Internet Engineering Task Force                       H.Cruickshank
  Internet Draft                                           S. Iyengar
  draft-cruickshank-ipdvb-sec-req-04.txt     University of Surrey, UK
                                                         L. Duquerroy
                                         Alcatel Alenia Space, France
  Expires: April 4, 2007                                    P. Pillai
                                           University of Bradford, UK

  Category: Internet Draft                           October 14, 2006

         Security requirements for the Unidirectional Lightweight
                       Encapsulation (ULE) protocol

Status of this Draft

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 4, 2007.


   The MPEG-2 standard defined by ISO 13818-1 [ISO-MPEG2] supports a
   range of transmission methods for a range of services. This document
   provides a threat analysis and derives the security requirements when
   using the Transport Stream, TS, to support an Internet network-layer
   using Unidirectional Lightweight Encapsulation (ULE) [RFC4326]. The

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   document also provides the motivation for link-level security for a
   ULE Stream. A ULE Stream may be used to send IPv4 packets, IPv6
   packets, and other Protocol Data Units (PDUs) to an arbitrarily large
   number of Receivers supporting unicast and/or multicast transmission.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction................................................2
   2. Requirements notation.......................................4
   3. Threat Analysis.............................................6
      3.1. System Components......................................6
      3.2. Threats................................................8
      3.3. Threat Scenarios.......................................9
   4. Security Requirements for IP over MPEG-2 TS................10
   5. IPsec and MPEG-2 Transmission Networks.....................11
   6. Motivation for ULE link-layer security.....................12
      6.1. Link security below the Encapsulation layer...........12
      6.2. Link security as a part of the Encapsulation layer....13
   7. Summary....................................................14
   8. Security Considerations....................................14
   9. IANA Considerations........................................15
   10. Acknowledgments...........................................15
   11. References................................................15
      11.1. Normative References.................................15
      11.2. Informative References...............................15
   Author's Addresses............................................17
   Intellectual Property Statement...............................17
   Disclaimer of Validity........................................18
   Copyright Statement...........................................18

1. Introduction

   The MPEG-2 Transport Stream (TS) has been widely accepted not only
   for providing digital TV services, but also as a subnetwork
   technology for building IP networks. RFC 4326 [RFC4326] describes the
   Unidirectional Lightweight Encapsulation (ULE) mechanism for the
   transport of IPv4 and IPv6 Datagrams and other network protocol
   packets directly over the ISO MPEG-2 Transport Stream as TS Private
   Data.  ULE specifies a base encapsulation format and supports an
   extension format that allows it to carry additional header
   information to assist in network/Receiver processing. The
   encapsulation satisfies the design and architectural requirement for
   a lightweight encapsulation defined in RFC 4259 [RFC4259].

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   Section 3.1 of RFC 4259 presents several topological scenarios for
   MPEG-2 Transmission Networks. A summary of these scenarios are
   presented below (for full detail, please refer to RFC 4259).

   1. Broadcast TV and Radio Delivery.

   2. Broadcast Networks used as an ISP. This resembles to scenario 1,
      but includes the provision of IP services providing access to the
      public Internet.

   3. Unidirectional Star IP Scenario. It utilizes a Hub station to
      provide a data network delivering a common bit stream to typically
      medium-sized groups of Receivers.

   4. Datacast Overlay. It employs MPEG-2 physical and link layers to
      provide additional connectivity such as unidirectional multicast
      to supplement an existing IP-based Internet service.

   5. Point-to-Point Links.

   6. Two-Way IP Networks. This can be typically satellite-based and
      star-based utilising a Hub station to deliver a common bit stream
      to medium- sized groups of receivers. A bidirectional service is
      provided over a common air-interface.

   RFC 4259 states that ULE must be robust to errors and security
   threats. Security must also consider both unidirectional as well as
   bidirectional links for the scenarios mentioned above.

   An initial analysis of the security requirements in MPEG-2
   transmission networks is presented in the security considerations
   section of RFC 4259. For example, when such networks are not using a
   wireline network, the normal security issues relating to the use of
   wireless links for transport of Internet traffic should be considered

   The security considerations of RFC 4259 recommends that any new
   encapsulation defined by the IETF should allow Transport Stream
   encryption and should also support optional link-level authentication
   of the SNDU payload. In ULE [RFC4326], it is suggested that this may
   be provided in a flexible way using Extension Headers.  This requires
   the definition of a mandatory header extension, but has the advantage
   that it decouples specification of the security functions from the
   encapsulation functions.

