Network Working Group                                   Y. Ohba (Editor)
Internet-Draft                                                   Toshiba
Expires: December 6, 2008                                   June 4, 2008

                EAP Pre-authentication Problem Statement

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   EAP pre-authentication is defined as the use of EAP to pre-establish
   EAP keying material on a target authenticator prior to arrival of the
   peer at the access network managed by that authenticator.  This draft
   discusses EAP pre-authentication problems in details.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Specification of Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Problem Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Usage Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  Direct Pre-authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2.  Indirect Pre-authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Architectural Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.1.  Authenticator Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.2.  Context Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  AAA Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   9.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   10. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 18

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1.  Introduction

   When a mobile device during an active communication session moves
   from one access network to another access network and changes its
   point of attachment it is subjected to disruption in the continuity
   of service because of the associated handover operation.  The
   performance requirement of a real-time application will vary based on
   the type of application and its characteristics such as delay
   tolerance and loss tolerance limit.  ITU-T G.114 [ITU] recommends 150
   ms as the upper limit for VoIP applications and 400 ms as generally
   unacceptable delay.  Similarly, a streaming application has the
   tolerable packet (SDU) error rates ranging from 0.1 to 0.00001 and
   the transfer delay of less than 300 ms.  Thus, any optimized handoff
   mechanism will need to take care of these factors into consideration
   in order to be able to support a heterogeneous handover that is
   agnostic to link-layer technologies.

   As a mobile device goes through a handover process, it is subjected
   to delay because of the rebinding of its association at several
   layers of the protocol stack.  Delays incurred within each of these
   layers affect the ongoing multimedia application and data traffic
   within the client [WCM].

   Handover often requires authentication and authorization for
   acquisition or modification of resources assigned to a mobile device
   and the authentication and authorization needs interaction with a
   central authority in a domain in most cases.  In some cases the
   central authority may be placed far away from the mobile device.  The
   delay introduced due to such an authentication and authorization
   procedure adds to the handover latency and consequently affects
   ongoing application sessions [MQ7].  We focus our discussion
   highlighting the factors that affect the performance due to network
   access authentication and authorization where EAP [RFC3748] is used
   for network access authentication.

   This draft discusses EAP pre-authentication problems in details where
   EAP pre-authentication is defined as the utilization of EAP to pre-
   establish EAP keying material on an EAP authenticator prior to
   arrival of the mobile device that acts as an EAP peer, at the access
   network served by that authenticator.

1.1.  Specification of Requirements

   In this document, several words are used to signify the requirements
   of the specification.  These words are often capitalized.  The key
   "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document
   are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

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2.  Terminology


      The end of the link that responds to the authenticator [RFC3748].

   EAP Authenticator

      The end of the link initiating EAP authentication.  [RFC3748].

   EAP Server

      The entity that terminates the EAP authentication method with the
      peer [RFC3748].

   Serving Authenticator

      An authenticator that is currently serving the peer.

   Target Authenticator

      An authenticator that has been chosen to be the new serving
      authenticator for a peer.

   Candidate Authenticator

      An authenticator that can potentially become the target
      authenticator for a peer.  There can be multiple candidate
      authenticators for the peer.

   Master Session Key (MSK)

      Keying material that is derived between the peer and EAP server
      and exported by an EAP authentication method.

   Access Point (AP)

      A network point of attachment in IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN

   Basic Service Set (BSS)

      The basic building block of an IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN [802.11].
      The BSS consists of a group of any number of 802.11 stations.

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   Extended Service Set (ESS)

      A set of infrastructure BSSs in IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN [802.11],
      where the access points communicate amongst themselves to forward
      traffic from one BSS to another to facilitate movement of stations
      between BSSs.

   Access Domain

      A set of access networks of a specific link layer technology among
      which a peer is allowed to change its network points of attachment
      without changing its serving authenticator.  An IEEE 802.11r
      mobility domain [802.11r] is an access domain.

   Inter-Access-Domain Handover

      A handover across multiple access domains.

   Inter-ESS Handover

      An 802.11 handover across multiple ESSs.

   Intra-AAA-Domain Handover (Intra-Domain Handover)

      A handover within the same AAA domain.

   Inter-AAA-Domain Handover (Inter-Domain Handover)

      A handover across multiple AAA domains.

