS to all the peers in its routing table.

   In order to populate its routing table, JP sends a Ping via the
   bootstrap node directed at resource-id n+1 (directly after its own
   resource-id).  This allows it to discover its own successor.  Call
   that node p0.  It then sends a ping to p0+1 to discover its successor
   (p1).  This process can be repeated to discover as many successors as
   desired.  The values for the two peers before p will be found at a
   later stage when n receives an Update.

   In order to set up its neighbor table entry for peer i, JP simply
   sends a Connect to peer (n+2^(numBitsInNodeId-i).  This will be
   routed to a peer in approximately the right location around the ring.

12.5.  Routing Connects

   When a peer needs to Connect with a new peer in its neighborhood
   table, it MUST source-route the Connect request through the peer from
   which it learned the new peer's Node-ID.  Source-routing these
   requests allows the overlay to recover from instability.

   All other Connect requests, such as those for new finger table
   entries, are routed conventionally through the overlay.

   If a peer is unable to successfully Connect with a peer that should
   be in its neighborhood, it MUST locate either a TURN server or
   another peer in the overlay, but not in its neighborhood, through
   which it can exchange messages with its neighbor peer

12.6.  Updates

   A chord Update is defined as

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         enum { reserved (0), peer_ready(1), neighbors(2), full(3), (255) }

         struct {
           ChordUpdateType         type;

             case peer_ready:                   /* Empty */

             case neighbors:
               NodeId              predecessors<0..2^16-1>;
               NodeId              successors<0..2^16-1>;

             case full:
               NodeId              predecessors<0..2^16-1>;
               NodeId              successors<0..2^16-1>;
               NodeId              fingers<0..2^16-1>;
         } ChordUpdate;

   The "type" field contains the type of the update, which depends on
   the reason the update was sent.

   peer_ready:    this peer is ready to receive messages.  This message
      is used to indicate that a node which has Connected is a peer and
      can be routed through.  It is also used as a connectivity check to
      non-neighbor pers.
   neighbors:    this version is sent to members of the Chord neighbor
   full:    this version is sent to peers which request an Update with a

   If the message is of type "neighbors", then the contents of the
   message will be:

      The predecessor set of the Updating peer.

      The successor set of the Updating peer.

   If the message is of type "full", then the contents of the message
   will be:

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      The predecessor set of the Updating peer.

      The successor set of the Updating peer.

      The finger table if the Updating peer, in numerically ascending

   A peer MUST maintain an association (via Connect) to every member of
   its neighbor set.  A peer MUST attempt to maintain at least three
   predecessors and three successors.  However, it MUST send its entire
   set in any Update message sent to neighbors.

12.6.1.  Sending Updates

   Every time a connection to a peer in the neighborhood set is lost (as
   determined by connectivity pings or failure of some request), the
   peer should remove the entry from its neighborhood table and replace
   it with the best match it has from the other peers in its routing
   table.  It then sends an Update to all its remaining neighbors.  The
   update will contain all the Node-IDs of the current entries of the
   table (after the failed one has been removed).  Note that when
   replacing a successor the peer SHOULD delay the creation of new
   replicas for 30 seconds after removing the failed entry from its
   neighborhood table in order to allow a triggered update to inform it
   of a better match for its neighborhood table.

   If connectivity is lost to all three of the peers that succeed this
   peer in the ring, then this peer should behave as if it is joining
   the network and use Pings to find a peer and send it a Join.  If
   connectivity is lost to all the peers in the finger table, this peer
   should assume that it has been disconnected from the rest of the
   network, and it should periodically try to join the DHT.

12.6.2.  Receiving Updates

   When a peer, N, receives an Update request, it examines the Node-IDs
   in the UpdateReq and at its neighborhood table and decides if this
   UpdateReq would change its neighborhood table.  This is done by
   taking the set of peers currently in the neighborhood table and
   comparing them to the peers in the update request.  There are three
   major cases:

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   o  The UpdateReq contains peers that would not change the neighbor
      set because they match the neighborhood table.
   o  The UpdateReq contains peers closer to N than those in its
      neighborhood table.
   o  The UpdateReq defines peers that indicate a neighborhood table
      further away from N than some of its neighborhood table.  Note
      that merely receiving peers further away does not demonstrate
      this, since the update could be from a node far away from N.
      Rather, the peers would need to bracket N.

   In the first case, no change is needed.

   In the second case, N MUST attempt to Connect to the new peers and if
   it is successful it MUST adjust its neighbor set accordingly.  Note
   that it can maintain the now inferior peers as neighbors, but it MUST
   remember the closer ones.

   The third case implies that a neighbor has disappeared, most likely
   because it has simply been disconnected but perhaps because of
   overlay instability.  N MUST Ping the questionable peers to discover
   if they are indeed missing and if so, remove them from its
   neighborhood table.

   After any Pings and Connects are done, if the neighborhood table
   changes, the peer sends an Update request to each of its neighbors
   that was in either the old table or the new table.  These Update
   requests are what ends up filling in the predecessor/successor tables
   of peers that this peer is a neighbor to.  A peer MUST NOT enter
   itself in its successor or predecessor table and instead should leave
   the entries empty.

   If peer N which is responsible for a resource-id R discovers that the
   replica set for R (the next two nodes in its successor set) has
   changed, it MUST send a Store for any data associated with R to any
   new node in the replica set.  It SHOULD not delete data from peers
   which have left the replica set.

   When a peer N detects that it is no longer in the replica set for a
   resource R (i.e., there are three predecessors between N and R), it
   SHOULD delete all data associated with R from its local store.

12.6.3.  Stabilization

   There are four components to stabilization:
   1.  exchange Updates with all peers in its routing table to exchange

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   2.  search for better peers to place in its finger table
   3.  search to determine if the current finger table size is
       sufficiently large
   4.  search to determine if the overlay has partitioned and needs to

   A peer MUST periodically send an Update request to every peer in its
   routing table.  The purpose of this is to keep the predecessor and
   successor lists up to date and to detect connection failures.  The
   default time is about every ten minutes, but the enrollment server
   SHOULD set this in the configuration document using the "chord-128-2-
   16+-update-frequency" element (denominated in seconds.)  A peer
   SHOULD randomly offset these Update requests so they do not occur all
   at once.  If an Update request fails or times out, the peer MUST mark
   that entry in the neighbor table invalid and attempt to reestablish a
   connection.  If no connection can be established, the peer MUST
   attempt to establish a new peer as its neighbor and do whatever
   replica set adjustments are required.

