Network Working Group                                  M. Boucadair, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                            France Telecom
Intended status: Informational                             S. Matsushima
Expires: December 11, 2011                              Softbank Telecom
                                                                  Y. Lee
                                                              O. Bonness
                                                        Deutsche Telekom
                                                               I. Borges
                                                        Portugal Telecom
                                                                 G. Chen
                                                            China Mobile
                                                            June 9, 2011

      Motivations for Stateless IPv4 over IPv6 Migration Solutions


   IPv4 service continuity is one of the most sensitive problems that
   must be resolved by Service Providers during the IPv6 transition
   period - especially after the exhaustion of the public IPv4 address
   space.  Current standardization effort that addresses IPv4 service
   continuity focuses on stateful mechanisms.  This document elaborates
   on the motivations for the need to undertake a companion effort to
   specify stateless IPv4 over IPv6 approaches.

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 11, 2011.

Copyright Notice

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   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Why Stateless IPv4 over IPv6 Solutions are Needed? . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Network Architecture Simplification  . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       3.1.1.  Network Dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       3.1.2.  No Intra-domain Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       3.1.3.  Logging - No Need for Dynamic Binding Notifications  .  5
       3.1.4.  No Additional Protocol for Port Control is Required  .  6
       3.1.5.  Bandwidth Saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Operational Tasks and Network Maintenance Efficiency . . .  6
       3.2.1.  Preserve Current Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.2.  Planned Maintenance Operations . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.3.  Reliability and Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.4.  Support of Multi-Vendor Redundancy . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.5.  Simplification of Qualification Procedures . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  Facilitating Service Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.3.1.  Implicit Host Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.3.2.  No Organizational Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.4.  Cost Minimization Opportunities  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   9.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

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1.  Introduction

   When the global IPv4 address space is exhausted, Service Providers
   will be left with an address pool that cannot be increased anymore.
   Many services and network scenarios will be impacted by the lack of
   IPv4 public addresses.  Providing access to the (still limited) IPv6
   Internet only won't be sufficient to address the needs of customers,
   as most of them will continue to access legacy IPv4-only services.
   Service Providers must guarantee their customers that they can still
   access IPv4 contents although they will not be provisioned with a
   global IPv4 address anymore.  Means to share IPv4 public addresses
   are unavoidable [I-D.ietf-intarea-shared-addressing-issues].

   Identifying the most appropriate solution(s) to the IPv4 address
   exhaustion as well as IPv4 service continuity problems and deploying
   them in a real network with real customers is a very challenging and
   complex process for all Service Providers.  There is nothing like a
   "One size fits all" solution or one target architecture that would
   work for all situations.  Each Service Provider has to take into
   account its own context (e.g., service infrastructures), policies and
   marketing strategy (a document that informs Service Providers about
   the impact of the IPv4 address shortage, and provides some
   recommendations and guidelines, is available at [EURESCOM]).

   Current standardization effort that is meant to address this IPv4
   service continuity issue focuses mainly on stateful mechanisms that
   assume the sharing of any global IPv4 address that is left between
   several customers, based upon the deployment of NAT (Network Address
   Translation) capabilities in the network.  Because of some caveats of
   such stateful approaches the Service Provider community feels that a
   companion effort is required to specify stateless IPv4 over IPv6
   approaches.  This document provides elaboration on such need.

   Particularly, this document describes the motivations for stateless
   solutions within the context of an IPv6-enabled network as described
   in [RFC6180].  The following table shows the targeted space:

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                              | Crossing IPv4 | IPv6-enabled  |
                              |   networks    |    networks   |
                  | Stateful  |   RFC5571     |    DS-Lite    |
                  | solution  |    (L2TP)     |               |
                  | Stateless |   RFC5969     |   *Target*    |
                  | solution  |    (6rd)      |   *space *    |

   It is explicitly acknowledged by the authors of this document that
   both stateful and stateless solutions are required to meet Service
   Providers needs and constraints.

   More discussions about stateless vs. stateful can be found at

2.  Terminology

   This document makes use of the following terms:

   Stateful 4/6 solution  (or stateful solution in short): denotes a
                       solution where the network maintains user-session
                       states relying on the activation of a NAT
                       function in the Service Providers' network
                       [I-D.ietf-behave-lsn-requirements].  The NAT
                       function is responsible for sharing the same IPv4
                       address among several subscribers and to maintain
                       user-session state.

   Stateless  4/6 solution  (or stateless solution in short): denotes a
                       solution which does not require any user-session
                       state (see Section 2.3 of [RFC1958]) to be
                       maintained by any IP address sharing function in
                       the Service Provider's network.  This category of
                       solutions assumes a dependency between an IPv6
                       prefix and IPv4 address.  In an IPv4 address
                       sharing context, dedicated functions are required
                       to be enabled in the CPE router to restrict the
                       source IPv4 port numbers.  Within this document,
                       "port set" and "port range" terms are used

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3.  Why Stateless IPv4 over IPv6 Solutions are Needed?

