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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 rfc2425                               
Network Working Group                                        Tim Howes
INTERNET-DRAFT                                              Mark Smith
draft-ietf-asid-mime-direct-03.txt       Netscape Communications Corp.


             A MIME Content-Type for Directory Information
                  <draft-ietf-asid-mime-direct-03.txt>



1.  Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are  working  docu-
ments  of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its
working groups.  Note that other  groups  may  also  distribute  working
documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum  of  six  months
and  may  be  updated,  replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''

To learn the current status of  any  Internet-Draft,  please  check  the
``1id-abstracts.txt''  listing  contained in the Internet- Drafts Shadow
Directories   on   ftp.is.co.za   (Africa),   nic.nordu.net    (Europe),
munnari.oz.au   (Pacific  Rim),  ds.internic.net  (US  East  Coast),  or
ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

2.  Abstract

This document defines a MIME Content-Type for holding directory informa-
tion.  The definition is independent of any particular directory service
or protocol.  The  application/directory  Content-Type  is  defined  for
holding  a variety of directory information, for example, name, or email
address. The application/directory Content-Type can also be used as  the
root  body  part  in  a multipart/related Content-Type for handling more
complicated situations, especially those in which  non-textual  informa-
tion that already has a natural MIME representation, for example, a pho-
tograph or sound, must be represented.

The application/directory Content-Type defines a general  framework  and
format  for holding directory information in a simple "type: value" for-
mat.  Mechanisms  are  defined  to  specify  alternate  character  sets,
languages,  encodings  and  other  meta-information.  This document also
defines the procedure by which particular formats, called profiles,  for
carrying       application-specific      information      within      an
application/directory Content-Type may be defined  and  registered,  and
the  conventions  such  formats  must  follow. It is expected that other



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documents will be produced that define such formats for various applica-
tions (e.g., white pages).

3.  Need for a MIME Directory Type

For purposes of this document, a directory is a special-purpose database
that  contains typed information. A directory usually supports both read
and search of the information it contains, and may support  modification
of  the  information as well.  Directory information is usually accessed
far more often than it is updated.  Directories may be local  or  global
in  scope.  They may be distributed or centralized. The information they
contain may be replicated, with weak or strong consistency requirements.

There are several situations in which users of Internet mail may wish to
exchange  directory  information: the email analogy of a "business card"
exchange; the conveyance of directory information to a user having  only
email access to the Internet; the provision of machine-parseable address
information when purchasing goods or services over the Internet; etc. As
MIME  [RFC-1521,RFC-1522]  is used increasingly by other protocols, most
notably HTTP [HTTP], it may also be useful for  these  protocols  to  be
able  to  carry directory information in MIME format. Such a format, for
example, could be used to represent URC (uniform  resource  characteris-
tics) information about resources on the World Wide Web, or to provide a
rudimentary directory service over HTTP.

4.  Overview

The scheme defined here for representing directory information in a MIME
Content-Type  has  two  parts. First, the application/directory Content-
Type is defined for use in holding directory information within a single
body  part,  for  example name, title, or email address. In its simplest
form, the format uses a "type: value" approach, which should  be  easily
parsable  by  existing MIME implementations and understandable by users.
More complicated situations  can  be  represented  also.  This  document
defines  the  general  form  the  information in the Content-Type should
have, and the procedure by which specific types and values  (properties)
for  particular  applications  may  be defined. The framework is general
enough to handle information from any number of end directory  services,
including  LDAP  [RFC-1777,  RFC-1778],  WHOIS++  [RFC-1835],  and X.500
[x500].

Directory entries can include far more than  just  textual  information.
Some such information (e.g., an image or sound) overlaps with predefined
MIME Content-Types. In these cases it may be desirable  to  include  the
information  in its well-known MIME format. This situation is handled by
using a multipart/related Content-Type as  defined  in  [RFC-1872].  The
root component of this type is an application/directory body part speci-
fying any in-line information, and for information  contained  in  other



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Content-Types, the Content-IDs (in URL form) of those types.

In some applications, it may be useful to include a pointer (e.g, a URL)
to  some directory information rather than the information itself.  This
document defines a general mechanism for accomplishing this.

5.  The application/directory Content-Type

The application/directory Content-Type is used to hold  basic  directory
information,  URLs  referencing  other information, including other MIME
body parts holding supplementary or non-textual  directory  information,
such  as  an  image  or  sound. It is defined as follows, using the MIME
media type registration template from [MIME-REG].

To: ietf-types@uninett.no
Subject: Registration of MIME media type application/directory

MIME media type name: application

MIME subtype name: directory

Required parameters: none

Optional parameters: charset, language, profile

   The "charset" parameter is as defined in [RFC-1521]  for  other  body
   parts.  It  is used to identify the default character set used within
   the body part. Note that alternate character sets can be specified on
   a per-value basis using the "charset" type parameter described below.