   This document extends the above analysis and derives a detailed the
   security requirements for ULE in MPEG-2 transmission networks.

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2. Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [RFC2119].

   Other terms used in this document are defined below:

   ATSC: Advanced Television Systems Committee. A framework and a set of
   associated standards for the transmission of video, audio, and data
   using the ISO MPEG-2 standard.

   DVB: Digital Video Broadcast. A framework and set of associated
   standards published by the European Telecommunications Standards
   Institute (ETSI) for the transmission of video, audio, and data using
   the ISO MPEG-2 Standard [ISO-MPEG2].

   Encapsulator: A network device that receives PDUs and formats these
   into Payload Units (known here as SNDUs) for output as a stream of TS

   LLC: Logical Link Control [ISO-8802-2, IEEE-802.2].  A link-layer
   protocol defined by the IEEE 802 standard, which follows the Ethernet
   Medium Access Control Header.

   MAC: Message Authentication Code.

   MPE: Multiprotocol Encapsulation [ETSI-DAT].  A scheme that
   encapsulates PDUs, forming a DSM-CC Table Section.  Each Section is
   sent in a series of TS Packets using a single TS Logical Channel.

   MPEG-2: A set of standards specified by the Motion Picture Experts
   Group (MPEG) and standardized by the International Standards
   Organisation (ISO/IEC 13818-1) [ISO-MPEG2], and ITU-T (in H.222 [ITU-

   NPA: Network Point of Attachment.  In this document, refers to a 6-
   byte destination address (resembling an IEEE Medium Access Control
   address) within the MPEG-2 transmission network that is used to
   identify individual Receivers or groups of Receivers.

   PDU: Protocol Data Unit.  Examples of a PDU include Ethernet frames,
   IPv4 or IPv6 datagrams, and other network packets.

   PID: Packet Identifier [ISO-MPEG2].  A 13-bit field carried in the
   header of TS Packets.  This is used to identify the TS Logical
   Channel to which a TS Packet belongs [ISO-MPEG2].  The TS Packets

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   forming the parts of a Table Section, PES, or other Payload Unit must
   all carry the same PID value.  The all-zeros PID 0x0000 as well as
   other PID values are reserved for specific PSI/SI Tables [ISO-MPEG2].
   The all-ones PID value 0x1FFF indicates a Null TS Packet introduced
   to maintain a constant bit rate of a TS Multiplex.  There is no
   required relationship between the PID values used for TS Logical
   Channels transmitted using different TS Multiplexes.

   Receiver: Equipment that processes the signal from a TS Multiplex and
   performs filtering and forwarding of encapsulated PDUs to the
   network-layer service (or bridging module when operating at the link

   SI Table: Service Information Table [ISO-MPEG2].  In this document,
   this term describes a table that is defined by another standards body
   to convey information about the services carried in a TS Multiplex. A
   Table may consist of one or more Table Sections; however, all
   sections of a particular SI Table must be carried over a single TS
   Logical Channel [ISO-MPEG2].

   SNDU: SubNetwork Data Unit. An encapsulated PDU sent as an MPEG-2
   Payload Unit.

   TS: Transport Stream [ISO-MPEG2], a method of transmission at the
   MPEG-2 level using TS Packets; it represents layer 2 of the ISO/OSI
   reference model.  See also TS Logical Channel and TS Multiplex.

   TS Multiplex: In this document, this term defines a set of MPEG-2 TS
   Logical Channels sent over a single lower-layer connection.  This may
   be a common physical link (i.e., a transmission at a specified symbol
   rate, FEC setting, and transmission frequency) or an encapsulation
   provided by another protocol layer (e.g., Ethernet, or RTP over IP).
   The same TS Logical Channel may be repeated over more than one TS
   Multiplex (possibly associated with a different PID value) [RFC4259];
   for example, to redistribute the same multicast content to two
   terrestrial TV transmission cells.

