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Versions: 00                                                            
INTERNET-DRAFT                                                 Joe Touch
draft-touch-l3vn-arch-00.txt                                 Lars Eggert
                                                            Yu-Shun Wang
                                                                 USC/ISI
                                                               Jun. 2002
                                                      Expires: Dec. 2002



              An Architecture for Layer 3 Virtual Networks


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 except for the right to
   produce derivative works.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   To view the list Internet-Draft Shadow Directories, see
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html



Abstract

   This document describes an architecture for layer 3 (IP) virtual
   networks.  Virtual networks consist of virtual hosts and virtual
   routers connected by virtual links (tunnels) just like a real
   network. The focus of this draft is to extend the current Internet
   architecture to support virtual networks.



1. Introduction

   This document describes an architecture for layer 3 (IP) virtual



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   networks.  Layer 3 virtual networks use only layer 3 protocols to
   provide layer 3 connectivity within each virtual network. Virtual
   networks consist of virtual hosts and virtual routers connected by
   virtual links (tunnels).  The architecture is based on the current
   Internet architecture with some extensions and techniques required to
   support virtual networks. The components in this architecture are
   also examined against the current Internet standards.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.


 1.1 Concepts of Virtual Networks

   The concepts and purposes of virtual networks in a physical network
   are the same as virtual memory [1] in computer systems:

     - Provide an abstract view of their real counterparts to
       applications.
     - Allow concurrent sharing of the physical resources among
       multiple applications.
     - Ensure isolation among different virtual entities.

   Virtual networks are constructed by linking nodes with tunnels, which
   encapsulates packets inside virtual networks with additional headers.
   One feature unique to virtual networks is the capability to bypass
   nodes not in the virtual networks. This property led to the early
   adoption of virtual networks to incrementally deploy new protocols
   such as multicast [2] and IPv6 [3]. It also enabled the recent
   commercial deployment of virtual private networks (VPN) [4], and the
   proliferation of peer-to-peer networks [5].


 1.2 Virtual Private Networks

   Virtual Private Network (VPNs) are an important subset of virtual
   networks.  By tunneling the traffic, virtual networks provide
   isolation among traffic belong to different virtual networks, also
   between virtual networks and the underlying Internet. But tunneling
   alone does not provide security. Other security mechanisms and
   protocols, such as encryption, authentication, access control, and
   policy management must be used to secure the nodes and traffic in
   virtual networks.

   This document does not discuss security measures and policy
   management for virtual private networks. While they will certainly
   influence how a virtual network is provisioned and managed, they



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   really should not affect the architecture of the virtual network. A
   good virtual Internet architecture should be able to use existing
   Internet mechanisms to achieve security. The modifications should not
   exceed the changes made to the current Internet to accommodate
   security.


 1.3 Types of Virtual Networks - Open, Close, & Router Cloud

   As with the real network, a "close" virtual network confines the
   traffic to within the virtual network. An "open" virtual network
   allows communications between nodes inside the virtual network with
   nodes outside, either in another virtual network or in the underlying
   Internet. Using virtual networks as router clouds is the third
   category between "open" and "close". In this case, the virtual
   network really acts like a transit network for packets from the
   outside.

   Normally, virtual networks are designed to be closed for isolation or
   security purposes. The use of tunnel encapsulation also prevents
   direct communication between the virtual network and the underlying
   physical network. For packets passing through the virtual network as
   a transit, it is sufficient to encapsulate them with the extra header
   to direct these packets to their exit points in the virtual network.
   For packet exchange between a node inside a virtual network and a
   node in the real network, the boundary nodes need to perform NAT-like
   operations to transform packets crossing the boundary.



2. Architecture of Virtual Networks

   This section describes the architecture and components of layer 3
   virtual networks.