   Intra-Technology Handover

      A handover within the same link layer technology.

   Inter-Technology Handover

      A handover across different link layer technologies.

   Inter-Authenticator Handover

      A handover across multiple authenticators.  An inter-authenticator
      handover includes an inter-access-domain handover, an inter-ESS
      handover, an inter-AAA-domain handover, an inter-technology
      handover, and any possible combination of them.

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   ERP (EAP Extensions for EAP Re-authentication Protocol)

      Extensions to EAP and EAP keying hierarchy to support an EAP
      method-independent protocol for efficient re-authentication
      between the peer and an EAP re-authentication server defined in

3.  Problem Statement

   Basic mechanism of handover is a three-step procedure involving i)
   discovery of candidate network points of attachment and their
   authenticators, ii) network selection procedure to determine the
   appropriate candidate network point of attachment and iii) handover
   or setting up L2 and L3 connectivity to the target network point of
   attachment.  Currently, network access authentication and
   authorization are performed as part of the third step directly with
   the target network.  For example, in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs
   [802.11], the network access authentication and authorization
   involves performing a new IEEE 802.1X message exchange with the
   authenticator in the target AP to initiate an EAP exchange to the
   authentication server [WPA].  Following a successful EAP
   authentication, a secure association procedure is performed between
   the peer and the target authenticator to derive a new set of link-
   layer ciphering keys from EAP keying material such as MSK.  The third
   step may require full EAP authentication in the absence of any
   particular optimization for handover key management.  The handover
   latency introduced by full EAP authentication has proven to be larger
   than that is acceptable for real-time applications scenarios as
   described in [MQ7].  Hence, improvement in the handover latency
   performance due to EAP is a necessary objective for such scenarios.

   There is relevant work undertaken by various standards organizations,
   but these efforts are scoped to a specific link layer technology.
   IEEE 802.11F [802.11f], a trial use document has defined context
   transfer and caching mechanism to transfer some IEEE 802.11 keying
   material between the neighboring APs.  However, it has been
   administratively withdrawn since 2006.  IEEE 802.11 [802.11] defines
   a pre-authentication mechanism for use in 802.11 wireless networks.
   This mechanism allows peers to pre-authenticate to one or more
   candidate authenticators over the wired medium, by way of the serving
   authenticator.  IEEE 802.11r [802.11r] defines Fast BSS transition
   mechanisms involving a definition of key management hierarchy and
   setup of session keys before the re-association to the target AP in
   the same 802.11r mobility domain.  These mechanisms, as indicated
   before, are defined for IEEE 802.11 technologies and are only
   applicable for intra-access-domain handovers and fall short when it
   comes to inter-technology handovers.  They also require L2 (e.g.,

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   Ethernet) connectivity for transfer of key management signaling to a
   candidate or the target AP.  Especially, a solution is needed to
   enable EAP pre-authentication for inter-access-domain or inter-ESS
   handovers in IEEE 802.11.

   As various flavors of wireless technologies are increasingly
   available, there is a growing demand for seamless inter-technology
   mobility and handovers.  This is particularly beneficial in the
   presence of high bandwidth, wireless technologies (e.g., IEEE 802.11)
   with only hotspot-like coverages while the overlay licensed wireless/
   cellular coverages are expensive and relatively low bandwidth.
   Hence, the security optimization mechanisms for better handover
   performance must be looked at from the IP level so as to make it a
   common method over different access technologies.

   Optimized solutions for secure inter-authenticator handovers can be
   largely seen as security context transfer, ERP [I-D.ietf-hokey-erx],
   or EAP pre-authentication.  Security context transfer involves
   transfer of reusable key context to the new point of attachment.
   However, the recent AAA key management requirement [RFC4962] does not
   recommend horizontal context transfer of reusable key context because
   of the domino effect in which the compromise of an authenticator will
   lead to the compromise of another authenticator.  ERP uses existing
   EAP keying material for deriving a re-authentication key to be
   distributed to an ERP server in a visited domain in order to reduce
   the handover delay, which eliminates the need for running full EAP
   authentication with the EAP server in the home domain for intra-
   domain handovers.  On the other hand, there are certain cases where
   ERP is not applicable or an additional optimization mechanism is
   needed to establish a key for the candidate authenticator:

   o  One case is an inter-domain handover with or without any trust
      relationship between the home and visited AAA domains.  If there
      is no trust relationship between the two AAA domains, ERP cannot
      be used in the visited AAA domain, and the EAP server in the home
      AAA domain is the only entity that can authenticate the peer.
      Even if there is a trust relationship between the two AAA domains
      and the visited AAA domain supports ERP, full EAP authentication
      with the EAP server in the home AAA domain is still needed when
      entering the visited AAA domain unless the security policy of the
      home AAA domain allows the same re-authentication root key to be
      shared with the visited AAA domain.

