Network Working Group                                      Paul E. Jones
Internet Draft                                         Gonzalo Salgueiro
Intended status: Standards Track                           Cisco Systems
Expires: July 28, 2013                                      Joseph Smarr
                                                        January 28, 2013



   This specification defines the WebFinger protocol, which can be used
   to discover information about people or other entities on the
   Internet using standard HTTP methods.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 28, 2013.

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   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................2
   2. Terminology....................................................3
   3. Example Uses of WebFinger......................................3
      3.1. Locating a User's Blog....................................3
      3.2. Identity Provider Discovery for OpenID Connect............5
      3.3. Auto-Configuration of Email Clients.......................6
      3.4. Retrieving Device Information.............................7
   4. WebFinger Protocol.............................................7
      4.1. Constructing a WebFinger Query............................8
      4.2. Performing a WebFinger Query..............................8
      4.3. The "rel" Parameter.......................................9
      4.4. The JSON Resource Descriptor (JRD).......................10
         4.4.1. expires.............................................11
         4.4.2. subject.............................................11
         4.4.3. aliases.............................................11
         4.4.4. properties..........................................11
         4.4.5. links...............................................12
      4.5. WebFinger and URIs.......................................14
   5. Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)..........................14
   6. Access Control................................................15
   7. Hosted WebFinger Services.....................................15
   8. Security Considerations.......................................16
   9. IANA Considerations...........................................17
   10. Acknowledgments..............................................18
   11. References...................................................18
      11.1. Normative References....................................18
      11.2. Informative References..................................19
   Author's Addresses...............................................20

1. Introduction

   WebFinger is used to discover information about people or other
   entities on the Internet that are identified by a URI [6] or IRI [7]
   using standard Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) [2] methods over a
   secure transport [14].  A WebFinger server returns a JavaScript
   Object Notation (JSON) [5] object that describes a resource that is
   queried.  The JSON object is referred to as the JSON Resource
   Descriptor (JRD).

   For a person, the kinds of information that might be discoverable via
   WebFinger include a personal profile address, identity service,
   telephone number, or preferred avatar.  For other entities on the
   Internet, a WebFinger server might return JRDs containing link
   relations that allow a client to discover, for example, the amount of
   toner in a printer or the physical location of a server.

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   Information returned via WebFinger might be for direct human
   consumption (e.g., looking up someone's phone number), or it might be
   used by systems to help carry out some operation (e.g., facilitate
   logging into a web site by determining a user's identity service).

   Use of WebFinger is illustrated in the examples in Section 3 and
   described more formally in Section 4.

2. Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].

   WebFinger makes heavy use of "Link Relations".  Briefly, a Link
   Relation is an attribute and value pair used on the Internet wherein
   the attribute identifies the type of link to which the associated
   value refers.  In HTTP and Web Linking [4], the attribute is a "rel"
   and the value is an "href". WebFinger also uses the "rel" attribute,
   where the "rel" value is either a single IANA-registered link
   relation type [10] or a URI [6].

3. Example Uses of WebFinger

   This non-normative section shows a few sample uses of WebFinger.

3.1. Locating a User's Blog

   Assume you receive an email from Bob and he refers to something he
   posted on his blog, but you do not know where Bob's blog is located.
   It would be simple to discover the address of Bob's blog if he makes
   that information available via WebFinger.

   Assume your email client can discover the blog for you.  After
   receiving the message from Bob (bob@example.com), you instruct your
   email client to perform a WebFinger query.  It does so by issuing the
   following HTTPS [14] query to example.com:

     GET /.well-known/webfinger?
                           resource=acct%3Abob%40example.com HTTP/1.1
     Host: example.com

   The server might then respond with a message like this:

     HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
     Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8


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       "expires" : "2012-11-16T19:41:35Z",
       "subject" : "acct:bob@example.com",
       "aliases" :
       "properties" :
           "http://example.com/ns/role/" : "employee"
       "links" :
           "rel" : "http://webfinger.net/rel/avatar",
           "type" : "image/jpeg",
           "href" : "http://www.example.com/~bob/bob.jpg"
           "rel" : "http://webfinger.net/rel/profile-page",
           "href" : "http://www.example.com/~bob/"
           "rel" : "blog",
           "type" : "text/html",
           "href" : "http://blogs.example.com/bob/",
           "titles" :
               "en-us" : "The Magical World of Bob",
               "fr" : "Le monde magique de Bob"
           "rel" : "vcard",
           "href" : "https://www.example.com/~bob/bob.vcf"

