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Versions: (draft-mrw-trill-over-ip)  00 01 02 03         Standards Track
          04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16                        
INTERNET-DRAFT                                           Margaret Cullen
Intended Status: Proposed Standard                     Painless Security
Updates: 7177, 7178                                      Donald Eastlake
                                                            Mingui Zhang
                                                           Dacheng Zhang
Expires: June 1, 2017                                   December 2, 2017

      TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) over IP

   The TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) protocol
   supports both point-to-point and multi-access links and is designed
   so that a variety of link protocols can be used between TRILL switch
   ports. This document specifies transmission of encapsulated TRILL
   data and TRILL IS-IS over IP (v4 or v6). so as to use an IP network
   as a TRILL link in a unified TRILL campus. This document updates RFC
   7177 and updates RFC 7178.

Status of This Document

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited. Comments should be sent
   to the authors or the TRILL Working Group mailing list

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html. The list of Internet-Draft
   Shadow Directories can be accessed at

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 1]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

Table of Contents

      1. Introduction............................................4
      2. Terminology.............................................5

      3. Use Cases for TRILL over IP.............................6
      3.1 Remote Office Scenario.................................6
      3.2 IP Backbone Scenario...................................6
      3.3 Important Properties of the Scenarios..................7
      3.3.1 Security Requirements................................7
      3.3.2 Multicast Handling...................................8
      3.3.3 Neighbor Discovery...................................8

      4. TRILL Packet Formats....................................9
      4.1 General Packet Formats.................................9
      4.2 General TRILL Over IP Packet Formats..................10
      4.2.1 Without Security....................................10
      4.2.2 With Security.......................................10
      4.3 QoS Considerations....................................11
      4.4 Broadcast Links and Multicast Packets.................13
      4.5 TRILL Over IP IS-IS SubNetwork Point of Attachment....13

      5. TRILL over IP Encapsulation Formats....................15
      5.1 Encapsulation Considerations..........................15
      5.2 Encapsulation Agreement...............................16
      5.3 Broadcast Link Encapsulation Considerations...........17
      5.4 Native Encapsulation..................................18
      5.5 VXLAN Encapsulation...................................19
      5.6 TCP Enacpulstion......................................19
      5.7 Other Encapsulations..................................21

      6. Handling Multicast.....................................22

      7. Use of IPsec and IKEv2.................................23
      7.1 Keying................................................23
      7.1.1 Pairwise Keying.....................................23
      7.1.2 Group Keying........................................24
      7.2 Mandatory-to-Implement Algorithms.....................24

      8. Transport Considerations...............................25
      8.1 Congestion Considerations.............................25
      8.1.1 Within a TMCE.......................................26
      8.1.2 In Other Environments...............................26
      8.2 Recursive Ingress.....................................26
      8.3 Fat Flows.............................................27
      8.4 MTU Considerations....................................28

      9. TRILL over IP Port Configuration.......................29
      9.1 Per IP Port Configuration.............................29
      9.2 Additional per IP Address Configuration...............29

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 2]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

Table of Contents (continued)

      9.2.1 Native Multicast Configuration......................30
      9.2.2 Serial Unicast Configuration........................30
      9.2.3 Encapsulation Specific Configuration................30 UDP Source Port...................................30 VXLAN Configuration...............................31 Other Encapsulation Configuration.................31
      9.2.4 Security Configuration..............................31

      10. Security Considerations...............................32
      10.1 IPsec................................................32
      10.2 IS-IS Security.......................................33

      11. IANA Considerations...................................34
      11.1 Port Assignments.....................................34
      11.2 Multicast Address Assignments........................34
      11.3 Encapsulation Method Support Indication..............35

      Normative References......................................36
      Informative References....................................38

      Authors' Addresses........................................41

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 3]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

1. Introduction

   TRILL switches (also know as RBridges) are devices that implement the
   IETF TRILL protocol [RFC6325] [RFC7177] [RFC7780].  TRILL provides
   transparent forwarding of frames within an arbitrary network
   topology, using least cost paths for unicast traffic. It supports
   VLANs and Fine Grained Labels [RFC7172] as well as multipathing of
   unicast and multi-destination traffic. It uses IS-IS [IS-IS]
   [RFC7176] link state routing with a TRILL header having a hop count.

   RBridge ports can communicate with each other over various protocols,
   such as Ethernet [RFC6325], pseudowires [RFC7173], or PPP [RFC6361].

   This document specifies transmission of encapsulated TRILL data and
   TRILL IS-IS over IP (v4 or v6 [rfc2460bis]). so as to use an IP
   network as a TRILL link in a unified TRILL campus. One mandatory to
   implement UDP based encapsulation is specifies along with two option
   to implement encpsulations, one based on UDP and one based on TCP.
   Provision is made to negotiate other encapsulations. TRILL over IP
   allows RBridges with IP connectivity to form a single TRILL campus,
   or multiple TRILL networks to be connected as a single TRILL campus
   via a TRILL over IP backbone.

   The protocol specified in this document connects RBridge ports using
   transport over IP in such a way that the ports with IP connectivity
   appear to TRILL to be connected by a single multi-access link. If a
   set of more than two RBridge ports are connected via a single TRILL
   over IP link, each RBridge port in the set can communicate with every
   other RBridge port in the set.

   To support the scenarios where RBridges are connected via IP paths
   (including those over the public Internet) that are not under the
   same administrative control as the TRILL campus and/or not physically
   secure, this document specifies the use of IPsec [RFC4301]
   Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP) [RFC4303] for security.

   To dynamically select a mutually supported TRILL over IP
   encapsulation, normally one with good fast path hardware support, a
   method is provided for agreement between adjacent TRILL switch ports
   as to what encapsulation to use. Alternatively, where a common
   encapsulation is known to be supported by the TRILL switch ports on a
   link, they can simply be configured to always use that encapsulation.

   This document updates [RFC7177] and [RFC7178] as described in
   Sections 5 and 11.3 by making adjacency between TRILL over IP ports
   dependent on having a method of encapsulation in common and by
   redefining an interval of RBridge Channel protocol numbers to
   indicate link technology specific capabilities, in this case
   encapsulation methods supported for TRILL over IP.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 4]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

2. Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   The following terms and acronyms have the meaning indicated:

   DRB - Designated RBridge. The RBridge (TRILL switch) elected to be in
         charge of certain aspects of a TRILL link that is not
         configured as a point-to-point link [RFC6325] [RFC7177].

   ENCAP Hdr - See "encapsulation header".

   encapsulation header - Protocol header or headers appearing between
         the IP Header and the TRILL Header. See Sections 4 and 5.

   ESP - IPsec Encapsulating Security Protocol [RFC4303].

   FGL - Fine Grained Label [RFC7172].

   Hdr - Used herein as an abbreviation for "Header".

   link - In TRILL, a link connects TRILL ports and may, for example, be
         a bridged LAN.

   HKDF - Hash based Key Derivation Function [RFC5869].

   MTU - Maximum Transmission Unit.

   QoS - Quality of Service.

   RBridge - Routing Bridge. An alternative term for a TRILL switch.
         [RFC6325] [RFC7780]

   SNPA - Sub-Network Point of Attachment.

   Sz - The campus wide MTU [RFC6325] [RFC7780].

   TMCE - Traffic-Managed Controlled Environment, see Section 8.1.1.

   TRILL - Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links or Tunneled
         Routing in the Link Layer. The protocol specified in [RFC6325],
         [RFC7177], [RFC7780], and related RFCs.

   TRILL switch - A device implementing the TRILL protocol.

   VNI - Virtual Network Identifier. In Virtual eXtensible Local Area
         Network (VXLAN) [RFC7348], the VXLAN Network Identifier.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 5]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

3. Use Cases for TRILL over IP

   This section introduces two application scenarios (a remote office
   scenario and an IP backbone scenario) which cover typical situations
   where network administrators may choose to use TRILL over an IP
   network to connect TRILL switches.