   This section discusses motivations for preferring a deployment of
   stateless 4/6 solutions.  The technical and operational benefits of
   the stateless solutions are possible because no per-user state
   [RFC1958] is maintained in the Service Providers networks.

3.1.  Network Architecture Simplification

   The activation of this stateless function in the Service Provider's
   network does not introduce any major constraint on the network
   architecture and its engineering.  The following sub-sections
   elaborate on these aspects.

3.1.1.  Network Dimensioning

   Because no user-state [RFC1958] is required, a stateless solution
   does not need to take into account the maximum number of simultaneous
   user-sessions and the maximum number of new user-sessions per second
   to dimension its networking equipment.  Like current network
   dimensioning practices, only considerations related to the customer
   number, traffic trends and the bandwidth usage need be taken into
   account for dimensioning purposes.

3.1.2.  No Intra-domain Constraint

   Stateless IPv4/IPv6 interconnection functions can be ideally located
   at the boundaries of an Autonomous System (e.g., ASBR routers that
   peer with external IPv4 domains); in such case:

      Intra-domain paths are not altered: there is no need to force IP
      packets to cross a given node for instance; intra-domain routing
      processes are not tweaked to direct the traffic to dedicated
      nodes.  In particular, stateless solutions optimizes CPE-to-CPE
      communication in that packets don't go through the interconnection
      function since the address and port mapping has been realized
      based on a well defined mapping schema that is known to all
      involved devices.

3.1.3.  Logging - No Need for Dynamic Binding Notifications

   Network abuse reporting requires traceability
   [I-D.ietf-intarea-shared-addressing-issues].  To provide such
   traceability, prior to IPv4 address sharing, logging the IPv4 address
   assigned to a user was sufficient and generates relatively small
   logs.  The advent of stateful IPv4 address allows dynamic port
   assignment, which then requires port assignment logging.  This
   logging of port assignments can be considerable.

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   In contrast, static port assignments do not require such considerable
   logging.  The volume of the logging file may not be seen as an
   important criterion for privileging a stateless approach because
   stateful approaches can also be configured (or designed) to assign
   port ranges and therefore lead to acceptable log volumes.

   If a dynamic port assignment mode is used, dedicated interfaces and
   protocols must be supported to forward binding data records towards
   dedicated platforms.  The activation of these dynamic notifications
   may impact the performance of the dedicated device.  For stateless
   solutions, there is no need for dynamic procedures (e.g., using
   SYSLOG) to notify a mediation platform about assigned bindings.

   Some Service Providers have a requirement to use only existing
   logging systems and to avoid introducing new ones (mainly because of
   CAPEX considerations).  This requirement is easily met with stateless

3.1.4.  No Additional Protocol for Port Control is Required

   The deployment of stateless solution does not require the deployment
   of new dynamic signaling protocols to the end-user CPE in addition to
   those already used.  In particular, existing protocols (e.g., UPnP
   IGD:2 [UPnP-IGD]) can be used to control the NAT mapping in the CPE.

3.1.5.  Bandwidth Saving

   In same particular network scenarios (e.g., wireless network ),
   spectrum is very valuable and scarce resource.  Service providers
   usually wish to eliminate unnecessary overhead to save bandwidth
   consumption in such environment.  Service providers need to consider
   optimizing the form of packet processing when encapsulation is used.
   Since existing header compression techniques are stateful, it is
   expected that stateless solution minimize overhead introduced by the

3.2.  Operational Tasks and Network Maintenance Efficiency

3.2.1.  Preserve Current Practices

   Service Providers require as much as possible to preserve the same
   operations as for current IP networking environments.

   If stateless solutions are deployed, common practices are preserved.
   In particular, the maintenance and operation of the network do not
   require any additional constraints such as: path optimization
   practices, enforcing traffic engineering policies, issues related to
   traffic oscillation between stateful devices, load-balancing the

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   traffic or load sharing the traffic among egress/ingress points can
   be used, etc.  In particular:

   o  anycast-based schemes can be used for load-balancing and
      redundancy purposes.

   o  asymmetric routing to/from the IPv4 Internet is natively supported
      and no path-pinning mechanisms have to be additionally

3.2.2.  Planned Maintenance Operations

   Since no state is maintained by stateless IPv4/IPv6 interconnection
   nodes, no additional constraint needs to be taken into account when
   upgrading these nodes (e.g., adding a new service card, upgrading
   hardware, periodic reboot of the devices, etc.).  In particular,
   current practices that are enforced to (gracefully) reboot or to
   shutdown routers can be maintained.

