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Network Working Group                                         V. Smyslov
Internet-Draft                                                ELVIS-PLUS
Intended status: Standards Track                            5 March 2022
Expires: 6 September 2022


              Intermediate Exchange in the IKEv2 Protocol
                draft-ietf-ipsecme-ikev2-intermediate-10

Abstract

   This document defines a new exchange, called Intermediate Exchange,
   for the Internet Key Exchange protocol Version 2 (IKEv2).  This
   exchange can be used for transferring large amounts of data in the
   process of IKEv2 Security Association (SA) establishment.  An example
   of the need to do this is using Quantum Computer resistant key
   exchange methods for IKE SA establishment.  Introducing the
   Intermediate Exchange allows re-using the existing IKE fragmentation
   mechanism, that helps to avoid IP fragmentation of large IKE
   messages, but cannot be used in the initial IKEv2 exchange.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 6 September 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components



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   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology and Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Intermediate Exchange Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Support for Intermediate Exchange Negotiation . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Using Intermediate Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  The IKE_INTERMEDIATE Exchange Protection and
           Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.1.  Protection of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE Messages . . . . .   5
       3.3.2.  Authentication of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE Exchanges  . .   6
     3.4.  Error Handling in the IKE_INTERMEDIATE Exchange . . . . .  10
   4.  Interaction with other IKEv2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix A.  Example of IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange . . . . . . . .  14
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   The Internet Key Exchange protocol version 2 (IKEv2) defined in
   [RFC7296] uses UDP as a transport for its messages.  If the size of a
   message is larger than the PMTU, IP fragmentation takes place, which
   has been shown to cause operational challenge in certain network
   configurations and devices.  The problem is described in more detail
   in [RFC7383], which also defines an extension to IKEv2 called IKE
   fragmentation.  This extension allows IKE messages to be fragmented
   at the IKE level, eliminating possible issues caused by IP
   fragmentation.  However, IKE fragmentation cannot be used in the
   initial IKEv2 exchange (IKE_SA_INIT).  This limitation in most cases
   is not a problem, since the IKE_SA_INIT messages are usually small
   enough not to cause IP fragmentation.

   However, the situation has been changing recently.  One example of
   the need to transfer large amount of data before an IKE SA is created
   is using Quantum Computer resistant key exchange methods in IKEv2.
   Recent progress in Quantum Computing has brought a concern that
   classical Diffie-Hellman key exchange methods will become insecure in
   a relatively near future and should be replaced with Quantum Computer



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   (QC) resistant ones.  Currently, most QC-resistant key exchange
   methods have large public keys.  If these keys are exchanged in the
   IKE_SA_INIT, then most probably IP fragmentation will take place,
   therefore all the problems caused by it will become inevitable.

   A possible solution to the problem would be to use TCP as a transport
   for IKEv2, as defined in [RFC8229].  However, this approach has
   significant drawbacks and is intended to be a "last resort" when UDP
   transport is completely blocked by intermediate network devices.

   This specification describes a way to transfer a large amount of data
   in IKEv2 using UDP transport.  For this purpose the document defines
   a new exchange for the IKEv2 protocol, called Intermediate Exchange
   or IKE_INTERMEDIATE.  One or more these exchanges may take place
   right after the IKE_SA_INIT exchange and prior to the IKE_AUTH
   exchange.  The IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange messages can be fragmented
   using the IKE fragmentation mechanism, so these exchanges may be used
   to transfer large amounts of data which don't fit into the
   IKE_SA_INIT exchange without causing IP fragmentation.