3.1 Remote Office Scenario

   In the Remote Office Scenario, as shown in the example below, a
   remote TRILL network is connected to a TRILL campus across a multihop
   IP network, such as the public Internet. The TRILL network in the
   remote office becomes a part of TRILL campus, and nodes in the remote
   office can be attached to the same VLANs or Fine Grained Labels
   [RFC7172] as local campus nodes. In many cases, a remote office may
   be attached to the TRILL campus by a single pair of RBridges, one on
   the campus end, and the other in the remote office. In this use case,
   the TRILL over IP link will often cross logical and physical IP
   networks that do not support TRILL, and are not under the same
   administrative control as the TRILL campus.

         /---------------\               /---------------\
         |    Remote     |               |    Remote     |
         |    Office     |               |    Office     |
         |               |               |               |
         |   +-------+   |               |   +-------+   |
         \---|RBridge|---/               \---|RBridge|---/
             +-----+-+                       +-+-----+
                   |                           |
          |        |       The Internet        |        |
                   |                           |
                 +-+-----+               +-----+-+
            |    +-------+               +-------+    |
            |                                         |
            |           Main TRILL Campus             |

3.2 IP Backbone Scenario

   In the IP Backbone Scenario, as shown in the example below, TRILL
   over IP is used to connect a number of TRILL networks to form a
   single TRILL campus. For example, a TRILL over IP backbone could be
   used to connect multiple TRILL networks on different floors of a

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 6]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   large building, or to connect TRILL networks in separate buildings of
   a multi-building site. In this use case, there may often be several
   TRILL switches on a single TRILL over IP link, and the IP link(s)
   used by TRILL over IP are typically under the same administrative
   control as the rest of the TRILL campus.

           | Unified TRILL Campus                        |
           |                                             |
           |                 TRILL Over IP Backbone      |
           |    -----+------------+------------+-----    |
           |         |            |            |         |
           |     +---+---+    +---+---+    +---+---+     |
           |     |RBridge|    |RBridge|    |RBridge|     |
           |     +---+---+    +---+---+    +---+---+     |
           |         |            |            |         |
           |      ---+---      ---+---      ---+---      |
           |       TRILL Local Links or Networks         |
           |                                             |

3.3 Important Properties of the Scenarios

   There are a number of differences between the above two application
   scenarios, some of which drive features of this specification. These
   differences are especially pertinent to the security requirements of
   the solution, how multicast data frames are handled, and how the
   TRILL switch ports discover each other.

3.3.1 Security Requirements

   In the IP Backbone Scenario, TRILL over IP is used between a number
   of RBridge ports, on a network link that is in the same
   administrative control as the remainder of the TRILL campus. While it
   is desirable in this scenario to prevent the association of
   unauthorized RBridges, this can be accomplished using existing IS-IS
   security mechanisms. There may be no need to protect the data
   traffic, beyond any protections that are already in place on the
   local network.

   In the Remote Office Scenario, TRILL over IP may run over a network
   that is not under the same administrative control as the TRILL
   network. Nodes on the network may think that they are sending traffic
   locally, while that traffic is actually being sent, in an IP tunnel,
   over the public Internet. It is necessary in this scenario to protect
   the integrity and confidentiality of user traffic, as well as

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 7]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   ensuring that no unauthorized RBridges can gain access to the RBridge
   campus.  The issues of protecting integrity and confidentiality of
   user traffic are addressed by using IPsec for both TRILL IS-IS and
   TRILL Data packets between RBridges in this scenario.

3.3.2 Multicast Handling

   In the IP Backbone scenario, native IP multicast may be supported on
   the TRILL over IP link. If so, it can be used to send TRILL IS-IS and
   multicast data packets, as discussed later in this document.
   Alternatively, multi-destination packets can be transmitted serially
   by IP unicast to the intended recipients.

   In the Remote Office Scenario there will often be only one pair of
   RBridges connecting a given site and, even when multiple RBridges are
   used to connect a Remote Office to the TRILL campus, the intervening
   network may not provide reliable (or any) multicast connectivity.
   Issues such as complex key management also make it difficult to
   provide strong data integrity and confidentiality protections for
   multicast traffic. For all of these reasons, the connections between
   local and remote RBridges will commonly be treated like point-to-
   point links, and all TRILL IS-IS control messages and multicast data
   packets that are transmitted between the Remote Office and the TRILL
   campus will be serially transmitted by IP unicast, as discussed later
   in this document.

3.3.3 Neighbor Discovery

   In the IP Backbone Scenario, TRILL switches that use TRILL over IP
   can use the normal TRILL IS-IS Hello mechanisms to discover the
   existence of other TRILL switches on the link [RFC7177], and to
   establish authenticated communication with them.

   In the Remote Office Scenario, an IPsec session will need to be
   established before TRILL IS-IS traffic can be exchanged, as discussed
   below. In this case, one end will need to be configured to establish
   a IPSEC session with the other. This will typically be accomplished
   by configuring the TRILL switch or a border device at a Remote Office
   to initiate an IPsec session and subsequent TRILL exchanges with a
   TRILL over IP-enabled RBridge attached to the TRILL campus.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 8]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

4. TRILL Packet Formats

   To support TRILL two types of TRILL packets are transmitted between
   TRILL switches: TRILL Data packets and TRILL IS-IS packets.

   Section 4.1 describes general TRILL packet formats for data and IS-IS
   independent of link technology. Section 4.2 specifies general TRILL
   over IP packet formats including IPsec ESP encapsulation. Section 4.3
   provides QoS Considerations.  Section 4.4 discusses broadcast links
   and multicast packets. And Section 4.5 provides TRILL IS-IS Hello
   SubNetwork Point of Attachment (SNPA) considerations for TRILL over

4.1 General Packet Formats

   The on-the-wire form of a TRILL Data packet in transit between two
   neighboring TRILL switch ports is as shown below:

      |  Link Header   |  TRILL   |  Native Frame  |   Link    |
      | for TRILL Data |  Header  |     Payload    |  Trailer  |

   The encapsulated Native Frame Payload is similar to an Ethernet frame
   with a VLAN tag or Fine Grained Label [RFC7172] but with no trailing
   Frame Check Sequence (FCS).

   TRILL IS-IS packets are formatted on-the-wire as follows:

      |   Link Header   |  TRILL IS-IS  |   Link    |
      | for TRILL IS-IS |    Payload    |  Trailer  |

   The Link Header and Link Trailer in these formats depend on the
   specific link technology. The Link Header contains one or more fields
   that distinguish TRILL Data from TRILL IS-IS. For example, over
   Ethernet, the Link Header for TRILL Data ends with the TRILL
   Ethertype while the Link Header for TRILL IS-IS ends with the L2-IS-
   IS Ethertype; on the other hand, over PPP, there are no Ethertypes in
   the Link Header but PPP protocol code points are included that
   distinguish TRILL Data from TRILL IS-IS.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                          [Page 9]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

4.2 General TRILL Over IP Packet Formats

   In TRILL over IP, we use an IP (v4 or v6) header followed by an
   encapsulation header, such as UDP, as the link header. (On the wire,
   the IP header will normally be preceded by the lower layer header of
   a protocol that is carrying IP; however, this does not concern us at
   the level of this document.)

   There are multiple IP based encapsulations usable for TRILL over IP
   that differ in exactly what appears after the IP header and before
   the TRILL Header or the TRILL IS-IS Payload. Those encapsulations
   specified in this document are further detailed in Section 5. In the
   general specification below, those encapsulation fields will be
   represented as "ENCAP Hdr".

4.2.1 Without Security

   When TRILL over IP link security is not being used, a TRILL over IP
   packet on the wire looks like one of the following:

      TRILL Data Packet
        |   IP    | ENCAP Hdr | TRILL   |   Native frame   |
        | Header  | for Data  | Header  |     Payload      |
        <--- link header ---->

      TRILL IS-IS Packet
        |   IP    | ENCAP Hdr |   TRILL IS-IS   |
        | Header  | for IS-IS |     Payload     |
        <--- link header ---->

   As discussed above and further specified in Section 5, the ENCAP Hdr
   indicates whether the packet is TRILL Data or IS-IS.

