Energy Management Working Group                   B. Schoening
     Internet Draft                          Independent Consultant
     Intended status: Informational              Mouli Chandramouli
     Expires: December 18, 2012                  Cisco Systems Inc.
                                                      Bruce Nordman
                              Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
                                                      June 18, 2012
                Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement
        The objective of Energy Management (EMAN) is to provide an
        energy management framework for networked devices.  This
        document presents the applicability of the EMAN framework for a
        variety of scenarios.  This document lists use cases and target
        devices that can potentially implement the EMAN framework and
        associated SNMP MIB modules.  These use cases are useful for
        identifying requirements for the framework.  Further, we
        describe the relationship of the EMAN framework to relevant
        other energy monitoring standards and architectures.
     Status of this Memo
        This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance
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        The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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        This Internet-Draft will expire on December 18, 2012.
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     Table of Contents
      1. Introduction ...............................................3
        1.1. Energy Management Overview .............................4
        1.2. EMAN WG Document Overview ..............................4
        1.3. Energy Measurement .....................................5
        1.4. Energy Management ......................................5
        1.5. EMAN Framework Application .............................6
      2. Scenarios and Target Devices ...............................7
        2.1. Network Infrastructure Energy Objects ..................7
        2.2. Devices Powered by and Connected to a Network Device ...8
        2.3. Devices Connected to a Network .........................9
        2.4. Power Meters ..........................................10
        2.5. Mid-level Managers ....................................11
        2.6. Gateways to Building Systems ..........................11
        2.7. Home Energy Gateways ..................................12
        2.8. Data Center Devices ...................................13
        2.9. Energy Storage Devices ................................14
        2.10. Industrial Automation Networks .......................15
        2.11. Printers .............................................15
        2.12. Off-Grid Devices .....................................16
        2.13. Demand/Response ......................................17
        2.14. Power Capping ........................................18
      3. Use Case Patterns .........................................18
        3.1. Metering ..............................................18
        3.2. Metering and Control ..................................18
        3.3. Power Supply, Metering and Control ....................18
        3.4. Multiple Power Sources ................................19
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      4. Relationship of EMAN to other Standards ...................19
        4.1. Data Model and Reporting ..............................19
              4.1.1. IEC - CIM......................................19
              4.1.2. DMTF...........................................20
              4.1.3. ODVA...........................................21
              4.1.4. Ecma  SDC......................................21
              4.1.5. IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG)..........22
              4.1.6. ASHRAE.........................................22
              4.1.7. ZigBee.........................................23
        4.2. Measurement ...........................................23
              4.2.1. ANSI C12.......................................23
              4.2.2. IEC62301.......................................24
        4.3. Other .................................................24
              4.3.1. ISO............................................24
              4.3.2. EnergyStar.....................................25
              4.3.3. SmartGrid......................................25
      5. Limitations ...............................................26
      6. Security Considerations ...................................26
      7. IANA Considerations .......................................27
      8. Acknowledgements ..........................................27
      9. Open Issues ...............................................27
      10. References ...............................................27
        10.1. Normative References .................................27
        10.2. Informative References ...............................28
     1. Introduction
        The focus of the Energy Management (EMAN) framework is energy
        monitoring and management of energy objects [EMAN-DEF].  The
        scope of devices considered are network equipment and its
        components, and devices connected directly or indirectly to
        the network. The EMAN framework enables monitoring
        (heterogeneous devices to report their energy consumption)
        and, if permissible, control.  There are multiple scenarios
        where this is desirable, particularly considering the
        increased importance of limiting consumption of finite energy
        resources and reducing operational expenses.
        The EMAN framework [EMAN-FRAMEWORK] describes how energy
        information can be retrieved from IP-enabled devices using
        Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), specifically,
        Management Information Base (MIBs) for SNMP.
        This document describes typical applications of the EMAN
        framework, as well as its opportunities and limitations. Other
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        standards that are similar to EMAN but address different domains
        are described. This document contains references to those other
        standards and describes how they relate to the EMAN framework.
        The rest of the document is organized as follows. Section 2
        contains a list of use cases or network scenarios that EMAN
        shall address. Section 3 contains an abstraction of the use case
        scenarios to distinct patterns. Section 4 deals with the
        standards related to EMAN and applicable to EMAN.
     1.1. Energy Management Overview
        EMAN addresses the electrical energy consumed by devices
        connected to a network. A first step to increase the energy
        efficiency in networks and buildings is to enable energy objects
        to report their energy usage over time. The EMAN framework
        addresses this problem with an information model for some
        electrical equipment: energy object identification, energy
        object context, power measurement and power characteristics.
        The EMAN WG framework defines SNMP MIB modules based on the
        information model.  By implementing the SNMP MIB modules, any
        energy object can report its energy consumption according to the
        information model. In that context, it is important to
        distinguish energy objects that can only report their own energy
        usage from devices that can also collect and aggregate energy
        usage of other energy objects.
        Target devices and scenarios considered for Energy Management
        are presented in Section 2 with detailed examples.
     1.2. EMAN WG Document Overview
        The EMAN working group charter called for producing a series of
        Internet standard drafts in the area of energy management. The
        following drafts were created by the working group.
          Applicability Statement [EMAN-AS] this document presents the
          use cases and scenarios for energy management.  In addition,
          other relevant energy standards and architectures are listed.
          Requirements [EMAN-REQ] this document presents the
          requirements of energy management and the scope of the devices
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          Framework [EMAN-FRAMEWORK] This document defines a framework
          for providing Energy Management for devices within or
          connected to communication networks.