   The email client would take note of the "blog" link relation in the
   above JRD that refers to Bob's blog.  This URL would then be
   presented to you so that you could then visit his blog.  The email
   client might also note that Bob has published an avatar link relation
   and use that picture to represent Bob inside the email client.
   Lastly, the client might consider the vcard [16] link relation in
   order to update contact information for Bob.

   In the above example, an "acct" URI [8] is used in the query, though
   any valid alias for the user might also be used.  See section 4.5 for
   more information on WebFinger and URIs.

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   An alias is a URI that is different from the "subject" URI that
   identifies the same entity.  In the above example, there is one
   "http" alias returned, though there might have been more than one.
   Had the "http:" URI shown as an alias been used to query for
   information about Bob, the query would have appeared as:

     GET /.well-known/webfinger?
              resource=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.example.com%2F~bob%2F HTTP/1.1
     Host: www.example.com

   Note that the host queried in this example is different than for the
   acct URI example, since the URI refers to a different host.  Either
   this host would provide a response, or it would redirect the client
   to another host (e.g., redirect back to example.com).  Either way,
   the response would have been substantially the same, with the subject
   and alias information changed as necessary.  Other information, such
   as the expiration time might also change, but the set of link
   relations and properties would be the same with either response.

3.2. Identity Provider Discovery for OpenID Connect

   Suppose Carol wishes to authenticate with a web site she visits using
   OpenID Connect [18].  She would provide the web site with her OpenID
   Connect identifier, say carol@example.com.  The visited web site
   would perform a WebFinger query looking for the OpenID Connect
   Provider.  Since the site is interested in only one particular link
   relation, the server might utilize the "rel" parameter as described
   in Section 4.3:

     GET /.well-known/webfinger?
     Host: example.com

   The server might respond with a JRD like this:

       "expires" : "2012-11-16T19:41:35Z",
       "subject" : "acct:carol@example.com",
       "links" :
           "rel" : "http://openid.net/specs/connect/1.0/issuer",
           "href" : "https://openid.example.com"

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   Since the "rel" parameter only filters the link relations returned by
   the server, other name/value pairs in the response, including any
   aliases or properties, would be returned.  Also, since support for
   the "rel" parameter is optional, the client must not assume the
   "links" array will contain only the requested link relation.

3.3. Auto-Configuration of Email Clients

   WebFinger could be used to auto-provision an email client with basic
   configuration data.  Suppose that sue@example.com wants to configure
   her email client.  Her email client might issue the following query:

     GET /.well-known/webfinger?
              resource=mailto%3Asue%40example.com HTTP/1.1
     Host: example.com

   The response from the server would contain entries for the various
   protocols, transport options, and security options.  If there are
   multiple options, the server might return a link relation that for
   each of the valid options and the client or Sue might select which
   option to choose.  Since JRDs list link relations in a specific
   order, then the most-preferred choices could be presented first.
   Consider this response:

     "subject" : "mailto:sue@example.com",
     "links" :
         "rel" : "http://example.net/rel/smtp-server",
         "properties" :
           "http://example.net/email/host" : "smtp.example.com",
           "http://example.net/email/port" : "587",
           "http://example.net/email/login-required" : "yes",
           "http://example.net/email/transport" : "starttls"
         "rel" : "http://example.net/rel/imap-server",
         "properties" :
           "http://example.net/email/host" : "imap.example.com",
           "http://example.net/email/port" : "993",
           "http://example.net/email/transport" : "ssl"

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   In this example, you can see that the WebFinger server advertises an
   SMTP service and an IMAP service.  In this example, the "href"
   entries associated with the link relation are absent.  This is valid
   when there is no external reference that needs to be made.