4.2.2 With Security

   TRILL over IP link security uses IPsec Encapsulating Security
   Protocol (ESP) in tunnel mode [RFC4303]. Since TRILL over IP always
   starts with an IP Header (on the wire this appears after any lower
   layer header that might be required), the modifications for IPsec are
   independent of the TRILL over IP ENCAP Hdr that occurs after that IP
   Header. The resulting packet formats are as follows for IPv4 and

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 10]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

    With IPv4:
   | new IP Hdr  | ESP | TRILL IP Hdr | ENCAP Hdr | ESP   |ESP|
   |(any options)| Hdr | (any options)| + payload |Trailer|ICV|
                       |<---------- encryption ---------->|
                 |<-------------- integrity ------------->|

    With IPv6:
   | new  |new ext| ESP | orig |orig ext| ENCAP Hdr | ESP   |ESP|
   |IP Hdr| Hdrs  | Hdr |IP Hdr| Hdrs   | + payload |Trailer|ICV|
                        |<----------- encryption ---------->|
                  |<--------------- integrity ------------->|

   As shown above, IP Header options are considered part of the IPv4
   Header but are extensions ("ext") of the IPv6 Header. For further
   information on the IPsec ESP Hdr, Trailer, and ICV, see [RFC4303] and
   Section 7 below. "ENCAP Hdr + payload" is the encapsulation header
   (Section 5) and TRILL data or the encapsulation header and IS-IS
   payload, that is, the material after the IP Header in the diagram in
   Section 4.2.1.

   This architecture permits the ESP tunnel end point to be separated
   from the TRILL over IP RBridge port (see, for example, Section 1.1.3
   of [RFC7296]).

4.3 QoS Considerations

   In IP, QoS handling is indicated by the Differentiated Services Code
   Point (DSCP [RFC2474] [RFC3168]) in the IP Header.  The former Type
   of Service (TOS) octet in the IPv4 Header and the Traffic Class octet
   in the IPv6 Header have been divided as shown in the following
   diagram adapted from [RFC3168]. (TRILL support of ECN is beyond the
   scope of this document. See [TRILLECN].)

            0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7
         |          DSCP FIELD               | ECN FIELD |

           DSCP: Differentiated Services Codepoint
           ECN:  Explicit Congestion Notification

   Although recommendations are provided below for mapping from TRILL
   priority to DSCP, behavior for various DSCP values on the general
   Internet is not predictable. The default mapping below are

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 11]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   appropriate where the TRILL campus is under the control of a network
   manager or consists of islands connected by an Internet Service
   Provider where that manager and/or provider support the DSCPs below
   to provide the QoS indicated.

   Within a TRILL switch, priority is indicated by configuration for
   TRILL IS-IS packets and for TRILL Data packets by a three bit (0
   through 7) priority field and a Drop Eligibility Indicator bit (see
   Sections 8.2 and 7 of [RFC7780]). (Typically TRILL IS-IS is
   configured to use the highest two priorities depending on the IS-IS
   PDU.) The priority affects queuing behavior at TRILL switch ports and
   may be encoded into the link header, particularly if there could be
   priority sensitive devices within the link. For example, if the link
   is a bridged LAN, it is commonly encoded into an Outer.VLAN tag's
   priority and DEI fields.

   TRILL over IP implementations MUST support setting the DSCP value in
   the outer IP Header of TRILL packets they send by mapping the TRILL
   priority and DEI to the DSCP. They MAY support, for a TRILL Data
   packet where the native frame payload is an IP packet, mapping the
   DSCP in this inner IP packet to the outer IP Header with the default
   for that mapping being to copy the DSCP without change.

   The default TRILL priority and DEI to DSCP mapping, which may be
   configured per TRILL over IP port, is an follows. Note that the DEI
   value does not affect the default mapping and, to provide a
   potentially lower priority service than the default priority 0,
   priority 1 is considered lower priority than 0. So the priority
   sequence from lower to higher priority is 1, 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

      TRILL Priority  DEI  DSCP Field (Binary/decimal)
      --------------  ---  -----------------------------
                  0   0/1  001000 / 8
                  1   0/1  000010 / 0
                  2   0/1  010000 / 16
                  3   0/1  011000 / 24
                  4   0/1  100000 / 32
                  5   0/1  101000 / 40
                  6   0/1  110000 / 48
                  7   0/1  111000 / 56

   The above all follow the recommended DSCP values from [RFC2474]
   except for the placing of priority 1 below priority 0, as specified
   in [802.1Q], and for the DSCP value of 000010 binary for low effort
   as recommended in [LEphb].

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 12]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

4.4 Broadcast Links and Multicast Packets

   TRILL supports broadcast links. These are links to which more than
   two TRILL switch ports can be attached and where a packet can be
   broadcast or multicast from a port to all or a subset of the other
   ports on the link as well as unicast to a specific other port on the

   As specified in [RFC6325], TRILL Data packets being forwarded between
   TRILL switches can be unicast on a link to a specific TRILL switch
   port or multicast on a link to all TRILL switch ports. TRILL IS-IS
   packets are always multicast to all other TRILL switches on the link
   except for IS-IS MTU PDUs, which may be unicast [RFC7177]. This
   distinction is not significant if the link is inherently point-to-
   point, such as a PPP link; however, on a broadcast link there will be
   a packet outer link address that will be unicast or multicast as
   appropriate. For example, over Ethernet links, the Ethernet multicast
   addresses All-RBridges and All-IS-IS-RBridges are used for
   multicasting TRILL Data and TRILL IS-IS respectively. For details on
   TRILL over IP handling of multicast, see Section 6.

4.5 TRILL Over IP IS-IS SubNetwork Point of Attachment

   IS-IS routers, including TRILL switches, establish adjacency through
   the exchange of Hello PDUs on a link [RFC7176] [RFC7177]. The Hellos
   transmitted out a port indicate what neighbor ports that port can see
   on the link by listing what IS-IS refers to as the neighbor port's
   SubNetwork Point of Attachment (SNPA). (For an Ethernet link, which
   may be a bridged network, the SNPA is the port MAC address.)

   In TRILL Hello PDUs on a TRILL over IP link, the IP addresses of the
   IP ports connected to that link are their actual SNPA (SubNetwork
   Point of Attachment [IS-IS]) addresses and, for IPv6, the 16-byte
   IPv6 address is used as the SNPA; however, for easy in re-using code
   designed for the common case of 48-bit SNPAs, in TRILL over IPv4 a
   48-bit synthetic SNPA that looks like a unicast MAC address is
   constructed for use in the SNPA field of TRILL Neighbor TLVs
   [RFC7176] [RFC7177] in such Hellos. This synthetic SNPA is derived
   from the port IPv4 address is as follows:

     0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15
   |   0xFE                |   0x00                |
   |   IPv4 upper half                             |
   |   IPv4 lower half                             |

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 13]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   This synthetic SNPA (MAC) address has the local (0x02) bit on in the
   first byte and so cannot conflict with any globally unique 48-bit
   Ethernet MAC. However, when TRILL operates on an IP link, TRILL sees
   only IP addresses on that link, not MAC stations, even if the TRILL
   over IP Link is being carried over Ethernet. Therefore conflict on
   the link between a real MAC address and a TRILL over IP synthetic
   SNPA (MAC) address would be impossible in any case.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 14]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

5. TRILL over IP Encapsulation Formats

   There are a variety of TRILL over IP encapsulation formats possible.
   By default TRILL over IP adopts a hybrid encapsulation approach.

   There is one format, called "native encapsulation" that MUST be
   implemented. Although native encapsulation does not typically have
   good fast path support, as a lowest common denominator it can be used
   by low bandwidth control traffic to determine a preferred
   encapsulation with better performance. In particular, by default, all
   TRILL IS-IS Hellos are sent using native encapsulation and those
   Hellos are used to determine the encapsulation used for all TRILL
   Data packets and all other TRILL IS-IS PDUs (with the exception of
   IS-IS MTU-probe and MTU-ack PDUs used to establish adjacency which
   also use native encapsulation by default).

   Alternatively, the network operator can pre-configure a TRILL over IP
   port to use a particular encapsulation chosen for their particular
   network's needs and port capabilities. That encapsulation is then
   used for all TRILL Data and IS-IS packets, including Hellos, on ports
   so configured. This is expected to frequently be the case for a
   managed campus of TRILL switches.