   The Intermediate Exchange can be used to transfer large public keys
   of QC-resistant key exchange methods, but its application is not
   limited to this use case.  This exchange can also be used whenever
   some data need to be transferred before the IKE_AUTH exchange and for
   some reason the IKE_SA_INIT exchange is not suited for this purpose.
   This document defines the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange without tying it
   to any specific use case.  It is expected that separate
   specifications will define for which purposes and how the
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange is used in IKEv2.  Some considerations must
   be taken into account when designing such specifications:

   *  The IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange is not intended for bulk transfer.
      This document doesn't set a hard cap on the amount of data that
      can be safely transferred using this mechanism, as it depends on
      its application.  But it is anticipated that in most cases the
      amount of data will be limited to tens of Kbytes (few hundred
      Kbytes in extreme cases), which is believed to cause no network
      problems (see [RFC6928] as an example of experiments with sending
      similar amounts of data in the first TCP flight).  See also
      Section 5 for the discussion of possible DoS attack vectors when
      amount of data sent in IKE_INTERMEDIATE is too large.

   *  It is expected that the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange will only be
      used for transferring data that is needed to establish IKE SA and
      not for data that can be send later when this SA is established.






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2.  Terminology and Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   It is expected that readers are familiar with the terms used in the
   IKEv2 specification [RFC7296].

3.  Intermediate Exchange Details

3.1.  Support for Intermediate Exchange Negotiation

   The initiator indicates its support for Intermediate Exchange by
   including a notification of type INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED in
   the IKE_SA_INIT request message.  If the responder also supports this
   exchange, it includes this notification in the response message.

   Initiator                                 Responder
   -----------                               -----------
   HDR, SAi1, KEi, Ni,
   [N(INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED)] -->
                                      <-- HDR, SAr1, KEr, Nr, [CERTREQ],
                                    [N(INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED)]

   The INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED is a Status Type IKEv2
   notification.  Its Notify Message Type is 16438, Protocol ID and SPI
   Size are both set to 0.  This specification doesn't define any data
   that this notification may contain, so the Notification Data is left
   empty.  However, future enhancements to this specification may
   override this.  Implementations MUST ignore non-empty Notification
   Data if they don't understand its purpose.

3.2.  Using Intermediate Exchange

   If both peers indicated their support for the Intermediate Exchange,
   the initiator may use one or more these exchanges to transfer
   additional data.  Using the Intermediate Exchange is optional; the
   initiator may find it unnecessary even when support for this
   exchanged has been negotiated.

   The Intermediate Exchange is denoted as IKE_INTERMEDIATE, its
   Exchange Type is 43.






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   Initiator                                 Responder
   -----------                               -----------
   HDR, ..., SK {...}  -->
                                        <--  HDR, ..., SK {...}

   The initiator may use several IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges if
   necessary.  Since window size is initially set to one for both peers
   (Section 2.3 of [RFC7296]), these exchanges MUST be sequential and
   MUST all be completed before the IKE_AUTH exchange is initiated.  The
   IKE SA MUST NOT be considered as established until the IKE_AUTH
   exchange is successfully completed.

   The Message IDs for IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges MUST be chosen
   according to the standard IKEv2 rule, described in the Section 2.2.
   of [RFC7296], i.e.  it is set to 1 for the first IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchange, 2 for the next (if any) and so on.  Implementations MUST
   verify that Message IDs in the IKE_INTERMEDIATE messages they receive
   actually follow this rule.  The Message ID for the first pair of the
   IKE_AUTH messages is one more than the value used in the last
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange.

   If the presence of NAT is detected in the IKE_SA_INIT exchange via
   NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP and NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP
   notifications, then the peers switch to port 4500 in the first
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange and use this port for all subsequent
   exchanges, as described in Section 2.23 of [RFC7296].

   The content of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange messages depends on the
   data being transferred and will be defined by specifications
   utilizing this exchange.  However, since the main motivation for the
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange is to avoid IP fragmentation when large
   amounts of data need to be transferred prior to IKE_AUTH, the
   Encrypted payload MUST be present in the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange
   messages and payloads containing large data MUST be placed inside it.
   This will allow IKE fragmentation [RFC7383] to take place, provided
   it is supported by the peers and negotiated in the initial exchange.

   Appendix A contains an example of using an IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange
   in creating an IKE SA.