          Energy-Aware MIB [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] This document proposes a MIB
          module that characterizes a device's identity, context and the
          relationship to other entities.
          Monitoring MIB [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB] This document defines a
          MIB module for monitoring the power and energy consumption of
          a device.  The MIB module contains an optional module for
          metrics associated with power characteristics.
          Battery MIB [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] This document contains a MIB
          module for monitoring characteristics of an internal battery.
          Energy Management Terminology [EMAN-DEF] This document lists
          the definitions for the common terms used in the Energy
          Management Working Group.
     1.3. Energy Measurement
        More and more devices are able to measure and report their own
        energy consumption. Smart power strips and some Power over
        Ethernet (PoE) switches can meter consumption of connected
        devices.  However, when managed and reported through proprietary
        means, this information is minimally useful at the enterprise
        The primary goal of the EMAN MIBs is to enable reporting and
        management within a standard framework that is applicable to a
        wide variety of end devices, meters, and proxies. This enables a
        management system to know who's consuming what, when, and how at
        any time by leveraging existing networks, across various
        equipment, in a unified and consistent manner.
        Given that an energy object can consume energy and/or provide
        energy to other devices, there are three types of energy
        measurement: energy input to a device, energy supplied to other
        devices, and net (resultant) energy consumed (the difference
        between energy input and provided).
     1.4. Energy Management
        Beyond energy monitoring, the EMAN framework provides mechanisms
        for energy control.
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        There are many cases where reducing energy consumption of
        devices is desirable, such as when the device utilization is low
        or when the electricity is expensive or in short supply.
        In some cases, energy control requires considering the energy
        object context. For instance, in a building during non-business
        hours: usually not all phones would be turned off to keep some
        phones available in case of emergency; office cooling is usually
        not turned off totally, but the comfort level is reduced.
        Energy object control requires flexibility and support for
        different polices and mechanisms: from centralized management
        with a network management station, to autonomous management by
        individual devices, and alignment with dynamic demand-response
        The EMAN framework can be used as a tool for the demand/response
        scenario where in response to time-of-day fluctuation of energy
        costs or possible energy shortages, it is possible to respond
        and reduce the energy consumption for the network devices,
        effectively changing its power state.
     1.5. EMAN Framework Application
        A Network Management System (NMS) is the entity that requests
        information from compatible devices using SNMP protocol. An NMS
        implements many network management functions, e.g. security
        management, or identity management.  An NMS that deals
        exclusively with energy is called EnMS Energy Management System.
        It may be limited to monitoring energy use, or it may also
        implement control functions. In a typical application of the
        EMAN framework, management software collects energy information
        for devices in the network.
        Energy management can be implemented by extending existing SNMP
        support to the EMAN specific MIBs. SNMP provides an industry
        proven and well-known mechanism to discover, secure, measure,
        and control SNMP-enabled end devices.  The EMAN framework
        provides an information and data model to unify access to a
        large range of devices.
        The scope of the target devices and the network scenarios
        considered for energy management are listed in Section 2.
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     2. Scenarios and Target Devices
        In this section a selection of scenarios for energy management
        are presented. The fundamental objective of the use cases is to
        list important network scenarios that the EMAN framework should
        solve. These use cases then drive the requirements for the EMAN
        Each scenario lists target devices for which the energy
        management framework can be applied, how the reported-on devices
        are powered, and how the reporting is accomplished.  While there
        is some overlap between some of the use cases, the use cases
        serve as illustrative network scenarios EMAN framework supports.
     2.1. Network Infrastructure Energy Objects
        This scenario covers network devices and their components. Power
        management of energy objects is considered as a fundamental
        requirement of energy management of networks.
        It can be important to monitor the energy consumption and
        possibly manage the power state of these devices at a
        granularity level finer than just the entire device. For these
        devices, the chassis draws power from one or more sources and
        feeds all its internal components. It is highly desirable to
        have monitoring available for individual components, such as
        line cards, processors, and hard drives as well as peripherals
        like USB devices.
        As an illustrative example, consider a switch with the following
        grouping of sub-entities for which energy management could be
          .  physical view: chassis (or stack), line cards, service
             modules of the switch.
          .  component view: CPU, ASICs, fans, power supply, ports
             (single port and port groups), storage and memory.
        The ENTITY-MIB provides the containment tree framework, for
        uniquely identifying the physical sub-components of network
        devices. A component can be an Energy Object and the ENTITY-MIB
        containment tree shall express if that Energy Object belongs to
        another Energy Object (e.g. line-card Energy Object contained in
        a chassis Energy Object. The table entPhysicalContainsTable
        which has the index of entPhysicalChildIndex and the MIB object
        entPhysicalContainedIn which points to the containing entity.
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        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices: network devices such as routers, switches
             and their components.
          . How powered: typically by a PDU on a rack or from a wall
             outlet. The components of a device are powered by the
             device chassis.
          . Reporting: direct power measurement can be performed at a
             device level. Components can report their power consumption
             directly or the chassis/device that can report on behalf of
             some components.
     2.2. Devices Powered by and Connected to a Network Device
        This scenario covers Power over Ethernet (PoE) devices. A PoE
        Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) device [RFC3621] (e.g. a PoE
        switch) provides power to a Powered Device (PD) (e.g. a desktop
        phone). For each port, the PSE can control the power supply
        (switching it on and off) and meter actual power provided. PDs
        obtain network connectivity as well as power over a single
        connection so the PSE can determine which device is associated
        with each port.