   Section 5.1 discusses general consideration for the TRILL over IP
   encapsulation format.  Section 5.2 discusses encapsulation agreement.
   Section 5.3 discusses broadcast link encapsulation considerations.
   The subsequent subsections discuss particular encapsulations.

5.1 Encapsulation Considerations

   An encapsulation must provide a method to distinguish TRILL Data
   packets and TRILL IS-IS packets or it is not useful for TRILL. In
   addition, the following criteria can be helpful is choosing between
   different encapsulations:

   a) Fast path support - For most applications, it is highly desirable
      to be able to encapsulate/decapsulate TRILL over IP at line speed
      so a format where existing or anticipated fast path hardware can
      do that is best. This is commonly the dominant consideration.

   b) Ease of multi-pathing - The IP path between TRILL over IP ports
      may include equal cost multipath routes internal to the IP link so
      a method of encapsulation that provides variable fields available
      for existing or anticipated fast path hardware multi-pathing is

   c) Robust fragmentation and re-assembly - Fragmentation should
      generally be avoided; however, the MTU of the IP link may require

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 15]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

      fragmentation in which case an encapsulation with robust
      fragmentation and re-assembly is important. There are known
      problems with IPv4 fragmentation and re-assembly [RFC6864] which
      generally do not apply to IPv6. Some encapsulations can fix these
      problems but the encapsulations specified in this document do not.
      Therefore, if fragmentation is anticipated with the encapsulations
      specified in this document, the use of IPv6 is RECOMMENDED.

   d) Checksum strength - Depending on the particular circumstances of
      the TRILL over IP link, a checksum provided by the encapsulation
      may be a significant factor. Use of IPsec can also provide a
      strong integrity check.

5.2 Encapsulation Agreement

   TRILL Hellos sent out a TRILL over IP port indicate the
   encapsulations that port is willing to support through a mechanism
   initially specified in [RFC7178] and [RFC7176] that is hereby
   extended.  Specifically, RBridge Channel Protocol numbers 0xFD0
   through 0xFF7 are redefined to be link technology dependent flags
   that, for TRILL over IP, indicate support for different
   encapsulations, allowing support for up to 40 encapsulations to be
   specified.  Support for an encapsulation is indicated in the Hello
   PDU in the same way that support for an RBridge Channel protocol was
   indicated. (See also section 11.3.)  "Support" indicates willingness
   to use that encapsulation for TRILL Data and TRILL IS-IS packets
   (although TRILL IS-IS Hellos are still sent in native encapsulation
   by default unless the port is configured to always use some other

   If, in a TRILL Hello on a TRILL over IP link, support is not
   indicated for any encapsulation, then the port from which it was sent
   is assumed to support only native encapsulation (see Section 5.4).

   An adjacency can be formed between two TRILL over IP ports if the
   intersection of the sets of encapsulation methods they support is not
   null. If that intersection is null, then no adjacency is formed. In
   particular, for a TRILL over IP link, the adjacency state machine
   MUST NOT advance to the Report state unless the ports share an
   encapsulation [RFC7177]. If no encapsulation is shared, the adjacency
   state machine remains in the state from which it would otherwise have
   transitioned to the Report state.

   If a TRILL over IP port is using an encapsulation different from that
   in which Hellos are being exchanged, it is RECOMMENDED that BFD
   [RFC7175] or some other protocol that confirms adjacency using TRILL
   Data packets be used. As provided in [RFC7177] adjacency is not
   actually obtained until such confirmatory protocol succeeds.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 16]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   If any TRILL over IP packet, other than an IS-IS Hello or MTU PDU in
   native encapsulation, is received in an encapsulation for which
   support is not being indicated by the receiver, that packet MUST be
   discarded (see Section 5.3).

   If there are two or more encapsulations in common between two
   adjacent ports for unicast or the set of adjacent ports for
   multicast, a transmitter is free to choose whichever of the
   encapsulations it wishes to use. Thus transmissions between adjacent
   ports P1 and P2 could use different encapsulations depending on which
   port is transmitting and which is receiving, that is to say they
   could be asymmetric.

   It is expected to be the normal case in a well-configured network
   that all the TRILL over IP ports connected to an IP link (i.e., an IP
   network) that are intended to communicate with each other will
   support the same encapsulation(s).

5.3 Broadcast Link Encapsulation Considerations

   To properly handle TRILL protocol packets on a TRILL over IP link in
   the general case, either native IP multicast mode is used on that
   link or multicast must be simulated using serial IP unicast, as
   discussed in Section 6. (Of course, if the IP link happens to
   actually be point-to-point no special provision is needed for
   handling IP multicast addressed packets.)

   It is possible for the Hellos from a TRILL over IP port P1 to
   establish adjacency with multiple other TRILL over IP ports (P2, P3,
   ...) on a broadcast link. In a well-configured network one would
   expect all of the IP ports involved to support the same
   encapsulation(s); but, for example, if P1 supports multiple
   encapsulations, it is possible that P2 and P3, do not have an
   encapsulation in common that is supported by P1. [IS-IS] can handle
   such non-transitive adjacencies that are reported as specified in
   [RFC7177]. This is generally done, albeit with reduced efficiency, by
   forwarding through the designated RBridge (router) on the link. Thus
   it is RECOMENDED that all TRILL over IP ports on an IP link be
   configured to support one encapsulation in common that has good fast
   path support.

   If serial IP unicast is being used by P1, it can use different
   encapsulations for different transmissions.

   If native IP multicast is available for use by P1, it can send one
   transmission per encapsulation method by which it has a disjoint set
   of adjacencies on the link. If the transmitting port has adjacencies
   with overlapping sets of ports that are adjacent using different

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 17]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   encapsulations, use of native multicast with different encapsulations
   may result in packet duplication. It would always be possible to use
   native IP multicast for one encapsulation or multiple encapsulations
   supported by non-overlapping sets of receiving ports for which the
   transmitting port has adjacencies, perhaps the encapsulation(s) for
   which it has the largest number of adjacencies, and serially unicast
   to other receivers. These considerations are the reason that a TRILL
   over IP port MUST discard any packet received with an encapsulation
   for which it has not established an adjacency with the transmitter.
   Otherwise, packets would be further duplicated.

5.4 Native Encapsulation

   The mandatory to implement "native encapsulation" format of a TRILL
   over IP packet, when used without security, is TRILL over UDP as
   shown below. This provides simple and direct access by TRILL to the
   native datagram service of IP.

               | IP       | UDP    |  TRILL                |
               | Header   | Header |  Payload              |

   Where the UDP Header is as follows:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      |    Source Port = Entropy      |      Destination Port         |
      |           UDP Length          |        UDP Checksum           |
      |  TRILL Payload ...

      Source Port - see Section 8.3.

      Destination Port - indicates TRILL Data or IS-IS, see Section

      UDP Length - as specified in [RFC0768].

      UDP Checksum - as specified in [RFC0768]. Zero checksum MAY be
         used if the requirements in [RFC6936] are met. tbd (see Section
         6.2 of RFC 8086 as an example)

   The TRILL Payload starts with the TRILL Header (not including the
   TRILL Ethertype) for TRILL Data packets and starts with the 0x83
   Intradomain Routeing Protocol Discriminator byte (thus not including

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 18]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   the L2-IS-IS Ethertype) for TRILL IS-IS packets.

5.5 VXLAN Encapsulation

   VXLAN [RFC7348] IP encapsulation of TRILL looks, on the wire, like
   TRILL over Ethernet over VXLAN over UDP over IP.

            | IP     | UDP    | VXLAN  | Ethernet | TRILL     |
            | Header | Header | Header | Header   | Payload   |

   The outer UDP uses a destination port number indicating VXLAN and the
   outer UDP source port MAY be used for entropy as with native
   encapsulation (see Section 8.3). The VXLAN header after the outer UDP
   header adds a 24 bit Virtual Network Identifier (VNI). The Ethernet
   header after the VXLAN header and before the TRILL header consists of
   source MAC address, destination MAC address, and Ethertype. The
   Ethertype distinguishes TRILL Data from TRILL IS-IS. The destination
   and source MAC addresses in this Ethernet header are not used.