   Periodically a peer should select a random entry i from the finger
   table and do a Ping to resource (n+2^(numBitsInNodeId-i).  The
   purpose of this is to find a more accurate finger table entry if
   there is one.  This is done less frequently than the connectivity
   checks in the previous section because forming new connections is
   somewhat expensive and the cost needs to be balanced against the cost
   of not having the most optimal finger table entries.  The default
   time is about every hour, but the enrollment server SHOULD set this
   in the configuration document using the "chord-128-2-16+-ping-
   frequency" element (denominated in seconds).  If this returns a
   different peer than the one currently in this entry of the peer
   table, then a new connection should be formed to this peer and it
   should replace the old peer in the finger table.

   As an overlay grows, more than 16 entries may be required in the
   finger table for efficient routing.  To determine if its finger table
   is sufficiently large, one an hour the peer should perform a Ping to
   determine whether growing its finger table by four entries would
   result in it learning at least two peers that it does not already
   have in its neighbor table.  If so, then the finger table SHOULD be
   grown by four entries.  Similarly, if the peer observes that its
   closest finger table entries are also in its neighbor table, it MAY
   shrink its finger table to the minimum size of 16 entries.  [[OPEN
   ISSUE:  there are a variety of algorithms to gauge the population of
   the overlay and select an appropriate finger table size.  Need to
   consider which is the best combination of effectiveness and

   To detect that a partitioning has occurred and to heal the overlay, a

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   peer P MUST periodically repeat the discovery process used in the
   initial join for the overlay to locate an appropriate bootstrap peer,
   B. If an overlay has multiple mechanisms for discovery it should
   randomly select a method to locate a bootstrap peer.  P should then
   send a Ping for its own Node-ID routed through B. If a response is
   received from a peer S', which is not P's successor, then the overlay
   is partitioned and P should send a Connect to S' routed through B,
   followed by an Update sent to S'.  (Note that S' may not be in P's
   neighborhood table once the overlay is healed, but the connection
   will allow S' to discover appropriate neighbor entries for itself via
   its own stabilization.)

12.7.  Route Query

   For this topology plugin, the RouteQueryReq contains no additional
   information.  The RouteQueryAns contains the single node ID of the
   next peer to which the responding peer would have routed the request
   message in recursive routing:

       struct {
          NodeId                  next_id;
       } ChordRouteQueryAns;

   The contents of this structure are as follows:

      The peer to which the responding peer would route the message to
      in order to deliver it to the destination listed in the request.

   If the requester set the send_update flag, the responder SHOULD
   initiate an Update immediately after sending the RouteQueryAns.

12.8.  Leaving

   Peers SHOULD send a Leave request prior to exiting the Overlay
   Instance.  Any peer which receives a Leave for a peer n in its
   neighbor set must remove it from the neighbor set, update its replica
   sets as appropriate (including Stores of data to new members of the
   replica set) and send Updates containing its new predecessor and
   successor tables.

13.  Enrollment and Bootstrap

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13.1.  Discovery

   When a peer first joins a new overlay, it starts with a discovery
   process to find an enrollment server.  Related work to the approach
   used here is described in [I-D.garcia-p2psip-dns-sd-bootstrapping]
   and [I-D.matthews-p2psip-bootstrap-mechanisms].  The peer first
   determines the overlay name.  This value is provided by the user or
   some other out of band provisioning mechanism.  If the name is an IP
   address, that is directly used otherwise the peer MUST do a DNS SRV
   query using a Service name of "p2p_enroll" and a protocol of tcp to
   find an enrollment server.

   If the overlay name ends in .local, then a DNS SRV lookup using
   implement [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] with a Service name of
   "p2p_menroll" can also be tried to find an enrollment server.  If
   they implement this, the user name MAY be used as the Instance
   Identifier label.

   Once an address for the enrollment servers is determined, the peer
   forms an HTTPS connection to that IP address.  The certificate MUST
   match the overlay name as described in [RFC2818].  The peer then
   performs a GET to the URL formed by appending a path of "/p2psip/
   enroll" to the overlay name.  For example, if the overlay name was
   example.com, the URL would be "https://example.com/p2psip/enroll".

   The result is an XML configuration file with the syntax described in
   the following section.

13.2.  Overlay Configuration

   This specification defines a new content type "application/
   p2p-overlay+xml" for an MIME entity that contains overlay
   information.  This information is fetched from the enrollment server,
   as described above.  An example document is shown below.

      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
        <overlay instance-name="chord.example.com" expiration="86400">
          <toplogy-plugin algorithm-name="chord-128-2-16+"/>
          <root-cert>[PEM encoded certificate here]</root-cert>
          <required-kind name="SIP-REGISTRATION" max-values="10"
          <credential-server url="https://www.example.com/csr"/>
          <bootstrap-peer address="" port="5678"/>
          <bootstrap-peer address="" port="5678"/>
          <bootstrap-peer address="" port="5678"/>
          <multicast-bootstrap="" port="5678"/>

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   The file MUST be a well formed XML document and it SHOULD contain an
   encoding declaration in the XML declaration.  If the charset
   parameter of the MIME content type declaration is present and it is
   different from the encoding declaration, the charset parameter takes
   precedence.  Every application conferment to this specification MUST
   accept the UTF-8 character encoding to ensure minimal
   interoperability.  The namespace for the elements defined in this
   specification is urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:p2p:overlay.

   The file can contain multiple "overlay" elements where each one
   contains the configuration information for a different overlay.  Each
   "overlay" has the following attributes:

   instance-name:  name of the overlay

   expiration:  time in future at which this overlay configuration is
      not longer valid and need to be retrieved again.  This is
      expressed in seconds from the current time.

   Inside each overlay element, the following elements can occur:

      This element has an attribute called algorithm-name that describes
      the overlay-algorithm being used.

      This element contains a PEM encoded X.509v3 certificate that is
      the root trust store used to sign all certificates in this
      overlay.  There can be more than one of these.

      This element indicates the kinds that members must support.  It
      has three attributes:
      *  name:  a string representing the kind.
      *  max-count:  the maximum number of values which members of the
         overlay must support.
      *  max-size:  the maximum size of individual values.
      For instance, the example above indicates that members must
      support SIP-REGISTRATION with a maximum of 10 values of up to 1000
      bytes each.  Multiple required-kinds elements MAY be present.