 2.1 Virtual Networks

   The architecture of the layer 3 virtual networks is very simple, and
   is the same as the real network. The architecture is defined below:

     A virtual network consists of virtual hosts and virtual routers
     connected by virtual links (tunnels) in an arbitrary topology.
     Virtual hosts and virtual routers are RFC-conformant hosts and
     routers inside a virtual network. While the Internet runs (mostly)
     over layer 2 links, a layer 3 virtual network runs over layer 3
     tunnels, uses only layer 3 protocols to provide layer 3
     connectivity.



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 2.2 Virtual Hosts

   Virtual hosts, like their real counterparts, are either packet
   sources or sinks, but never packet transits inside a virtual network.
   Virtual hosts MUST conform to the Internet Host Requirements [6][7].
   A virtual host can be located inside a real multihomed host or a
   router in the underlying real network as discussed below.

  2.2.1 Virtual Hosts in Multihomed Hosts

   When a virtual host is inside a real host, the host becomes
   multihomed because it has one host (home) for the real network and at
   least another host (home) in the virtual network.

   RFC 1122 specified two models for multihomed hosts: Strong End System
   (ES) Model and Weak ES Model. The Strong ES model states that the
   destination address of an incoming packet MUST match the address of
   the physical interface through which it is received, and an outgoing
   packet must be sent through the interface that corresponds to the
   source address of the packet. The models are updated to include
   virtual interfaces associated with tunnels in a virtual network in
   addition to physical interfaces.

   A multihomed host SHOULD follow the Strong ES model instead of the
   Weak ES Model to ensure the isolation of the traffic in a virtual
   network from those of the underlying network and other virtual
   networks.

   The multihomed host architecture also supports a host participating
   in more than one virtual network. There might be administrative
   reasons not to do so, but the architecture supports it.

   Another requirement regarding multihomed hosts is the capability to
   "route" outbound packets among the "homes". This also implies that a
   multihomed host MUST be able to forward packets like a router. It
   doesn't mean a multihomed host needs to run routing protocols like a
   real router, but it must conform to the Router Requirements [8][9]
   regarding packet forwarding operations.

  2.2.2 Virtual Hosts in Real Routers

   As described in Section 1.3, when a virtual network is open or acts
   as a transit network, routers could act as virtual hosts inside a
   virtual network. There are three possible communication patterns
   depending on the entities involved and the type of virtual networks:

     1. Virtual networks as transit clouds:




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        In this case, the edge nodes of the virtual network will
        encapsulate the incoming packets from the real network with
        additional headers to send them through the virtual network to
        their corresponding exit points. Note that the real source and
        destination are hidden from the nodes in the virtual network.
        These packets appear to originate from one such edge node and
        destined to another edge node. Though those edge nodes are
        routers in the real network, they act as packet sources and
        sinks inside the virtual networks. As far as the virtual
        network is concerned, they really are just virtual hosts.

     2. Communication between virtual network and physical network:

        This requires the edge nodes between the virtual network and
        the physical network to perform a NAT-like [10] operation on the
        packets crossing the boundary to "elevate" or "transform" the
        packets into the virtual network space. But to the virtual
        network, those packets effectively originated from and destined
        to those edge nodes, which makes them just like hosts in the
        virtual network.

     3. Inter virtual network communication

        Strictly speaking, the edge nodes in this case are not virtual
        hosts, but should be virtual routers. They perform the same
        functionality as the border routers of the Internet AS's,
        exchanging routing information among different virtual networks,
        and forwarding packets across the boundary between different
        virtual networks.

        Note that this is only possible if the address spaces of the
        connected virtual networks do not overlap. Otherwise, the
        edge nodes will need to perform NAT-like translation on
        packets crossing the boundary, and this will make the edge
        nodes again behave like virtual hosts in the virtual network.

   In all the cases, additional mechanisms and protocols are required to
   handle the dissemination of address and routing information between
   virtual networks and the physical networks, and the encapsulation and
   decapsulation of the packets crossing the boundary of virtual
   networks and the real network. The former can be done using one of
   the exterior gateway routing protocols, the latter could be
   implemented as a variation of NAT [10]. But neither should be
   consider as part of the virtual network architecture because as far
   as the virtual network is concerned, those mechanisms and protocols,
   while non-trivial, are nothing more than "applications" using the
   virtual network (generating and receiving packets).