   Zero checksum MAY be used in the UDP Header as discussed in Section

   A TRILL over IP port using VXLAN encapsulation by default uses a VNI
   of 1 for TRILL IS-IS traffic and a VNI of 2 for TRILL data traffic
   but can be configured as described in Section to use some
   other fixed VNIs or to map from VLAN/FGL to VNI for data traffic.

5.6 TCP Enacpulstion

   TCP may be used for TRILL over IP as specified below. Use of TCP is
   convenient to provide congestion control (see Section 8.1) and
   reduced packet loss but is likely to cause substantial additional
   jitter and delay compared with a UDP based encapsulation.

   TCP supports only unicast communication. Thus, when TCP encapsulation
   is being used, multi-destination packets must be sent by serial
   unicast.  Neighborhood discovery cannot be done with TCP, so if
   discovery is to be supported at a TRILL over IP port, Hellos must be
   sent with UDP. If a TRILL over IP port is configured to use TCP
   encapsulation for all trafic, a list of IP addresses that port might
   communicate with must be configured for the port (see Section 9).

   All packets in a particular TCP stream SHOULD use the same DSCP
   codepoint or packet re-ordering may occur. Therefore a TCP connection

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 19]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   is needed per QoS to be provided between TRILL switches. Contiguous
   sets of priority levels MAY be mapped into a single TCP connection
   with a single DSCP code point. Lower priority traffic MUST NOT be
   given preference over higher priority traffic.

   TCP is a stream protocol, not a record oriented protocol, so a TRILL
   data packet with its header or a TRILL IS-IS packet might be split
   across multiple TCP packet payloads or a single TCP packet payload
   could include multiple TRILL packets. Thus a framing mechanism is
   needed, as specified below, so that a received TRILL stream can be
   parsed into TRILL packets.

               | IP       | TCP    |  Framed TRILL         |
               | Header   | Header |  Payload material     |

   Where the TCP Header is as follows:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      |        Source Port            |       Destination Port        |
      |                        Sequence Number                        |
      |                    Acknowledgment Number                      |
      |  Data |           |U|A|P|R|S|F|                               |
      | Offset| Reserved  |R|C|S|S|Y|I|            Window             |
      |       |           |G|K|H|T|N|N|                               |
      |         TCP Checksum          |         Urgent Pointer        |
      |                    Options                    |    Padding    |
      |  Framed TRILL Payload material ...

      Source Port - along with Source IP, Destination IP, and
         Destination Port, idetifies TCP flow.

      Destination Port - indicates TRILL Data or IS-IS, see Section

      Other TCP Header Fields - as specified in [RFC0793].

   TRILL packets are framed for transmission over TCP as shown below.

      +--------+-------- // ----+ | Length | TRILL packet   |
      +--------+----- // -------+

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 20]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

      Length - the length of the TRILL packet in bytes as a 2-byte
         unsigned integer in network order.

      TRILL packet - The TRILL packet within framing starts with the
         TRILL or the L2-IS-IS Ethertype (0x22F3 or 0x22F4). If the
         initial 2 bytes of the TRILL packet are not one of these
         Ethertypes, then the receiver assumes that framing
         synchronization has been lost and MUST close the TCP

   Depending on performance requirements, in most cases consideration
   should be given to tuning TCP. Methods for doing this are out of
   scope for this document but see ..., [RFC7323], tbd

5.7 Other Encapsulations

   Additional TRILL over IP encapsulations may be specified in future
   documents and allocated a link technology specific flag bit as per
   Section 11.3. A primary consideration for whether it is worth the
   effort to specify use of an encapsulation by TRILL over IP is whether
   it has good existing or anticipated fast path support.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 21]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

6. Handling Multicast

   By default, both TRILL IS-IS packets and multi-destination TRILL Data
   packets are sent with UDP to an All-RBridges IPv4 or IPv6 IP
   multicast Address as appropriate (see Section 11.2); however, a TRILL
   over IP port may be configured (see Section 9) to use a different
   multicast address or to use serial IP unicast with a list of one or
   more unicast IP addresses of other TRILL over IP ports to which
   multi-destination packets are sent. In the serial unicast case the
   outer IP header of each copy of the a TRILL Data packet sent shows an
   IP unicast destination address even through the TRILL header has the
   M bit set to one to indicate multi-destination. Serial unicast
   configuration is necessary if the TRILL over IP port is connected to
   an IP network that does not support IP multicast. In any case,
   unicast TRILL Data packets (those with the M bit in the TRILL Header
   set to zero) are sent by unicast IP. When TCP encapsulation is being
   used (see Section 5.4), serial unicast MUST be used. If a TRILL over
   IP port is configured to send all traffic with TCP, adjacency and
   data flow will only be possible with a list of IP addresses
   configured at that port (see Section 9).

   Even if a TRILL over IP port is configured to send multi-destination
   packets with serial unicast, it MUST be prepared to receive IP
   multicast TRILL packets.  All TRILL over IP ports default to
   periodically transmitting appropriate IGMP (IPv4 [RFC3376]) or MLD
   (IPv6 [RFC2710]) packets, so that the TRILL multicast IP traffic can
   be sent to them, but MAY be configured not to do so.

   Although TRILL fully supports broadcast links with more than 2
   RBridges connected to the link, there may be good reasons for
   configuring TRILL over IP ports to use serial unicast even where
   native IP multicast is available. Use of serial unicast provides the
   network manager with more precise control over adjacencies and how
   TRILL over IP links will be formed in an IP network. In some
   networks, unicast is more reliable than multicast. If multiple point-
   to-point TRILL over IP connections between two parts of a TRILL
   campus are configured, TRILL will in any case spread traffic across
   them, treating them as parallel links, and appropriately fail over
   traffic if a link fails or incorporate a new link that comes up.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 22]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

7. Use of IPsec and IKEv2

   All TRILL switches (RBridges) that support TRILL over IP MUST
   implement IPsec [RFC4301] and support the use of IPsec Encapsulating
   Security Protocol (ESP [RFC4303]) in tunnel mode to secure both TRILL
   IS-IS and TRILL Data packets. When IPsec is used to secure a TRILL
   over IP link and no IS-IS security is enabled, the IPsec session MUST
   be fully established before any TRILL IS-IS or data packets are
   exchanged. When there is IS-IS security [RFC5310] provided,
   implementers SHOULD use IS-IS security to protect TRILL IS-IS
   packets. However, in this case, the IPsec session still MUST be fully
   established before any TRILL Data packets transmission, since IS-IS
   security does not provide any protection to data packets, and SHOULD
   be fully established before any TRILL IS-IS packet transmission other
   than IS-IS Hello or MTU PDUs.

   All RBridges that support TRILL over IP MUST implement the Internet
   Key Exchange Protocol version 2 (IKEv2) for automated key management.

7.1 Keying

   The following subsections discuss pairwise and group keying for TRILL
   over IP IPsec.

7.1.1 Pairwise Keying

   When IS-IS security is in use, IKEv2 SHOULD use a pre-shared key that
   incorporates the IS-IS shared key in order to bind the TRILL data
   session to the IS-IS session.  The pre-shared key that will be used
   for IKEv2 exchanges for TRILL over IP is determined as follows:

      HKDF-Expand-SHA256 ( IS-IS-key,
         "TRILL IP" | P1-System-ID | P1-Port | P2-System-ID | P2-Port )

   In the above "|" indicates concatenation, HKDF is as in [RFC5869],
   SHA256 is as in [RFC6234], and "TRILL IP" is the eight byte US ASCII
   [RFC0020] string indicated. "IS-IS-key" is an IS-IS key usable for
   IS-IS security of link local IS-IS PDUs such as Hello, CSNP, and
   PSNP. This SHOULD be a link scope IS-IS key. P1-System-ID and
   P2-System ID are the six byte System IDs of the two TRILL RBridges,
   and P1-Port and P2-Port are the TRILL Port IDs [RFC6325] of the ports
   in use on each end. System IDs are guaranteed to be unique within the
   TRILL campus.  Both of the RBridges involved treat the larger
   magnitude System ID, comparing System IDs as unsigned integers, as P1
   and the smaller as P2 so both will derive the same key.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 23]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   With [RFC5310] there could be multiple keys identified with 16-bit
   key IDs. The key ID when an IS-IS key is in use is transmitted in an
   IKEv2 ID_KEY_ID identity field [RFC7296] with Identification Data
   length of 2 bytes (Payload Length 6 bytes). The Key ID of the IS-IS-
   key is used to identify the IKEv2 shared secret derived as above that
   is actually used. ID_KEY_ID identity field(s) of other lengths MAY
   occur but their use is beyond the scope of this document.