3.4. Retrieving Device Information

   As another example, suppose there are printers on the network and you
   would like to check the current toner level for a particular printer
   identified via the URI device:p1.example.com.  While the "device" URI
   scheme is not presently specified, we use it here for illustrative

   Following the procedures similar to those above, a query may be
   issued to get link relations specific to this URI like this:

     GET /.well-known/webfinger?
                       resource=device%3Ap1.example.com HTTP/1.1
     Host: p1.example.com

   The link relations that are returned for a device may be quite
   different than those for user accounts.  Perhaps we may see a
   response like this:

     HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
     Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

       "subject" : "device:p1.example.com",
       "links" :
           "rel" : "http://example.com/rel/tipsi",
           "href" : ""

   While this example is fictitious, you can imagine that perhaps the
   Transport Independent, Printer/System Interface [17] may be enhanced
   with a web interface that allows a device that understands the TIP/SI
   web interface specification to query the printer for toner levels.

4. WebFinger Protocol

   WebFinger is a simple HTTP-based web service that returns a JSON
   Resource Descriptor (JRD) to convey information about an entity on

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   the Internet and the Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) [9]
   specification to facilitate queries made via a web browser.

4.1. Constructing a WebFinger Query

   This specification defines URI parameters that are passed from the
   client to the server when issuing a request.  These parameters,
   "resource" and "rel", and the parameter values are included in the
   "query" component of the URI (see Section 3.4 of RFC 3986).  To
   construct the "query" component, the client performs the following
   steps.  First, each parameter value is percent-encoded as per Section
   2.1 of RFC 3986.  Next, the client constructs a string to be placed
   in the query component by concatenating the name of the first
   parameter together with an equal sign ("=") and the percent-encoded
   parameter value.  For any subsequent parameters, the client appends
   an ampersand ("&") to the string, the name of the next parameter, an
   equal sign, and percent-encoded parameter value.  The client MUST NOT
   insert any spaces while constructing the string.  The order in which
   the client places each parameter and its corresponding parameter
   value is unspecified.

4.2. Performing a WebFinger Query

   A WebFinger client issues a query to the well-known [3] resource
   /.well-known/webfinger.  A query MUST include the "resource"
   parameter exactly once and set to the value of the URI for which
   information is being sought.  If the "resource" parameter is absent
   or malformed, the WebFinger server MUST indicate that the request is
   bad as per Section 10.4.1 of RFC 2616 [2].

   A client MUST query the WebFinger server using HTTPS only.  If the
   client determines that the server has an invalid certificate, the
   server returns a 4xx or 5xx status code, or the HTTPS connection
   cannot be established for any reason, the client MUST accept that the
   WebFinger query has failed and MUST NOT attempt to reissue the
   WebFinger request using HTTP over a non-secure connection.

   A WebFinger server MUST return a JRD as the representation for the
   resource if the client requests no other supported format explicitly
   via the HTTP "Accept" header.  The client MAY include the "Accept"
   header to indicate a desired representation, though no other
   representation than JRD is defined in this specification.  The media
   type used for the JSON Resource Descriptor (JRD) is
   "application/json" [5].

   A WebFinger server MAY redirect the client, but MUST only redirect
   the client to an HTTPS URI.

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   A WebFinger server can include cache validators in a response to
   enable conditional requests by the client and/or expiration times as
   per Section 13 of RFC 2616.

4.3. The "rel" Parameter

   When issuing a request to the server, the client MAY utilize the
   "rel" parameter to request only a subset of the information that
   would otherwise be returned without the "rel" parameter.  When the
   "rel" parameter is used, only the link relations that match the link
   relations provided via "rel" are included in the array of links
   returned in the JRD.  All other information normally present in a
   resource descriptor is present in the resource descriptor, even when
   "rel" is employed.

   The "rel" parameter MAY be transmitted to the server multiple times
   in order to request multiple types of link relations.

   The purpose of the "rel" parameter is to return a subset of
   resource's link relations.  Use of the parameter might reduce
   processing requirements on either the client or server, and it might
   also reduce the bandwidth required to convey the partial resource
   descriptor, especially if there are numerous link relation values to
   convey for a given resource.