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 2.3 Virtual Routers

   Virtual routers are routers inside virtual networks. The fundamental
   concepts of virtual routers described in this draft are very similar
   to those described in [11]. Virtual routers work exactly the same way
   in virtual networks as physical routers do in real networks, which
   means they must also conform to the Internet router requirements
   [8][9] except some constraints regarding the use of virtual links
   instead of physical ones, and containment and isolation of the
   routing information among virtual networks and between virtual
   networks and the underlying physical networks.

   The main functionality of virtual routers is to forward packets
   inside a virtual network. The dissemination of reachability
   information and the construction of the routing table can be achieved
   either by static manual configurations or by running dynamic routing
   protocols inside the virtual network. Like the real network, the
   exchange of routing information in the case of dynamic routing
   protocols must be limited within the boundary of a virtual network.
   Any exchange crossing the boundary of virtual networks and real
   networks must be treated with extreme care and can only be done when
   the address spaces of different virtual networks do not overlap.

   The main difference between a virtual router and a physical router is
   the links they operate on. For virtual routers, links in a virtual
   networks are actually point-to-point tunnels in the underlying
   network. The dynamic routing protocols chosen for virtual networks
   must be able to exchange routing information using the tunnels. This
   would ensure the isolation and containment of the routing information
   among different virtual networks and also the real network. For
   routing protocols with special requirements regarding the properties
   of the links, e.g., broadcast vs. point-to-point media, specific link
   layer protocols, etc., the tunneling mechanisms might limit the
   choice of routing protocols used in a virtual network.


 2.4 Virtual Links

   Virtual links are links among different (virtual) nodes in a virtual
   network. Virtual links are often implemented as point-to-point
   tunnels encapsulating packets with extra header(s). This is different
   from physical links with broadcast media. The implication is that
   some protocols, like multicast, might not work over virtual links
   because they assume certain link properties.


 2.5 End-to-End vs. Router-Cloud/Transit Virtual Networks




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   End-to-end virtual networks are virtual networks that extend to the
   hosts, while router-cloud or transit-net virtual networks stop at the
   edge routers. As described in Section 2.2.2, the router-cloud model
   is actually a special case of the end-to-end virtual network in which
   the virtual hosts sit inside real routers and the packets from the
   real hosts will be converted when entering (encapsulation) and
   leaving (decapsulation) the virtual network. Within the virtual
   network, the source and destination addresses of the real hosts are
   hidden from the virtual routers. As far as the virtual network is
   concerned, edge routers are acting like sources and sinks of packets
   inside the virtual network.

   An alternative view of the router cloud model is to include the real
   hosts connected from outside the router cloud as part of the virtual
   network and try to management them altogether. These often result in
   added complexity to the deployment and management of virtual networks
   when what is really needed are for the edge nodes (of the virtual
   network) to exchange reachability information for those hosts using
   (but not inside) the virtual networks.


 2.6 Layer "X" VPNs (where X > 1)

   The following is a discussion of implementing virtual networks in
   different layers of the network protocol stack.

  2.6.1 Link Layer (L2) Virtual Networks

   Different types of link-layer (L2) virtual networks [12] were
   proposed to provide layer-2 connectivity, (or forward packets based
   on layer-2 information and incoming links,) across the Internet.
   While this can certainly be done, there are potential issues
   regarding this approach:

     1. Most layer-2 (LAN) protocols have latency bounds. Using LAN
        protocols over wide area MAY breaks those specifications.
        There MUST be mechanisms to detect when this will occur and
        disable the L2 protocols, rather than allow inconsistencies
        to exist.