3.2.3.  Reliability and Robustness

   Compared to current practices (i.e., without a CGN in place), no
   additional capabilities are required to ensure reliability and
   robustness in the context of stateless solutions.  Since no state is
   maintained in the Service Provider's network, state synchronization
   procedures are not required.

   High availability (including failure recovery) is ensured owing to
   best current practices in the field.

3.2.4.  Support of Multi-Vendor Redundancy

   Deploying stateful techniques, especially when used in the Service
   Providers networks, constrain severely deploying multi-vendor
   redundancy since very often proprietary vendor-specific protocols are
   used to synchronize state.  This is not an issue for the stateless
   case.  Concretely, the activation of the stateless IPv4/IPv6
   interconnection function does not prevent nor complicate deploying
   devices from different vendors.

   This criterion is very important for Service Providers having a
   sourcing policy to avoid mono-vendor deployments and to operate
   highly-available networks composed on multi-vendors equipment.

3.2.5.  Simplification of Qualification Procedures

   The introduction of new functions and nodes into operational networks
   follows strict procedures elaborated by Service Providers.  These

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   procedures include in-lab testing and field trials.  Because of their
   nature, stateless implementations optimize testing times and

   o  The specification of test suites to be conducted should be

   o  The required testing resources (in terms of manpower) are likely
      to be less solicited that they are for stateful approaches.

   One of the privileged approaches to integrate stateless IPv4/IPv6
   interconnection function consists in embedding stateless capabilities
   in existing operational nodes (e.g., IP router).  In this case, any
   software or hardware update would require to execute non-regression
   testing activities.  In the context of the stateless solutions, the
   non-regression testing load due to an update of the stateless code is
   expected to be minimal.

   For the stateless case, testing effort and non-regression testing are
   to be taken into account for the CPE side.  This effort is likely to
   be lightweight compared to the testing effort, including the non-
   regression testing, of a stateful function which is co-located with
   other routing functions for instance.

3.3.  Facilitating Service Evolution

3.3.1.  Implicit Host Identification

   Service Providers do not offer only IP connectivity services but also
   added value services (a.k.a., internal services).  Upgrading these
   services to be IPv6-enabled is not sufficient because of legacy
   devices.  In some deployments, the delivery of these added-value
   services relies on implicit identification mechanism based on the
   source IPv4 address.  Due to address sharing, implicit identification
   will fail [I-D.ietf-intarea-shared-addressing-issues]; replacing
   implicit identification with explicit authentication will be seen as
   a non acceptable service regression by the end users (less Quality of
   Experience (QoE)).

   When a stateless solution is deployed, implicit identification for
   internal services is likely to be easier to implement: the implicit
   identification should be updated to take into account the port range
   and the IPv4 address.  Techniques as those analyzed in
   [I-D.boucadair-intarea-nat-reveal-analysis] are not required for the
   delivery of these internal services if a stateless solution is

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3.3.2.  No Organizational Impact

   Stateless solutions rely on IP-related techniques to share and to
   deliver IPv4 packets over an IPv6 network.  In particular, IPv4
   packets are delivered without any modification to their destination
   CPE.  As such there is a clear separation between the IP/transport
   layers and the service layers; no service interference is to be
   observed when a stateless solution is deployed.  This clear

   Facilitates service evolution:  Since the payload of IPv4 packets is
      not altered in the path, services can evolve without requiring any
      specific function in the Service Provider's network;

   Limits vendor dependency:  The upgrade of value-added services does
      not involve any particular action from vendors that provide
      devices embedding the stateless IPv4/IPv6 interconnection

   No service-related skills are required for network operators who
   manage devices that embed the IPv4/IPv6 interconnection function:  IP
      teams can be in charge of these devices; there is a priori no need
      to create a dedicated team to manage and to operate devices
      embedding the stateless IPv4/IPv6 interconnection function.  The
      introduction of stateless capabilities in the network are unlikely
      to degrade management costs.

3.4.  Cost Minimization Opportunities

   To make decision for which solution is to be adopted, service
   providers usually undertake comparative studies about viable
   technical solutions.  It is not only about technical aspects but also
   economical optimization (both CAPEX and OPEX considerations).

   From a Service Provider perspective, stateless solutions are more
   attractive because they do less impact the current network operations
   and maintenance model that is widely based on stateless approaches.
   Table 1 shows the general correspondence between technical benefits
   and potential economic reduction opportunities.

   While not all Service Providers environments are the same, a detailed
   case study from one Service Provider
   [I-D.matsushima-v6ops-transition-experience] reports that stateless
   transition solutions can be considerably less expensive than stateful
   transition solutions.