   Support for the "rel" parameter is OPTIONAL, but RECOMMENDED on the
   server.  Should the server not support the "rel" parameter, it MUST
   ignore it and process the request as if no "rel" parameter values
   were present.

   The following example presents the same example as found in Section
   3.1, but uses the "rel" parameter in order to select two link

     GET /.well-known/webfinger?
                rel=vcard HTTP/1.1
     Host: example.com

   In this example, the client requests the link relations of type
   "http://webfinger.net/rel/profile-page" and "vcard".  The server then
   responds with a message like this:

     HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
     Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8


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       "expires" : "2012-11-16T19:41:35Z",
       "subject" : "acct:bob@example.com",
       "aliases" :
       "properties" :
           "http://example.com/ns/role/" : "employee"
       "links" :
           "rel" : "http://webfinger.net/rel/profile-page",
           "href" : "http://www.example.com/~bob/"
           "rel" : "vcard",
           "href" : "http://www.example.com/~bob/bob.vcf"

   As you can see, the server returned only the link relations requested
   by the client, but also included the other parts of the JRD.

   In the event that a client requests links for link relations that are
   not defined for the specified resource, a resource descriptor MUST be
   returned.  In the returned JRD, the "links" array MAY be absent,
   empty, or contain only links that did match a provided "rel" value.

4.4. The JSON Resource Descriptor (JRD)

   The JSON Resource Descriptor (JRD), originally introduced in RFC 6415
   [19] and based on the Extensible Resource Descriptor (XRD) format
   [20], is a JSON object that is comprised of the following name/value

        o expires
        o subject
        o aliases
        o properties
        o links

   The members "expires" and "subject" are name/value pairs whose value
   are strings, "aliases" is an array of strings, "properties" is an
   object comprised of name/value pairs whose values are strings, and
   "links" is an array of objects that contain link relation

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   When processing a JRD, the client MUST ignore any unknown member and
   not treat the presence of an unknown member as an error.

   Below, each of these members of the JRD is described in more detail.

4.4.1. expires

   The value of the "expires" member is a string that indicates the date
   and time after which the JRD SHOULD be considered expired and no
   longer utilized.

   This format is formally defined in RFC 3339 [15].

   The "expires" member MUST NOT use fractional seconds and MUST express
   time only Universal Coordinate Time via the "Z" designation on the
   end of the string.

   An example of the "expires" member is:

     "expires" : "2012-11-16T19:41:35Z"

   The "expires" member is optional in a JRD, but SHOULD be honored if

4.4.2. subject

   The value of the "subject" member is a URI that identifies the entity
   that the JRD describes.

   The "subject" value returned by a WebFinger server MAY differ from
   the value of the "resource" parameter used in the client's request.
   This may happen, for example, when the subject's identity changes
   (e.g., a user moves his or her account to another service) or when
   the server prefers to express URIs in canonical form.

   The "subject" member MUST be present.

4.4.3. aliases

   The "aliases" array is an array of zero or more URI strings that
   identify the same entity as the "subject" URI. Each URI must be an
   absolute URI.

   The "aliases" array is optional.

4.4.4. properties

   The "properties" object is comprised of zero or more name/value pairs
   whose names are absolute URIs and whose values are strings or null.

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   Properties are used to convey additional information about the
   subject of the JRD.  As an example, consider this use of

     "properties" : { "http://webfinger.net/ns/name" : "Bob Smith" }

   The "properties" member is optional.

4.4.5. links

   The "links" array contains zero or more elements that contain the
   link relation information.  Each element of the array is an object
   comprised of the following name/value pairs:

        o rel
        o type
        o href
        o titles
        o properties

   The members "rel", "type", and "href" are a name/value pairs whose
   values are strings, "titles" and "properties" are objects comprised
   of name/value pairs whose values are strings.

   The order of elements in the "links" array indicates an order of
   preference.  Thus, if there are two or more link relations having the
   same "rel" value, the first link relation would indicate the user's
   preferred link relation.

   The "links" array is optional in the JRD.