     2. Most LAN protocols assumes broadcast media while most virtual
        networks use point-to-point tunnels. Some implementations of
        L2 virtual networks use software copy to emulate broadcast.
        The problem is that atomicity and ordering of broadcast
        packets MUST be maintained in such implementations. Otherwise
        the resulting virtual network is not broadcast-capable, which
        MUST inhibit L2 protocols that rely on such capability.




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     3. There are no hierarchical structures in the address space of most
        layer 2 protocols, and often no routing infrastructure and no
        mechanisms to disseminate address lookup information in wide area
        for the same reason. This means routing (reachability) and address
        lookup within such virtual networks require additional protocols
        and mechanisms.

   To overcome the issues caused by using layer-2 protocols in an
   environment they are not designed for, network engineers inevitably
   have to reinvent many new mechanisms to circumcise those problems and
   make the resulting frameworks unnecessarily complex.

   Another issue is security. Most link layer protocols have no security
   mechanisms, makes it necessary to use additional security mechanisms
   in higher layers of the protocol stack. While this is not a
   shortcoming of layer-2 virtual networks, it is an important factor
   when security is required, e.g., virtual private networks.

  2.6.2 Network Layer (L3) Virtual Networks

   Network-layer virtual networks, or layer-3 virtual networks, assume
   network-layer connectivity, and use only network-layer protocols to
   provide layer-3 virtual networks. An example is virtual networks
   constructed by using IP-IP tunnels.

   Constructing virtual networks over layer 3 protocols have the
   following advantages over other layers:

     1. Layer 3 (IP) has global naming and addressing structure.
        Many virtual networks in layers above L3 actually map their
        node IDs to L3 addresses.

     2. Layer 3 has routing protocols in the architecture. This
        means a layer 3 virtual networks can just use the same
        routing protocols within themselves.

   As will be discussed in the next section, many virtual network
   architectures in other layers often reinvent these functionalities of
   layer 3.

  2.6.3 Layer 4 (and above) Virtual Networks

   The problem with implementing virtual networks on layer 4 to layer 7
   is that they don't have naming/addressing and routing functionality.
   An L4 (or L7) virtual network protocol often ends up reinventing
   these functionalities, usually by either routing on L7 names or
   providing a separate tag space so L7 names map to L3 addresses.




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   The drawbacks are twofold:

     1. Reinvented protocols often incompletely recapitulate the
        discovery of errors, and usually not as well-implemented
        as the existing L3 protocols.

     2. Similar functionalities at different layers could interfere
        with each other, resulting in mis-routing, re-routing, or
        dead-ends, etc.



3. Service

   This section lists some of the services provided by virtual networks
   to hosts and routers inside the virtual networks, and at the edge of
   the virtual networks in the case of virtual networks as transit nets.


 3.1 Addressing

   Private IP addresses defined in RFC [13] SHOULD be used inside the
   virtual network if it is a closed network isolated from the Internet.
   Addresses assigned to the components within a virtual network must be
   unique throughout the virtual network, and when communicating with
   other virtual networks, the scope of uniqueness must be extended to
   cover all the connected virtual networks.

   While the isolated nature of virtual networks allows network
   administrators to re-use real IP addresses in the virtual networks,
   this will make it difficult or confusing to manage and differentiate
   routing information for the real network versus the virtual ones when
   they touch down on the same node(s).


 3.2 IP Connectivity

   A virtual network must provide IP connectivity to hosts and routers
   inside.  Packet forwarding must be transparent to the hosts just like
   in the Internet.`


 3.3 Routing

  3.3.1 Within a Virtual Network

   Inside a virtual network, the construction of routing tables on
   virtual routers can be done by using static routes and manual



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   configurations, or by using dynamic routing protocols among the
   virtual routers to exchange the reachability information.

   No matter which approach is used, it is important to ensure that
   layer 3 routing must work in a virtual network just as in the base
   network.  Failure of an existing routing mechanism in the virtual
   network means there are problems in the virtual network architecture.

