CoRE                                                             K. Lynn
Internet-Draft                                              Oracle + Dyn
Intended status: Standards Track                         P. van der Stok
Expires: April 25, 2019                                       Consultant
                                                               M. Koster
                                                              C. Amsuess
                                             Energy Harvesting Solutions
                                                        October 22, 2018

                CoRE Resource Directory: DNS-SD mapping


   Resource and service discovery are complimentary.  Resource discovery
   provides fine-grained detail about the content of a server, while
   service discovery can provide a scalable method to locate servers in
   large networks.  This document defines a method for mapping between
   CoRE Link Format attributes and DNS-Based Service Discovery fields to
   facilitate the use of either method to locate RESTful service
   interfaces (APIs) in heterogeneous HTTP/CoAP environments.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents

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   ( in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  CoRE Resource Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.3.  CoRE Resource Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.4.  DNS-Based Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Mapping from web resources DNS services . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.1.  Domain mapping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.2.  ServiceType mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.3.  Instance mapping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  New Link-Format Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Export attribute "exp"  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Resource Instance attribute "ins" . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Mapping CoRE Link Attributes to DNS-SD Record Fields  . . . .   8
     4.1.  Mapping Resource Instance attribute "ins" to <Instance> .   8
     4.2.  Mapping Resource Type attribute "rt" to <ServiceType> . .   9
     4.3.  TXT Record key=value strings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.4.  Exporting resource links into DNS-SD  . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Mapping Resource Type into ServiceType  . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   The Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) working group aims at
   realizing the REST architecture in a suitable form for the most
   constrained devices (e.g. 8-bit microcontrollers with limited RAM and
   ROM) and networks (e.g. 6LoWPAN).  CoRE is aimed at machine-to-
   machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building
   automation.  The main deliverable of CoRE is the Constrained
   Application Protocol (CoAP) specification [RFC7252].

   Automated discovery of resources hosted by a constrained server is
   critical in M2M applications where human intervention is minimal and

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   static interfaces result in brittleness.  CoRE Resource Discovery is
   intended to support fine-grained discovery of hosted resources, their
   attributes, and possibly other resource relations [RFC6690].

   In contrast to resource discovery, service discovery generally refers
   to a coarser-grained resolution of an endpoint's IP address, port
   number, and protocol.  This definition may be extended to include
   multi-function devices, where the result of the discovery process may
   include a path to a resource representing a RESTful service interface
   and possibly a reference to a description of the interface such as a
   JSON Hyper-Schema document [I-D.handrews-json-schema-hyperschema] per

   Resource and service discovery are complimentary in the case of large
   networks, where the latter can facilitate scaling.  This document
   defines a mapping between CoRE Link Format attributes and DNS-Based
   Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] fields that permits discovery of
   CoAP services by either method.  It also addresses the CoRE charter
   goal to interoperate with DNS-SD.

   The actual publishing of DNS services on the basis of the contents of
   the Resource Directory is the subject of

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].  The term "byte" is used in its now conventional sense as
   a synonym for "octet".

   This specification requires readers to be familiar with all the terms
   and concepts that are discussed in [RFC6690] and [RFC8288].  Readers
   should also be familiar with the terms and concepts discussed in
   [RFC7252].  To describe the REST interfaces defined in this
   specification, the URI Template format is used [RFC6570].

   This specification also incorporates the terminology of

1.2.  CoRE Resource Discovery

   [RFC8288] defines a Web Link (link) as a typed connection between two
   resources, comprised of:

   o  a link context,

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   o  a link relation type (see Section 2.1 of [RFC8288],

   o  a link target, and

   o  optionally, target attributes (see Section 2.2 of [RFC8288]).

   A link can be viewed as a statement of the form "link context has a
   link relation type resource at link target, which (optionally) has
   target attributes", where link target (and context) is typically a
   Universal Resource Identifier (URI) [RFC3986].