   The IS-IS-shared key from which the IKEv2 shared secret is derived
   might expire and be updated as described in [RFC5310].  The IKEv2
   pre-shared keys derived from an IS-IS shared key MUST expire within a
   lifetime no longer than the IS-IS-shared key from which they were
   derived.  When the IKEv2 shared secret key expires, or earlier, the
   IKEv2 Security Association must be rekeyed using a new shared secret
   derived from a new IS-IS shared key.

   IKEv2 with certificate based security MAY be used but details of
   certificate contents and use policy for this application of IKEv2 are
   beyond the scope of this document.

7.1.2 Group Keying

   In the case of a TRILL over IP port configured as point-to-point (see
   Section of [RFC6325]), there is no group keying and the
   pairwise keying determined as in Section 7.1.1 is used for multi-
   destination TRILL traffic, which is unicast.

   In the case of a TRILL over IP port configured as broadcast but where
   the port is configured to use serial unicast (see Section 8), there
   is no group keying and the pairwise keying determined as in Section
   7.1.1 is used for multi-destination TRILL traffic, which is unicast.

   The case of a TRILL over IP port configured as broadcast and using
   native multicast is beyond the scope of this document. For security
   as provided in this document, multicast is handled via serial

7.2 Mandatory-to-Implement Algorithms

   All RBridges that support TRILL over IP MUST implement IPsec ESP
   [RFC4303] in tunnel mode. The implementation requirements for ESP
   cryptographic algorithms are as specified for IPsec. That
   specification is currently [RFC8221].

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 24]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

8. Transport Considerations

   This section discusses a variety of important transport
   considerations. NAT traversal is out of scope for this document.

8.1 Congestion Considerations

   This subsection discusses TRILL over UDP congestion considerations.
   These are applicable to the UDP based TRILL over IP encapsulation
   headers specified in detail in this document. Other encapsulations
   would likely have different congestion considerations and, in
   particlar, the TCP encapsulation specified in Section 5.6 does not
   need congestion control beyond that provided by TCP. Congestion
   considerations for additional TRILL encapsulations will be provided
   in the document specifying the encapsulation.

   One motivation for including UDP or TCP as the outermost part of a
   TRILL over IP encapsulation header is to improve the use of multipath
   such as Equal Cost Multi-Path (ECMP) in cases where traffic is to
   traverse routers that are able to hash on Port and IP address through
   addition of entropy in the source port (see Section 8.3). In many
   cases this may reduce the occurrence of congestion and improve usage
   of available network capacity. However, it is also necessary to
   ensure that the network, including applications that use the network,
   responds appropriately in more difficult cases, such as when link or
   equipment failures have reduced the available capacity.

   Section 3.1.11 of [RFC8085] discusses the congestion considerations
   for design and use of UDP tunnels; this is important because other
   flows could share the path with one or more UDP tunnels,
   necessitating congestion control [RFC2914] to avoid destructive

   The default initial determination of the TRILL over IP encapsulation
   to be used is through the exchange of TRILL IS-IS Hellos. This is a
   low bandwidth process. Hellos are not permitted to be sent any more
   often than once per second, and so are very unlikely to cause
   congestion.  Thus no additional controls are needed for Hellos even
   if sent, as is the default, over UDP.

   Congestion has potential impacts both on the rest of the network
   containing a UDP flow and on the traffic flows using the UDP
   encapsulation.  These impacts depend upon what sort of traffic is
   carried in UDP, as well as the path it follows.  The UDP based TRILL
   over IP encapsulations specified in this document do not provide any
   congestion control and are transmitted as regular UDP packets.

   The two subsections below discuss congestion for TRILL over IP

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 25]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   traffic with UDP based encapsulation headers in traffic-managed
   controlled environments (TMCE, see [RFC8086]) and other environments.

8.1.1 Within a TMCE

   Within a TMCE, that is, an IP network that is traffic-engineered
   and/or otherwise managed, for example via use of traffic rate
   limiters, to avoid congestion, UDP based TRILL over IP encapsulation
   headers are appropriate for carrying traffic that is not known to be
   congestion controlled. in such cases, operators of TMCE networks
   avoid congestion by careful provisioning of their networks, rate-
   limiting of user data traffic, and traffic engineering according to
   path capacity.

   When TRILL over IP using a UDP based encapsulation header carries
   traffic that is not known to be congestion controlled in a TMCE
   network, the traffic path MUST be entirely within that network, and
   measures SHOULD be taken to prevent the traffic from "escaping" the
   network to the general Internet.  Examples of such measures are:

      o  physical or logical isolation of the links carrying the traffic
         from the general Internet and

      o  deployment of packet filters that block the UDP ports assigned
         for TRILL over IP.

8.1.2 In Other Environments

   Where UDP based encapsulation headers are used in TRILL over IP in
   environments other than those discussed in Section 8.1.1, specific
   congestion control mechanisms are commonly needed.  However, if the
   traffic being carried by the TRILL over IP link is already congestion
   controlled and the size and volatility of the TRILL IS-IS link state
   database is limited, then specific congestion control may not be
   needed. See [RFC8085] Section 3.1.11 for further guidance.

8.2 Recursive Ingress

   TRILL is specified to transport data to and from end stations over
   Ethernet and IP is frequently transported over Ethernet. Thus, an end
   station native data Ethernet frame "EF" might get TRILL ingressed to
   TRILL(EF) that was subsequently sent to a next hop RBridge out a
   TRILL over IP over Ethernet port resulting in a packet on the wire of
   the form Ethernet(IP(TRILL(EF))).  There is a risk of such a packet

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 26]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   being re-ingressed by the same TRILL campus, due to physical or
   logical misconfiguration, looping round, being further re-ingressed,
   and so on. (Or this might occur through a cycle of TRILL campuses.)
   The packet would get discarded if it got too large but if
   fragmentation is enabled, it would just keep getting split into
   fragments that would continue to loop and grow and re-fragment until
   the path was saturated with junk and packets were being discarded due
   to queue overflow. The TRILL Header TTL would provide no protection
   because each TRILL ingress adds a new TRILL header with a new TTL.

   To protect against this scenario, a TRILL over IP port MUST, by
   default, test whether a TRILL packet it is about to transmit appears
   to be a TRILL ingress of a TRILL over IP over Ethernet packet. That
   is, is it of the form TRILL(Ethernet(IP(TRILL(...)))? If so, the
   default action of the TRILL over IP output port is to discard the
   packet rather than transmit it. However, there are cases where some
   level of nested ingress is desired so it MUST be possible to
   configure the port to allow such packets.

8.3 Fat Flows

   For the purpose of load balancing, it is worthwhile to consider how
   to transport TRILL packets over any Equal Cost Multiple Paths (ECMPs)
   existing internal to the IP path between TRILL over IP ports.