  3.3.2 Between Multiple Virtual Networks

   When the address spaces of multiple virtual networks do not overlap,
   it is possible to run exterior routing protocols (e.g., BGP [14])
   among them to exchange routing information just like inter-AS routing
   of the current Internet.

  3.3.3 Between Virtual Networks and the Internet

   Depending on the type and use of virtual networks, the routing
   information exchange between a virtual network and the underlying
   Internet is either out of scope, or no different from the practice of
   the current Internet.

     1. Closed virtual networks with private [RFC 1918] addresses:
        This is often the case when the virtual network is isolated from the
        underlying network. The intention is to have a "closed" abstract
        network environment which does not support communication across the
        boundary of virtual networks and the Internet.

     2. Open virtual networks with valid Internet addresses:
        While not a normal way of using virtual networks, virtual networks of
        this type are the same as autonomous systems (AS's). Just run BGP or
        other inter-domain routing protocols at the edge of the virtual networks.

     3. Virtual networks as transit clouds:
        As discussed in Section 2.2.2, and 2.5, a virtual network in this case
        becomes a transit domain for the real network. It is necessary to
        exchange reachability information among all the edge nodes of the
        virtual network, and between the virtual network and the Internet.
        Again, this is exactly the same as how routing exchange is done for
        transit AS's in the Internet.


 3.4 Security

   As discussed in Section 1.2, security mechanisms and protocols
   required to implement VPNs, while very complex and non-trivial to
   deploy, are orthogonal to the architecture of virtual networks.




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   These security issues are currently being addressed in several IETF
   working groups regarding the current Internet. Once they are
   established and standardized, the virtual networks SHOULD be able to
   utilize them, just like in the Internet.


 3.5 QoS

   For a virtual network to support QoS, the components of the virtual
   network must be able to do the following:

     1. Virtual routers can assure, enforce, and reserve bandwidth
        constraints; and,
     2. Virtual links (tunnels) can reserve and enforce bandwidth
        requirements.

   Virtual networks can support QoS to the extend that the components
   can, and QoS in virtual nets works ONLY if QoS is continuously
   deployed on all possible underlying network (physical networks,
   Internet, etc.) paths.  This is currently not the case now. QoS is
   one of the few properties that virtual networks could just bypass the
   parts of the physical networks that don't support it and still make
   it work.

   QoS in virtual networks also assumes that reservations on the
   underlying network are then served as reservable services to the
   higher layer virtual network. This kind of QoS mechanism does not
   exist, though a 2-level variant was proposed [16].


 3.6 Multicast

   Current deployment of multicast relies heavily on the broadcast
   capability of the LAN protocols in the stub networks. Point-to-point
   tunnels in the virtual networks break this assumption, and makes it
   necessary to explicitly specify those tunnels in the multicast
   routing configurations.


 3.7 DHCP


 3.8 MPLS



4. Issues




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 4.1 Provisioning

   Other protocols and mechanisms are required to deploy a virtual
   network:

   Required:

     - Resource discovery
     - Link (tunnel) configuration
     - Routing configuration
     - Address allocation
     - Membership management

   Optional:

     - Security policy management and enforcement
     - QoS policy management and enforcement


 4.2 Routing

   There are situations where tunneling and security protocols interfere
   with routing protocols within the virtual networks. Please refer to
   the documents regarding different types of tunneling mechanisms,
   security protocols, and routing algorithms to resolve the conflicts
   [17].


 4.3 Architectural Components vs. Management Boundary

   There are hosts and routers, servers and clients in the current
   Internet architecture. The only place where management entities are
   used to define network architecture is for inter-domain routing as
   opposed to intra-domain routing. The same principle applies to
   virtual networks. While a virtual network may extend cross several
   administrative domains, same components in different domains still
   perform the same functions. There is no difference architecture-wise
   across management boundaries.