        PoE ports on a switch are commonly connected to devices such as
        IP phones, wireless access points, and IP cameras. The switch
        needs power for its internal use and to supply power to PoE
        ports. Monitoring the power consumption of the switch (supplying
        device) and the power consumption of the PoE end-points
        (consuming devices) is a simple use case of this scenario.
        It is also possible to illustrate the relationships between
        entities. The PoE IP phone is powered by the switch. If there
        are many IP phones connected to the same switch and the power
        consumption of all the IP phones can be aggregated by the
        switch. In that case, the switch performs the aggregation
        function for other entities.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices: power over Ethernet devices such as IP
             phones, wireless access points, and IP cameras.
          . How powered: PoE devices are connected to the switch port
             which supplies power to those devices.
          . Reporting:  PoE device power consumption is measured and
             reported by the switch (PSE) which supplies power. In
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             addition, some devices can have support for the EMAN
        This use case can be subdivided into two sub cases:
        a) The end device supports the EMAN framework, in which case
           this device is an EMAN Energy Object by itself, with its own
           UUID, like in scenario "Devices Connected to a Network"
           below. The device is responsible for its own power reporting
           and control.
        b) The end device does not have EMAN capabilities, and the
           power measurement may not be able to be performed
           independently, and so is only performed by the supplying
           device. This scenario is similar to the "Mid-level Manager"
        In the sub case (a) note that two power usage reporting for the
        same device are available: one performed by the PD itself and
        one performed by the PSE. Device specific implementations will
        dictate which one if the most accurate.
        It is also possible to illustrate the relationships between
        entities. The PoE IP phone is powered by the switch. If there
        are many IP phones connected to the same switch and the power
        consumption of all the IP phones can be aggregated by the
        switch. In that case, the switch performs the aggregation
        function for other entities.
     2.3. Devices Connected to a Network
        The use case covers the metering relationship between an energy
        object and the parent energy object it is connected to, while
        receiving power from an external source such as a power brick.
        An example is a PC which has a network connection to a switch,
        but draws power from a wall outlet. In this case, the PC can
        report power usage by itself, ideally through the EMAN
        The wall outlet the PC is plugged in can be metered for example
        by a Smart PDU, or unmetered.
        a) If metered, the PC has a powered-by relationship to the Smart
        PDU, and the Smart PDU will act as a "Mid-Level Manager"
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        b) If unmetered - or running on batteries - the PC will report
        its own energy usage as any other Energy Object to the switch,
        and the switch can possibly provide aggregation.
        Note that a) and b) are not mutually exclusive.
        In terms of relationships between entities, the PC has a powered
        by relationship to the PDU and if the power consumption of the
        PC is metered by the PDU then there is a metered by relation
        between the PC and the PDU.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices:  Energy objects that have a network
             connection, but receive power supply from another source.
          . How powered:  Children (e.g.: PCs)receive power supply from
             the wall outlet (unmetered), or a PDU (metered). That can
             also be powered autonomously (batteries).
          . Reporting: Devices can measure and report the power
             consumption directly via the EMAN framework, or,
             communicate it to the network device (switch) and the
             switch can report the device's power consumption via the
             EMAN framework.
     2.4. Power Meters
        Some electrical devices are not equipped with instrumentation to
        measure their own power and accumulated energy consumption.
        External meters can be used to measure the power consumption of
        such electrical devices as well as collections of devices.
        This use case covers the proxy relationship of energy objects
        able to measure or report the power consumption of external
        electrical devices, not natively connected to the network.
        Examples of such metering devices are smart PDUs and smart
        Three types of external metering are relevant to EMAN: PDUs,
        standalone meters, and utility meters.  External meters can
        measure consumption of a single device or a set of devices.
        Power Distribution Unit (PDUs) have inbuilt meters for each
        socket and so can measure the power supplied to each device in
        an equipment rack. The PDUs have remote management functionality
        which can measure and possibly control the power supply of each
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        Standalone meters can be placed anywhere in a power distribution
        tree are allocated to specific devices.
        Utility meters monitor and report accumulated power consumption
        of the entire building. There can be sub-meters to measure the
        power consumption of a portion of the building.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices:  PDUs and meters.
          . How powered:  From traditional mains power but as passed
             through a PDU or meter.
          . Reporting: The PDUs reports power consumption of downstream
             devices, usually a single device per outlet.
        The meters can have a metering relationship and possibly
        aggregation relationship between the meters and the devices for
        which power consumption is accumulated and reported by the
     2.5. Mid-level Managers
        This use case covers aggregation of energy management data at
        "mid-level managers" that can provide energy management
        functions for themselves as well as associated devices.
        A switch can provide energy management functions for all devices
        connected to its ports, whether or not these devices are powered
        by the switch or whether the switch provides immediate network
        connectivity to the devices; such a switch is a mid-level
        manager, offering aggregation of power consumption data for
        other devices.  Devices report their EMAN data to the switch and
        the switch aggregates the data for further reporting.
        The essential properties of this use case:
          . Target devices: Devices which can perform aggregation;
             commonly a switch or a proxy
          . How powered:  Mid-level managers can be are commonly
             powered by a PDU or from a wall outlet and can be powered
             by any method.
          . Reporting:  The middle-manager aggregates the energy data
             and reports that data to a NMS or higher mid-level manager.
     2.6. Gateways to Building Systems
        This use case describes energy management of buildings. Building
        Management Systems (BMS) have been in place for many years using
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        legacy protocols not based on IP. In these buildings, a gateway
        can provide a proxy relationship between IP and legacy building
        automation protocols. The gateway can provide an interface
        between the EMAN framework and relevant building management
        Due to the potential energy savings, energy management of
        buildings has received significant attention. There are gateway
        network elements to manage the multiple components of a building
        energy management system such as Heating, Ventilation, and Air
        Conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical, fire and emergency
        systems, elevators, etc. The gateway device uses legacy building
        protocols to communicate with those devices, collects their
        energy usage, and reports the results.