   The "language" parameter is used to identify the default language for
   information  contained  within the body part. Its value is a language
   tag as defined in  Section  2  of  [RFC-1766].  Note  that  alternate
   languages  can be specified on a per-value basis using the "language"
   type parameter, defined below.

   The "profile" parameter is used to convey the type(s) of  entity(ies)
   to  which  the  directory  information pertains and the likely set of
   information associated with the entity(ies). It is intended only as a
   guide  to  applications interpreting the information contained within
   the body part. It should not be used to exclude or require particular
   pieces  of information unless a profile definition specifically calls
   for this behavior.  The value of the "profile" parameter  is  defined
   as  follows.  Profile  names  are case insensitive (i.e., the profile
   name "Person" is the same as "PERSON" and "person" and "peRsOn").

      profile := x-token / iana-token




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      x-token := <The two characters "X-" or "x-" followed,
                  with no intervening white space, by any atom,
                  where atom is from Section 3.3 of RFC 822>

      iana-token := <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                     with IANA, as specified in Section 9 of this
                     document>

Encoding considerations:

   As specified by the Content-Transfer-Encoding header field. Note that
   each  value may also have an inline encoding associated with it. This
   encoding is independent of the encoding for the body part as a  whole
   (i.e.,  inline  encodings are performed first, then Content-Transfer-
   Encoding is applied to the entire body part).

Security considerations:

   Directory information may be public or it may be protected from unau-
   thorized  access  by the directory service in which it resides.  Once
   the information leaves its native service, there can be no  guarantee
   that  the same care will be taken by all services handling the infor-
   mation. Furthermore, this specification  defines  no  access  control
   mechanism  by  which information may be protected, or by which access
   control information may be conveyed.  Note  that  the  integrity  and
   privacy  of  an  application/directory  body part may be protected by
   enclosing it within  a  MOSS  [RFC-1848]  body  part,  or  equivalent
   method.

Interoperability considerations:

   In order to make sense of directory  information,  applications  must
   share  a  common  understanding of the types of information contained
   within the Content-Type (the directory schema). This schema  informa-
   tion  is  not defined in this document, but rather in companion docu-
   ments that follow the requirements specified in this document, or  in
   bilateral agreements between communicating parties.

Published specification:

   The application/directory Content-Type  contains  directory  informa-
   tion,  typically  pertaining to a single directory entity or group of
   entities.  The content consists of one or more  CRLF-separated  lines
   in  the  following  format. Using the notation of RFC 822, the syntax
   for this content is:

      contentline := [group.]type [";" parameterlist] ":" valuespec




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      group := atom     ; as defined in Section 3.3 of RFC 822

      type := x-name
            / iana-type

      x-name := <the two characters "X-" or "x-" followed, with no
                 intervening white space, by any atom>

      iana-type := <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                    with IANA, as specified in Section 11 of this
                    document>

      parameterlist := parameter / parameterlist ";" parameter

      parameter := encodingparm
                 / valuetypeparm          ; not present => inline value
                 / charsetparm
                 / languageparm
                 / protoparm
                 / [parmtype "="] parmvalues

      encodingparm := "encoding" "=" encodingtype

      encodingtype := "base64"            ; from Section 5.2 of RFC 1521
                    / "quoted-printable"  ; from Section 5.1 of RFC 1521

      valuetypeparm := "value" "=" valuetype

      valuetype := "url"                  ; genericurl from RFC 1735
                 / "text"
                 / "date"
                 / "time"
                 / "d-t"                  ; date time
                 / "int"
                 / "bool"
                 / "float"
                 / x-name
                 / iana-valuetype

      iana-valuetype : = <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                          with IANA, as defined in Section 15 of this
                          document>

      charsetparm := "charset" "=" charset ; from Section 7.1 of RFC 1521

      languageparm := "language" "=" language ; as defined in RFC 1766

      protoparm := "proto" "=" protocol ; as defined in assigned numbers



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      parmtype := x-name
                / iana-parmtype

      iana-parmtype := <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                        with IANA, as defined in Section 12 of this
                        document>

      parmvalues := parmvalue
                  / parmvalues "," parmvalue

      parmvalue := x-name
                 / iana-parmvalue

      iana-parmvalue := <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                         with IANA, as defined in Section 13 of this
                         document>

      valuespec := *text ; Characters whose syntax depends on type and the
                         ; the encoding parameter. If the value contains
                         ; a <CR> or <LF> character (ASCII 10 or 13), it must
                         ; be encoded using either base64 or quoted-printable.
                 / date-spec
                 / time-spec
                 / d-t-spec
                 / bool
                 / int
                 / float
                 / iana-valuespec

      date-spec := date *[ "," date ]         ; date as defined in RFC 1123

      time-spec := time *[ "," time ]         ; time as defined in RFC 822

      d-t-spec := date time           ; as above

      bool := "TRUE" / "FALSE"

      int := [ sign ] *DIGIT *[ "," int ]     ; DIGIT as defined in RFC 822

      float := [ sign ] *DIGIT [ "." *DIGIT ] *[ "," float ]

      sign := "+" / "-"

      iana-valuespec := <a publicly-defined valuetype format, registered
                         with IANA, as defined in section 15 of this
                         document>

   To the left of the  beginning  of  "value",  white  space  characters



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   (namely  HTABs  and  SPACEs,  ASCII 9 and 32) may freely surround any
   symbol.  Note that this means that if a  "value"  begins  with  white
   space, it must be encoded using either the base64 or quoted-printable
   methods.