   For example, "" has a "canonical" resource at
   "", which has a "type" of "text/html".

   The main function of Resource Discovery is to return links to the
   resources hosted by a server, complemented by attributes about those
   resources and additional link relations.  In CoRE this collection of
   links and attributes is itself a resource (as opposed to HTTP headers
   delivered with a specific resource).

   [RFC6690] specifies a link format for use in CoRE Resource Discovery
   by extending the HTTP Link Header Format [RFC8288] to describe these
   link descriptions.  The CoRE Link Format is carried as a payload and
   is serialized according to one of several Internet media types.  CoRE
   Resource Discovery is accomplished by sending a GET request to the
   well-known URI "/.well- known/core", which is defined as a default
   entry-point for requesting the collection of links to resources
   hosted by a server.

   Resource Discovery can be performed either via unicast or multicast.
   When a server's IP address is already known, either a priori or
   resolved via the Domain Name System (DNS) [RFC1034][RFC1035], unicast
   discovery is performed in order to locate a URI for the resource of
   interest.  This is performed using a GET to /.well-known/core on the
   server, which returns the links.  A client would then match the
   appropriate Resource Type, Interface Description, and possible
   Content-Type [RFC2045] for its application.  These attributes may
   also be included in the query string in order to filter the number of
   links returned in a response.

1.3.  CoRE Resource Directories

   In many M2M scenarios, direct discovery of resources is not practical
   due to sleeping nodes, limited bandwidth, or networks where multicast
   traffic is inefficient.  These problems can be solved by deploying a
   network element called a Resource Directory (RD), which hosts
   descriptions of resources held on other servers (referred to as "end-
   points") and allows lookups to be performed for those resources.  An

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   endpoint is a web server associated with a specific IP address and
   port; thus a physical device may host one or more endpoints.  End-
   points may also act as clients.

   The Resource Directory implements a set of REST interfaces for end-
   points to register and maintain collections of links, called resource
   directory registrations.  [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory]
   specifies the web interfaces that an RD supports for endpoints to
   discover the RD and to register, maintain, lookup and remove resource
   descriptions; for the RD to validate entries; and for clients to
   lookup resources from the RD.

1.4.  DNS-Based Service Discovery

   DNS-Based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) defines a conventional method of
   naming and configuring DNS PTR, SRV, and TXT resource records to
   facilitate discovery of services (such as CoAP servers in a
   subdomain) using the existing DNS infrastructure.  This section gives
   a brief overview of DNS-SD; for a detailed specification see

   DNS-SD Service Names are limited to 255 bytes and are of the form:

         Service Name = <Instance>.<ServiceType>.<Domain>

   The Service Name identifies a SRV/TXT resource record (RR) pair.  The
   SRV RR specifies the host and port of an endpoint.  The TXT RR
   provides additional information in the form of key/value pairs.  DNS-
   Based Service Discovery is accomplished by sending a DNS request for
   PTR records with the name <ServiceType>.<Domain>, which will return a
   list of zero or more Service Names.

   The <Domain> part of the Service Name is identical to the global (DNS
   subdomain) part of the authority in URIs that identify the resources
   on an individual server or group of servers.

   The <ServiceType> part is composed of at least two labels.  The first
   label of the pair is the application protocol name [RFC6335] preceded
   by an underscore character.  For example, an organization such as the
   Open Connectivity Foundation [OCF] that specifies resources might
   register the application protocol name "_oic", which all servers that
   advertise OCF resources would use as part of their ServiceType.  The
   second label indicates the transport and is typically "_udp" for CoAP
   services.  In cases where narrowing the scope of the search may be
   useful, these labels may be optionally preceded by a subtype name
   followed by the "_sub" label.  An example of this more specific
   <ServiceType> is "light._sub._oic._udp".

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   The default <Instance> part of the Service Name SHOULD be set to a
   default value at the factory and MAY be modified during the
   commissioning process.  It MUST uniquely identify an instance of
   <ServiceType> within a <Domain>.  Taken together, these three
   elements comprise a unique name for an SRV/TXT record pair within the
   DNS subdomain.