   The ECMP election for the IP traffic could be based, for example with
   IPv4, on the quintuple of the outer IP header { Source IP,
   Destination IP, Source Port, Destination Port, and IP protocol }.
   Such tuples, however, could be exactly the same for all TRILL Data
   packets between two RBridge ports, even if there is a huge amount of
   data being sent between a variety of ingress and egress RBridges. One
   solution to this is to use the UDP Source Port as an entropy field.
   (This idea is also introduced in [RFC8086].) For example, for TRILL
   Data, this entropy field could be based on some hash of the
   Inner.MacDA, Inner.MacSA, and Inner.VLAN or Inner.Label. These are
   fields from the TRILL data payload which looks like an Ethernet frame
   (see [RFC7172] Figures 1 and 2). Unfortunately, this can conflict
   with middleboxes inside the TRILL over IP link (see 8.5).  Therefore,
   in order to better support ECMP, a RBridge SHOULD set the Source Port
   to a range of values as an entropy field for ECMP decisions; this
   range SHOULD be the ephemeral port range (49152-65535) except that,
   if there are middleboxes in the path (see Section 8.5), it MUST be
   possible to configure the range of different Source Port values to a
   sufficiently small range to avoid disrupting connectivity.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 27]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

8.4 MTU Considerations

   In TRILL each RBridge advertises in its LSP number zero the largest
   LSP frame it can accept (but not less than 1,470 bytes) on any of its
   interfaces (at least those interfaces with adjacencies to other TRILL
   switches in the campus) through the originatingLSPBufferSize TLV
   [RFC6325] [RFC7177]. The campus minimum MTU (Maximum Transmission
   Unit), denoted Sz, is then established by taking the minimum of this
   advertised MTU for all RBridges in the campus. Links that cannot
   support the Sz MTU are not included in the routing topology. This
   protects the operation of IS-IS from links that would be unable to
   accommodate the largest LSPs.

   A method of determining originatingLSPBufferSize for an RBridge with
   one or more TRILL over IP ports is described in [RFC7780]. However,
   if a TRILL over IP port either (1) can accommodate jumbo frames, (2)
   is a link on which IP fragmentation is enabled and acceptable, or (3)
   is configure to use TCP encapsulation for all packets, then it is
   unlikely that the port will be a constraint on the
   originatingLSPBufferSize of the RBridge with that port. On the other
   hand, if the TRILL over port can only handle smaller frames, a UDP
   encapsulaton is in use at least for Hellos, and fragmentation is to
   be avoided when possible, a TRILL over IP port might constrain the
   RBridge's originatingLSPBufferSize.

   Because TRILL sets the minimum value of Sz at 1,470 bytes, RBridges
   will not constrain LSPs or other TRILL IS-IS PDUs to a size smaller
   than that. Therefore there may be TRILL over IP ports that require
   that either fragmentation be enabled or that TCP base encapsultion
   for all TRILL packet be used if TRILL communication over that IP port
   is desired. When fragmentation is enabled or TCP is in use, the
   effective link MTU from the TRILL point of view is larger than the
   RBridge port to RBridge port path MTU from the IP point of view. Path
   MTU discovery [RFC4821] should be useful in determining the IP MTU
   between a pair of RBridge ports with IP connectivity.

   TRILL IS-IS MTU PDUs, as specified in Section 5 of [RFC6325] and in
   [RFC7177], MUST NOT be fragmented and can be used to obtain added
   assurance of the MTU of a link. This is also discussed in [RFC8249]
   An appropriate time to confirm MTU, or re-discover it if it has
   changed, is when an RBridge notices topology changes in a path that
   is in use for TRILL over IP due to LSP updates it receives; however,
   MTU can change at other times.  For example, two RBridge ports are
   connected by a bridged LAN, topology or configuration changes within
   that bridged LAN could change the MTU between those RBridge ports.

   For further discussion of these issues, see [IntareaTunnels].

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 28]

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9. TRILL over IP Port Configuration

   This section specifies the configuration information needed at a
   TRILL over IP port beyond that needed for a general RBridge port.

9.1 Per IP Port Configuration

   Each RBridge port used for a TRILL over IP link should have at least
   one IP (v4 or v6) address. If no IP address is associated with the
   port, perhaps as a transient condition during re-configuration, the
   port is disabled. Implementations MAY allow a single port to operate
   as multiple IPv4 and/or IPv6 logical ports. Each IP address
   constitutes a different logical port and the RBridge with those ports
   MUST associate a different Port ID (see Section 4.4.2 of [RFC6325])
   with each logical port.

   By default a TRILL over IP port discards output packets that fail the
   possible recursive ingress test (see Section 10.1) unless configured
   to disable that test.

9.2 Additional per IP Address Configuration

   The configuration information specified below is per TRILL over IP
   port IP address.

   The mapping from TRILL packet priority to TRILL over IP
   Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP [RFC2474]) can be
   configured. If supported, mapping from an inner DSCP code point, when
   the TRILL payload is IP, to the outer TRILL over IP DSCP can be
   configured. (See Section 4.3.)

   Each TRILL over IP port has a list of acceptable encapsulations it
   will use as the basis of adjacency. By default this list consists of
   one entry for native encapsulation (see Section 7). Additional
   encapsulations MAY be configured and native encapsulation MAY be
   removed from this list by configuration. Additional configuration can
   be required or possible for specific encapsulations as described in
   Section 9.2.3.

   Each IP address at a TRILL over IP port uses native IP multicast by
   default but may be configured whether to use serial IP unicast
   (Section 9.2.2) or native IP multicast (Section 9.2.1). Each IP
   address at a TRILL over IP is configured whether or not to use IPsec
   (Section 9.2.4).

   Regardless of whether they will send IP multicast, TRILL over IP

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 29]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   ports emit appropriate IGMP (IPv4 [RFC3376]) or MLD (IPv6 [RFC2710])
   packets unless configured not to do so. These are sent for the IP
   multicast group the port would use if it sent IP multicast.

9.2.1 Native Multicast Configuration

   If a TRILL over IP port address is using native IP multicast for
   multi-destination TRILL packets (IS-IS and data), by default
   transmissions from that IP address use the IP multicast address (IPv4
   or IPv6) specified in Section 11.2. The TRILL over IP port may be
   configured to use a different IP multicast address for multicasting

9.2.2 Serial Unicast Configuration

   If a TRILL over IP port address has been configured to use serial
   unicast for multi-destination packets (IS-IS and data), it should
   have associated with it a non-empty list of unicast IP destination
   addresses with the same IP version as the version of the port's IP
   address (IPv4 or IPv6). Multi-destination TRILL packets are serially
   unicast to the addresses in this list. Such a TRILL over IP port will
   only be able to form adjacencies [RFC7177] with the RBridges at the
   addresses in this list as those are the only RBridges to which it
   will send TRILL Hellos. IP packets received from a source IP address
   not on the list are discarded.

   If this list of destination IP addresses is empty, the port is

9.2.3 Encapsulation Specific Configuration

   Specific TRILL over IP encapsulation methods may provide for further
   configuration as specified below. UDP Source Port

   As discussed above, the UDP based encapsulations (Sections 5.4 and
   5.5) start with a header containing a source port number that can be
   used for entropy (Section 8.3). The range of source port values used
   defaults to the ephemeral port range (49152-65535) but can be
   configured to any other range including to a single value.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 30]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP VXLAN Configuration

   A TRILL over IP port using VXLAN encapsulation can be configured with
   non-default VXLAN Network Identifiers (VNIs) that are used in that
   field of the VXLAN header for all TRILL IS-IS and TRILL Data packets
   sent using the encapsulation and required in those received using the
   encapsulation. The default VNI is 1 for TRILL IS-IS and 2 for TRILL
   Data. A TRILL packet received with the an unknown VNI is discarded.

   A TRILL over IP port using VXLAN encapsulation can also be configured
   to map the Inner.VLAN of a TRILL Data packet being transported to the
   value it places in the VNI field and/or to copy the Inner.FGL
   [RFC7172] of a TRILL Data packet to the VNI field. Other Encapsulation Configuration

   Additional encapsulation methods, beyond those specified in this
   document, are expected to be specified in future documents and may
   require further configuration.

9.2.4 Security Configuration

   A TRILL over IP port can be configured, for the case where IS-IS
   security [RFC5310] is in use, as to whether or not IPsec must be
   fully established and used for any TRILL IS-IS transmissions other
   than IS-IS Hello or MTU PDUs (see Section 7). There may also be
   configuration whose details are outside the scope of this document
   concerning certificate based IPsec or use of shared keys other than
   IS-IS based shared key or how to select what IS-IS based shared key
   to use.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 31]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

10. Security Considerations

   TRILL over IP is subject to all of the security considerations for
   the base TRILL protocol [RFC6325]. In addition, there are specific
   security requirements for different TRILL deployment scenarios, as
   discussed in the "Use Cases for TRILL over IP", Section 3 above.