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   |    Section    |    Technical and Operation Benefit   |  Cost Area |
   | Section 3.1.1 |         Network dimensioning         |   Network  |
   | Section 3.1.2 |      No Intra-domain constraint      |   Network  |
   | Section 3.1.3 |                Logging               |  Network & |
   |               |                                      |     Ops    |
   | Section 3.1.4 |    No additional control protocol    |   Network  |
   | Section 3.2.1 |      Preserve current practices      |     Ops    |
   | Section 3.2.2 |          Planned maintenance         |     Ops    |
   | Section 3.2.3 |      Reliability and robustness      |  Network & |
   |               |                                      |     Ops    |
   | Section 3.2.4 |        Multi-Vendor Redundancy       |   Network  |
   | Section 3.2.5 |         Simple qualification         |     Ops    |
   | Section 3.3.1 |   Implicit Host Identification for   |     Ops    |
   |               |           internal services          |            |
   | Section 3.3.2 |         Organizational Impact        |     Ops    |

                 Table 1: Cost minimization considerations

4.  Conclusion

   As discussed in Section 3, stateless solutions provide several
   interesting features.  Trade-off between the positive vs. negative
   aspects of stateless solutions is left to Service Providers.  Each
   Service Provider will have to select the appropriate solution
   (stateless, stateful or even both) meeting its requirements.

   This document recommends to undertake as soon as possible the
   appropriate standardization effort to specify a stateless IPv4 over
   IPv6 solution.

5.  IANA Considerations

   No action is required from IANA.

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6.  Security Considerations

   Except for the less efficient port randomization of and routing loops
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-tunnel-loops], stateless 4/6 solutions are expected
   to introduce no more security vulnerabilities than stateful ones.
   Because of their stateless nature, they may in addition reduce denial
   of service opportunities.

7.  Contributors

   The following individuals have contributed to this document:

         Christian Jacquenet
         France Telecom


         Pierre Levis
         France Telecom


         Masato Yamanishi
         SoftBank BB


         Yuji Yamazaki
         Softbank Mobile


         Hui Deng
         China Mobile
         53A,Xibianmennei Ave.
         Beijing  100053

         Phone: +86-13910750201

8.  Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to the following individuals who provided valuable

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     | X. Deng       | W. Dec        | D. Wing       | A. Baudot     |
     | E. Burgey     | L. Cittadini  | R. Despres    | J. Zorz       |
     | M. Townsley   | L. Meillarec  | R. Maglione   | J. Queiroz    |
     | C. Xie        | X. Li         | O. Troan      | J. Qin        |
     | B. Sarikaya   |               |               |               |

9.  Informative References

              Levis, P., Borges, I., Bonness, O. and L. Dillon L., "IPv4
              address exhaustion: Issues and Solutions for Service
              Providers", March 2010, <

              Boucadair, M., Touch, J., and P. Levis, "Analysis of
              Solution Candidates to Reveal the Origin IP Address in
              Shared Address Deployments",
              draft-boucadair-intarea-nat-reveal-analysis-01 (work in
              progress), March 2011.

              Perreault, S., Yamagata, I., Miyakawa, S., Nakagawa, A.,
              and H. Ashida, "Common requirements for IP address sharing
              schemes", draft-ietf-behave-lsn-requirements-01 (work in
              progress), March 2011.

              Ford, M., Boucadair, M., Durand, A., Levis, P., and P.
              Roberts, "Issues with IP Address Sharing",
              draft-ietf-intarea-shared-addressing-issues-05 (work in
              progress), March 2011.

              Nakibly, G. and F. Templin, "Routing Loop Attack using
              IPv6 Automatic Tunnels: Problem Statement and Proposed
              Mitigations", draft-ietf-v6ops-tunnel-loops-07 (work in
              progress), May 2011.

              Matsushima, S., Yamazaki, Y., Sun, C., Yamanishi, M., and
              J. Jiao, "Use case and consideration experiences of IPv4
              to IPv6 transition",

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              draft-matsushima-v6ops-transition-experience-02 (work in
              progress), March 2011.

   [RFC1958]  Carpenter, B., "Architectural Principles of the Internet",
              RFC 1958, June 1996.

   [RFC6144]  Baker, F., Li, X., Bao, C., and K. Yin, "Framework for
              IPv4/IPv6 Translation", RFC 6144, April 2011.

   [RFC6180]  Arkko, J. and F. Baker, "Guidelines for Using IPv6
              Transition Mechanisms during IPv6 Deployment", RFC 6180,
              May 2011.

              UPnP Forum, "Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) Internet
              Gateway Device (IGD) V 2.0", December 2010,

Authors' Addresses

   Mohamed Boucadair (editor)
   France Telecom
   Rennes,   35000


   Satoru Matsushima
   Softbank Telecom


   Yiu Lee


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   Olaf Bonness
   Deutsche Telekom


   Isabel Borges
   Portugal Telecom


   Gang Chen
   China Mobile
   53A,Xibianmennei Ave.
   Beijing, Xuanwu District  100053


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