   The meanings of  the  various  type  names  and  the  format  of  the
   corresponding  values  must  be  defined  as specified in Section 11.
   Specifications may impose ordering on the type  constructs  within  a
   body  part,  though  none  is required by default. The various x-name
   constructs are used for bilaterally-agreed upon type names, parameter
   names and parameter values.

   Type names, parameter names, and parameter values  (i.e.,  everything
   to  the  left  of  the ":") are case insensitive (e.g., the type name
   "cn" is the same as "CN" and "Cn").

   The group construct is used to  group  related  attributes  together.
   The  group  name  is a syntactic convention used to indicate that all
   type names prefaced with  the  same  group  name  should  be  grouped
   together  when  displayed by an application. It has no other signifi-
   cance.  Implementations that do not understand  or  support  grouping
   may  simply strip off any text before a "." and present the types and
   values as normal.

   Each attribute defined in the  application/directory  body  may  have
   multiple values, if allowed in the definition of the profile in which
   the attribute is used. The general  rule  for  encoding  multi-valued
   items  is to simply create a new content line for each value (includ-
   ing the type name).  However, it should  be  noted  that  some  value
   types  may support encoding multiple values in a single content line,
   for example by separating the values with a comma "," or other delim-
   iter.   This approach has been taken for several of the content types
   defined above (date, time, int, float), for space-saving reasons.

   The "charset" type parameter should be  used  to  identify  character
   sets  other than US ASCII. The "charset" header parameter can be used
   to set the default character set for the entire body part. The "char-
   set"  type  parameter can be used to change the default character set
   on a per-value basis.

   The "language" type parameter should be  used  to  identify  data  in
   alternate  languages.  There  is  no  concept  of "default" language,
   except as specified by the "language" header parameter. The value  of
   the "language" type parameter is a language tag as defined in Section
   2 of [RFC-1766].

   The "proto" type parameter should be used to identify a protocol used
   in  interpreting  the value. This is used, for example, in the "name"



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   type, defined below.

   The "encoding" type parameter should be used to specify an  alternate
   encoding  for a value. If the value contains a <CR> or <LF> character
   (ASCII 10 or 13),  it  must  be  encoded  using  either  "base64"  or
   "quoted-printable",  since  <CR><LF> is used to separate lines in the
   content-type itself. These encodings can also be  useful  for  binary
   values  that  are  mixed with other text information in the body part
   (e.g.,  a  certificate).  Using  a  per-value  "base64"  or  "quoted-
   printable"  encoding  in  this case leaves the other information in a
   more readable form.

   The Content-Transfer-Encoding header field is  used  to  specify  the
   encoding  used  for  the  body  part  as a whole. The "encoding" type
   parameter is used to specify  an  encoding  for  a  particular  value
   (e.g.,  a  certificate).  In this case, the Content-Transfer-Encoding
   header might specify "7-bit", while the one certificate  value  might
   specify  an  encoding of base64 via an "encoding=base64" type parame-
   ter.

   The "valuetype" parameter is an optional parameter, and may  be  used
   to  identify the value type (data type) and format of the value.  The
   use of these formats should  be  encouraged  even  if  the  valuetype
   parameter  is not explicity used. By defining a standard set of value
   types and their formats, we  will  leverage  parsing  and  processing
   code.  Also,  including  the value type as part of each property pro-
   vides an extra hint to keep parsing simple and support more  general-
   ized  applications.   For  example  a search engine would not have to
   know the particular value types for all  of  the  items  that  it  is
   searching.   Because  the value type is explicit in the definition it
   could look for dates in any item type and provide good results.

   Some specific notes on the value types and formats:

   "text": The "text" value type should be used to identify values  that
   contain  human-readable text. The character set and language in which
   the text is represented is controlled by  the  charset  and  language
   type parameters or content-headers.

   "url":  The "url" value type should be used to identify  values  that
   are  referenced  by   a  URL  (including a Content-ID URL) instead of
   encoded in-line.  These value references might be used if the   value
   is   too  large,   unavailable,  or  otherwise undesirable to include
   directly. The format for the URL is as defined in RFC 1735.

   "date", "time", and "d-t" (date time):  Each of these value types  is
   based on the defnitions in RFC 822. Multiple "date" and "time" values
   may be specified using the comma-separated notation.



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   Note that the "date" type uses the RFC 1123 definition, which updates
   RFC 822.  RFC 1123 suggests that all mail software SHOULD use 4-digit
   years in dates, to ease the transition  to  the  next  century.   For
   example: 11 Nov 1996.