   One example is the current trend [15] in the IETF in defining
   different frameworks for privider-edge PPVPNs (PE-based PPVPNs) and
   customer-edge PPVPNs (CE-based PPVPNs). Unless the provider-edge
   routers behave differently from the customer-edge routers in a
   virtual network, administrative boundary (or equipment placement)
   along does not sufficiently define different architectures.






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5. Security Consideration

   This draft describes an architecture for virtual networks. Security
   measures are required if the resulting virtual networks need to be
   secure [17][18].

   Other security consideration are not discussed in this draft.



6. Conclusion

   This draft describes an architecture for layer 3 (IP) virtual
   networks, the components of virtual networks, and service provided by
   these virtual networks.



Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank the members of the X-Bone and
   DynaBone projects at USC/ISI for their contributions to the ideas
   behind this draft, notably Greg Finn and Amy S. Hughes.



References

   [1] Denning, P. J., "Virtual Memory," ACM Computer Surveys, Vol. 2,
   No.  3, September 1970, pp. 153-189.

   [2] Eriksson, H., "MBone: The Multicast Backbone," Communications of
   the ACM, August 1994, pp.54-60.

   [3] 6-Bone web pages - http://www.6bone.net

   [4] Scott, C., Wolfe, P., Erwin, M., Virtual Private Networks,
   O'Reilly & Assoc., Sebastapol, CA, 1998.

   [5] Oram, A. (Editor), Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Benefits of a
   Disruptive Technology, O'Reilly, Sebastapol CA, 2001.

   [6] Braden, R. (Editor), "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
   Communication Layers", RFC 1122, October 1989.

   [7] Braden, R. (Editor), "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
   Application and Support", RFC 1123, October 1989.




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   [8] Baker, F. (Editor), "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers," RFC
   1812, June 1995.

   [9] Senie, D., "Changing the Default for Directed Broadcasts in
   Routers," RFC 2644, August 1999.

   [10] Srisuresh, P., Egevang, K., "Traditional IP Network Address
   Translator (Traditional NAT)," RFC 3022, January 2001.

   [11] Knight, P. (Editor) et al., "Network based IP VPN Architecture
   using Virtual Routers," (work in progress), February 2002.

   [12] Kompella, K. et al., "Layer 2 VPNs Over Tunnels," (work in
   progress), June 2001.

   [13] Rekhter, Y., et al., "Address Allocation for Private Internets,"
   RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [14] Rekhter, Y., Li, T. (Editors), "A Border Gateway Protocol 4
   (BGP-4)," RFC 1771, March 1995.

   [15] Callon, R. (Editor) et al., "A Framework for Layer 3 Provider
   Provisioned Virtual Private Networks," (work in progress), April
   2002.

   [16] Terzis, A., Krawczyk, J., Wroclawski, J., Zhang, L., "RSVP
   Operation Over IP Tunnels," RFC 2746, January 2000.

   [17] Touch, J., Eggert, L., "Use of IPsec Transport Mode for Dynamic
   Routing," (work in progress), June 2002.

   [18] Kent, S., Atkinson, R., "Security Architecture for the Internet
   Protocol," RFC 2401, November 1998.



Author Information

  Joe Touch
  Lars Eggert
  Yu-Shun Wang

  Information Sciences Institute
  University of Southern California
  4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 1001
  Marina del Rey, CA 90292-6601
  USA




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  Phone: +1 310 448-9151
  Fax:   +1 310 448-9300

  URL:   http://www.isi.edu/{touch,larse,yushunwa}
  Email: {touch,larse,yushunwa}@isi.edu



Attribution and Disclaimer

Effort sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) and Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Force Materiel Command,
USAF, under agreements number F30602-98-1-0200 entitled "X-Bone" and
number F30602-01-2-0529 entitled "DynaBone". The views and conclusions
contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted
as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements,
either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA), the Air Force Research Laboratory, or the U.S.
Government.

The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and
should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official
policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Air Force Research
Laboratory, or the U.S. Government.


























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