   o  Another case is an intra-domain, inter-authenticator handover
      where the target authenticator or AAA domain do not support ERP,
      or ERP needs to be performed proactively before the peer arrives
      at the target authenticator.

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   EAP pre-authentication discussed in this document is mainly to deal
   with these cases while a general solution for the EAP pre-
   authentication problem can be used for other handover cases.

   EAP pre-authentication has general applicability to various
   deployment scenarios of the above handover cases in which proactive
   signaling can take effect.  In other words, applicability of EAP pre-
   authentication is limited to the scenarios where candidate
   authenticators can be discovered, an accurate prediction of movement
   can be easily made.  Also the effectiveness of EAP pre-authentication
   may be less significant for particular inter-technology handover
   scenarios where simultaneous use of multiple technologies is not a
   major concern.

   In EAP pre-authentication, AAA-based authentication and authorization
   for a candidate authenticator is performed while ongoing data
   communication is in progress via the serving network.  The goal of
   EAP pre-authentication is to avoid AAA signaling for EAP when or soon
   after the peer moves.  There are several AAA issues related to EAP
   pre-authentication.  The pre-authentication AAA issues are described
   in Section 6.

   Figure 1 shows the functional elements that are related to EAP pre-

   +------+         +-------------+     +------+
   | Peer |---------|   Serving   |    /        \
   |      |         |Authenticator|---/          \
   +------+         +-------------+  /            \
      .                             /              \    +--------------+
      . Move                       +   IP Network   +---|AAA/EAP Server|
      .                             \              /    +--------------+
      v             +-------------+  \            /
                    |  Candidate  |---\          /
                    |Authenticator|    \        /
                    +-------------+     +------+

           Figure 1: EAP Pre-authentication Functional Elements

   A peer is attached to the serving access network.  Before the peer
   performs handover from the serving access network to a candidate
   access network, it performs EAP pre-authentication with a candidate
   authenticator via the serving access network.  The peer may perform
   EAP pre-authentication with one or more candidate authenticators.  It
   is assumed that each authenticator has an IP address.  It is assumed
   that there is at least one candidate authenticator in each candidate
   access network while the serving access network may or may not have a
   serving authenticator.  The serving and candidate access networks may

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   use different link layer technologies.

   Each authenticator is either a standalone authenticator or pass-
   through authenticator [RFC3748].  When an authenticator acts as a
   standalone authenticator, it also has the functionality of an EAP
   server.  When an authenticator acts as a pass-through authenticator,
   it communicates with the EAP server typically implemented on a AAA
   server using a AAA transport protocol such as RADIUS [RFC2865] and
   Diameter [RFC3588].

   If the candidate authenticator uses an MSK [I-D.ietf-eap-keying] for
   generating lower-layer ciphering keys, EAP pre-authentication is used
   for proactively generating an MSK for the candidate authenticator.

4.  Usage Scenarios

   There are two scenarios for how EAP pre-authentication signaling can
   happen among a peer, serving authenticator, candidate authenticator
   and AAA server, depending on how the serving authenticator is
   involved in the EAP pre-authentication signaling.  It is assumed in
   both scenarios that there is no direct L2 connectivity between a peer
   and a CA.  No security association between the serving authenticator
   and the candidate authenticator is required for either pre-
   authentication scenario (see Section 7 for more detailed discussion).

4.1.  Direct Pre-authentication

   Direct pre-authentication signaling is shown in Figure 2.

     Peer              Serving              Candidate            AAA/EAP
                    Authenticator         Authenticator          Server
                        (SA)                 (CA)
      |                   |                    |                   |
      |                   |                    |                   |
      |         Peer-CA Signaling (L3)         |       AAA         |
      |                   |                    |                   |
      |                   |                    |                   |

                    Figure 2: Direct Pre-authentication

   In this type of pre-authentication, the serving authenticator
   forwards the EAP pre-authentication traffic as it would any other
   data traffic or there may be no serving authenticator at all in the
   serving access network.