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      This element contains the URL at which the credential server can
      be reached in a "url" element.  This URL MUST be of type "https:".
      More than one credential-server element may be present.

      This element indicates whether self-signed certificates are
      permitted.  If it is set to "TRUE", then self-signed certificates
      are allowed, in which case the credential-server and root-cert
      elements may be absent.  Otherwise, it SHOULD be absent, but MAY
      be set "FALSE".  This element also contains an attribute "digest"
      which indicates the digest to be used to compute the Node-ID.
      Valid values for this parameter are "SHA-1" and "SHA-256".

      This elements represents the address of one of the bootstrap
      peers.  It has an attribute called "address" that represents the
      IP address (either IPv4 or IPv6, since they can be distinguished)
      and an attribute called "port" that represents the port.  More
      than one bootstrap-peer element may be present.

      This element represents the address of a multicast address and
      port that may be used for bootstrap and that peers SHOULD listen
      on to enable bootstrap.  It has an attributed called "address"
      that represents the IP address and an attribute called "port" that
      represents the port.  More than one "multicast-bootstrap" element
      may be present.

      This element represents whether clients are permitted or whether
      all nodes must be peers.  If it is set to "TRUE" or absent, this
      indicates that clients are permitted.  If it is set to "FALSE"
      then nodes MUST join as peers.

      The update frequency for the Chord-128-2-16+ topology plugin (see
      Section 12).

      The ping frequency for the Chord-128-2-16+ topology plugin (see
      Section 12).

      Base URL for credential server.

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      If shared secret mode is used, this contains the shared secret.

   [[TODO:  Do a RelaxNG grammar.]]

13.3.  Credentials

   If the configuration document contains a credential-server element,
   credentials are required to join the Overlay Instance.  A peer which
   does not yet have credentials MUST contact the credential server to
   acquire them.

   In order to acquire credentials, the peer generates an asymmetric key
   pair and then generates a "Simple Enrollment Request" (as defined in
   [I-D.ietf-pkix-2797-bis]) and sends this over HTTPS as defined in
   [I-D.ietf-pkix-cmc-trans] to the URL in the credential-server
   element.  The subjectAltName in the request MUST contain the required
   user name.

   The credential server MUST authenticate the request using the
   provided user name and password.  If the authentication succeeds and
   the requested user name is acceptable, the server and returns a
   certificate.  The SubjectAltName field in the certificate contains
   the following values:

   o  One or more Node-IDs which MUST be cryptographically random
      [RFC4086].  These MUST be chosen by the credential server in such
      a way that they are unpredictable to the requesting user.  These
      are of type URI and MUST contain RELOAD URIs as described in
      Section 16.7 and MUST contain a Destination list with a single
      entry of type "node_id".
   o  The names this user is allowed to use in the overlay, using type

   The certificate is returned in a "Simple Enrollment Response".
   [[TODO:  REF]]

   The client MUST check that the certificate returned was signed by one
   of the certificates received in the "root-cert" list of the overlay
   configuration data.  The peer then reads the certificate to find the
   Node-IDs it can use.

13.3.1.  Self-Generated Credentials

   If the "self-signed-permitted" element is present and set to "TRUE",
   then a node MUST generate its own self-signed certificate to join the
   overlay.  The self-signed certificate MAY contain any user name of

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   the users choice.  Users SHOULD make some attempt to make it unique
   but this document does not specify any mechanisms for that.

   The Node-Id MUST be computed by applying the digest specified in the
   self-signed-permitted element to the DER representation of the user's
   public key.  When accepting a self-signed certificate, nodes MUST
   check that the Node-ID and public keys match.  This prevents Node-ID

   Once the node has constructed a self-signed certificate, it MAY join
   the overlay.  Before storing its certificate in the overlay
   (Section 8) it SHOULD look to see if the user name is already taken
   and if so choose another user name.  Note that this only provides
   protection against accidental name collisions.  Name theft is still
   possible.  If protection against name theft is desired, then the
   enrollment service must be used.

13.4.  Joining the Overlay Peer

   In order to join the overlay, the peer MUST contact a peer.
   Typically this means contacting the bootstrap peers, since they are
   guaranteed to have public IP addresses (the system should not
   advertise them as bootstrap peers otherwise).  If the peer has cached
   peers it SHOULD contact them first by sending a Ping request to the
   known peer address with the destination Node-ID set to that peer's

   If no cached peers are available, then the peer SHOULD send a Ping
   request to the address and port found in the broadcast-peers element
   in the configuration document.  This MAY be a multicast or anycast
   address.  The Ping should use the wildcard Node-ID as the destination

   The responder peer that receives the Ping request SHOULD check that
   the overlay name is correct and that the requester peer sending the
   request has appropriate credentials for the overlay before responding
   to the Ping request even if the response is only an error.

   When the requester peer finally does receive a response from some
   responding peer, it can note the Node-ID in the response and use this
   Node-ID to start sending requests to join the Overlay Instance as
   described in Section 6.3.

   After a peer has successfully joined the overlay network, it SHOULD
   periodically look at any peers to which it has managed to form direct
   connections.  Some of these peers MAY be added to the cached-peers
   list and used in future boots.  Peers that are not directly connected
   MUST NOT be cached.  The RECOMMENDED number of peers to cache is 10.

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14.  Message Flow Example

   In the following example, we assume that JP has formed a connection
   to one of the bootstrap peers.  JP then sends a Connect through that
   peer to the admitting peer (AP) to initiate a connection.  When AP
   responds, JP and AP use ICE to set up a connection and then set up

          JP        PPP       PP        AP        NP        NNP       BP
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |Connect Dest=JP    |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |Connect Dest=JP    |         |         |
           |         |         |<--------------------------------------|
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |Connect Dest=JP    |         |         |
           |         |         |-------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |ConnectAns         |         |         |
           |         |         |<--------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |ConnectAns         |         |         |
           |         |         |-------------------------------------->|
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |ConnectAns         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |TLS      |         |         |         |         |         |
           |.............................|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |

   Once JP has connected to AP, it needs to populate its Routing Table.
   In Chord, this means that it needs to populate its neighbor table and
   its finger table.  To populate its neighbor table, it needs the
   successor of AP, NP.  It sends a Connect to the Resource-IP AP+1,

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   which gets routed to NP.  When NP responds, JP and NP use ICE and TLS
   to set up a connection.