   The granularity of a Service Name MAY be that of a host or group, or
   it might represent a particular resource within a CoAP server.  The
   SRV record contains the host name (AAAA record name) and port of the
   endpoint while protocol is part of the Service Name.  In the case
   where a Service Name identifies a particular resource, the path part
   of the URI must be carried in a corresponding TXT record.

   A DNS TXT record is in practice limited to a few hundred bytes in
   length, which is indicated in the resource record header in the DNS
   response message [RFC6763].  The data consists of one or more strings
   comprising a key/value pair.  By convention, the first pair is
   txtver=<number> (to support different versions of a service
   description).  An example string is:

                 | 0x08 | t | x | t | v | e | r | = | 1 |

2.  Mapping from web resources DNS services

   These sections describe how each of the three parts of the Service
   Name can be mapped to link attributes.

2.1.  Domain mapping

   TBD: A method must be specified to determine in which DNS zone the
   CoAP service should be registered.  See, for example, Section 11 in
   [RFC6763] and Section 2 in [I-D.sctl-service-registration]

2.2.  ServiceType mapping

   ServiceTypes are registered by IANA [st].  They identify services
   that can be specified by IETF or any other Standards Development
   Organization (SDO).  The IANA resource type registry [rt] is based on
   the resource type (rt= attribute) [RFC6690] which identifies endpoint
   functionality specified by IETF or any other SDO.

   It is expected that an endpoint providing a given ServiceType
   represents a collection of resources each with its own Resource Type.
   The Resource Type of the collection MUST be mapped directly to the

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   ServiceType.  A registry is required to specify the mapping between
   Resource Types and ServiceTypes.

2.3.  Instance mapping

   The Instance name may be freely chosen by the manufacturer and
   inserted in the device.  During installation the pre-configured
   Instance name can be pre- or post-fixed with a string to make the
   (Instance, ServiceType) pair unique within the domain.  For manual
   discovery it is useful when the Instance name is a human readable
   string containing the manufacturer name or the device type.

   IoT devices are not necessarily equipped with an Instance name for
   DNS-SD.  To make the (Instance, ServiceType) pair unique, it is
   sufficient to use another unique identifier stored in the device such
   as the Public key or UUID of the device.  When a human readable name
   is required, the interface description (if= attribute) [RFC6690] may
   provide for example, a URN that can be made unique by pre- or post-
   fixing it with a string as is currently done for the Instance name
   devices conforming to DNS-SD specification.

   When the device selects the Instance name, the device, registering
   with the RD, MUST provide an Instance name in its link.  When a third
   party device, the Commissioning Tool (CT)
   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory], selects the Instance name, it
   specifies the Instance name when registering the device with the
   Resource Directory.

3.  New Link-Format Attributes

   When using the CoRE Link Format to describe resources being
   discovered by or posted to a resource directory service, additional
   information about those resources is useful.  This specification
   defines the following new attributes for use in the CoRE Link Format

      link-extension    = ( "exp" )
      link-extension    = ( "ins" "=" (ptoken | quoted-string) )
                          ; The token or string is max 63 bytes

3.1.  Export attribute "exp"

   The Export "exp" attribute is used as a flag to indicate that a link
   description MAY be exported from a resource directory to external

   The CoRE Link Format is used for many purposes between CoAP
   endpoints.  Some are useful mainly locally; for example checking the

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   observability of a resource before accessing it, determining the size
   of a resource, or traversing dynamic resource structures.  However,
   other links are very useful to be exported to other directories, for
   example the entry point resource to a functional service.  This
   attribute MAY be used as a query parameter in the RD Lookup Function
   Set defined in Section 7 of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory].