   [I-D.ietf-pana-preauth] is identified as a protocol to realize direct

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4.2.  Indirect Pre-authentication

   In indirect pre-authentication, it is assumed that a trust
   relationship exists between the serving network (or serving AAA
   domain) and candidate network (or candidate AAA domain).  Indirect
   pre-authentication signaling is shown in Figure 3.

     Peer              Serving              Candidate            AAA/EAP
                    Authenticator         Authenticator          Server
                        (SA)                 (CA)
      |                   |                    |                   |
      |                   |                    |                   |
      | Peer-SA Signaling |   SA-CA Signaling  |       AAA         |
      |    (L2 or L3)     |        (L3)        |                   |
      |                   |                    |                   |
      |                   |                    |                   |

                   Figure 3: Indirect Pre-authentication

   With indirect pre-authentication, the serving authenticator is
   involved in EAP pre-authentication signaling.  Indirect pre-
   authentication is needed if the peer cannot discover the CA's IP
   address or if IP communication is not available due to security or
   network topology reasons.

   Indirect pre-authentication signaling between a peer and a candidate
   authenticator consists of peer to serving authenticator signaling
   (Peer-SA signaling) and serving authenticator to candidate
   authenticator signaling (SA-CA signaling).

   SA-CA signaling is performed over L3.

   Peer-SA signaling is performed over L2 or L3.

   The role of the serving authenticator in indirect pre-authentication
   is to forward EAP pre-authentication signaling between the peer and
   the candidate authenticator and not to act as an authenticator, while
   it acts as an authenticator for normal authentication signaling.
   This is illustrated in Figure 4.

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         Peer                    Serving                   Candidate
                              Authenticator             Authenticator
                                  (SA)                       (CA)

     +-----------+                                       +-----------+
     |           |<- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|           |
     | EAP Peer  |    +-----------------------------+    | EAP Auth- |
     |           |    |Pre-authentication Forwarding|    | enticator |
     +-----------+    +-----------+-----+-----------+    +-----------+
     | Peer-SA   |    | Peer-SA   |     | SA-CA     |    | SA-CA     |
     | Signaling |<-->| Signaling |     | Signaling |<-->| Signaling |
     | Layer     |    | Layer     |     | Layer     |    | Layer     |
     +-----------+    +-----------+     +-----------+    +-----------+

           Figure 4: Indirect Pre-authentication Layering Model

5.  Architectural Considerations

   There are two architectural issues relating to pre-authentication:
   authenticator discovery and context binding.

5.1.  Authenticator Discovery

   In general, pre-authentication requires an address of a candidate
   authenticator to be discovered either by a peer or by a serving
   authenticator prior to handover.  An authenticator discovery protocol
   is typically defined as a separate protocol from a pre-authentication
   protocol.  For both intra-domain and inter-domain handover, the IP
   address of a candidate authenticator must be reachable by the peer or
   the serving authenticator that is performing the pre-authentication.
   For example, IEEE 802.21 Information Service (IS) [802.21] provides a
   link layer independent mechanism for obtaining neighboring network
   information by defining a set of Information Elements (IEs), where
   one of the IEs is defined to contain an IP address of a point of
   attachment.  IEEE 802.21 IS queries for such an IE may be used as a
   method for authenticator discovery.

   If IEEE 802.21 IS or a similar mechanism is used, an authenticator
   discovery requires a database on the neighboring network information.
   Provisioning of a server with such a database is another issue.

5.2.  Context Binding

   When a candidate authenticator uses different EAP transport protocols
   for normal authentication and pre-authentication, a mechanism is
   needed to bind link layer independent context carried over pre-
   authentication signaling to the link layer specific context of the

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   link to be established between the peer and the candidate
   authenticator.  The link layer independent context includes the
   identities of the peer and authenticator as well as the MSK.  The
   link layer specific context includes link layer addresses of the peer
   and the candidate authenticator.  Such context binding can happen
   before or after the peer changes its point of attachment.