          JP        PPP       PP        AP        NP        NNP       BP
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |Connect AP+1       |         |         |         |         |
           |---------------------------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |Connect AP+1       |         |
           |         |         |         |-------->|         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |ConnectAns         |         |
           |         |         |         |<--------|         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |ConnectAns         |         |         |         |         |
           |<----------------------------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |Connect  |         |         |         |         |         |
           |-------------------------------------->|         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |TLS      |         |         |         |         |         |
           |.......................................|         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |

   JP also needs to populate its finger table (for Chord).  It issues a
   Connect to a variety of locations around the overlay.  The diagram
   below shows it sending a Connect halfway around the Chord ring the JP
   + 2^127.

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            JP        NP        XX        TP
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |Connect JP+2<<126  |         |
             |-------->|         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |Connect JP+2<<126  |
             |         |-------->|         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |Connect JP+2<<126
             |         |         |-------->|
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |ConnectAns
             |         |         |<--------|
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |ConnectAns         |
             |         |<--------|         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |ConnectAns         |         |
             |<--------|         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |TLS      |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |

   Once JP has a reasonable set of connections he is ready to take his
   place in the DHT.  He does this by sending a Join to AP.  AP does a
   series of Store requests to JP to store the data that JP will be
   responsible for.  AP then sends JP an Update explicitly labeling JP
   as its predecessor.  At this point, JP is part of the ring and
   responsible for a section of the overlay.  AP can now forget any data
   which is assigned to JP and not AP.

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          JP        PPP       PP        AP        NP        NNP       BP
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |JoinReq  |         |         |         |         |         |
           |---------------------------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |JoinAns  |         |         |         |         |         |
           |<----------------------------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |StoreReq Data A    |         |         |         |         |
           |<----------------------------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |StoreAns |         |         |         |         |         |
           |---------------------------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |StoreReq Data B    |         |         |         |         |
           |<----------------------------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |StoreAns |         |         |         |         |         |
           |---------------------------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateReq|         |         |         |         |         |
           |<----------------------------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateAns|         |         |         |         |         |
           |---------------------------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |

   In Chord, JP's neighbor table needs to contain its own predecessors.
   It couldn't connect to them previously because Chord has no way to
   route immediately to your predecessors.  However, now that it has
   received an Update from AP, it has APs predecessors, which are also
   its own, so it sends Connects to them.  Below it is shown connecting
   to its closest predecessor, PP.

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          JP        PPP       PP        AP        NP        NNP       BP
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |Connect Dest=PP    |         |         |         |         |
           |---------------------------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |Connect Dest=PP    |         |         |
           |         |         |<--------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |ConnectAns         |         |         |
           |         |         |-------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |ConnectAns         |         |         |         |         |
           |<----------------------------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |TLS      |         |         |         |         |         |
           |...................|         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateReq|         |         |         |         |         |
           |------------------>|         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateAns|         |         |         |         |         |
           |<------------------|         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateReq|         |         |         |         |         |
           |---------------------------->|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateAns|         |         |         |         |         |
           |<----------------------------|         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateReq|         |         |         |         |         |
           |-------------------------------------->|         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |UpdateAns|         |         |         |         |         |
           |<--------------------------------------|         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |
           |         |         |         |         |         |         |

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   Finally, now that JP has a copy of all the data and is ready to route
   messages and receive requests, it sends Updates to everyone in its
   Routing Table to tell them it is ready to go.  Below, it is shown
   sending such an update to TP.

            JP        NP        XX        TP
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |Update   |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |UpdateAns|         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |
             |         |         |         |

15.  Security Considerations

15.1.  Overview

   RELOAD provides a generic storage service, albeit one designed to be
   useful for P2PSIP.  In this section we discuss security issues that
   are likely to be relevant to any usage of RELOAD.  In Section 15.7 we
   describe issues that are specific to SIP.

   In any Overlay Instance, any given user depends on a number of peers
   with which they have no well-defined relationship except that they
   are fellow members of the Overlay Instance.  In practice, these other
   nodes may be friendly, lazy, curious, or outright malicious.  No
   security system can provide complete protection in an environment
   where most nodes are malicious.  The goal of security in RELOAD is to
   provide strong security guarantees of some properties even in the
   face of a large number of malicious nodes and to allow the overlay to
   function correctly in the face of a modest number of malicious nodes.

   P2PSIP deployments require the ability to authenticate both peers and
   resources (users) without the active presence of a trusted entity in
   the system.  We describe two mechanisms.  The first mechanism is
   based on public key certificates and is suitable for general
   deployments.  The second is based on an overlay-wide shared symmetric
   key and is suitable only for limited deployments in which the
   relationship between admitted peers is not adversarial.

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15.2.  Attacks on P2P Overlays

   The two basic functions provided by overlay nodes are storage and
   routing:  some node is responsible for storing a peer's data and for
   allowing a peer to fetch other peer's data.  Some other set of nodes
   are responsible for routing messages to and from the storing nodes.
   Each of these issues is covered in the following sections.

   P2P overlays are subject to attacks by subversive nodes that may
   attempt to disrupt routing, corrupt or remove user registrations, or
   eavesdrop on signaling.  The certificate-based security algorithms we
   describe in this draft are intended to protect overlay routing and
   user registration information in RELOAD messages.

   To protect the signaling from attackers pretending to be valid peers
   (or peers other than themselves), the first requirement is to ensure
   that all messages are received from authorized members of the
   overlay.  For this reason, RELOAD transports all messages over a
   secure channel (TLS and DTLS are defined in this document) which
   provides message integrity and authentication of the directly
   communicating peer.  In addition, when the certificate-based security
   system is used, messages and data are digitally signed with the
   sender's private key, providing end-to-end security for

15.3.  Certificate-based Security

   This specification stores users' registrations and possibly other
   data in an overlay network.  This requires a solution to securing
   this data as well as securing, as well as possible, the routing in
   the overlay.  Both types of security are based on requiring that
   every entity in the system (whether user or peer) authenticate
   cryptographically using an asymmetric key pair tied to a certificate.