3.2.  Resource Instance attribute "ins"

   The Resource Instance "ins" attribute is an identifier for this
   resource, which makes it possible to distinguish it from other
   similar resources.  This attribute is equivalent in use to the
   <Instance> portion of a DNS-SD record (see Section 1.4), and SHOULD
   be unique across resources with the same Resource Type attribute in
   the domain in which it is used.  A Resource Instance SHOULD be a
   descriptive string like "Ceiling Light, Room 3", but MAY be a short
   ID like "AF39", a unique UUID, or fingerprint of a public key.  This
   attribute is used by a Resource Directory to distinguish between
   multiple instances of the same resource type within the directory.

   This attribute MUST NOT be more than 63 bytes in length.  The
   resource identifier attribute MUST NOT appear more than once in a
   link description.  This attribute MAY be used as a query parameter in
   the RD Lookup Function Set defined in Section 7 of

4.  Mapping CoRE Link Attributes to DNS-SD Record Fields

4.1.  Mapping Resource Instance attribute "ins" to <Instance>

   The Resource Instance "ins" attribute maps to the <Instance> part of
   a DNS-SD Service Name.  It is stored directly in the DNS as a single
   DNS label of canonical precomposed UTF-8 [RFC3629] "Net-Unicode"
   (Unicode Normalization Form C) [RFC5198] text.  However, if the "ins"
   attribute is chosen to match the DNS host name of a service, it
   SHOULD use the syntax defined in Section 3.5 of [RFC1034] and
   Section 2.1 of [RFC1123].

   The <Instance> part of the name of a service being offered on the
   network SHOULD be configurable by the user setting up the service, so
   that he or she may give it an informative name.  However, the device
   or service SHOULD NOT require the user to configure a name before it
   can be used.  A sensible choice of default name can allow the device
   or service to be accessed in many cases without any manual
   configuration at all (see Appendix D of [RFC6763]).

   DNS labels are limited to 63 bytes in length and the entire Service
   Name may not exceed 255 bytes.

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4.2.  Mapping Resource Type attribute "rt" to <ServiceType>

   The <ServiceType> part of a DNS-SD Service Name is derived from the
   "rt" attribute and SHOULD conform to the reg-rel-type production of
   the Link Format defined in Section 2 of [RFC6690].

   In practice, the ServiceType should unambiguously identify inter-
   operable devices.  It is up to individual SDOs to specify how to map
   between their registered Resource Type (rt=) values and ServiceType
   values.  Two approaches are possible; either a hierachical approach
   as in Section 1.4 above, or a flat identifier.  Both approaches are
   shown below for illustration, but in practice only ONE would be

   In either case, the resulting application protocol name MUST be
   composed of at least a single Net-Unicode text string, without
   underscore '_' or or period '.' and limited to 15 bytes in length
   (see Section 5.1 of [RFC6335]).  This string is mapped to the DNS-SD
   <ServiceType> by prepending an underscore and appending a period
   followed by the "_udp" label.  For example, rt="oic.d.light" might be
   mapped into "_oic-d-light._udp".

   The application protocol name may be optionally followed by a period
   and a service subtype name consisting of a Net-Unicode text string,
   without underscore or period and limited to 63 bytes.  This string is
   mapped to the DNS-SD <ServiceType> by appending a period followed by
   the "_sub" label and then appending a period followed by the service
   type label pair derived as in the previous paragraph.  For example,
   rt="oic.d.light" might be mapped into "light._sub._oic._udp".

   The resulting string is used to form labels for DNS-SD records which
   are stored directly in the DNS.

4.3.  TXT Record key=value strings

   A number of [RFC6763] key/value pairs are derived from link-format
   information, to be exported in the DNS-SD as key=value strings in a
   TXT record (See Section 6.3 of [RFC6763]).

   The resource <URI> is exported as key/value pair "path=<URI>".

   The Interface Description "if" attribute is exported as key/value
   pair "if=<Interface Description>".

   The DNS TXT record can be further populated by importing any other
   resource description attributes as they share the same key=value
   format specified in Section 6 of [RFC6763].