   TS Packet: A fixed-length 188B unit of data sent over a TS Multiplex
   [ISO-MPEG2].  Each TS Packet carries a 4B header, plus optional
   overhead including an Adaptation Field, encryption details, and time
   stamp information to synchronise a set of related TS Logical

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3. Threat Analysis

3.1. System Components
     +------------+                                  +------------+
     |  IP        |                                  |  IP        |
     |  End Host  |                                  |  End Host  |
     +-----+------+                                  +------------+
           |                                                ^
           +------------>+---------------+                  |
                         +  IP           |                  |
           +-------------+  Encapsulator |                  |
   SI-Data |             +------+--------+                  |
   +-------+-------+            |MPEG-2 TS Logical Channel  |
   |  MPEG-2       |            |                           |
   |  SI Tables    |            |                           |
   +-------+-------+   ->+------+--------+                  |
           |          -->|  MPEG-2       |                . . .
           +------------>+  Multiplexor  |                  |
   MPEG-2 TS             +------+--------+                  |
   Logical Channel              |MPEG-2 TS Mux              |
                                |                           |
              Other    ->+------+--------+                  |
              MPEG-2  -->+  MPEG-2       |                  |
              TS     --->+  Multiplexor  |                  |
                    ---->+------+--------+                  |
                                |MPEG-2 TS Mux              |
                                |                           |
                         +------+--------+           +------+-----+
                         |Physical Layer |           |  MPEG-2    |
                         |Modulator      +---------->+  Receiver  |
                         +---------------+  MPEG-2   +------------+
                                            TS Mux
    Figure 1 :An example configuration for a unidirectional Service for
                    IP transport over MPEG-2 [RFC4259].

   As shown in Figure 1 (in section 3.3 of [RFC4259]), there are several
   entities within the MPEG-2 transmission network architecture. These

   o  ULE Encapsulation Gateways (or Encapsulator or ULE source)

   o  SI-Table signalling generator (input to the multiplexor)

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   o  Receivers

   o  TS multiplexers (including re-multiplexers)

   o  Modulators

   In an MPEG-2 network a set of signalling messages [ID-AR] may need to
   be broadcast (e.g. by an Encapsulation Gateway) or other device to
   form the L2 control plane. Examples of signalling messages include
   the Program Association Table (PAT), Program Map Table (PMT) and
   Network Information Table (NIT). In existing MPEG-2 transmission
   networks, these messages are broadcasted in the clear (no encryption
   or integrity checks). The integrity of these messages is important
   for correct working of the ULE network. However, securing these
   messages is out of scope for ULE security, because these messages are
   not normally encapsulated with the ULE method.

   ULE link security focuses only on the security between the ULE
   Encapsulation Gateway (ULE source) and the Receiver. Securing the ULE
   source and receivers eliminates the need to consider security issues
   regarding the remaining system components, such as multiplexers, re-
   multiplexers and modulators.

   In a MPEG-2 TS transmission network, the originating source of TS
   Packets is either a L2 interface device (media encoder, encapsulation
   gateway, etc) or a L2 network device (TS multiplexer, etc). These
   devices may, but do not necessarily, have an associated IP address.
   In the case of an encapsulation gateway (e.g. ULE sender), the device
   may operate at L2 or L3, and is not normally the originator of an IP
   traffic flow, and usually the IP source address of the packets that
   it forwards do not correspond to an IP address associated with the
   device. When authentication of the IP source is required this must be
   provided by IPsec, TLS, etc. operating at a higher layer.

   The TS Packets are carried to the Receiver over a physical layer that
   usually includes Forward Error Correction coding that interleaves the
   bytes of several consecutive, but unrelated, TS Packets. FEC coding
   and synchronisation processing makes injection of single TS Packets
   very difficult. Replacement of a sequence of packets is also
   difficult, but possible (see section 3.2).

   A Receiver in a MPEG-2 TS transmission network needs to identify a TS
   Logical Channel (or MPEG-2 Elementary Stream) to reassemble the
   fragments of PDUs sent by a L2 source [RFC4259]. In an MPEG-2 TS,
   this association is made via the Packet Identifier, PID [ISO-MPEG2].
   At the sender, each source associates a locally unique set of PID
   values with each stream it originates. However, there is no required

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   relationship between the PID value used at the sender and that
   received at the Receiver. Network devices may re-number the PID
   values associated with one or more TS Logical Channels (e.g. ULE
   Streams) to prevent clashes at a multiplexer between input streams
   with the same PID carried on different input multiplexes (updating
   entries in the PMT [ISO-MPEG2], and other SI tables that reference
   the PID value). A device may also modify and/or insert new SI data
   into the control plane (also sent as TS Packets identified by their
   PID value).