   When a user enrolls in the Overlay Instance, they request or are
   assigned a unique name, such as "alice@dht.example.net".  These names
   are unique and are meant to be chosen and used by humans much like a
   SIP Address of Record (AOR) or an email address.  The user is also
   assigned one or more Node-IDs by the central enrollment authority.
   Both the name and the peer ID are placed in the certificate, along
   with the user's public key.

   Each certificate enables an entity to act in two sorts of roles:

   o  As a user, storing data at specific Resource-IDs in the Overlay
      Instance corresponding to the user name.

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   o  As a overlay peer with the peer ID(s) listed in the certificate.

   Note that since only users of this Overlay Instance need to validate
   a certificate, this usage does not require a global PKI.  Instead,
   certificates are signed by require a central enrollment authority
   which acts as the certificate authority for the Overlay Instance.
   This authority signs each peer's certificate.  Because each peer
   possesses the CA's certificate (which they receive on enrollment)
   they can verify the certificates of the other entities in the overlay
   without further communication.  Because the certificates contain the
   user/peer's public key, communications from the user/peer can be
   verified in turn.

   If self-signed certificates are used, then the security provided is
   significantly decreased, since attackers can mount Sybil attacks.  In
   addition, attackers cannot trust the user names in certificates
   (though they can trust the Node-Ids because they are
   cryptographically verifiable).  This scheme is only appropriate for
   small deployments, such as a small office or ad hoc overlay set up
   among participants in a meeting.  Some additional security can be
   provided by using the shared secret admission control scheme as well.

   Because all stored data is signed by the owner of the data the
   storing peer can verify that the storer is authorized to perform a
   store at that resource-id and also allows any consumer of the data to
   verify the provenance and integrity of the data when it retrieves it.

   All implementations MUST implement certificate-based security.

15.4.  Shared-Secret Security

   RELOAD also supports a shared secret admission control scheme that
   relies on a single key that is shared among all members of the
   overlay.  It is appropriate for small groups that wish to form a
   private network without complexity.  In shared secret mode, all the
   peers share a single symmetric key which is used to key TLS-PSK
   [RFC4279] or TLS-SRP [I-D.ietf-tls-srp] mode.  A peer which does not
   know the key cannot form TLS connections with any other peer and
   therefore cannot join the overlay.

   One natural approach to a shared-secret scheme is to use a user-
   entered password as the key.  The difficulty with this is that in
   TLS-PSK mode, such keys are very susceptible to dictionary attacks.
   If passwords are used as the source of shared-keys, then TLS-SRP is a
   superior choice because it is not subject to dictionary attacks.

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15.5.  Storage Security

   When certificate-based security is used in RELOAD, any given
   Resource-ID/kind-id pair (a slot) is bound to some small set of
   certificates.  In order to write data in a slot, the writer must
   prove possession of the private key for one of those certificates.
   Moreover, all data is stored signed by the certificate which
   authorized its storage.  This set of rules makes questions of
   authorization and data integrity - which have historically been
   thorny for overlays - relatively simple.

   When shared-secret security is used, then all peers trust all other
   peers, provided that they have demonstrated that they have the
   credentials to join the overlay at all.  The following text therefore
   applies only to certificate-based security.

15.5.1.  Authorization

   When a client wants to store some value in a slot, it first digitally
   signs the value with its own private key.  It then sends a Store
   request that contains both the value and the signature towards the
   storing peer (which is defined by the Resource Name construction
   algorithm for that particular kind of value).

   When the storing peer receives the request, it must determine whether
   the storing client is authorized to store in this slot.  In order to
   do so, it executes the Resource Name construction algorithm for the
   specified kind based on the user's certificate information.  It then
   computes the Resource-ID from the Resource Name and verifies that it
   matches the slot which the user is requesting to write to.  If it
   does, the user is authorized to write to this slot, pending quota
   checks as described in the next section.

   For example, consider the certificate with the following properties:

           User name: alice@dht.example.com
           Node-ID:   013456789abcdef
           Serial:    1234

   If Alice wishes to Store a value of the "SIP Location" kind, the
   Resource Name will be the SIP AOR "sip:alice@dht.example.com".  The
   Resource-ID will be determined by hashing the Resource Name.  When a
   peer receives a request to store a record at Resource-ID X, it takes
   the signing certificate and recomputes the Resource Name, in this
   case "alice@dht.example.com".  If H("alice@dht.example.com")=X then
   the Store is authorized.  Otherwise it is not.  Note that the
   Resource Name construction algorithm may be different for other

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15.5.2.  Distributed Quota

   Being a peer in a Overlay Instance carries with it the responsibility
   to store data for a given region of the Overlay Instance.  However,
   if clients were allowed to store unlimited amounts of data, this
   would create unacceptable burdens on peers, as well as enabling
   trivial denial of service attacks.  RELOAD addresses this issue by
   requiring each usage to define maximum sizes for each kind of stored
   data.  Attempts to store values exceeding this size MUST be rejected
   (if peers are inconsistent about this, then strange artifacts will
   happen when the zone of responsibility shifts and a different peer
   becomes responsible for overlarge data).  Because each slot is bound
   to a small set of certificates, these size restrictions also create a
   distributed quota mechanism, with the quotas administered by the
   central enrollment server.

   Allowing different kinds of data to have different size restrictions
   allows new usages the flexibility to define limits that fit their
   needs without requiring all usages to have expansive limits.

15.5.3.  Correctness

   Because each stored value is signed, it is trivial for any retrieving
   peer to verify the integrity of the stored value.  Some more care
   needs to be taken to prevent version rollback attacks.  Rollback
   attacks on storage are prevented by the use of store times and
   lifetime values in each store.  A lifetime represents the latest time
   at which the data is valid and thus limits (though does not
   completely prevent) the ability of the storing node to perform a
   rollback attack on retrievers.  In order to prevent a rollback attack
   at the time of the Store request, we require that storage times be
   monotonically increasing.  Storing peers MUST reject Store requests
   with storage times smaller than or equal to those they are currently
   storing.  In addition, a fetching node which receives a data value
   with a storage time older than the result of the previous fetch knows
   a rollback has occurred.

15.5.4.  Residual Attacks

   The mechanisms described here provide a high degree of security, but
   some attacks remain possible.  Most simply, it is possible for
   storing nodes to refuse to store a value (i.e., reject any request).
   In addition, a storing node can deny knowledge of values which it
   previously accepted.  To some extent these attacks can be ameliorated
   by attempting to store to/retrieve from replicas, but a retrieving
   client does not know whether it should try this or not, since there
   is a cost to doing so.