3.3.  The IKE_INTERMEDIATE Exchange Protection and Authentication

3.3.1.  Protection of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE Messages

   The keys SK_e[i/r] and SK_a[i/r] for the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges
   protection are computed in the standard fashion, as defined in the
   Section 2.14 of [RFC7296].




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   Every subsequent IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange uses the most recently
   calculated IKE SA keys before this exchange is started.  So, the
   first IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange always uses SK_e[i/r] and SK_a[i/r]
   keys that were computed as a result of the IKE_SA_INIT exchange.  If
   additional key exchange is performed in the first IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchange, resulting in the update of SK_e[i/r] and SK_a[i/r], then
   these updated keys are used for protection of the second
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange.  Otherwise, the original SK_e[i/r] and
   SK_a[i/r] keys are used again, and so on.

   Once all the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges are completed, the most
   recently calculated SK_e[i/r] and SK_a[i/r] keys are used for
   protection of the IKE_AUTH and all the subsequent exchanges.

3.3.2.  Authentication of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE Exchanges

   The IKE_INTERMEDIATE messages must be authenticated in the IKE_AUTH
   exchange, which is performed by adding their content into the AUTH
   payload calculation.  It is anticipated that in many use cases
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE messages will be fragmented using IKE fragmentation
   [RFC7383] mechanism.  According to [RFC7383], when IKE fragmentation
   is negotiated, the initiator may first send a request message in
   unfragmented form, but later turn on IKE fragmentation and re-send it
   fragmented if no response is received after a few retransmissions.
   In addition, peers may re-send fragmented message using different
   fragment sizes to perform simple PMTU discovery.

   The requirement to support this behavior makes authentication
   challenging: it is not appropriate to add on-the-wire content of the
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE messages into the AUTH payload calculation, because
   implementations are generally unaware in which form these messages
   are received by peers.  Instead, a more complex scheme is used --
   authentication is performed by adding content of these messages
   before their encryption and possible fragmentation, so that data to
   be authenticated doesn't depend on the form the messages are
   delivered in.

   If any IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange took place, the definition of the
   blob to be signed (or MAC'ed) from the Section 2.15 of [RFC7296] is
   modified as follows:











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   InitiatorSignedOctets = RealMsg1 | NonceRData | MACedIDForI | IntAuth
   ResponderSignedOctets = RealMsg2 | NonceIData | MACedIDForR | IntAuth

   IntAuth =  IntAuth_iN | IntAuth_rN | IKE_AUTH_MID

   IntAuth_i1 = prf(SK_pi1,              IntAuth_i1A [| IntAuth_i1P])
   IntAuth_i2 = prf(SK_pi2, IntAuth_i1 | IntAuth_i2A [| IntAuth_i2P])
   IntAuth_i3 = prf(SK_pi3, IntAuth_i2 | IntAuth_i3A [| IntAuth_i3P])
   ...
   IntAuth_iN = prf(SK_piN, IntAuth_iN-1 | IntAuth_iNA [| IntAuth_iNP])

   IntAuth_r1 = prf(SK_pr1,              IntAuth_r1A [| IntAuth_r1P])
   IntAuth_r2 = prf(SK_pr2, IntAuth_r1 | IntAuth_r2A [| IntAuth_r2P])
   IntAuth_r3 = prf(SK_pr3, IntAuth_r2 | IntAuth_r3A [| IntAuth_r3P])
   ...
   IntAuth_rN = prf(SK_prN, IntAuth_rN-1 | IntAuth_rNA [| IntAuth_rNP])

   The essence of this modification is that a new chunk called IntAuth
   is appended to the string of octets that is signed (or MAC'ed) by the
   peers.  IntAuth consists of three parts: IntAuth_iN, IntAuth_rN, and
   IKE_AUTH_MID.

   The IKE_AUTH_MID chunk is a value of the Message ID field from the
   IKE Header of the first round of the IKE_AUTH exchange.  It is
   represented as a four octet integer in network byte order (in other
   words, exactly as it appears on the wire).