       Examples for "date":
                   22 Oct 1996
                   11 Aug 1996, 11 Nov 1996

       Examples for "time":
                   10:22
                   10:22:33, 11:22

       Examples for "d-t":
                   22 Oct 1996 14:00:00 MST
                   11 Aug 1996 12:34:56 Z
                   22 Jul 1996 4:30 EST +0030
                   22 Jul 1996 4:30 EST +0030, 11 Aug 1996 12:34:56 Z

   "bool":  The "bool" value type is  used  to  express  boolen  values.
   These values should be case insensitive.

       Examples: TRUE
                 false
                 true

   "int":  The "int"  value  type  is  used  to  express  32-bit  signed
   integers.   The  valid  range for "int" is -2147483648 to 2147483647.
   If sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+". Multiple
   "int" values may be specified using the comma-separated notation.

       Examples: 1234567890
                 -1234556790
                 +1234556790, 432109876

   "float":  The "float" value type is used to express real numbers.  If
   sign  is  not  specified, the value is assumed positive "+". Multiple
   "float" values may be specified using the comma-separated notation.

       Examples: 20.30
                 1000000.0000001
                 1.333, 3.14

Person & email address to contact for further information:

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.



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   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

Intended usage: COMMON

Author/Change controller:

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   mcs@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3477

6.  Predefined Types

The following types are generally useful regardless of the profile being
carried, and are defined below using the application/directory MIME type
registration template defined in Section 11.1 of  this  document.  These
types may be included in any profile, unless explicitly forbidden in the
profile definition.

6.1.  SOURCE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
   Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME type SOURCE

   Type name: SOURCE

   Type purpose: To identify the source of  directory  information  con-
   tained in the content type.

   Type encoding: A URL as defined in [RFC-1738].

   Type special notes:  The SOURCE type is used to provide the means  by
   which applications knowledgable in the given directory service proto-
   col may obtain additional or more  up-to-date  information  from  the



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   directory  service.  It  contains  a  URL  as  defined  in [RFC-1738]
   referencing the directory entity or entities to which the information
   pertains.  When directory information is available from more than one
   source, the sending entity may pick what it considers to be the  best
   source, or multiple SOURCE types may be included.

   Type example:
           SOURCE: ldap://ldap.host/cn=Babs%20Jensen,%20o=Babsco,%20c=US

6.2.  NAME Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
   Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME type NAME

   Type name: NAME

   Type purpose: To identify the name of the directory entity  to  which
   information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: A protocol-specific directory name.

   Type special notes:  The NAME type is used to  convey  the  directory
   name  of  the entity to which the directory information pertains. Its
   value depends on the setting of the  "PROTO"  type  parameter,  which
   indicates  the  directory service protocol context in which the value
   of the NAME parameter should be interpreted. Note that this value  is
   protocol-specific  and is intended for applications knowledgable in a
   particular directory service protocol.

   Type example:
           NAME;PROTO=LDAP: cn=Babs Jensen, o=Babsco, c=US

6.3.  PROFILE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
   Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME type PROFILE

   Type name: PROFILE

   Type purpose: To identify the  type  of  directory  entity  to  which
   information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: A profile name, registered as described in  Section  9
   of  this  document or bilaterally-agreed upon as described in Section
   5.

   Type special notes:  The PROFILE type is used to convey the  type  of
   the entity to which the directory information in the rest of the body



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   part pertains. It should be the same as the "profile" header  parame-
   ter, if present.

   Type example:
           PROFILE: person

6.4.  BEGIN Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
   Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME type BEGIN

   Type name: BEGIN

   Type purpose: To delimit the beginning of a syntactic  entity  within
   an application/directory content-type.

   Type encoding: A profile name, registered as described in  Section  9
   of  this  document or bilaterally-agreed upon as described in Section
   5.

   Type special notes:  The BEGIN type is used in conjunction  with  the
   END  type  to delimit a profile containing a related set of directory
   content within an application/directory content-type. This  construct
   may  be  used  instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of
   information inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for appli-
   cations  that  wish to define content that may contain multiple enti-
   ties within the same application/directory content-type or to  define
   content that may be identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           BEGIN: vcard

6.5.  END Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
   Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME type END

   Type name: END

   Type purpose: To identify the  type  of  directory  entity  to  which
   information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: A profile name, registered as described in  Section  9
   of  this  document or bilaterally-agreed upon as described in Section
   5.