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   Although the certificate-based authentication scheme prevents a
   single peer from being able to forge data owned by other peers.
   Furthermore, although a subversive peer can refuse to return data
   resources for which it is responsible it cannot return forged data
   because it cannot provide authentication for such registrations.
   Therefore parallel searches for redundant registrations can mitigate
   most of the affects of a compromised peer.  The ultimate reliability
   of such an overlay is a statistical question based on the replication
   factor and the percentage of compromised peers.

   In addition, when a kind is is multivalued (e.g., an array data
   model), the storing node can return only some subset of the values,
   thus biasing its responses.  This can be countered by using single
   values rather than sets, but that makes coordination between multiple
   storing agents much more difficult.  This is a tradeoff that must be
   made when designing any usage.

15.6.  Routing Security

   Because the storage security system guarantees (within limits) the
   integrity of the stored data, routing security focuses on stopping
   the attacker from performing a DOS attack on the system by misrouting
   requests in the overlay.  There are a few obvious observations to
   make about this.  First, it is easy to ensure that an attacker is at
   least a valid peer in the Overlay Instance.  Second, this is a DOS
   attack only.  Third, if a large percentage of the peers on the
   Overlay Instance are controlled by the attacker, it is probably
   impossible to perfectly secure against this.

15.6.1.  Background

   In general, attacks on DHT routing are mounted by the attacker
   arranging to route traffic through or two nodes it controls.  In the
   Eclipse attack [Eclipse] the attacker tampers with messages to and
   from nodes for which it is on-path with respect to a given victim
   node.  This allows it to pretend to be all the nodes that are
   reachable through it.  In the Sybil attack [Sybil], the attacker
   registers a large number of nodes and is therefore able to capture a
   large amount of the traffic through the DHT.

   Both the Eclipse and Sybil attacks require the attacker to be able to
   exercise control over her peer IDs.  The Sybil attack requires the
   creation of a large number of peers.  The Eclipse attack requires
   that the attacker be able to impersonate specific peers.  In both
   cases, these attacks are limited by the use of centralized,
   certificate-based admission control.

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15.6.2.  Admissions Control

   Admission to an RELOAD Overlay Instance is controlled by requiring
   that each peer have a certificate containing its peer ID.  The
   requirement to have a certificate is enforced by using certificate-
   based mutual authentication on each connection.  Thus, whenever a
   peer connects to another peer, each side automatically checks that
   the other has a suitable certificate.  These peer IDs are randomly
   assigned by the central enrollment server.  This has two benefits:

   o  It allows the enrollment server to limit the number of peer IDs
      issued to any individual user.
   o  It prevents the attacker from choosing specific peer IDs.

   The first property allows protection against Sybil attacks (provided
   the enrollment server uses strict rate limiting policies).  The
   second property deters but does not completely prevent Eclipse
   attacks.  Because an Eclipse attacker must impersonate peers on the
   other side of the attacker, he must have a certificate for suitable
   peer IDs, which requires him to repeatedly query the enrollment
   server for new certificates which only will match by chance.  From
   the attacker's perspective, the difficulty is that if he only has a
   small number of certificates the region of the Overlay Instance he is
   impersonating appears to be very sparsely populated by comparison to
   the victim's local region.

15.6.3.  Peer Identification and Authentication

   In general, whenever a peer engages in overlay activity that might
   affect the routing table it must establish its identity.  This
   happens in two ways.  First, whenever a peer establishes a direct
   connection to another peer it authenticates via certificate-based
   mutual authentication.  All messages between peers are sent over this
   protected channel and therefore the peers can verify the data origin
   of the last hop peer for requests and responses without further

   In some situations, however, it is desirable to be able to establish
   the identity of a peer with whom one is not directly connected.  The
   most natural case is when a peer Updates its state.  At this point,
   other peers may need to update their view of the overlay structure,
   but they need to verify that the Update message came from the actual
   peer rather than from an attacker.  To prevent this, all overlay
   routing messages are signed by the peer that generated them.

   [OPEN ISSUE:  this allows for replay attacks on requests.  There are
   two basic defenses here.  The first is global clocks and loose anti-
   replay.  The second is to refuse to take any action unless you verify

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   the data with the relevant node.  This issue is undecided.]

   [TODO:  I think we are probably going to end up with generic
   signatures or at least optional signatures on all overlay messages.]

15.6.4.  Protecting the Signaling

   The goal here is to stop an attacker from knowing who is signaling
   what to whom.  An attacker being able to observe the activities of a
   specific individual is unlikely given the randomization of IDs and
   routing based on the present peers discussed above.  Furthermore,
   because messages can be routed using only the header information, the
   actual body of the RELOAD message can be encrypted during

   There are two lines of defense here.  The first is the use of TLS or
   DTLS for each communications link between peers.  This provides
   protection against attackers who are not members of the overlay.  The
   second line of defense, if certificate-based security is used, is to
   digitally sign each message.  This prevents adversarial peers from
   modifying messages in flight, even if they are on the routing path.

15.6.5.  Residual Attacks

   The routing security mechanisms in RELOAD are designed to contain
   rather than eliminate attacks on routing.  It is still possible for
   an attacker to mount a variety of attacks.  In particular, if an
   attacker is able to take up a position on the overlay routing between
   A and B it can make it appear as if B does not exist or is
   disconnected.  It can also advertise false network metrics in attempt
   to reroute traffic.  However, these are primarily DoS attacks.

   The certificate-based security scheme secures the namespace, but if
   an individual peer is compromised or if an attacker obtains a
   certificate from the CA, then a number of subversive peers can still
   appear in the overlay.  While these peers cannot falsify responses to
   resource queries, they can respond with error messages, effecting a
   DoS attack on the resource registration.  They can also subvert
   routing to other compromised peers.  To defend against such attacks,
   a resource search must still consist of parallel searches for
   replicated registrations.

15.7.  SIP-Specific Issues

15.7.1.  Fork Explosion

   Because SIP includes a forking capability (the ability to retarget to
   multiple recipients), fork bombs are a potential DoS concern.

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   However, in the SIP usage of RELOAD, fork bombs are a much lower
   concern because the calling party is involved in each retargeting
   event and can therefore directly measure the number of forks and
   throttle at some reasonable number.