        The gateway performs protocol conversion and communicates via
        RS-232/RS-485 interfaces, Ethernet interfaces, and protocols
        specific to building management such as BACNET [ASHRAE], MODBUS
        [MODBUS-Protocol], or Zigbee [ZIGBEE].
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices: Building energy management devices - HVAC
             systems, lighting, electrical, fire and emergency systems.
          . How powered: Any method.
          . Reporting: The gateway collects energy consumption of non-
             IP systems and communicates the data via the EMAN
     2.7. Home Energy Gateways
        This use case describes the scenario of energy management of a
        home. The home energy gateway is another example of a proxy that
        interfaces to the electrical appliances and other devices in a
        home. This gateway can monitor and manage electrical equipment
        (refrigerator, heating/cooling, washing machine etc.) using one
        of the many protocols that are being developed for the home area
        network products.
        In its simplest form, metering can be performed at home. Beyond
        the metering, it is also possible to implement energy saving
        policies based on energy pricing from the utility grid. The EMAN
        information model can be applied to the protocols under
        consideration for energy management of a home.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
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          . Target devices: Home energy gateway and smart meters in a
          . How powered:  Any method.
          . Reporting: Home energy gateway can collect power
             consumption of device in a home and possibly report the
             metering reading to the utility.
        Beyond the canonical setting of a home drawing power from the
        utility, it is also possible to envision an energy neutral
        situation wherein the buildings/homes that can produce and
        consume energy with reduced or zero net importing energy from
        the utility grid. There are many energy production technologies
        such as solar panels, wind turbines, or micro generators. This
        use case illustrates the concept of covers self-contained energy
        generation and consumption and possibly the aggregation of the
        energy use of homes.
       2.8. Data Center Devices
        This use case describes energy management of a data center.
        Energy efficiency of data centers has become a fundamental
        challenge of data center operation, as datacenters are big
        energy consumers and have expensive infrastructure. The
        equipment generates heat, and heat needs to be evacuated though
        a HVAC system.
        A typical data center network consists of a hierarchy of
        electrical energy objects.  At the bottom of the network
        hierarchy are servers mounted on a rack; these are connected to
        top-of-the-rack switches, which in turn are connected to
        aggregation switches, and then to core switches.  Power
        consumption of all network elements, servers, and network
        storage devices in the data center should be measured. Energy
        management can be implemented on different aggregation levels,
        at the network level, Power Distribution Unit (PDU) level, and
        server level.
        Beyond the network devices, storage devices and servers, data
        centers contain UPSs to provide back-up power for the network,
        storage devices in the event in the event of a power outage.  A
        UPS can provide backup power for many devices in a data center
        for a finite period of time. Energy monitoring of such energy
        storage devices is vital from a data center network operations
        point of view. Presently, the UPS MIB can be useful in
        monitoring the battery capacity, the input load to the UPS and
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        the output load from the UPS. Currently, there is no link
        between the UPS MIB and the ENTITY MIB.
        Thus from a Data center energy management point of view, in
        addition, to monitoring the energy usage of network devices, it
        is also important to monitor the remaining capacity of the UPS.
        In addition to monitoring the power consumption of a data
        center, additional power characteristic metrics should be
        monitored. Some of these are dynamic variations in the input
        power supply from the grid referred to as power characteristics
        is one metric. Secondly, how the devices utilize the power in
        terms of efficiency can be useful to monitor these metrics.
        Lastly, the nameplate power consumption (the worst case possible
        power draw) of all devices will make it possible to know an
        aggregate of the potential worst-case power usage and compare it
        to the budgeted power in the data center.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices: All IT devices in a data center, such as
             network equipment, servers, and storage devices, as well as
             power and cooling infrastructure.
          . How powered: Any method but commonly by one or more PDUs.
          . Reporting: Devices may report on their own behalf, or for
             other connected devices as described in other use cases.
     2.9. Energy Storage Devices
        There are two types of devices with energy storage: those whose
        primary function is to provide power to another device (e.g. a
        UPS), and those with a different primary function, but have an
        energy storage as a component as an alternate internal power
        source (e.g. a notebook).  This use case covers both types of
        The energy storage can be a conventional battery, or any other
        means to store electricity such as a hydrogen cell.
        An internal battery can be a back-up or an alternative source of
        power to mains power. As batteries have a finite capacity and
        lifetime, means for reporting the actual charge, age, and state
        of a battery are required. An internal battery can be viewed as
        a component of a device and thus could have the containment
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        relationship from an ENTITY-MIB perspective to the device that
        contains the battery
        Battery systems are used in mobile telecom towers including for
        use in remote locations. It is important to monitor the
        remaining battery life and raise an alarm when the battery life
        is below a threshold.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices: Devices that have an internal battery
          . How powered: From internal batteries or mains power
          . Reporting:  The device reports on its internal battery
     2.10. Industrial Automation Networks
        Energy consumption statistics in the industrial sector are
        staggering. The industrial sector alone consumes about half of
        the world's total delivered energy, and a significant user of
        electricity. Thus, the need for optimization of energy usage in
        this sector is natural.
        Industrial facilities consume energy in process loads, and in
        non-process loads.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices: Devices used in industrial automation
          . How powered: Any method.
          . Reporting: Currently, CIP protocol is currently used for
             reporting energy for these devices
     2.11. Printers
        This use case describes the scenario of energy monitoring and
        management of printers.