   Type special notes:  The END type is used  in  conjunction  with  the
   BEGIN type to delimit a profile containing a related set of directory



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   content within an application/directory content-type. This  construct
   may  be  used  instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of
   information inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for appli-
   cations  that  wish to define content that may contain multiple enti-
   ties within the same application/directory content-type or to  define
   content that may be identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           END: vcard

7.  Use of the multipart/related Content-Type

The multipart/related Content-Type can be used to hold directory  infor-
mation  comprised  of  both  text  and non-text information or directory
information that already has a natural MIME  representation.   The  root
body part within the multipart/related body part is specified as defined
in [RFC-1872] by a "start" parameter, or it is the first  body  part  in
the  absence  of  such  a  parameter.  The  root  body  part must have a
Content-Type of "application/directory".  This part holds inline  infor-
mation,  optionally  defines the name and source of the information, and
makes reference to subsequent body  parts  holding  additional  text  or
non-text directory information via their Content-ID URLs as explained in
Section 5.

The body parts referred to do not have to be in  any  particular  order,
except as noted above for the root body part.

8.  Examples

The following examples are for illustrative purposes only  and  are  not
part of the definition.

8.1.  Example 1

The first example illustrates simple use  of  the  application/directory
Content-Type.  Note that no "profile" parameter is given, so an applica-
tion may not know what kind of directory entity the information  applies
to.  Note  also  the  use  of both hypothetical official and bilaterally
agreed upon types.

   From: Whomever@wherever.com
   To: Someone@somewhere.com
   Subject: whatever
   MIME-Version: 1.0
   Message-ID: <id1@host.net>
   Content-Type: application/directory
   Content-ID: <id2@host.com>




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   cn: Babs Jensen
   cn: Barbara J Jensen
   sn: Jensen
   email: babs@umich.edu
   phone: +1 313 747-4454
   x-id: 1234567890

8.2.  Example 2

The next example illustrates the use of  the  Quoted-Printable  encoding
defined  in  [RFC-1521]  to  include non-ASCII characters in some of the
information returned, and the use of the optional  "name"  and  "source"
types.   It  also illustrates the use of an "encoding" type parameter to
encode a certificate value in base 64. Note the use of the  hypothetical
"person" profile.

   Content-Type: application/directory;
           charset="iso-8859-1";
           profile="person"
   Content-ID: <id3@host.com>
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

   source: ldap://cn=3DBjorn%20Jensen,o=3DUniversity%20of%20Michigan,c=3DUS
   name;proto=3Dldap: cn=3DBjorn Jensen, o=3DUniversity of Michigan, c=3DUS
   cn: Bj=F8rn Jensen
   sn: Jensen
   email: bjorn@umich.edu
   phone: +1 313 747-4454
   certificate;encoding=3Dbase64: dGhpcyBjb3VsZCBiZSAKbXkgY2VydGlmaWNhdGUK

8.3.  Example 3

The next example illustrates the use of  multi-valued  type  parameters,
the "charset" type parameter, the "language" type parameter, the "value-
type" type parameter,  inline  quoted-printable  encoding  to  represent
iso-8859-1 characters and fold long lines, and attribute grouping.

   Content-Type: application/directory; profile="person"
   Content-ID: <id3@host.com>

   source: ldap://cn=Meister%20Berger,o=Universitaet%20Goerlitz,c=DE
   name: cn=Meister Berger, o=Universitaet Goerlitz, c=DE
   cn: Meister Berger
   cn: Berger Meister
   sn: Berger
   age;value=int: 33
   o;charset=iso-8859-1;encoding=quoted-printable: Universit=E6t G=F6rlitz
   title: Mayor



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   title;language=de;value=text: Burgermeister
   description;encoding=quoted-printable: The Mayor of the great city of=
    Goerlitz in the great country of Germany.
   email: mb@goerlitz.de
   home.phone;fax,voice,msg: +49 3581 123456
   home.addr;encoding=quoted-printable: Hufenshlagel 1234=0A=
    02828 Goerlitz=0A=
    Deutschland
   certificate;encoding=base64: dGhpcyBjb3VsZCBiZSAKbXkgY2VydGlma...

8.4.  Example 4

The final example illustrates the use of the multipart/related  Content-
Type  to  include  non-textual  directory data via the "url" encoding to
refer to other body parts  within  the  same  message,  or  to  external
values.

   Content-Type: multipart/related;
           boundary=woof;
           type="application/directory";
           start="<id5@host.com>"
   Content-ID: <id4@host.com>

   --woof
   Content-Type: application/directory; charset="iso-8859-1"
   Content-ID: <id5@host.com>
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

   source: ldap://cn=3DBjorn%20Jensen,o=3DUniversity%20of%20Michigan,c=3DUS
   cn: Bj=F8rn Jensen
   sn: Jensen
   email: bjorn@umich.edu
   image;encoding=3Durl: cid:id6@host.com
   image;encoding=3Durl;format=3Djpeg: ftp://some.host/some/path.jpg
   sound;encoding=3Durl: cid:id7@host.com
   phone: +1 313 747-4454

   --woof
   Content-Type: image/jpeg
   Content-ID: <id6@host.com>

   <...image data...>

   --woof
   Content-Type: message/external-body;
           name="myvoice.au";
           site="myhost.com";
           access-type=ANON-FTP;



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           directory="pub/myname";
           mode="image"

   Content-Type: audio/basic
   Content-ID: <id7@host.com>

   --woof--

9.  Registration of new profiles

This section defines procedures by which  new  profiles  are  registered
with  the  IANA  and made available to the Internet community. Note that
non-IANA profiles may be used by bilateral agreement, provided the asso-
ciated profile names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review  of  new  profiles,  while  posing only a small impediment to the
definition of new profiles.