15.7.2.  Malicious Retargeting

   Another potential DoS attack is for the owner of an attractive number
   to retarget all calls to some victim.  This attack is difficult to
   ameliorate without requiring the target of a SIP registration to
   authorize all stores.  The overhead of that requirement would be
   excessive and in addition there are good use cases for retargeting to
   a peer without there explicit cooperation.

15.7.3.  Privacy Issues

   All RELOAD SIP registration data is public.  Methods of providing
   location and identity privacy are still being studied.

16.  IANA Considerations

   This section contains the new code points registered by this
   document.  The IANA policies are TBD.

16.1.  Overlay Algorithm Types

   IANA SHALL create/(has created) a "RELOAD Overlay Algorithm Type"
   Registry.  Entries in this registry are strings denoting the names of
   overlay algorithms.  The registration policy for this registry is

   The initial contents of this registry are:

      The algorithm defined in Section 12 of this document.

16.2.  Data Kind-Id

   IANA SHALL create/(has created) a "RELOAD Data Kind-Id" Registry.
   Entries in this registry are 32-bit integers denoting data kinds, as
   described in Section 4.1.2.  The registration policy for this
   registry is TBD.

   The initial contents of this registry are:

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                     | Kind               | Kind-Id |
                     | SIP-REGISTRATION   |       1 |
                     | TURN_SERVICE       |       2 |
                     | CERTIFICATE        |       3 |
                     | ROUTING_TABLE_SIZE |       4 |
                     | SOFTWARE_VERSION   |       5 |
                     | MACHINE_UPTIME     |       6 |
                     | APP_UPTIME         |       7 |
                     | MEMORY_FOOTPRINT   |       8 |
                     | DATASIZE_StoreD    |       9 |
                     | INSTANCES_StoreD   |      10 |
                     | MESSAGES_SENT_RCVD |      11 |
                     | EWMA_BYTES_SENT    |      12 |
                     | EWMA_BYTES_RCVD    |      13 |
                     | LAST_CONTACT       |      14 |
                     | RTT                |      15 |

16.3.  Data Model

   IANA SHALL create/(has created) a "RELOAD Data Model" Registry.
   Entries in this registry are 8-bit integers denoting data models, as
   described in Section 7.2.  The registration policy for this registry
   is TBD.

                       | Data Model   | Identifier |
                       | SINGLE_VALUE |          1 |
                       | ARRAY        |          2 |
                       | DICTIONARY   |          3 |

16.4.  Message Codes

   IANA SHALL create/(has created) a "RELOAD Message Code" Registry.
   Entries in this registry are 16-bit integers denoting method codes as
   described in Section 6.2.3.  The registration policy for this
   registry is TBD.

   The initial contents of this registry are:

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                  | Message Code Name |     Code Value |
                  | reserved          |              0 |
                  | ping_req          |              1 |
                  | ping_ans          |              2 |
                  | connect_req       |              3 |
                  | connect_ans       |              4 |
                  | tunnel_req        |              5 |
                  | tunnel_ans        |              6 |
                  | store_req         |              7 |
                  | store_ans         |              8 |
                  | fetch_req         |              9 |
                  | fetch_ans         |             10 |
                  | remove_req        |             11 |
                  | remove_ans        |             12 |
                  | find_req          |             13 |
                  | find_ans          |             14 |
                  | join_req          |             15 |
                  | join_ans          |             16 |
                  | leave_req         |             17 |
                  | leave_ans         |             18 |
                  | update_req        |             19 |
                  | update_ans        |             20 |
                  | route_query_req   |             21 |
                  | route_query_ans   |             22 |
                  | reserved          | 0x8000..0xfffe |
                  | error             |         0xffff |

   [[TODO - add IANA registration for p2p_enroll SRV and p2p_menroll]]

16.5.  Error Codes

   IANA SHALL create/(has created) a "RELOAD Error Code" Registry.
   Entries in this registry are 16-bit integers denoting error codes.
   [[TODO:  Complete this once we decide on error code strategy.

16.6.  Route Log Extension Types

   IANA SHALL create/(has created) a "RELOAD Route Log Extension Type
   Registry.  This entry is currently empty.

16.7.  reload: URI Scheme

   This section describes the scheme for a reload:  URI, which can be
   used to refer to either:

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   o  A peer.
   o  A resource inside a peer.

   The reload:  URI is defined using a subset of the URI schema
   specified in Appendix A.  of RFC 3986 [REF] and the associated URI
   Guidelines [REF:  RFC4395] per the following ABNF syntax:

             RELOAD-URI = "reload://" destination "@" overlay "/"

             destination = 1 * HEXDIG
             overlay = reg-name
             specifier = 1*HEXDIG

   The definitions of these productions are as follows:
   destination:    a hex-encoded Destination List object.

   overlay:    the name of the overlay.

   specifier :  a hex-encoded StoredDataSpecifier indicating the data

   If no specifier is present than this URI addresses the peer which can
   be reached via the indicated destination list at the indicated
   overlay name.  If a specifier is present, then the URI addresses the
   data value.

16.7.1.  URI Registration

   The following summarizes the information necessary to register the
   reload:  URI.  [NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR:  Please replace XXXX with
   the RFC number for this specification in the following list.]

   URI Scheme Name:    reload
   Status:    permanent
   URI Scheme Syntax:    see Section 16.7.
   URI Scheme Semantics:    The reload:  URI is intended to be used as a
      reference to a RELOAD peer or resource.
   Encoding Considerations:    The reload:  URI is not intended to be
      human-readable text, therefore they are encoded entirely in US-
   Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme:    The RELOAD
      protocol described in RFC XXXX.

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      TBD for the rest of this template.

17.  Acknowledgments

   This draft is a merge of the "REsource LOcation And Discovery
   (RELOAD)" draft by David A. Bryan, Marcia Zangrilli and Bruce B.
   Lowekamp, the "Address Settlement by Peer to Peer" draft by Cullen
   Jennings, Jonathan Rosenberg, and Eric Rescorla, the "Security
   Extensions for RELOAD" draft by Bruce B. Lowekamp and James Deverick,
   the "A Chord-based DHT for Resource Lookup in P2PSIP" by Marcia
   Zangrilli and David A. Bryan, and the Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP)
   draft by Salman A. Baset, Henning Schulzrinne, and Marcin

   Thanks to the many people who contributed including:  Michael Chen,
   TODO - fill in.