   The PID associated with an Elementary Stream can be modified (e.g. in
   some systems by reception of an updated SI table, or in other systems
   until the next announcement/discovery data is received). An attacker
   that is able to modify the content of the received multiplex (e.g.
   replay data and/or control information) could inject data locally
   into the received stream with an arbitrary PID value.

   One method to provide security is to secure the entire Stream at the
   MPEG-2 TS level. This stream of TS Packets carried in a multiplex are
   usually received by many Receivers. The approach is well-suited to
   TV-transmission, data-push, etc, where the PID carries one or a set
   of flows (e.g. video/audio Packetized Elementary Stream (PES)
   Packets) with similar security requirements.

   Where a ULE Stream carries a set of IP traffic flows to different
   destinations with a range of properties (multicast, unicast, etc), it
   is often not appropriate to provide IP confidentiality services for
   the entire ULE Stream. For many expected applications of ULE, a
   finer-grain control is therefore required, at least permitting
   control of data confidentiality/authorisation at the level of a
   single MAC/NPA address. However there is only one valid source of
   data for each MPEG-2 Elementary Stream, bound to a PID value. This
   observation could simplify the requirement for authentication of the
   source of a ULE Stream.

3.2. Threats

   The simplest type of network threat is a passive threat. It includes
   eavesdropping or monitoring of transmissions, with a goal to obtain
   information that is being transmitted. In broadcast networks
   (especially those utilising widely available low-cost physical layer
   interfaces, such as DVB) passive threats are considered the major
   threats. An example of such a threat is an intruder monitoring the
   MPEG-2 transmission broadcast and then extracting traffic information
   concerning the communication between IP hosts using a link. Another
   example is of an intruder trying to gain information about the
   communication parties by monitoring their ULE Receiver NPA addresses;

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   an intruder can gain information by determining the layer 2 identity
   of the communicating parties and the volume of their traffic. This is
   a well-known issue in the security field; however it is more
   problematic in the case of broadcast networks such as MPEG-2
   transmission networks.

   Active threats (or attacks) are, in general, more difficult to
   implement successfully than passive threats, and usually require more
   sophisticated resources and may require access to the transmitter.
   Within the context of MPEG-2 transmission networks, examples of
   active attacks are:

   o  Masquerading: An entity pretends to be a different entity. This
      includes masquerading other users and subnetwork control plane

   o  Modification of messages in an unauthorised manner.

   o  Replay attacks: When an intruder sends some old (authentic)
      messages to the Receiver. In the case of a broadcast link, access
      to previous broadcast data is easy.

   o  Denial of Service attacks: When an entity fails to perform its
      proper function or acts in a way that prevents other entities from
      performing their proper functions.

   The active threats mentioned above are major security concerns for
   the Internet community. The defence against such attacks is data
   integrity using cryptographic techniques and sequence numbers

3.3. Threat Scenarios

   Analysing the topological scenarios for MPEG-2 Transmission Networks
   in section 1, the security threat cases can be abstracted into three

   o  Case 1: Monitoring (passive threat). Here the intruder monitors
      the ULE broadcasts to gain information about the ULE data and/or
      tracking the communicating parties identities (by monitoring the
      destination NPA). In this scenario, measures must be taken to
      protect the ULE data and the identity of ULE Receivers.

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   o  Case 2: Local hijacking of the MPEG-TS multiplex (active threat).
      Here an intruder is assumed to be sufficiently sophisticated to
      over-ride the original transmission from the ULE Encapsulation
      Gateway and deliver a modified version of the MPEG-TS transmission
      to a single ULE Receiver or a small group of Receivers (e.g. in a
      single company site). The MPEG transmission network operator might
      not be aware of such attacks. Measures must be taken to ensure ULE
      source authentication and preventing replay of old messages.

   o  Case 3: Global hijacking of the MPEG-TS multiplex (active threat).
      Here we assume an intruder is very sophisticated and able to
      hijack the whole MPEG transmission multiplex. The requirements
      here are similar to scenario 2. The MPEG transmission network
      operator can usually identify such attacks and may resort to some
      means to restore the original transmission.

   In terms of priority, case 1 is considered the major threat in MPEG
   transmission systems.  Case 2 is likely to a lesser degree within
   certain network configurations. Hence, protection against such active
   actives should be used only when such a threat is a real possibility.
   Case 3 is envisaged to be less practical, because it will be very
   difficult to pass unnoticed by the MPEG transmission operator. It
   will require restoration of the original transmission. Therefore case
   3 is not considered further in this document.