Registration of a new profile is accomplished by the following steps.

9.1.  Define the profile

A profile is defined by completing the following template.

   To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
   Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME profile XXX

   Profile name:

   Profile purpose:

   Profile types:

   Profile special notes (optional):

   Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

Profile name: The  name  of  the  profile  as  it  will  appear  in  the
application/directory  MIME  Content-Type "profile" header parameter, or
the predefined "profile" type name.

Profile purpose: The purpose of the profile (e.g., to represent informa-
tion  about  people,  printers, documents, etc.). Give a short but clear
description.




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Profile types: The list of types associated with the profile.  This list
of  types is to be expected but not required in the profile, unless oth-
erwise noted in the profile definition.  Other types  not  mentioned  in
the  profile  definition  may  also be present.  Note that any new types
referenced by the profile must be defined  separately  as  described  in
Section 10.

Profile special notes: Any special notes about the profile, how it is to
be used, etc. This section of the template may also be used to define an
ordering on the types that appear in the Content-Type, if such an order-
ing is required.

9.2.  Post the profile definition

The profile description must be posted to  the  new  profile  discussion
list, ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu.

9.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new profile must be allowed to take place on the  list
for  a  minimum  of  two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the profile
before proceeding to step 4.

9.4.  Submit the profile for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced  consensus  has  been  reached  on  the profile, the registration
application should be submitted to the Profile  Reviewer  for  approval.
The  Profile Reviewer is appointed to the Application Area Directors and
may either accept or reject the profile registration. An accepted regis-
tration  should  be  passed  on  by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for
inclusion in the official IANA profile registry. The registration may be
rejected  for  any  of  the  following  reasons. 1) Insufficient comment
period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3) Technical  deficiencies  raised  on
the  list  or  elsewhere have not been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's
decision to reject a profile may be appealed  by  the  proposer  to  the
IESG,  or the objections raised can be addressed by the proposer and the
profile resubmitted.

10.  Profile Change Control

Existing profiles may be changed using the same process  by  which  they
were registered.

     Define the change

     Post the change




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     Allow a comment period

     Submit the changed profile for approval

Note that the original author or any other interested party may  propose
a  change  to  an existing profile, but that such changes should only be
proposed when there are serious omissions or  errors  in  the  published
specification.  The Profile Reviewer may object to a change if it is not
backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

Profile definitions can never be deleted from  the  IANA  registry,  but
profiles  which  are  no  longer  believed  to be useful can be declared
OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

11.  Registration of new types

This section defines procedures by which new types are  registered  with
the  IANA.  Note that non-IANA types may be used by bilateral agreement,
provided the associated types names follow the "X-"  convention  defined
above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review of new types, while posing only a small impediment to the defini-
tion of new types.

Registration of a new type is accomplished by the following steps.

11.1.  Define the type

A type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
      Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME type XXX

      Type name:

      Type purpose:

      Type encoding:

      Type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The meaning of each field in the template is as follows.

Type name: The name of the type, as it will appear in  the  body  of  an
application/directory  MIME  Content-Type "type: value" line to the left



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of the colon ":".

Type purpose: The purpose of the type (e.g., to represent a name, postal
address, IP address, etc.). Give a short but clear description.

Type encoding: The encoding a value of the type must have in the body of
an  application/directory  MIME  Content-Type.  This description must be
precise and must not violate the general encoding rules defined in  sec-
tion 5 of this document.

Type special notes: Any special notes about the type, how it  is  to  be
used, etc.

11.2.  Post the type definition

The type description must be posted to the  new  type  discussion  list,
ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu.

11.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new type must be allowed to take place on the list for
a  minimum  of  two  weeks. Consensus must be reached on the type before
proceeding to step 4.

11.4.  Submit the type for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced consensus has been reached on the type, the registration applica-
tion should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer for approval.  The Pro-
file  Reviewer  is  appointed  to the Application Area Directors and may
either accept or reject the type registration. An accepted  registration
should be passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for inclusion in
the official IANA profile registry. The registration may be rejected for
any  of  the  following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment period; 2) Con-
sensus not reached; 3) Technical deficiencies  raised  on  the  list  or
elsewhere  have  not  been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to
reject a type may be appealed by the proposer to the IESG, or the objec-
tions raised can be addressed by the proposer and the type resubmitted.

12.  Type Change Control

Existing types may be changed using the same process by which they  were
registered.