   Below, each of the members of the objects found in the "links" array
   is described in more detail.  Each object in the "links" array,
   referred to as a "link relation object", is completely independent
   from any other object in the array; any requirement to include a
   given member in the link relation object refers only to that
   particular object. rel

   The value of the "rel" member is a string that is either an absolute
   URI or a registered relation type [10] (see RFC 5988 [4]).  The value
   of the "rel" member MUST contain exactly one URI string or registered
   relation type and MUST NOT contain a space-separated list of URIs or
   registered relation types.  The URI or registered relation type
   identifies the type of the link relation.  The other members of the
   object have meaning only once the type of link relation is
   understood.  In some instances, the link relation will have
   associated semantics that allow a client to query for other resources

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   on the Internet.  In other instances, the link relation will have
   associated semantics that allow the client to utilize the other
   members of the link relation object without fetching additional
   external resources.

   The "rel" member MUST be present in the link relation object. type

   The value of the "type" member is a string that indicates the media
   type [11] of the linked resource (see RFC 4288 [12]).

   The "type" member is optional in the link relation object. href

   The value of the "href" member is a string that contains a URI
   pointing to the linked resource.

   The "href" member is optional in the link relation object.  titles

   The "titles" object is comprised of zero or more name/value pairs
   whose name is a language tag [13] or the string "default".  The
   string is human-readable and describes the link relation.  More than
   one title for the link relation MAY be provided for the benefit of
   users who utilize the link relation and, if used, a language
   identifier SHOULD be duly used as the name.  If the language is
   unknown or unspecified, then the name is "default".

   A JRD SHOULD NOT include more than one title identified with the same
   language tag (or "default") within the link relation object.  Meaning
   is undefined if a link relation object includes more than one title
   named with the same language tag (or "default"), though this MUST NOT
   treat this as an error.  A client MAY select whichever title or
   titles it wishes to utilize.

   Here is an example of the titles object:

     "titles" :
       "en-us" : "The Magical World of Bob",
       "fr" : "Le monde magique de Bob"

   The "titles" member is optional in the link relation object.

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   The "properties" object within the link relation object is comprised
   of zero or more name/value pairs whose names are absolute URIs and
   whose values are strings or null.  Properties are used to convey
   additional information about the link relation.  As an example,
   consider this use of "properties":

     "properties" : { "http://example.net/mail/port" : "993" }

   The "properties" member is optional in the link relation object.

4.5. WebFinger and URIs

   WebFinger requests can include a parameter specifying the URI of an
   account, device, or other entity.  WebFinger is agnostic regarding
   the scheme of such a URI: it could be an "acct" URI [7], an "http" or
   "https" URI, a "mailto" URI [21], or some other scheme.

   For resources associated with a user account at a host, use of the
   "acct" URI scheme is RECOMMENDED, since it explicitly identifies an
   account accessible via WebFinger.  Further, the "acct" URI scheme is
   not associated with other protocols as, by way of example, the
   "mailto" URI scheme is associated with email.  Since not every host
   offers email service, using the "mailto" URI scheme is not ideal for
   identifying user accounts on all hosts.  That said, use of the
   "mailto" URI scheme would be ideal for use with WebFinger to discover
   mail server configuration information for a user.

5. Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)

   WebFinger resources might not be accessible from a web browser due to
   "Same-Origin" policies.  The current best practice is to make
   resources available to browsers through Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
   (CORS) [9], and servers MUST include the Access-Control-Allow-Origin
   HTTP header in responses.  Servers SHOULD support the least
   restrictive setting by allowing any domain access to the WebFinger

      Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

   There are cases where defaulting to the least restrictive setting is
   not appropriate, for example a WebFinger server on an intranet that
   provides sensitive company information should not allow CORS requests
   from any domain, as that could allow leaking of that sensitive
   information.  A WebFinger server that wishes to restrict access to
   information from external entities SHOULD use a more restrictive
   Access-Control-Allow-Origin header.

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6. Access Control

   As with all web resources, access to the /.well-known/webfinger
   resource MAY require authentication.  Further, failure to provide
   required credentials MAY result in the server forbidding access or
   providing a different response than had the client authenticated with
   the server.