        Printers in this use case stand in for all imaging equipment,
        also including multi-function devices (MFDs), copiers, scanners,
        fax machines, and mailing machines.
        Energy use of printers has been an industry concern for several
        decades, and they usually have sophisticated power management
        with a variety of low-power modes, particularly for managing
        energy-intensive thermo-mechanical components. Printers also
        have long made extensive use of SNMP for end-user system
        interaction and for management generally, and cross-vendor
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        management systems manage fleets of printers in enterprises.
        Power consumption during active modes can vary widely, with high
        peak levels.
        Printers can expose detailed power state information, distinct
        from operational state information, with some printers reporting
        transition states between stable long-term states.  Many also
        support active setting of power states, and setting of policies
        such as delay times when no activity will cause automatic
        transition to a lower power mode.  Other features include
        reporting on components, counters for state transitions, typical
        power levels by state, scheduling, and events/alarms.
        Some large printers also have a "Digital Front End" which is a
        computer that performs functions on behalf of the physical
        imaging system.  These typically have their own presence on the
        network and are sometimes separately powered.
        There are some unique characteristics of printers from the point
        of view energy management. While the printer is not in use,
        there are timer based low power states, which consume very
        little power. On the other hand, while the printer is printing
        or copying the cylinder needs to be heated so that power
        consumption is quite high but only for a short period of time
        (duration of the print job). Given this work load, periodic
        polling of power levels alone would not suffice.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          . Target devices: All imaging equipment.
          . How powered: Typically AC from a wall outlet.
          . Reporting: Devices report for themselves by implementing
     2.12. Off-Grid Devices
        This use case concerns self-contained devices that use energy
        but are not connected to an infrastructure power delivery grid.
        These devices typically scavenge energy from environmental
        sources such as solar energy or wind power. The device generally
        contains a closely coupled combination of
          . power scavenging or generation component(s)
          . power storage component(s) (e.g., battery)
          . power consuming component(s)
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        With scavenged power, the energy input is often dependent on the
        random variations of the weather. These devices therefore
        require energy management both for internal control and remote
        reporting of their state. In order to optimize the performance
        of these devices and minimize the costs of the generation and
        storage components, it is desirable to vary the activity level,
        and, hopefully, the energy requirements of the consuming
        components in order to make best use of the available stored and
        instantaneously generated energy.  With appropriate energy
        management, the overall device can be optimized to deliver an
        appropriate level of service without over provisioning the
        generation and storage components.
        In many cases these devices are expected to operate
        autonomously, as continuous communications for the purposes of
        remote control is either impossible or would result in excessive
        power consumption.  Non continuous polling requires the ability
        to store and access later the information collected while the
        communication was not possible.
        The essential properties of this use case are:
          Target Devices:  Remote network devices (mobile network) that
          consume and produce energy
          How Powered: Can be battery powered or using natural energy
          Reporting: Devices report their power usage but only
     2.13. Demand/Response
        Demand/Response from the utility or grid is a common theme that
        spans across some of the use cases. In some situations, in
        response to time-of-day fluctuation of energy costs or sudden
        energy shortages due power outages, it may be important to
        respond and reduce the energy consumption of the network.
        From EMAN use case perspective, the demand/response scenario can
        apply to a Data Center or a Building or a residential home. As a
        first step, it may be important to monitor the energy
        consumption in real-time of a Data center, building or home
        which is already discussed in the previous use cases. Then based
        on the potential energy shortfall, the Energy Management System
        (EMS) could formulate a suitable response, i.e., the EMS could
        shut down some selected devices that may be considered
        discretionary or uniformly reduce the power supplied to all
        devices. For multi-site data centers it may be possible to
        formulate policies such as follow-the-moon type of approach, by
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        scheduling the mobility of VMs across Data centers in different
        geographical locations.
     2.14. Power Capping
        Power capping is a technique to limit the total power
        consumption of a server. This technique can be useful for power
        limited data centers. Based on workload measurements, the server
        can choose the optimal power state of the server in terms of
        performance and power consumption. When the server operates at
        less than the power supply capacity, it runs at full speed. When
        the server power would be greater than the power supply
        capacity, it runs at a slower speed so that its power
        consumption matches the available power supply capacity. This
        gives vendors the option to use smaller, cost-effective power
        supplies that allow real world workloads to run at nominal
     3. Use Case Patterns
        The use cases presented above can be abstracted to the following
        broad patterns.
     3.1. Metering
        -energy objects which have capability for internal metering
        - energy objects which are metered by an external device
     3.2. Metering and Control
        - energy objects that do not supply power, but can perform only
        power metering for other devices
        - energy objects that do not supply power, but can perform both
        metering and control for other devices
     3.3. Power Supply, Metering and Control
        - energy objects that supply power for other devices but do not
        perform power metering for those devices
        - energy objects that supply power for other devices and also
        perform power metering
        - energy objects supply power for other devices and also perform
        power metering and control for other devices
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     3.4. Multiple Power Sources
        - energy objects that have multiple power sources and metering
        and control is performed by one source
        - energy objects that have multiple power sources and metering
        is performed by one source and control another source
     4. Relationship of EMAN to other Standards
        EMAN as a framework is tied to other standards and efforts that
        deal with energy. Existing standards are leveraged when
        possible.  EMAN helps enable adjacent technologies such as Smart
        The standards most relevant and applicable to EMAN are listed
        below with a brief description of their objectives, the current
        state and how that standard relates to EMAN.