4. Security Requirements for IP over MPEG-2 TS

   From the threat analysis in section 3, the following security
   requirements can be derived:

   o  Data confidentiality is the major requirement to mitigate passive
      threats in MPEG-2 broadcast networks.

   o  Protection of Layer 2 NPA address. In broadcast networks this can
      be used to prevent an intruder tracking the identity of ULE
      Receivers and the volume of their traffic.

   o  ULE source authentication is required against active attacks
      described in section 3.2.

   o  Protection against replay attacks. This is required for the active
      attacks described in section 3.2.

   o  Layer L2 ULE Receiver authorisation: This is normally performed
      during the initial key exchange and authorisation phase, before
      the ULE Receiver can join a secure session with the ULE
      Encapsulator (ULE source).

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   Other general requirements are:

   o  Decoupling of ULE key management functions from ULE security
      services such as encryption and source authentication. This allows
      the independent development of both systems.

   o  Traceability: To monitor transmission network using log files to
      record the activities in the network and detect any intrusion.

   o  Integrity of control and management messages in MPEG-2
      transmission networks such as the SI tables (see Figure 1).

   o  Compatibility with other networking functions such as NAT Network
      Address Translation (NAT) [RFC3715] or TCP acceleration can be
      used in a wireless broadcast networks.

   Examining the threat cases in section 3.3, the security requirements
   for each case can be summarised as:

   o  Case 1: Data confidentiality MUST be provided to prevent
      monitoring of the ULE data (such as user information and IP
      addresses). Protection of NPA addresses MUST be provided to
      prevent tracking ULE Receivers and their communications.

   o  Case 2:  In addition to case 1 requirements, new measures need to
      be implemented such as source authentication using Message
      Authentication Code or TESLA [RFC4082] and using sequence numbers
      to prevent replay attacks. This will significantly reduce the
      ability of intruders to inject their own data into the MPEG-TS

      However, scenario 2 threats apply only in specific service cases
      and therefore source authentication and protection against replay
      attacks are OPTIONAL. Such measures incur extra link transmission
      and processing overheads.

   o  Case 3:  The requirements here are similar to Case 2. In addition,
      intrusion detection is also desirable by the MPEG-2 network

5. IPsec and MPEG-2 Transmission Networks

   The security architecture for the Internet Protocol [RFC4301]
   describes security services for traffic at the IP layer. This
   architecture primarily defines services for Internet Protocol (IP)
   unicast packets, as well as manually configured IP multicast packets.
   It is possible to use IPsec to secure ULE links. The major advantage

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   of IPsec is its wide implementation in IP routers and hosts. IPsec in
   transport mode can be used for end-to-end security transparently over
   MPEG-2 transmission links with little impact.

   In the context of MPEG-2 transmission links, if IPsec is used to
   secure a ULE link, then the ULE Encapsulator and Receivers are
   equivalent to the security gateways in IPsec terminology. A security
   gateway implementation of IPsec uses tunnel mode. Such usage has the
   following disadvantages:

   o  There is an extra overheads associated with using IPsec in tunnel
      mode, i.e. the extra IP header (IPv4 or IPv6).

   o  There is a need to protect the identity (NPA) of ULE Receivers
      over the ULE broadcast medium; IPsec is not suitable for providing
      this service. In addition, the interfaces of these devices do not
      necessarily have IP addresses (they can be L2 devices).

   o  Multicast is considered a major service over ULE links. The
      current IPsec specifications [RFC4301] only define a pairwise
      tunnel between two IPsec devices with manual keying. Work is in
      progress in defining the extra detail needed for multicast and to
      use the tunnel mode with address preservation to allow efficient
      multicasting. For further details refer to [WEIS06].

6. Motivation for ULE link-layer security

   Examination of the threat analysis and security requirements in
   sections 3 and 4 has shown that there is a need to provide link-layer
   (L2) security in MPEG-2 transmission networks employing ULE.

   ULE link security (between a ULE Encapsulation Gateway to Receivers)
   is therefore considered an additional security mechanism to IPsec,
   TLS, and application layer security, not a replacement. It allows a
   network operator to provide similar functions to that of IPsec
   [RFC4301], but in addition provides MPEG-2 transmission link
   confidentiality and protection of ULE Receiver identity (NPA).