   The IntAuth_iN and IntAuth_rN chunks each represent the cumulative
   result of applying the negotiated prf to all IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchange messages sent during IKE SA establishment by the initiator
   and the responder respectively.  After the first IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchange is completed peers calculate the IntAuth_i1 value by
   applying the negotiated prf to the content of the request message
   from this exchange and calculate the IntAuth_r1 value by applying the
   negotiated prf to the content of the response message.  For every
   following IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange (if any) peers re-calculate these
   values as follows.  After the n-th exchange is completed they compute
   IntAuth_[i/r]n by applying the negotiated prf to the concatenation of
   IntAuth_[i/r](n-1) (computed for the previous IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchange) and the content of the request (for IntAuth_in) or response
   (for IntAuth_rn) messages from this exchange.  After all
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges are over the resulted IntAuth_[i/r]N
   values (assuming N exchanges took place) are used in the computing
   the AUTH payload.







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   For the purpose of calculating the IntAuth_[i/r]* values the content
   of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE messages is represented as two chunks of
   data: mandatory IntAuth_[i/r]*A optionally followed by IntAuth_[i/
   r]*P.

   The IntAuth_[i/r]*A chunk consists of the sequence of octets from the
   first octet of the IKE Header (not including prepended four octets of
   zeros, if UDP encapsulation or TCP encapsulation of ESP packets is
   used) to the last octet of the generic header of the Encrypted
   payload.  The scope of IntAuth_[i/r]*A is identical to the scope of
   Associated Data defined for use of AEAD algorithms in IKEv2 (see
   Section 5.1 of [RFC5282]), which is stressed by using "A" suffix in
   its name.  Note, that calculation of IntAuth_[i/r]*A doesn't depend
   on whether an AEAD algorithm or a plain cipher is used in IKE SA.

   The IntAuth_[i/r]*P chunk is present if the Encrypted payload is not
   empty.  It consists of the content of the Encrypted payload that is
   fully formed, but not yet encrypted.  The Initialization Vector, the
   Padding, the Pad Length and the Integrity Checksum Data fields (see
   Section 3.14 of [RFC7296]) are not included into the calculation.  In
   other words, the IntAuth_[i/r]*P chunk is the inner payloads of the
   Encrypted payload in plaintext form, which is stressed by using "P"
   suffix in its name.




























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                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ^ ^
   |                       IKE SA Initiator's SPI                  | | |
   |                                                               | | |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ I |
   |                       IKE SA Responder's SPI                  | K |
   |                                                               | E |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+   |
   |  Next Payload | MjVer | MnVer | Exchange Type |     Flags     | H |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ d |
   |                          Message ID                           | r A
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | |
   |                       Adjusted Length                         | | |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ v |
   |                                                               |   |
   ~                 Unencrypted payloads (if any)                 ~   |
   |                                                               |   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ^ |
   | Next Payload  |C|  RESERVED   |    Adjusted Payload Length    | | |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | v
   |                                                               | |
   ~                     Initialization Vector                     ~ E
   |                                                               | E
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ c ^
   |                                                               | r |
   ~             Inner payloads (not yet encrypted)                ~   P
   |                                                               | P |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ l v
   |              Padding (0-255 octets)           |  Pad Length   | d
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |
   |                                                               | |
   ~                    Integrity Checksum Data                    ~ |
   |                                                               | |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ v

      Figure 1: Data to Authenticate in the IKE_INTERMEDIATE Exchange
                                  Messages

   Figure 1 illustrates the layout of the IntAuth_[i/r]*A (denoted as A)
   and the IntAuth_[i/r]*P (denoted as P) chunks in case the Encrypted
   payload is not empty.