     4.1. Data Model and Reporting
     4.1.1. IEC - CIM
        The International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) has
        developed a broad set of standards for power management.  Among
        these, the most applicable to EMAN is IEC 61850, a standard for
        the design of electric utility automation.  The abstract data
        model defined in 61850 is built upon and extends the Common
        Information Model (CIM). The complete 61850 CIM model includes
        over a hundred object classes and is widely used by utilities
        This set of standards was originally conceived to automate
        control of a substation (facilities which transfer electricity
        from the transmission to the distribution system). While the
        original domain of 61850 is substation automation, the extensive
        data model has been widely used in other domains, including
        Energy Management Systems (EMS).
        IEC TC57 WG19 is an ongoing working group to harmonize the CIM
        data model and 61850 standards.
        Concepts from IEC Standards have been reused in the EMAN WG
        drafts. In particular, AC Power Quality measurements have been
        reused from IEC 61850-7-4. The concept of Accuracy Classes for
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        measure of power and energy has been adapted from ANSI C12.20
        and IEC standards 62053-21 and 62053-22.
     4.1.2. DMTF
        The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)[DMTF] has
        standardized management solutions for managing servers and PCs,
        including power-state configuration and management of elements
        in a heterogeneous environment.  These specifications provide
        physical, logical and virtual system management requirements for
        power-state control.
        The EMAN Framework references the DMTF Power Profile and Power
        State Set.
  Common Information Model Profiles
        The DMTF uses CIM-based (Common Information Model) 'Profiles' to
        represent and manage power utilization and configuration of
        managed elements (note that this is not the 61850 CIM).  Key
        profiles for energy management are 'Power Supply' (DSP 1015),
        'Power State' (DSP 1027) and 'Power Utilization Management' (DSP
        1085).These profiles define monitoring and configuration of a
        Power Managed Element's static and dynamic power saving modes,
        power allocation limits and power states, among other features.
        Reduced power modes can be established as static or dynamic.
        Static modes are fixed policies that limit power use or
        utilization. Dynamic power saving modes rely upon internal
        feedback to control power consumption.
        Power states are eight named operational and non operational
        levels.  These are On, Sleep-Light, Sleep-Deep, Hibernate, Off-
        Soft, and Off-Hard.  Power change capabilities provide
        immediate, timed interval, and graceful transitions between on,
        off, and reset power states.  Table 3 of the Power State Profile
        defines the correspondence between the ACPI and DMTF power state
        models, although it is not necessary for a managed element to
        support ACPI. Optionally, a TransitingToPowerState property can
        represent power state transitions in progress.
        DMTF DASH [DASH] (Desktop And Mobile Architecture for System
        Hardware) addresses managing heterogeneous desktop and mobile
        systems (including power) via in-band and out-of-band
        communications.  DASH provides management and control of managed
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        elements like power, CPU, etc. using the DMTF's WS-Management
        web services and CIM data model.
        Both in service and out-of-service systems can be managed with
        the DASH specification in a fully secured remote environment.
        Full power lifecycle management is possible using out-of-band
     4.1.3. ODVA
        The Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA) is an association
        for industrial automation companies and defines the Common
        Industrial Protocol (CIP). Within ODVA, there is a special
        interest group focused on energy.
        The Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA) is developing an
        energy management framework for the industrial sector.  There
        are synergies between the ODVA and EMAN approaches to energy
        There are many similar concepts between the ODVA and EMAN
        frameworks towards monitoring and management of energy aware
        devices. In particular, one of the concepts being considered
        different energy meters based on if the device consumes
        electricity or produces electricity or a passive device.
        ODVA defines a three-part approach towards energy management:
        awareness of energy usage, consuming energy more efficiently,
        and exchanging energy with the utility or others. Energy
        monitoring and management promote efficient consumption and
        enable automating actions that reduce energy consumption.
        The foundation of the approach is the information and
        communication model for entities. An entity is a network-
        connected, energy-aware device that has the ability to either
        measure or derive its energy usage based on its native
        consumption or generation of energy, or report a nominal or
        static energy value.
     4.1.4. Ecma  SDC
        The Ecma International committee on Smart Data Centre (TC38-TG2
        SDC [Ecma-SDC]) is in the process of defining semantics for
        management of entities in a data center such as servers,
        storage, and network equipment.  It covers energy as one of many
        functional resources or attributes of systems for monitoring and
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        control. It only defines messages and properties, and does not
        reference any specific protocol. Its goal is to enable
        interoperability of such protocols as SNMP, BACNET, and HTTP by
        ensuring a common semantic model across them. Four power states
        are defined, Off, Sleep, Idle and Active. The standard does not
        include actual energy or power measurements in kWor kWh.
        The 14th draft of SDC process was published in March 2011 and
        the development of the standard is still underway. When used
        with EMAN, the SDC standard will provide a thin abstraction on
        top of the more detailed data model available in EMAN.
     4.1.5. IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG)
        The IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG) defines SNMP MIB
        modules for printer management and has recently defined a "PWG
        Power Management Model for Imaging Systems v1.0" [PWG5106.4] and
        a companion SNMP binding in the "PWG Imaging System Power MIB
        v1.0" [PWG5106.5].  This PWG model and MIB are harmonized with
        the DMTF CIM Infrastructure [DSP0004] and DMTF CIM Power State
        Management Profile [DSP1027] for power states and alerts.
        The PWG would like its MIBs to be harmonized as closely as
        possible with those from EMAN.  The PWG covers many topics in
        greater detail than EMAN, as well as some that are specific to
        imaging equipment.  The PWG also provides for vendor-specific
        extension states (i.e., beyond the standard DMTF CIM states.)