   A modular design to ULE Security may allow it to use and benefit from
   IETF key management protocols, such as the Multicast Security group
   (MSEC) GSAKMP [RFC4535] and GDOI [RFC3547] protocols. This does not
   preclude the use of other key management methods in scenarios where
   this is more appropriate.

6.1. Link security below the Encapsulation layer

   Link layer security can be provided at the MPEG-TS level (below ULE).

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   MPEG-TS encryption encrypts all TS Packets sent with a specific PID
   value. However, MPEG-TS may typically multiplex several IP flows,
   belonging to different users, using a common PID. Therefore all
   multiplexed traffic will share the same security keys.

   This has the following advantages:

   o  The bit stream sent on the broadcast network does not expose any
      L2 or L3 headers, specifically all addresses, type fields, and
      length fields are encrypted prior to transmission.

   o  This method does not preclude the use of IPsec, or any other form
      of higher-layer security.

   However it has the following disadvantages:

   o  Each ULE Receiver needs to decrypt all MPEG-2 TS Packets with a
      matching PID, possibly including those that are not required to be
      forwarded. Therefore it does not have the flexibility to
      separately secure individual IP flows.

   o  ULE Receivers will have access to private traffic destined to
      other ULE Receivers, since they share a common PID and key.

   o  Encryption of the MPE MAC address is not permitted in such

   o  IETF-based key management are not used in existing systems.
      Existing access control mechanisms have limited flexibility in
      terms of controlling the use of key and rekeying. Therefore if the
      key is compromised, then this will impact several ULE Receivers.

   In practice there are few L2 security systems for MPEG transmission
   networks. Conditional access for digital TV broadcasting is one
   example. However, this approach is optimised for TV services and is
   not well-suited to IP packet transmission. Some other systems are
   specified in standards such MPE [ETSI-DAT], but there are currently
   no known implementations.

6.2. Link security as a part of the Encapsulation layer

   Examining the threat analysis in section 3 has shown that protection
   of ULE link from eavesdropping and ULE Receiver identity are major
   requirements. In the context of active threats in MPEG-2 transmission
   networks, ULE source authentication is required by the ULE Receivers.
   Attacks such as masquerading, modification of messages and injecting
   IP packets are more difficult, but possible as presented in threat

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   cases 2 and 3 (see section 3).

   There are several major advantages in using ULE link level security:

   o  The protection of the complete ULE Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
      including IP addresses. The protection can be applied either per
      IP flow or per Receiver NPA address.

   o  Ability to protect the identity of the Receiver within the MPEG-2
      transmission network.

   o  Efficient protection of IP multicast over ULE links.

   o  Transparency to the use of Network Address Translation (NATs)
      [RFC3715] and TCP Performance Enhancing Proxies (PEP) [RFC3135],
      which require the ability to inspect and modify the packets sent
      over the ULE link.

   This method does not preclude the use of IPsec at L3 (or TLS
   [RFC4346] at L4). IPsec also provides a proven security architecture
   defining key exchange mechanisms and the ability to use a range of
   cryptographic algorithms. ULE security can make use of these
   mechanisms and algorithms.

7. Summary

   This document analyses a set of threats and security requirements. It
   also defines the requirements for ULE security and states the
   motivation for link security as a part of the Encapsulation layer.
   This includes a need to provide L2 encryption and ULE Receiver
   identity protection.

   There is an addition need (optional) for L2 source authentication and
   protection against insertion of other data into the ULE stream (i.e.
   data integrity).  This is optional because of the associated
   overheads for the extra features and they are only required for
   specific service cases.

8. Security Considerations

   Link-level (L2) encryption of IP traffic is commonly used in
   broadcast/radio links to supplement End-to-End security (e.g.
   provided by TLS [RFC4346], SSH [RFC4251], IPsec [RFC4301). A common
   objective is to provide the same level of privacy as wired links. An
   ISP or User may also wish to provide end-to-end security services to
   the end-users (based on well known mechanisms such as IPsec or TLS).

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   This document provides a threat analysis and derives the security
   requirements to provide optional link encryption and link-level
   integrity / authentication of the SNDU payload.

9. IANA Considerations

   This document does not define any protocol and does not require any
   IANA assignments.