   For the purpose of prf calculation the Length field in the IKE Header
   and the Payload Length field in the Encrypted payload header are
   adjusted so that they don't count the lengths of Initialization
   Vector, Integrity Checksum Data, Padding and Pad Length fields.  In
   other words, the Length field in the IKE Header (denoted as Adjusted



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   Length in Figure 1) is set to the sum of the lengths of IntAuth_[i/
   r]*A and IntAuth_[i/r]*P, and the Payload Length field in the
   Encrypted payload header (denoted as Adjusted Payload Length in
   Figure 1) is set to the length of IntAuth_[i/r]*P plus the size of
   the Encrypted payload header (four octets).

   The prf calculations MUST be applied to whole messages only, before
   possible IKE fragmentation.  This ensures that the IntAuth will be
   the same regardless of whether IKE fragmentation takes place or not.
   If the message was received in fragmented form, it MUST be
   reconstructed before calculating the prf as if it were received
   unfragmented.  While reconstructing, the RESERVED field in the
   reconstructed Encrypted payload header MUST be set to the value of
   the RESERVED field in the Encrypted Fragment payload header from the
   first fragment (with Fragment Number field set to 1).

   Note that it is possible to avoid actual reconstruction of the
   message by incrementally calculating prf on decrypted (or ready to be
   encrypted) fragments.  However, care must be taken to properly
   replace the content of the Next Header and the Length fields so that
   the result of computing the prf is the same as if it were computed on
   the reconstructed message.

   Each calculation of IntAuth_[i/r]* uses its own keys SK_p[i/r]*,
   which are the most recently updated SK_p[i/r] keys available before
   the corresponded IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange is started.  The first
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange always uses the SK_p[i/r] keys that were
   computed in the IKE_SA_INIT as SK_p[i/r]1.  If the first
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange performs additional key exchange resulting
   in SK_p[i/r] update, then this updated SK_p[i/r] are used as SK_p[i/
   r]2, otherwise the original SK_p[i/r] are used, and so on.  Note that
   if keys are updated, then for any given IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange the
   keys SK_e[i/r] and SK_a[i/r] used for protection of its messages (see
   Section 3.3.1) and the keys SK_p[i/r] for its authentication are
   always from the same generation.

3.4.  Error Handling in the IKE_INTERMEDIATE Exchange

   Since messages of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange are not authenticated
   until the IKE_AUTH exchange successfully completes, possible errors
   need to be handled with care.  There is a trade-off between providing
   better diagnostics of the problem and risk of becoming part of DoS
   attack.  Section 2.21.1 and 2.21.2 of [RFC7296] describe how errors
   are handled in initial IKEv2 exchanges; these considerations are also
   applied to the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange with a qualification, that
   not all error notifications may appear in the IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchange (for example, errors concerning authentication are generally
   only applicable to the IKE_AUTH exchange).



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4.  Interaction with other IKEv2 Extensions

   The IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges MAY be used during the IKEv2 Session
   Resumption [RFC5723] between the IKE_SESSION_RESUME and the IKE_AUTH
   exchanges.  To be able to use it peers MUST negotiate support for
   intermediate exchange by including INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED
   notifications in the IKE_SESSION_RESUME messages.  Note, that a flag
   whether peers supported the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange is not stored
   in the resumption ticket and is determined each time from the
   IKE_SESSION_RESUME exchange.

5.  Security Considerations

   The data that is transferred by means of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchanges is not authenticated until the subsequent IKE_AUTH exchange
   is completed.  However, if the data is placed inside the Encrypted
   payload, then it is protected from passive eavesdroppers.  In
   addition, the peers can be certain that they receive messages from
   the party they performed the IKE_SA_INIT with if they can
   successfully verify the Integrity Checksum Data of the Encrypted
   payload.

   The main application for the Intermediate Exchange is to transfer
   large amounts of data before an IKE SA is set up, without causing IP
   fragmentation.  For that reason it is expected that in most cases IKE
   fragmentation will be employed in the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges.
   Section 5 of [RFC7383] contains security considerations for IKE
   fragmentation.