   There are at least two possible approaches to address the context
   binding issue.  The first approach is based on communicating the link
   layer context as opaque data via pre-authentication signaling.  The
   second approach is based on running EAP over the link layer of the
   candidate authenticator after the peer arrives at the authenticator
   using short-term credentials generated via pre-authentication.  In
   this case, the short-term credentials are shared between the peer and
   the candidate authenticator, and hence the EAP server for the EAP
   performed after the peer arrives at the target authenticator resides
   in the authenticator.  In both approaches, context binding needs to
   be securely made between the peer and the candidate authenticator.
   Also, the peer is not fully authorized by the candidate authenticator
   until the peer completes the link layer specific secure association
   procedure with the authenticator using the link layer signaling.

6.  AAA Issues

   Most of the AAA documents today do not distinguish between a normal
   authentication and a pre-authentication and this creates a set of
   open issues:

   Pre-authentication authorization:   Many users may not be allowed to
      have more than one logon session at the time.  This means that
      when such users actively engage in an active session (as a result
      of a previously valid authentication), they will not be able to
      perform pre-authentication.  The AAA server currently has no way
      of distinguishing between a normal authentication request and a
      pre-authentication request.

   Pre-authentication lifetime:   Currently AAA protocols define
      attributes carrying lifetime information for a normal
      authentication session.  Even when a user profile and the AAA
      server support pre-authentication, the lifetime for a pre-
      authentication session is typically valid only for a short amount
      of time because the peer has not completed its authentication at
      the target link layer.  It is currently not possible for a AAA
      server to indicate to the AAA client or a peer the lifetime of the
      pre-authenticated session unless AAA protocols are extended to
      carry pre-authentication session lifetime information.  In other
      words, it is not clear to the peer or the authenticator when the

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      pre-authentication session will expire.

   Pre-authentication retries:   It is typically expected that shortly
      following the pre-authentication process, the peer moves to the
      new point of attachment and converts the pre-authentication state
      to a normal authentication state (the procedure for which is not
      the topic of this particular subsection).  However, if the peer
      has not yet moved to the new location and realizes that the pre-
      authentication is expiring, it may perform another pre-
      authentication.  Some limiting mechanism is needed to avoid
      unlimited number of pre-authentication tries.

   Completion of network attachment:   Once the peer has successfully
      attached to the new point of attachment, it needs to convert its
      authentication state from pre-authenticated to fully attached and
      authorized.  There may need to be a mechanism within the AAA
      protocol to provide this indication to the AAA server if the AAA
      server needs to differentiate between pre-authentication and
      normal authentication.

   Session Resumption:   In case the peer cycles between a network N1
      with which it has a normal authentication state to another network
      N2 and then back to N1, it should be possible to simply convert
      the full authentication state to a pre-authenticated state.  The
      problems around handling session lifetime and keying material
      caching needs to be dealt with.

   Multiple candidate authenticators:   There may be situations where
      the peer may need to make a selection between a number of
      candidate authenticators.  In such cases, it is desirable for the
      peer to perform pre-authentication with multiple candidate
      authenticators.  In such cases the AAA server may need to be aware
      of the situation.

   Inter-technology support:   Current specifications on pre-
      authentication mostly deal with homogeneous 802.11 networks.  The
      AAA attributes such as Calling-Station-ID [I-D.aboba-radext-wlan]
      may need to be expanded to cover other access technologies.
      Furthermore, inter-technology handovers may require a change of
      the peer identifier as part of the handover.  Investigation on the
      best type of identifiers for peers that support multiple access
      technologies is required.

7.  Security Considerations

   Since pre-authentication described in this document needs to work
   across multiple authenticators, any solution needs to consider the

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   following security threats.

   First, a resource consumption denial of service attack is possible,
   where an attacker that is not on the same IP link as the legitimate
   peer or the candidate authenticator may send unprotected pre-
   authentication messages to the legitimate peer or the candidate
   authenticator.  As a result, they may spend their computational and
   bandwidth resources for processing pre-authentication messages sent
   by the attacker.  This attack is possible for both direct and
   indirect pre-authentication scenarios.  To mitigate this attack, the
   candidate network or authenticator may apply non-cryptographic packet
   filtering so that pre-authentication messages received from only a
   specific set of serving networks or authenticators are processed.  In
   addition, a simple solution for the peer side would be to let the
   peer always initiate EAP pre-authentication and not allow EAP pre-
   authentication initiation from authenticator side.