   Likewise, a server MAY provide different responses to different
   clients based on other factors, such as whether the client is inside
   or outside a corporate network.  As a concrete example, a query
   performed on the internal corporate network might return link
   relations to employee pictures, whereas link relations for employee
   pictures might not be provided to external entities.

   Further, link relations provided in a WebFinger server response MAY
   point to web resources that impose access restrictions.  For example,
   the aforementioned corporate server may provide both internal and
   external entities with URIs to employee pictures, but further
   authentication might be required in order for the client to access
   the picture resources if the request comes from outside the corporate

   The decisions made with respect to what set of link relations a
   WebFinger server provides to one client versus another and what
   resources require further authentication, as well as the specific
   authentication mechanisms employed, are outside the scope of this

7. Hosted WebFinger Services

   As with most services provided on the Internet, it is possible for a
   domain owner to utilize "hosted" WebFinger services.  By way of
   example, a domain owner might control most aspects of their domain,
   but use a third-party hosting service for email.  In the case of
   email, mail servers for a domain are identified by MX records.  An MX
   record points to the mail server to which mail for the domain should
   be delivered.  It does not matter to the sending mail server whether
   those MX records point to a server in the destination domain or a
   different domain.

   Likewise, a domain owner might utilize the services of a third party
   to provide WebFinger services on behalf of its users.  Just as a
   domain owner was required to insert MX records into DNS to allow for
   hosted email serves, the domain owner is required to redirect HTTP
   queries to its domain to allow for hosted WebFinger services.

   When a query is issued to /.well-known/webfinger, the web server MUST
   return a response with a redirection status code that includes a

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   Location header pointing to the location of the hosted WebFinger
   service URL.  The WebFinger service URL does not need to point to
   /.well-known/* on the hosting service provider server.

   As an example, assume that example.com's WebFinger services are
   hosted by example.net.  Suppose a client issues a query for
   acct:alice@example.com like this:

     GET /.well-known/webfinger?
                   resource=acct%3Aalice%40example.com HTTP/1.1
     Host: example.com

   The server might respond with this:

     HTTP/1.1 307 Temporary Redirect
     Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
     Location: https://wf.example.net/example.com/webfinger?
                       resource=acct%3Aalice%40example.com HTTP/1.1

   The client can then follow the redirection, re-issuing the request to
   the URL provided in the Location header.  Note that the server will
   include any required URI parameters in the Location header value,
   which could be different than the URI parameters the client
   originally used.

8. Security Considerations

   Since this specification utilizes Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
   (CORS) [9], all of the security considerations applicable CORS are
   also applicable to this specification.

   The required use of HTTPS is to ensure that information is not
   modified during transit.  It should be appreciated that in
   environments where a web server is normally available, there exists
   the possibility that a compromised network might have its WebFinger
   server operating on HTTPS replaced with one operating only over HTTP.
   As such, clients MUST NOT issue queries over a non-secure connection.

   Clients MUST verify that the certificate used on an HTTPS connection
   is valid and accept a response only if the certificate is valid.

   Service providers and users should be aware that placing information
   on the Internet accessible through WebFinger means that any user can
   access that information.  While WebFinger can be an extremely useful
   tool for allowing quick and easy access to one's avatar, blog, or
   other personal information, users should understand the risks, too.
   If one does not wish to share certain information with the world, do
   not allow that information to be freely accessible through WebFinger
   and do not use any service supporting WebFinger.  Further, a

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   WebFinger server MUST NOT be used to provide any personal information
   to any party unless explicitly or implicitly authorized by the person
   whose information is being shared. Implicit authorization can be
   determined by the user's voluntary utilization of a service as
   defined by that service's relevant terms of use or published privacy

   The aforementioned word of caution is perhaps worth emphasizing again
   with respect to dynamic information one might wish to share, such as
   the current location of a user.  WebFinger can be a powerful tool
   used to assemble information about a person all in one place, but
   service providers and users should be mindful of the nature of that
   information shared and the fact that it might be available for the
   entire world to see.  Sharing location information, for example,
   would potentially put a person in danger from any individual who
   might seek to inflict harm on that person.