     4.1.6. ASHRAE
        In the U.S., there is an extensive effort to coordinate and
        develop standards related to the "Smart Grid".  The Smart Grid
        Interoperability Panel, coordinated by the government's National
        Institute of Standards and Technology, identified the need for a
        building side information model (as a counterpart to utility
        models) and specified this in Priority Action Plan (PAP) 17.
        This was designated to be a joint effort by American Society of
        Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
        and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), both
        ANSI approved SDO's.  The result is to be an information model,
        not a device level monitoring protocol.
        The ASHRAE effort addresses data used only within a building as
        well as data that may be shared with the grid, particularly as
        it relates to coordinating future demand levels with the needs
        of the grid.  The model is intended to be applied to any
        building type, both residential and commercial.  It is expected
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        that existing protocols will be adapted to comply with the new
        information model, as would any new protocols.
        There are four basic types of entities in the model: generators,
        loads, meters, and energy managers.
        The metering part of this model overlaps with the EMAN framework
        to a large degree, though there are features unique to each.
        The load part speaks to control capabilities well beyond what
        EMAN covers.  Details of generation and of the energy management
        function are outside of EMAN scope.
        A public review draft of the ASHRAE standard is expected soon,
        and at that point detailed comparison of the two models can be
        made.  There are no apparent major conflicts between the two
        approaches, but there are likely areas where some harmonization
        is possible, and regardless, a description of the
        correspondences would be helpful to create.
     4.1.7. ZigBee
        The Zigbee Smart Energy 2.0 effort[ZIGBEE] focuses on wireless
        communication to appliances and lighting.  Zigbee 1.x is not
        based on IP, whereas Zigbee 2.0 is supposed to interoperate with
        IP. It is intended to enable building energy management and
        enable direct load control by utilities.
        ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications
        requiring low data rates and low power consumption. ZigBee
        defines a general-purpose, inexpensive, self-organizing mesh
        network that can be used for industrial control, embedded
        sensing, medical data collection, smoke and intruder warning,
        building automation, home automation, etc.
        Zigbee is currently not an ANSI recognized SDO.
        The EMAN framework addresses the needs of IP-enabled networks
        through the usage of SNMP, while Zigbee looks for completely
        integrated and inexpensive mesh solution.
     4.2. Measurement
     4.2.1. ANSI C12
        The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has defined a
        collection of power meter standards under ANSI C12.  The primary
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        standards include communication protocols (C12.18, 21 and 22),
        data and schema definitions (C12.19), and measurement accuracy
        (C12.20). European equivalent standards are provided by IEC
        62053-22.ANSI C12.20 defines accuracy classes for watt-hour
        All of these standards are oriented toward the meter itself, and
        are therefore very specific and used by electricity distributors
        and producers.
        The EMAN standard references ANSI C12 accuracy classes.
     4.2.2. IEC
        IEC 62301, "Household electrical appliances Measurement of
        standby power", [IEC62301] specifies a power level measurement
        procedure. While nominally for appliances and low-power modes,
        many aspects of it apply to other device types and modes and it
        is commonly referenced in test procedures for energy using
        While the standard is intended for laboratory measurements of
        devices in controlled conditions, many aspects of it are
        informative to those implementing measurement in products that
        ultimately report via EMAN.
     4.3. Other
     4.3.1. ISO
        The ISO [ISO] is developing an energy management standard, ISO
        50001, to complement ISO 9001 for quality management, and ISO
        14001 for environment management. The intent of the framework is
        to facilitate the creation of energy management programs for
        industrial, commercial and other entities.  The standard defines
        a process for energy management at an organization level.  It
        does not define the way in which devices report energy and
        consume energy.
        ISO 50001 is based on the common elements found in all of ISO's
        management system standards, assuring a high level of
        compatibility with ISO 9001 (quality management) and ISO 14001
        (environmental management). ISO 50001 benefits includes:
       o Integrating energy efficiency into management practices and
          throughout the supply chain
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       o Energy management best practices and good energy management
       o benchmarking, measuring, documenting, and reporting energy
          intensity improvements and their projected impact on
          reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
       o Evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-
          efficient technologies
        ISO 50001 has been developed by ISO project committee ISO/PC
        242, Energy management. EMAN is complementary to ISO 9001.
     4.3.2. EnergyStar
        The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department
        of Energy (DOE) jointly sponsor the Energy Star program [ESTAR].
        The program promotes the development of energy efficient
        products and practices.
        To qualify as Energy Star, products must meet specific energy
        efficiency targets. The Energy Star program also provides
        planning tools and technical documentation to encourage more
        energy efficient building design. Energy Star is a program; it
        is not a protocol or standard.
        For businesses and data centers, Energy Star offers technical
        support to help companies establish energy conservation
        practices.  Energy Star provides best practices for measuring
        current energy performance, goal setting, and tracking
        improvement.  The Energy Star tools offered include a rating
        system for building performance and comparative benchmarks.
        There is no immediate link between EMAN and EnergyStar, one
        being a protocol and the other a set of recommendations to
        develop energy efficient products.  However, Energy Star could
        include EMAN standards in specifications for future products,
        either as required or rewarded with some benefit.
     4.3.3. SmartGrid
        The Smart Grid standards efforts underway in the United States
        are overseen by the US National Institute of Standards and
        Technology [NIST].NIST is responsible for coordinating a public-
        private partnership with key energy and consumer stakeholders in
        order to facilitate the development of smart grid standards. The
        NIST smart grid standards activities are monitored and
        facilitated by the SGIP (Smart Grid Interoperability Panel).
