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Versions: 00                                                            
Network Working Group                                        W A Simpson
Internet Draft                                              [DayDreamer]
expires in six months                                          July 1997


                    The ESP CAST5-128-CBC Transform
                 draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-cast-div-00.txt


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet Drafts are working doc-
   uments of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its Areas, and
   its Working Groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute work-
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   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document describes the CAST5-128-CBC block cipher transform
   interface used with the IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP).  It
   provides a full-sized 128-bit key, with a more secure derived ini-
   tialization variable, and a more efficient smaller datagram size.











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1.  Introduction

   The Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) [RFC-1827x] provides confi-
   dentiality for IP datagrams by encrypting the payload data to be pro-
   tected.  This specification describes the ESP use of the Cipher Block
   Chaining (CBC) mode with CAST5-128.

   The CAST Design Procedure was originally developed by Carlisle Adams
   and Stafford Travares at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario,
   Canada.  Subsequent enhancements have been made over the years by
   Carlisle Adams and Michael Wiener of Entrust Technologies.  CAST5-128
   is the result of applying the CAST Design Procedure as outlined in
   [RFC-2144].

   For an explanation of the use of CBC mode with this cipher, see [RFC-
   wwww].

   This document assumes that the reader is familiar with the related
   document "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol"
   [RFC-1825x], that defines the overall security plan for IP, and pro-
   vides important background for this specification.

   In this document, the key words "MAY", "MUST", "recommended",
   "required", and "SHOULD", are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC-2119].


1.1.  Availability

   There are a number of patents.  Unfortunately, the CAST authors have
   not listed them in their drafts, as required as by the IETF.  Watch
   this space.


1.2.  Performance

   It is speculated that CAST5-128 runs approximately the same speed as
   a highly optimized DES implementation.  This is based on a non-
   optimized C++ implementation.  It is hoped that this can be tuned to
   give even higher performance.

   The following performance tests were run on a Pentium 90 MHz running
   the Windows NT operating system using 20 Kbyte buffers, and do not
   include file I/O.  The DES-CBC implementation was not optimized for a
   32-bit environment.

   CAST5-64 bit key 12 round CBC encryption ..... 21,120,000 bits/sec
   DES-CBC encryption ............................ 4,032,000 bits/sec



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   There is no data available on a full-sized 128-bit key with 16
   rounds.  Watch this space.

   For comparison, Phil Karn has tuned DES-CBC software to achieve 10.45
   Mbps with a 90 MHz Pentium, scaling to 15.9 Mbps with a 133 MHz Pen-
   tium.  Your milage may vary.


2.  Description
2.1.  Block Size

   The CAST5-128 algorithm operates on blocks of 64-bits (8 bytes).
   This often requires padding before encrypting, and subsequent removal
   of padding after decrypting.

   The output is the same number of bytes that are input.  This facili-
   tates in-place encryption and decryption.


2.2.  Rounds

   The algorithm MUST use the full 16 rounds.


2.3.  Interaction with Authentication

   There is no known interaction of CAST5-128 with any currently speci-
   fied Authenticator algorithm.


3.  Initialization Vector

   CAST5-128-CBC requires an Initialization Vector (IV) that is 64-bits
   (8 bytes) in length [RFC-wwww].

   By default, the 64-bit IV is generated from the 32-bit Security
   Parameters Index (SPI) field followed by (concatenated with) the
   32-bit Sequence Number (SN) field.  Then, the bit-wise complement of
   the 32-bit Sequence Number (SN) value is XOR'd with the first 32-bits
   (SPI):

      (SPI ^ -SN) || SN

   Alternative IV generation techniques MAY be specified when dynami-
   cally configured via a key management protocol.

   Security Notes:




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      Incorporating the ESP Security Parameters Index (SPI) and the
      anti-replay ESP Sequence Number (SN) together can provide greater
      uniqueness and mutual protection between the first block and the
      ESP header.  Modification of the SPI to alter the decryption
      key(s) will prevent correct decryption of the first block.

      Using the Sequence Number (SN) provides an easy method for pre-
      venting IV repetition, and is sufficiently robust for practical
      use with the CAST5-128 algorithm.  Inclusion of the bit-wise com-
      plement of SN ensures that bit changes are reflected twice in the
      IV.