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4.4.  Exporting resource links into DNS-SD

   Assuming the ability to query a Resource Directory or multicast a GET
   (?exp) over the local link, CoAP resource discovery may be used to
   populate the DNS-SD database in an automated fashion.  CoAP resource
   descriptions (links) can be exported to DNS-SD for exposure to
   service discovery by using the Resource Instance attribute as the
   basis for a unique Service Name, composed with the Resource Type as
   the <ServiceType>, and registered in the correct <Domain>.  The agent
   responsible for exporting records to the DNS zone file SHOULD be
   authenticated to the DNS server.  The following example, using the
   example lookup location /rd-lookup, shows an agent discovering a
   resource to be exported:

     Req: GET /rd-lookup/res?exp

     Res: 2.05 Content

   The agent subsequently registers the following DNS-SD RRs, assuming a
   zone name "" prefixed with "office":      IN PTR
           txtver=1;path=/light/1 IN SRV 0 0 5683
          IN AAAA FDFD::1234

   In the above figure the Service Name is chosen as without the light._sub service
   prefix.  An alternative Service Name would be:

5.  IANA considerations

5.1.  Mapping Resource Type into ServiceType


6.  Security considerations


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7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987,

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <>.

   [RFC1123]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
              Application and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1123, October 1989,

   [RFC2045]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
              Bodies", RFC 2045, DOI 10.17487/RFC2045, November 1996,

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,

   [RFC5198]  Klensin, J. and M. Padlipsky, "Unicode Format for Network
              Interchange", RFC 5198, DOI 10.17487/RFC5198, March 2008,

   [RFC6335]  Cotton, M., Eggert, L., Touch, J., Westerlund, M., and S.
              Cheshire, "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
              Procedures for the Management of the Service Name and
              Transport Protocol Port Number Registry", BCP 165,
              RFC 6335, DOI 10.17487/RFC6335, August 2011,

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   [RFC6570]  Gregorio, J., Fielding, R., Hadley, M., Nottingham, M.,
              and D. Orchard, "URI Template", RFC 6570,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6570, March 2012,

   [RFC6690]  Shelby, Z., "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link
              Format", RFC 6690, DOI 10.17487/RFC6690, August 2012,

   [RFC6763]  Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", RFC 6763, DOI 10.17487/RFC6763, February 2013,

   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,

   [RFC8288]  Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 8288,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8288, October 2017,

7.2.  Informative References

              Andrews, H. and A. Wright, "JSON Hyper-Schema: A
              Vocabulary for Hypermedia Annotation of JSON", draft-
              handrews-json-schema-hyperschema-01 (work in progress),
              January 2018.

              Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., Stok, P., and C.
              Amsuess, "CoRE Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core-
              resource-directory-15 (work in progress), October 2018.

              Cheshire, S. and T. Lemon, "Service Registration Protocol
              for DNS-Based Service Discovery", draft-sctl-service-
              registration-02 (work in progress), July 2018.

   [OCF]      Open Connectivity Foundation, "OCF Specification 2.0",
              2018, <

   [rt]       IANA, "Resource Type (rt=) Link Target Attribute
              Values", 2012, <

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   [st]       IANA, "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number
              Registry", 2018, <

Appendix A.  Acknowledgments

   This document was split out from [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory].
   Zach Shelby was a co-author of the original version of this draft.

Authors' Addresses

   Kerry Lynn
   Oracle + Dyn
   150 Dow Street, Tower Two
   Manchester, NH  03101

   Phone: +1 978-460-4253

   Peter van der Stok

   Phone: +31 492474673 (Netherlands), +33 966015248 (France)

   Michael Koster
   665 Clyde Avenue
   Mountain View, CA  94043

   Phone: +1 707-502-5136

   Christian Amsuess
   Energy Harvesting Solutions
   Hollandstr. 12/4

   Phone: +43 664-9790639

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