   Second, consideration for the Channel Binding problem described in
   [I-D.ietf-eap-keying] is needed as lack of Channel Binding may enable
   an authenticator to impersonate another authenticator or communicate
   incorrect information via out-of-band mechanisms (such as via a AAA
   or lower layer protocol) [RFC3748].  It should be noted that it is
   relatively easier to launch such an impersonation attack for pre-
   authentication than normal authentication because an attacker does
   not need to be physically on the same link as the legitimate peer to
   send a pre-authentication trigger to the peer.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

9.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Bernard Aboba, Jari Arkko, Ajay
   Rajkumar, Maryna Komarova, Charles Clancy, Glen Zorn, Subir Das,
   Shubhranshu Singh, Preetida Vinayakray and Rafa Marin Lopez for their
   valuable input.

10.  Contributors

   The following people contributed to this document.

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        Yoshihiro Ohba (

        Ashutosh Dutta (

        Srinivas Sreemanthula (

        Alper E. Yegin (

        Madjid Nakhjiri (

        Mahalingam Mani (

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3748]  Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
              Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)",
              RFC 3748, June 2004.

   [RFC4962]  Housley, R. and B. Aboba, "Guidance for Authentication,
              Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Key Management",
              BCP 132, RFC 4962, July 2007.

              Aboba, B., Simon, D., and P. Eronen, "Extensible
              Authentication Protocol (EAP) Key Management Framework",
              draft-ietf-eap-keying-22 (work in progress),
              November 2007.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, June 2000.

   [RFC3588]  Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
              Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.

              Narayanan, V. and L. Dondeti, "EAP Extensions for EAP Re-
              authentication Protocol (ERP)", draft-ietf-hokey-erx-14
              (work in progress), March 2008.

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              Aboba, B., Malinen, J., Congdon, P., and J. Salowey,
              "RADIUS Attributes for IEEE 802 Networks",
              draft-aboba-radext-wlan-08 (work in progress), June 2008.

              Ohba, Y., "Pre-authentication Support for PANA",
              draft-ietf-pana-preauth-02 (work in progress),
              November 2007.

   [802.21]   IEEE, "Draft Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area
              Networks: Media Independent Handover Services", LAN MAN
              Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society 802.21
              D11 2008.

   [802.11]   IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology -
              Telecommunications and information exchange between
              systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific
              requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
              (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", IEEE
              Computer Society 2007.

   [802.11r]  IEEE, "Information technology - Telecommunications and
              information exchange between systems - Local and
              metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part
              11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical
              Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 2: Fast BSS
              Transition", LAN MAN Standards Committee of the IEEE
              Computer Society 802.11r D9.0 2008.

   [802.11f]  IEEE, "IEEE Trial-Use Recommended Practice for Multi-
              Vendor Access Point Interoperability via an Inter-Access
              Point Protocol Across Distribution Systems Supporting IEEE
              802.11 Operation", IEEE Computer Society 2003.

   [ITU]      ITU-T, "General Characteristics of International Telephone
              Connections and International Telephone Circuits: One-Way
              Transmission Time", ITU-T Recommendation G.114 1998.

   [ETSI]     ETSI, "Telecommunications and Internet Protocol
              Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON) Release 3: End-to-end
              Quality of Service in TIPHON systems; Part 1: General
              aspects of Quality of Service.", ETSI TR 101 329-6 V2.1.1.

   [WPA]      The Wi-Fi Alliance, "WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)", Wi-
              Fi WPA v3.1, 2004.

   [MQ7]      Lopez, R., Dutta, A., Ohba, Y., Schulzrinne, H., and A.

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              Skarmeta, "Network-layer Assisted Mechanism to Optimize
              Authentication Delay During Handoff in 802.11 Networks",
              ACM Mobiquitous 2007.

   [WCM]      Dutta, A., Famorali, D., Das, S., Ohba, Y., and R. Lopez,
              "Media-Independent Pre-Authentication Supporting Secure
              Interdomain Handover Optimization Network-layer Assisted
              Mechanism to Optimize", IEEE Wireless Communications April

Author's Address

   Yoshihiro Ohba
   Toshiba America Research, Inc.
   1 Telcordia Drive
   Piscataway, NJ  08854

   Phone: +1 732 699 5365

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