4.  Keys

   CAST5-128 is a symmetric secret key algorithm.  The secret CAST5-128
   key shared between the communicating parties is 128-bits in length.

   Although CAST5-128 can be used with shorter keys, these other keys
   sizes are not conformant with this specification.


4.1.  Weak Keys

   CAST5-128 has no known weak keys.


4.2.  Refresh Rate

   CAST5-128 is theorized to be immune to differential and linear crypt-
   analysis.


5.  ESP Alterations
5.1.  ESP Sequence Number

   The Sequence Number is a 32-bit (4 byte) unsigned counter.  This
   field protects against replay attacks, and may also be used for syn-
   chronization by stream or block-chaining ciphers.

   When configured manually, the first value sent SHOULD be a random
   number.

   When configured via an automated Security Association management pro-
   tocol, the first value sent is 1, unless otherwise negotiated.

   Thereafter, the value is monotonically increased for each datagram
   sent.  A replacement SPI SHOULD be established before the value



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   repeats.  That is, less than 2**32 datagrams SHOULD be sent with any
   single key.


Operational Considerations

   The specification provides only a few manually configurable parame-
   ters:

   SPI
      Manually configured SPIs are limited in range to aid operations.
      Automated SPIs are pseudo-randomly distributed throughout the
      remaining 2**32 values.

      Default: 0 (none).  Range: 256 to 65,535.

   SPI LifeTime (SPILT)
      Manually configured LifeTimes are generally measured in days.
      Automated LifeTimes are specified in seconds.

      Default: 32 days (2,764,800 seconds).  Maximum: 182 days
      (15,724,800 seconds).

   Replay Window
      Default: 0 (checking off).  Range: 32 to 256.

   Pad Values
      Default: 7 (checking on).  Range: 7 to 255.

   Key
      The 128-bit key is configured as required.

   Each party configures a list of known SPIs and symmetric secret-keys.

   In addition, each party configures local policy that determines what
   access (if any) is granted to the holder of a particular SPI.  For
   example, a party might allow FTP, but prohibit Telnet.  Such consid-
   erations are outside the scope of this document.













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Security Considerations

   Users need to understand that the quality of the security provided by
   this specification depends completely on the strength of the CAST
   algorithm, the correctness of that algorithm's implementation, the
   security of the Security Association management mechanism and its
   implementation, the strength of the key, and upon the correctness of
   the implementations in all of the participating nodes.


Acknowledgements

   The basic field naming and layout is based on "swIPe" [IBK93, IB93].

   Some of the text of this specification was derived from work by Roy
   Pereira and Greg Carter.

   William Allen Simpson was responsible for the name and semantics of
   the SPI, the IV calculation technique(s), editing and formatting.


References

   [IB93]   Ioannidis, J., and Blaze, M., "The Architecture and Imple-
            mentation of Network-Layer Security Under Unix", Proceedings
            of the Fourth Usenix Security Symposium, Santa Clara Cali-
            fornia, October 1993.

   [IBK93]  Ioannidis, J., Blaze, M., and Karn, P., "swIPe: Network-
            Layer Security for IP", Presentation at the 26th Internet
            Engineering Task Force, Columbus Ohio, March 1993.

   [RFC-1825x]
            Atkinson, R., "Security Architecture for the Internet Proto-
            col", Naval Research Laboratory, July 1995.

   [RFC-1827x]
            Simpson, W., "IP Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP) for
            implementors", work in progress.

   [RFC-2119]
            Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Require-
            ment Levels", BCP 14, Harvard University, March 1997.

   [RFC-2144]
            Adams, C., "The CAST-128 Encryption Algorithm", May 1997.





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   [RFC-wwww]
            Simpson, W.A, "ESP with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)", work
            in progress.



Contacts

   Comments about this document should be discussed on the ipsec@tis.com
   mailing list.

   Questions about this document can also be directed to:

      Perry Metzger
      Piermont Information Systems Inc.
      160 Cabrini Blvd., Suite #2
      New York, NY  10033

          perry@piermont.com


      William Allen Simpson
      DayDreamer
      Computer Systems Consulting Services
      1384 Fontaine
      Madison Heights, Michigan  48071

          wsimpson@UMich.edu
          wsimpson@GreenDragon.com (preferred)
          bsimpson@MorningStar.com





















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