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        This group has working groups for specific topics including
        homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities as they
        relate to the grid.  A stated goal of the group is to harmonize
        any new standard with the IEC CIM and IEC 61850.
        When a working group detects a standard or technology gap, the
        team seeks approval from the SGIP for the creation of a Priority
        Action Plan (PAP), a private-public partnership to close the
        gap.  There are currently 17 PAPs.  PAP 17 is discussed in
        section 4.1.6.
        PAP 10 addresses "Standard Energy Usage Information".
        Smart Grid standards will provide distributed intelligence in
        the network and allow enhanced load shedding. For example,
        pricing signals will enable selective shutdown of non critical
        activities during peak-load pricing periods.  These actions can
        be effected through both centralized and distributed management
        There is an obvious functional link between SmartGrid and EMAN
        in the form of demand response, even if the EMAN framework does
        not take any specific step toward SmartGrid communication.  As
        EMAN framework enables control, it can be used to realize power
        savings in the demand response through translation of a signal
        from an outside entity.
     5. Limitations
        EMAN Framework addresses the needs of energy monitoring in terms
        of measurement and, considers limited control capabilities of
        energy monitoring of networks.
        EMAN does not create a new protocol stack, but rather defines a
        data and information model useful for measuring and reporting
        energy and other metrics over SNMP.
        The EMAN framework does not address questions regarding
        SmartGrid, electricity producers, and distributors even if there
        is obvious link between them.
     6. Security Considerations
        EMAN shall use SNMP protocol for energy management and thus has
        the functionality of SNMP's security capabilities. SNMPv3
        [RFC3411] provides important security features such as
        confidentiality, integrity, and authentication.
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     7. IANA Considerations
        This memo includes no request to IANA.
     8. Acknowledgements
        Firstly, the authors would like thank Emmanuel Tychon for taking
        the lead for this draft and his contributions towards to this
        The authors would like to thank Jeff Wheeler, Benoit Claise,
        Juergen Quittek, Chris Verges, John Parello, and Matt Laherty,
        for their valuable contributions.
        The authors would like to thank Georgios Karagiannis for use
        case involving energy neutral homes, Elwyn Davies for off-grid
        electricity systems, and Kerry Lynn for the comment on the
        Demand/Response scenario.
     9. Open Issues
        OPEN ISSUE 1: Should review ASHRAE SPC 201P standard when it is
        released for public review
          . Need to review ASHRAE information model and the use cases
             and how it relates to EMAN
        OPEN ISSUE 2: Should the Applicability Statement cover concepts
        that are only developed to implement the requirements in the
        framework, or only cover concepts that already are well-defined?
     10. References
     10.1. Normative References
        [RFC3411] An Architecture for Describing Simple Network
                Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks, RFC
                3411, December 2002.
        [RFC3621] Power Ethernet MIB, RFC 3621, December 2003.
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     10.2. Informative References
        [DASH] "Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware",
        [Ecma-SDC] Ecma TC38 / SDC Task Group, "Smart Data Centre
                Resource Monitoring and Control (DRAFT)", March 2011.
        [EMAN-AS] Tychon, E., B. Schoening, Mouli Chandramouli, Bruce
                Nordman, "Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability
                Statement", draft-ietf-eman-applicability-statement-
                00.txt, December 2011.
        [EMAN-REQ] Quittek, J., Winter, R., Dietz, T., Claise, B., and
                M. Chandramouli, "Requirements for Energy Management ",
                draft-ietf-eman-requirements-06 (work in progress),
                March 2012.
        [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB] M. Chandramouli, Schoening, B., Dietz, T.,
                Quittek, J. and B. Claise  "Energy and Power Monitoring
                MIB ", draft-ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-mib-02,
                March 2012.
        [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] J. Parello, and B. Claise, "draft-ietf-eman-
                energy-aware-mib-05", work in progress, March 2012.
        [EMAN-FRAMEWORK] Claise, B., Parello, J., Schoening, B., J.
                Quittek and B. Nordman, "Energy Management Framework",
                draft-ietf-eman-framework-04, March 2012.
        [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] Quittek, J., Winter, R., and T. Dietz,
                "Definition of Managed Objects for Battery Monitoring"
                draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-05.txt,  March 2012..
        [EMAN-DEF] J. Parello "Energy Management Terminology", draft-
                parello-eman-definitions-05, Work in progress, March
        [DMTF] "Power State Management ProfileDMTFDSP1027  Version 2.0"
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        [DSP0004] DMTF Common Information Model (CIM) Infrastructure,
                DSP0004, May 2009.
        [DSP1027] DMTF Power State Management Profile, DSP1027, December
        [PWG5106.4] IEEE-ISTO PWG Power Management Model for Imaging
                Systems v1.0, PWG Candidate Standard 5106.4-2011,
                February 2011.
        [PWG5106.5] IEEE-ISTO PWG Imaging System Power MIB v1.0, PWG
                Candidate Standard 5106.5-2011, February 2011.
        [IEC62301] International Electrotechnical Commission, "IEC 62301
                Household electrical appliances  Measurement of standby
                power", Edition 2.0, 2011.
        [MODBUS-Protocol] Modbus-IDA, "MODBUS Application Protocol
                Specification V1.1b", December 2006.
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     Authors' Addresses
        Brad Schoening
        44 Rivers Edge Drive
        Little Silver, NJ 07739
        Mouli Chandramouli
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        Sarjapur Outer Ring Road
        Phone: +91 80 4426 3947
        Bruce Nordman
        Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
        1 Cyclotron Road, 90-4000
        Berkeley  94720-8136
        Phone: +1 510 486 7089
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