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   Since authentication of the peers occurs only in the IKE_AUTH
   exchange, malicious initiator may use the Intermediate Exchange to
   mount Denial of Service attack on responder.  In this case it starts
   creating IKE SA, negotiates using the Intermediate Exchanges and
   transfers a lot of data to the responder that may also require some
   computationally expensive processing.  Then it aborts the SA
   establishment before the IKE_AUTH exchange.  Specifications utilizing
   the Intermediate Exchange MUST NOT allow unlimited number of these
   exchanges to take place on initiator's discretion.  It is recommended
   that these specifications are defined in such a way, that the
   responder would know (possibly via negotiation with the initiator)
   the exact number of these exchanges that need to take place.  In
   other words: it is preferred that both the initiator and the
   responder know after the IKE_SA_INIT is completed the exact number of
   the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges they have to perform; it is allowed
   that some IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges are optional and are performed
   on the initiator's discretion, but in this case the maximum number of
   optional exchanges must be hard capped by the corresponding
   specification.  In addition, [RFC8019] provides guidelines for the
   responder of how to deal with DoS attacks during IKE SA
   establishment.

   Note that if an attacker was able to break the key exchange in real
   time (e.g. by means of a Quantum Computer), then the security of the
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange would degrade.  In particular, such an
   attacker would be able both to read data contained in the Encrypted
   payload and to forge it.  The forgery would become evident in the
   IKE_AUTH exchange (provided the attacker cannot break the employed
   authentication mechanism), but the ability to inject forged
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange messages with valid ICV would allow the
   attacker to mount a Denial-of-Service attack.  Moreover, if in this
   situation the negotiated prf was not secure against second preimage
   attack with known key, then the attacker could forge the
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange messages without later being detected in
   the IKE_AUTH exchange.  To do this the attacker would find the same
   IntAuth_[i/r]* value for the forged message as for original.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines a new Exchange Type in the "IKEv2 Exchange
   Types" registry:

     43          IKE_INTERMEDIATE

   This document also defines a new Notify Message Type in the "IKEv2
   Notify Message Types - Status Types" registry:

     16438       INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED



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7.  Implementation Status

   [Note to RFC Editor: please, remove this section before publishing
   RFC.]

   At the time of writing the -05 version of the draft there were at
   least three independent interoperable implementations of this
   specification from the following vendors:

   *  ELVIS-PLUS

   *  strongSwan

   *  libreswan (only one IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange is supported)

8.  Acknowledgements

   The idea to use an intermediate exchange between IKE_SA_INIT and
   IKE_AUTH was first suggested by Tero Kivinen.  He also helped with
   writing an example of using IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange (shown in
   Appendix A).  Scott Fluhrer and Daniel Van Geest identified a
   possible problem with authentication of the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange
   and helped to resolve it.  Author is grateful to Tobias Brunner who
   raised good questions concerning authentication of the
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange and proposed how to make the size of
   authentication chunk constant regardless of the number of exchanges.
   Author is also grateful to Paul Wouters and to Benjamin Kaduk who
   suggested a lot of text improvements for the document.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC7296]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
              Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.





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   [RFC7383]  Smyslov, V., "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2) Message Fragmentation", RFC 7383,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7383, November 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7383>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5282]  Black, D. and D. McGrew, "Using Authenticated Encryption
              Algorithms with the Encrypted Payload of the Internet Key
              Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC 5282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5282, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5282>.

   [RFC5723]  Sheffer, Y. and H. Tschofenig, "Internet Key Exchange
              Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2) Session Resumption", RFC 5723,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5723, January 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5723>.

   [RFC6928]  Chu, J., Dukkipati, N., Cheng, Y., and M. Mathis,
              "Increasing TCP's Initial Window", RFC 6928,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6928, April 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6928>.

   [RFC8019]  Nir, Y. and V. Smyslov, "Protecting Internet Key Exchange
              Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2) Implementations from
              Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks", RFC 8019,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8019, November 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8019>.

   [RFC8229]  Pauly, T., Touati, S., and R. Mantha, "TCP Encapsulation
              of IKE and IPsec Packets", RFC 8229, DOI 10.17487/RFC8229,
              August 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8229>.