     Define the change

     Post the change




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     Allow a comment period

     Submit the type for approval

Note that the original author or any other interested party may  propose
a  change to an existing type, but that such changes should only be pro-
posed when there are  serious  omissions  or  errors  in  the  published
specification.  The Profile Reviewer may object to a change if it is not
backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

Type definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry, but  types
which  are  nolonger believed to be useful can be declared OBSOLETE by a
change to their "intended use" field.

13.  Registration of new parameters

This section defines procedures by which new parameters  are  registered
with  the  IANA  and made available to the Internet community. Note that
non-IANA parameters may be used by  bilateral  agreement,  provided  the
associated parameters names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review  of  new  parameters, while posing only a small impediment to the
definition of new parameters.

Registration of a new parameter is accomplished by the following steps.

13.1.  Define the parameter

A parameter is defined by completing the following template.

   To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
   Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME type parameter XXX

   Parameter name:

   Parameter purpose:

   Parameter values:

   Parameter special notes (optional):

   Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

Parameter name: The name of the parameter  as  it  will  appear  in  the
application/directory MIME Content-Type.



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Parameter purpose: The purpose of the parameter (e.g., to represent  the
format  of  an  image,  type  of a phone number, etc.). Give a short but
clear description. If defining a general  paramemter  like  "format"  or
"type" keep in mind that other applications may wish to extend its use.

Parameter values: The list or description of values associated with  the
parameter.

Parameter special notes: Any special notes about the parameter,  how  it
is to be used, etc.

13.2.  Post the parameter definition

The parameter description must be posted to the new parameter discussion
list, ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu.

13.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new parameter must be allowed to  take  place  on  the
list for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the param-
eter before proceeding to step 4.

13.4.  Submit the parameter for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced  consensus  has  been  reached on the parameter, the registration
application should be submitted to the Profile  Reviewer  for  approval.
The  Profile Reviewer is appointed to the Application Area Directors and
may either accept or reject  the  parameter  registration.  An  accepted
registration should be passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for
inclusion in the official IANA parameter registry. The registration  may
be  rejected  for  any of the following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment
period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3) Technical  deficiencies  raised  on
the  list  or  elsewhere have not been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's
decision to reject a profile may be appealed  by  the  proposer  to  the
IESG,  or the objections raised can be addressed by the proposer and the
parameter registration resubmitted.

14.  Parameter Change Control

Existing parameters may be changed using the same process by which  they
were registered.

     Define the change

     Post the change

     Allow a comment period



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     Submit the parameter for approval

Note that the original author or any other interested party may  propose
a  change to an existing parameter, but that such changes should only be
proposed when there are serious omissions or  errors  in  the  published
specification.  The Profile Reviewer may object to a change if it is not
backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

Parameter definitions can never be deleted from the IANA  registry,  but
parameters  which  are  nolonger  believed  to be useful can be declared
OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

15.  Registration of new value types

This section defines procedures by which new value types are  registered
with  the  IANA  and made available to the Internet community. Note that
non-IANA value types may be used by  bilateral agreement,  provided  the
associated value types names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review  of  new value types, while posing only a small impediment to the
definition of new value types.

Registration of a new value  types  is  accomplished  by  the  following
steps.


15.1.  Define the value type

A value type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu
      Subject: Registration of application/directory MIME value type XXX

      value type name:

      value type purpose:

      value type format:

      value type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

value type name: The name of the value type as  it  will  appear  in the
application/directory MIME Content-Type.



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value type purpose: The purpose of the value  type.  Give  a  short  but
clear description.

value type format: The definition of the format for the  value,  usually
using BNF grammar.

value type special notes: Any special notes about the value  type,   how
it is to be used, etc.


15.2.  Post the value type definition

The value type description must be posted to the new value type  discus-
sion list, ietf-mime-direct@umich.edu.


15.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new value type must be allowed to  take  place  on the
list  for  a  minimum  of  two  weeks.  Consensus must be reached before
proceeding to step 4.


15.4.  Submit the value type for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced   consensus   has  been  reached on the value type, the registra-
tion application should  be  submitted  to  the  Profile   Reviewer  for
approval.   The   Profile  Reviewer is appointed to the Application Area
Directors and may either accept or reject  the  value type registration.
An  accepted registration should be passed on by the Profile Reviewer to
the IANA for inclusion in the official IANA  value  type  registry.  The
registration  may  be   rejected   for  any of the following reasons. 1)
Insufficient comment period; 2)  Consensus  not  reached;  3)  Technical
deficiencies    raised   on  the   list   or  elsewhere  have  not  been
addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to reject a  profile  may  be
appealed  by  the  proposer  to  the IESG,  or the objections raised can
be addressed by the proposer and the value type  registration  resubmit-
ted.

16.  Security Considerations

Internet mail is subject to many well known security attacks,  including
monitoring,  replay,  and forgery. Care should be taken by any directory
service in allowing information  to  leave  the  scope  of  the  service
itself, where any access controls can no longer be guaranteed.  Applica-
tions should also take care  to  display  directory  data  in  a  "safe"
environment (e.g., PostScript-valued types).