18.  References

18.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

              Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment
              (ICE): A Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT)
              Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols",
              draft-ietf-mmusic-ice-16 (work in progress), June 2007.

              Rosenberg, J., "Session Traversal Utilities for (NAT)
              (STUN)", draft-ietf-behave-rfc3489bis-06 (work in
              progress), March 2007.

              Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining Relay Addresses from Simple
              Traversal Underneath NAT (STUN)",
              draft-ietf-behave-turn-03 (work in progress), March 2007.

              Schaad, J. and M. Myers, "Certificate Management over CMS
              (CMC) Transport Protocols", draft-ietf-pkix-cmc-trans-05
              (work in progress), May 2006.


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              Myers, M. and J. Schaad, "Certificate Management Messages
              over CMS", draft-ietf-pkix-2797-bis-04 (work in progress),
              March 2006.

   [RFC4279]  Eronen, P. and H. Tschofenig, "Pre-Shared Key Ciphersuites
              for Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 4279,
              December 2005.

              Taylor, D., "Using SRP for TLS Authentication",
              draft-ietf-tls-srp-14 (work in progress), June 2007.

              Rosenberg, J., "TCP Candidates with Interactive
              Connectivity Establishment (ICE",
              draft-ietf-mmusic-ice-tcp-03 (work in progress),
              March 2007.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., and J. Peterson, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol",
              RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [RFC3263]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263,
              June 2002.

   [RFC4347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security", RFC 4347, April 2006.

   [RFC4828]  Floyd, S. and E. Kohler, "TCP Friendly Rate Control
              (TFRC): The Small-Packet (SP) Variant", RFC 4828,
              April 2007.

18.2.  Informative References

              Guha, S., "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP",
              draft-ietf-behave-tcp-07 (work in progress), April 2007.

              Bryan, D., "Concepts and Terminology for Peer to Peer
              SIP", draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-00 (work in progress),
              July 2007.

   [RFC4145]  Yon, D. and G. Camarillo, "TCP-Based Media Transport in
              the Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 4145,
              September 2005.

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   [RFC4572]  Lennox, J., "Connection-Oriented Media Transport over the
              Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol in the Session
              Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 4572, July 2006.

   [RFC2617]  Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
              and P. Leach, "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest
              Access Authentication", RFC 2617, June 1999.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness
              Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005.

   [RFC3280]  Housley, R., Polk, W., Ford, W., and D. Solo, "Internet
              X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and
              Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC 3280,
              April 2002.

   [Sybil]    Douceur, J., "The Sybil Attack", IPTPS 02, March 2002.

   [Eclipse]  Singh, A., Ngan, T., Druschel, T., and D. Wallach,
              "Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and
              Defenses", INFOCOM 2006, April 2006.

              Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS",
              draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns-06 (work in progress),
              August 2006.

              Krochmal, M. and S. Cheshire, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", draft-cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd-04 (work in
              progress), August 2006.

              Cooper, E., "Bootstrap Mechanisms for P2PSIP",
              draft-matthews-p2psip-bootstrap-mechanisms-00 (work in
              progress), February 2007.

              Garcia, G., "P2PSIP bootstrapping using DNS-SD",
              draft-garcia-p2psip-dns-sd-bootstrapping-00 (work in
              progress), October 2007.

              Camarillo, G., Nikander, P., and J. Hautakorpi, "HIP BONE:
              Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Based Overlay Networking
              Environment", draft-camarillo-hip-bone-00 (work in

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              progress), December 2007.

              Pascual, V., Matuszewski, M., Shim, E., Zhang, H., and S.
              Yongchao, "P2PSIP Clients",
              draft-pascual-p2psip-clients-01 (work in progress),
              February 2008.

   [RFC4787]  Audet, F. and C. Jennings, "Network Address Translation
              (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for Unicast UDP", BCP 127,
              RFC 4787, January 2007.

              Jiang, X. and H. Zhang, "Service Extensible P2P Peer
              Protocol", draft-jiang-p2psip-sep-01 (work in progress),
              February 2008.

              Freedman, M., Lakshminarayanan, K., Rhea, S., and I.
              Stoica, "Non-Transitive Connectivity and DHTs",

              Gummadi, K., Gummadi, R., Gribble, S., Ratnasamy, S.,
              Shenker, S., and I. Stoica, "The Impact of DHT Routing
              Geometry on Resilience and Proximity",  SIGCOMM'03.

              Wu, D., Tian, Y., and K. Ng, "Analytical Study on
              Improving DHT Lookup Performance under Churn",  IEEE

              Bryan, D., Lowekamp, B., and M. Zangrilli, "The Design of
              a Versatile, Secure P2PSIP Communications Architecture for
              the Public Internet",  Hot-P2P'08.

              Rhea, S., Godfrey, B., Karp, B., Kubiatowicz, J.,
              Ratnasamy, S., Shenker, S., Stoica, I., and H. Yu,
              "OpenDHT: A Public DHT and its Uses",  SIGCOMM'05.

   [Chord]    Stoica, I., Morris, R., Liben-Nowell, D., Karger, D.,
              Kaashoek, M., Dabek, F., and H. Balakrishnan, "Chord: A
              Scalable Peer-to-peer Lookup Service for Internet
              Applications", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking Volume
              11, Issue 1, 17-32, Feb 2003.

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              Srivatsa, M. and L. Liu, "Vulnerabilities and Security
              Threats in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems: A Quantitative
              Analysis",  ACSAC 2004.

Authors' Addresses

   Cullen Jennings
   170 West Tasman Drive
   MS: SJC-21/2
   San Jose, CA  95134

   Phone:  +1 408 421-9990
   Email:  fluffy@cisco.com

   Bruce B. Lowekamp
   SIPeerior Technologies
   3000 Easter Circle
   Williamsburg, VA  23188

   Phone:  +1 757 565 0101
   Email:  lowekamp@sipeerior.com

   Eric Rescorla
   Network Resonance
   2064 Edgewood Drive
   Palo Alto, CA  94303

   Phone:  +1 650 320-8549
   Email:  ekr@networkresonance.com

   Salman A. Baset
   Columbia University
   1214 Amsterdam Avenue
   New York, NY

   Email:  salman@cs.columbia.edu

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   Henning Schulzrinne
   Columbia University
   1214 Amsterdam Avenue
   New York, NY

   Email:  hgs@cs.columbia.edu

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Full Copyright Statement

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