Appendix A.  Example of IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange

   This appendix contains an example of the messages using
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges.  This appendix is purely informative; if
   it disagrees with the body of this document, the other text is
   considered correct.

   In this example there is one IKE_SA_INIT exchange and two
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges, followed by the IKE_AUTH exchange to
   authenticate all initial exchanges.  The xxx in the HDR(xxx,MID=yyy)
   indicates the exchange type, and yyy tells the message id used for
   that exchange.  The keys used for each SK {} payload are indicated in
   the parenthesis after the SK.  Otherwise, the payload notation is the
   same as is used in [RFC7296].




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   Initiator                         Responder
   -----------                       -----------
   HDR(IKE_SA_INIT,MID=0),
   SAi1, KEi, Ni,
   N(INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED)  -->

                                <--  HDR(IKE_SA_INIT,MID=0),
                                     SAr1, KEr, Nr, [CERTREQ],
                                     N(INTERMEDIATE_EXCHANGE_SUPPORTED)

   At this point peers calculate SK_* and store them as SK_*1.  SK_e[i/
   r]1 and SK_a[i/r]1 will be used to protect the first IKE_INTERMEDIATE
   exchange and SK_p[i/r]1 will be used for its authentication.

   Initiator                         Responder
   -----------                       -----------
   HDR(IKE_INTERMEDIATE,MID=1),
   SK(SK_ei1,SK_ai1) {...}  -->

            <Calculate IntAuth_i1 = prf(SK_pi1, ...)>

                                <--  HDR(IKE_INTERMEDIATE,MID=1),
                                     SK(SK_er1,SK_ar1) {...}

            <Calculate IntAuth_r1 = prf(SK_pr1, ...)>

   If after completing this IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange the SK_*1 keys are
   updated (e.g., as a result of a new key exchange), then the peers
   store the updated keys as SK_*2, otherwise they use SK_*1 as SK_*2.
   SK_e[i/r]2 and SK_a[i/r]2 will be used to protect the second
   IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange and SK_p[i/r]2 will be used for its
   authentication.

   Initiator                         Responder
   -----------                       -----------
   HDR(IKE_INTERMEDIATE,MID=2),
   SK(SK_ei2,SK_ai2) {...}  -->

            <Calculate IntAuth_i2 = prf(SK_pi2, ...)>

                                <--  HDR(IKE_INTERMEDIATE,MID=2),
                                     SK(SK_er2,SK_ar2) {...}

            <Calculate IntAuth_r2 = prf(SK_pr2, ...)>

   If after completing the second IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange the SK_*2
   keys are updated (e.g., as a result of a new key exchange), then the
   peers store the updated keys as SK_*3, otherwise they use SK_*2 as



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   SK_*3.  SK_e[i/r]3 and SK_a[i/r]3 will be used to protect the
   IKE_AUTH exchange, SK_p[i/r]3 will be used for authentication, and
   SK_d3 will be used for derivation of other keys (e.g. for Child SAs).

   Initiator                         Responder
   -----------                       -----------
   HDR(IKE_AUTH,MID=3),
   SK(SK_ei3,SK_ai3)
   {IDi, [CERT,] [CERTREQ,]
   [IDr,] AUTH, SAi2, TSi, TSr}  -->
                                <--  HDR(IKE_AUTH,MID=3),
                                     SK(SK_er3,SK_ar3)
                                     {IDr, [CERT,] AUTH, SAr2, TSi, TSr}

   In this example two IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchanges took place, therefore
   SK_*3 keys would be used as SK_* keys for further cryptographic
   operations in the context of the created IKE SA, as defined in
   [RFC7296].

Author's Address

   Valery Smyslov
   ELVIS-PLUS
   PO Box 81
   Moscow (Zelenograd)
   124460
   Russian Federation
   Phone: +7 495 276 0211
   Email: svan@elvis.ru






















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