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17.  Acknowledgements

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foun-
dation under Grant No. NCR-9416667.  The registration procedures defined
here were shamelessly lifted from the MIME registration draft.

18.  Bibliography

[RFC-1777] Yeong, W.,  Howes,  T.,  Kille,  S.,  "Lightweight  Directory
           Access Protocol", Request for Comment (RFC) 1777, March 1995.

[RFC-1778] Howes, T., Kille, S., Yeong, W., Robbins, C.J.,  "The  String
           Representation  of  Standard Attribute Syntaxes", Request for
           Comment (RFC) 1778, March 1995.

[RFC-822]  Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA  Internet  Text
           Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982.

[RFC-1521] Borenstein, N., Freed, N., "MIME (Multipurpose Internet  Mail
           Extensions)  Part One: Mechanisms for Specifying and Describ-
           ing the Format of Internet Message Bodies",  RFC  1521,  Sep-
           tember 1993.

[RFC-1522] Moore, K., "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part
           Two:   Message  Header  Extensions  for  Non-ASCII Text", RFC
           1522, September 1993.

[RFC-1848] Crocker, S., Freed, N., Galvin, J., Murphy, S., "MIME  Object
           Security Services", RFC 1848, October 1995.

[RFC-1766] Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification  of  Languages",
           RFC 1766, March 1995.

[RFC-1872] Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-type,"  RFC
           1872, December 1995.

[MIME-REG] Freed, N., Postel, J., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
           (MIME)  Part  Four:  Registration Procedures," Internet-Draft
           draft-ietf-822ext-mime-reg-02.txt, December 1995.

[x500]     "Information Processing Systems - Open  Systems  Interconnec-
           tion  -  The Directory: Overview of Concepts, Models and Ser-
           vices", ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC21,  International  Standard  9594-1,
           1988.

[RFC-1835] Deutsch, P., Schoultz, R., Faltstrom, P., Weider, C., "Archi-
           tecture of the WHOIS++ service", August 1995.




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[RFC-1738] Berners-Lee,  T.,  Masinter,  L.,  McCahill,   M.,   "Uniform
           Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

[MIME-WPP] Howes, T., Smith, M., "A White Pages Person Profile  for  the
           application/directory   MIME   Content-Type",  Internet-Draft
           draft-ietf-asid-mime-person-00.txt, January, 1996.

[HTTP]     Berners-Lee,  T.,  Fielding,  R.  Frystyk,   H.,   "Hypertext
           Transfer  Protocol  --  HTTP/1.0", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-
           http-v10-spec-05.txt, February, 1996.

[VERSIT]   VERSIT Consortium, "Electronic Business Card (vCard) Specifi-
           cation",  Draft  Final Text - Version 2.0, February 16, 1996,
           http://www.versit.com

19.  Author's Address

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1.415.937.3419

   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   mcs@netscape.com
   +1.415.937.3477

























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20.  Table of Contents

1    Status of this Memo ..........................................  1
2    Abstract .....................................................  1
3    Need for a MIME Directory Type ...............................  2
4    Overview .....................................................  2
5    The application/directory Content-Type .......................  3
6    Predefined Types ............................................. 10
6.1   SOURCE Type Definition ...................................... 10
6.2   NAME Type Definition ........................................ 11
6.3   PROFILE Type Definition ..................................... 11
6.4   BEGIN Type Definition ....................................... 12
6.5   END Type Definition ......................................... 12
7    Use of the multipart/related Content-Type .................... 13
8    Examples ..................................................... 13
8.1   Example 1 ................................................... 13
8.2   Example 2 ................................................... 14
8.3   Example 3 ................................................... 14
8.4   Example 4 ................................................... 15
9    Registration of new profiles ................................. 16
9.1   Define the profile .......................................... 16
9.2   Post the profile definition ................................. 17
9.3   Allow a comment period ...................................... 17
9.4   Submit the profile for approval ............................. 17
10   Profile Change Control ....................................... 17
11   Registration of new types .................................... 18
11.1  Define the type ............................................. 18
11.2  Post the type definition .................................... 19
11.3  Allow a comment period ...................................... 19
11.4  Submit the type for approval ................................ 19
12   Type Change Control .......................................... 19
13   Registration of new parameters ............................... 20
13.1  Define the parameter ........................................ 20
13.2  Post the parameter definition ............................... 21
13.3  Allow a comment period ...................................... 21
13.4  Submit the parameter for approval ........................... 21
14   Parameter Change Control ..................................... 21
15   Registration of new value types .............................. 22
15.1  Define the value type ....................................... 22
15.2  Post the value type definition .............................. 23
15.3  Allow a comment period ...................................... 23
15.4  Submit the value type for approval .......................... 23
16   Security Considerations ...................................... 23
17   Acknowledgements ............................................. 24
18   Bibliography ................................................. 24
19   Author's Address ............................................. 25
20   Table of Contents ............................................ 26




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