   The easy access to user information via WebFinger was a design goal
   of the protocol, not a limitation.  If one wishes to limit access to
   information available via WebFinger, such as a WebFinger server for
   use inside a corporate network, the network administrator must take
   measures necessary to limit access from outside the network.  Using
   standard methods for securing web resources, network administrators
   do have the ability to control access to resources that might return
   sensitive information.  Further, a WebFinger server can be employed
   in such a way as to require authentication and prevent disclosure of
   information to unauthorized entities.

   Finally, a WebFinger server has no means of ensuring that information
   provided by a user is accurate.  Likewise, neither the server nor the
   client can be absolutely guaranteed that information has not been
   manipulated either at the server or along the communication path
   between the client and server.  Use of HTTPS helps to address some
   concerns with manipulation of information along the communication
   path, but it clearly cannot address issues where the server provided
   incorrect information, either due to being provided false information
   or due to malicious behavior on the part of the server administrator.
   As with any information service available on the Internet, users
   should wary of information received from untrusted sources.

9. IANA Considerations

   This specification registers the "webfinger" well-known URI in the
   Well-Known URI Registry as defined by [3].

   URI suffix:  webfinger

   Change controller:  IETF

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   Specification document(s):  RFC QQQ

   Related information:  The response from WebFinger server will be a
   JSON Resource Descriptor (JRD) as described in section 4.4 of RFC

   [RFC EDITOR: Please replace "QQQ" references in this section with the
   number for this RFC.]

10. Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to acknowledge Eran Hammer-Lahav, Blaine Cook,
   Brad Fitzpatrick, Laurent-Walter Goix, Joe Clarke, Michael B. Jones,
   Peter Saint-Andre, Dick Hardt, Tim Bray, and Joe Gregorio for their
   invaluable input.

11. References

11.1. Normative References

   [1]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]   Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L.,
         Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
         HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [3]   Nottingham, M., Hammer-Lahav, E., "Defining Well-Known Uniform
         Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 5785, April 2010.

   [4]   Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 5988, October 2010.

   [5]   Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for JavaScript
         Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.

   [6]   Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and Masinter, L., "Uniform
         Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986,
         January 2005.

   [7]   Duerst, M., "Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)",
         RFC 3987, January 2005.

   [8]   Saint-Andre, P., "The 'acct' URI Scheme", draft-ietf-appsawg-
         acct-uri-02, December 2012.

   [9]   Van Kesteren, A., "Cross-Origin Resource Sharing", W3C CORS
         http://www.w3.org/TR/cors/, July 2010.

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   [10]  IANA, "Link Relations", http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-

   [11]  IANA, "MIME Media Types",

   [12]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., "Media Type Specifications and
         Registration Procedures", RFC 4288, December 2005.

   [13]  Phillips, A., Davis, M., "Tags for Identifying Languages", RFC
         5646, January 2001.

   [14]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [15]  Klyne, G., Newman, C., "Date and Time on the Internet:
         Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

11.2. Informative References

   [16]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350, August

   [17]  "Transport Independent, Printer/System Interface", IEEE Std
         1284.1-1997, 1997.

   [18]  Sakimura, N., Bradley, J., Jones, M., de Medeiros, B.,
         Mortimore, C., and E. Jay, "OpenID Connect Messages 1.0", June
         2012, http://openid.net/specs/openid-connect-messages-1_0.html.

   [19]  Hammer-Lahav, E. and Cook, B., "Web Host Metadata", RFC 6415,
         October 2011.

   [20]  Hammer-Lahav, E. and W. Norris, "Extensible Resource Descriptor
         (XRD) Version 1.0", http://docs.oasis-

   [21]  Duerst, M., Masinter, L., and J. Zawinski, "The 'mailto' URI
         Scheme", RFC 6068, October 2010.

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Author's Addresses

   Paul E. Jones
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7025 Kit Creek Rd.
   Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

   Phone: +1 919 476 2048
   Email: paulej@packetizer.com
   IM: xmpp:paulej@packetizer.com

   Gonzalo Salgueiro
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7025 Kit Creek Rd.
   Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

   Phone: +1 919 392 3266
   Email: gsalguei@cisco.com
   IM: xmpp:gsalguei@cisco.com

   Joseph Smarr

   Email: jsmarr@google.com

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