10. Acknowledgments

   The authors acknowledge the help and advice from Gorry Fairhurst
   (University of Aberdeen). The authors also acknowledge the
   contributions from Stephane Coombes (ESA) and Prof. Yim Fun Hu
   (University of Bradford).

11. References

11.1. Normative References

   [ISO-MPEG2] "Information technology -- generic coding of moving
               pictures and associated audio information systems, Part
               I", ISO 13818-1, International Standards Organisation
               (ISO), 2000.

   [RFC2119]   Bradner, S., "Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, 1997.

11.2. Informative References

   [ID-AR]     G. Fairhurst, M-J Montpetit "Address Resolution
               Mechanisms for IP Datagrams over MPEG-2 Networks",
               Work in Progress <draft-ietf-ipdvb-ar-xx.txt.

   [IEEE-802.2]"Local and metropolitan area networks-Specific
               requirements Part 2: Logical Link Control", IEEE 802.2,
               IEEE Computer Society, (also ISO/IEC 8802-2), 1998.

   [ISO-8802-2]ISO/IEC 8802.2, "Logical Link Control", International
               Standards Organisation (ISO), 1998.

   [ITU-H222]  H.222.0, "Information technology, Generic coding of
               moving pictures and associated audio information
               Systems", International Telecommunication Union, (ITU-T),

   [RFC4259]   Montpetit, M.-J., Fairhurst, G., Clausen, H., Collini-

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               Nocker, B., and H. Linder, "A Framework for Transmission
               of IP Datagrams over MPEG-2 Networks", IETF RFC 4259,
               November 2005.

   [RFC4326]   Fairhurst, G. and B. Collini-Nocker, "Unidirectional
               Lightweight Encapsulation (ULE) for Transmission of IP
               Datagrams over an MPEG-2 Transport Stream (TS)", IETF RFC
               4326, December 2005.

   [ETSI-DAT]  EN 301 192, "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); DVB
               Specifications for Data Broadcasting", European
               Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).

   [BELLOVIN]  S., "Problem Area for the IP Security protocols",
               Computer Communications Review 2:19, pp. 32-48, April

   [RFC4082]   A. Perrig, D. Song, " Timed Efficient Stream Loss-
               Tolerant Authentication (TESLA): Multicast Source
               Authentication Transform Introduction", IETF RFC 4082,
               June 2005.

   [RFC4535]   H Harney, et al, "GSAKMP: Group Secure Association Group
               Management Protocol", IETF RFc 4535, June 2006.

   [RFC3547]   M. Baugher, et al, "GDOI: The Group Domain of
               Interpretation", IETF RFC 3547.

   [WEIS06]    Weis B., et al, "Multicast Extensions to the Security
               Architecture for the Internet", <draft-ietf-msec-ipsec-
               extensions-02.txt>, June 2006, IETF Work in Progress.

   [RFC3715]   B. Aboba and W Dixson, "IPsec-Network Address Translation
               (NAT) Compatibility Requirements" IETF RFC 3715, March

   [RFC4346]   T. Dierks, E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
               (TLS) Protocol Version 1.1", IETF RFC 4346, April 2006.

   [RFC3135]   J. Border, M. Kojo, eyt. al., "Performance Enhancing
               Proxies Intended to Mitigate Link-Related Degradations",
               IETF RFC 3135, June 2001.

   [RFC4301]   Kent, S. and Seo K., "Security Architecture for the
               Internet Protocol", IETF RFC 4301, December 2006.

   [RFC3819]   Karn, P., Bormann, C., Fairhurst, G., Grossman, D.,

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               Ludwig, R., Mahdavi, J., Montenegro, G., Touch, J., and
               L. Wood, "Advice for Internet Subnetwork Designers", BCP
               89, IETF RFC 3819, July 2004.

   [RFC4251]   T. Ylonen, C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH)
               Protocol Architecture", IETF RFC 4251, January 2006.

Author's Addresses

   Haitham Cruickshank
   Centre for Communications System Research (CCSR)
   University of Surrey
   Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH

   Sunil Iyengar
   Centre for Communications System Research (CCSR)
   University of Surrey
   Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH

   Laurence Duquerroy
   Research Department/Advanced Telecom Satellite Systems
   Alcatel Space, Toulouse

   Prashant Pillai
   Mobile and Satellite Communications Research Centre
   School of Engineering, Design and Technology
   University of Bradford
   Richmond Road, Bradford BD7 1DP

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