   For communication between end stations in a TRILL campus, security
   may be possible at three levels: end-to-end security between those
   end stations, edge-to-edge security between ingress and egress
   RBridges, and link security to protect a TRILL hop. Any combination
   of these can be used, including all three.

   TRILL over IP link security protects the contents of TRILL Data and
      IS-IS packets, including the identities of the end stations for
      data and the identities of the edge RBridges, from observers of
      the link and transit devices within the link such as bridges or IP
      routers, but does not encrypt the link local IP addresses used in
      a packet and does not protect against observation by the sending
      and receiving RBridges on the link.

   Edge-to-edge TRILL security would protect the contents of TRILL data
      packets including the identities of the end stations for data from
      transit RBridges but does not encrypt the identities of the edge
      RBridges involved and does not protect against observation by
      those edge RBridges. Edge-to-edge TRILL security may be covered in
      future documents.

   End-to-end security does not protect the identities of the end
      stations or edge RBridge involved but does protect the content of
      TRILL data packets from observation by all RBridges or other
      intervening devices between the end stations involved.  End-to-end
      security should always be considered as an added layer of security
      to protect any particularly sensitive information from unintended
      disclosure. Such end station to end station security is generally
      beyond the scope of TRILL

   If VXLAN encapsulation is used, the unused Ethernet source and
   destination MAC addresses mentioned in Section 5.5, provide a 96 bit
   per packet side channel.

10.1 IPsec

   This document specifies that all RBridges that support TRILL over IP
   links MUST implement IPsec for the security of such links, and makes
   it clear that it is both wise and good to use IPsec in all cases
   where a TRILL over IP link will traverse a network that is not under
   the same administrative control as the rest of the TRILL campus or is

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 32]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   not secure. IPsec is important, in these cases, to protect the
   privacy and integrity of data traffic. However, in cases where IPsec
   is impractical due to lack of fast path support, use of TRILL edge-
   to-edge security or use by the end stations of end-to-end security
   can provide significant security.

   Further Security Considerations for IPsec ESP and for the
   cryptographic algorithms used with IPsec can be found in the RFCs
   referenced by this document.

10.2 IS-IS Security

   TRILL over IP is compatible with the use of IS-IS Security [RFC5310],
   which can be used to authenticate TRILL switches before allowing them
   to join a TRILL campus. This is sufficient to protect against rogue
   devices impersonating TRILL switches, but is not sufficient to
   protect data packets that may be sent in TRILL over IP outside of the
   local network or across the public Internet. To protect the privacy
   and integrity of that traffic, use IPsec.

   In cases were IPsec is used, the use of IS-IS security may not be
   necessary, but there is nothing about this specification that would
   prevent using both IPsec and IS-IS security together.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 33]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

11. IANA Considerations

   IANA considerations are given below.

11.1 Port Assignments

   IANA is requested to assign destination Ports in the Service Name and
   Transport Protocol Port Number Registry [PortRegistry] for TRILL IS-
   IS and TRILL Data as shown below.

         Service Name: TRILL-IS-IS
         Transport Protocol: udp, tcp
         Assignee: iesg@ietf.org
         Contact: chair@ietf.org
         Description: Transport of TRILL IS-IS control PDUs.
         Reference: [this document]
         Port Number: (TBD1)

         Service Name: TRILL-data
         Transport Protocol: udp, tcp
         Assignee: iesg@ietf.org
         Contact: chair@ietf.org
         Description: Transport of TRILL Data packets.
         Reference: [this document]
         Port Number: (TBD2)

11.2 Multicast Address Assignments

   IANA is requested to assign one IPv4 and one IPv6 multicast address,
   as shown below, which correspond to both the All-RBridges and All-IS-
   IS-RBridges multicast MAC addresses that have been assigned for
   TRILL. Because the low level hardware MAC address dispatch
   considerations for TRILL over Ethernet do not apply to TRILL over IP,
   one IP multicast address for each version of IP is sufficient.

   (Values recommended to IANA in square brackets)

      Name             IPv4                  IPv6
   ------------     ------------------   --------------------------
   All-RBridges     TBD3[]   TBD4[FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:BAC1]

   The hex digit "X" in the IPv6 variable scope address indicates the
   scope and defaults to 8. The IPv6 All-RBridges IP address may be used
   with other values of X.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 34]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

11.3 Encapsulation Method Support Indication

   The existing "RBridge Channel Protocols" registry is re-named and a
   new sub-registry under that registry added as follows:

   The TRILL Parameters registry for "RBridge Channel Protocols" is
   renamed the "RBridge Channel Protocols and Link Technology Specific
   Flags" registry. [this document] is added as a second reference for
   this registry. The first part of the table is changed to the

         Range      Registration        Note
      -----------   ----------------   ----------------------------
      0x002-0x0FF   Standards Action
      0x100-0xFCF   RFC Required       allocation of a single value
      0x100-0xFCF   IESG Approval      allocation of multiple values
      0xFD0 0xFF7   see Note           link technology dependent,
                                          see subregistry

   In the existing table of RBridge Channel Protocols, the following
   line is changed to two lines as shown:

        0x004-0xFF7   Unassigned
        0x004-0xFCF   Unassigned
        0xFD0-0xFF7   (link technology dependent, see subregistry)

   A new indented subregistry under the re-named "RBridge Channel
   Protocols and Link Technology Specific Flags" registry is added as

      Name: TRILL over IP Link Flags
      Registration Procedure: Expert Review
      Reference: [this document]

          Flag      Meaning                        Reference
      -----------  ------------------------------  ---------
            0xFD0  Native encapsulation supported  [this document]
            0xFD1  VXLAN encapsulation supported   [this document]
            oxFD2  TCP encapsulation supported     [this document]
      0xFD3-0xFF7  Unassigned

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 35]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

Normative References

   [IS-IS] - "Intermediate system to Intermediate system routeing
         information exchange protocol for use in conjunction with the
         Protocol for providing the Connectionless-mode Network Service
         (ISO 8473)", ISO/IEC 10589:2002, 2002".

   [RFC0020] - Cerf, V., "ASCII format for network interchange", STD 80,
         RFC 20, DOI 10.17487/RFC0020, October 1969, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC0768] - Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, DOI
         10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC0793] - Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC
         793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC2119] - Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
         Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119,
         March 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2474] - Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
         "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in
         the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474, DOI 10.17487/RFC2474,
         December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2474>.

   [RFC2710] - Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast
         Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, DOI
         10.17487/RFC2710, October 1999, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC2914] - Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, RFC
         2914, DOI 10.17487/RFC2914, September 2000, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC3168] - Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
         of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP", RFC 3168, DOI
         10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC3376] - Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
         Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3",
         RFC 3376, DOI 10.17487/RFC3376, October 2002, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC4301] - Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
         Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301, December
         2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 36]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

   [RFC4303] - Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC
         4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005, <http://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc4303>.  <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC5310] - Bhatia, M., Manral, V., Li, T., Atkinson, R., White, R.,
         and M. Fanto, "IS-IS Generic Cryptographic Authentication", RFC
         5310, DOI 10.17487/RFC5310, February 2009, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC5869] - Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, "HMAC-based Extract-and-
         Expand Key Derivation Function (HKDF)", RFC 5869, DOI
         10.17487/RFC5869, May 2010, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC6325] - Perlman, R., Eastlake 3rd, D., Dutt, D., Gai, S., and A.
         Ghanwani, "Routing Bridges (RBridges): Base Protocol
         Specification", RFC 6325, DOI 10.17487/RFC6325, July 2011,

   [RFC7175] - Manral, V., Eastlake 3rd, D., Ward, D., and A. Banerjee,
         "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL):
         Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Support", RFC 7175,
         DOI 10.17487/RFC7175, May 2014, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC7176] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Senevirathne, T., Ghanwani, A., Dutt,
         D., and A. Banerjee, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of
         Links (TRILL) Use of IS-IS", RFC 7176, DOI 10.17487/RFC7176,
         May 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7176>.

   [RFC7177] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Perlman, R., Ghanwani, A., Yang, H.,
         and V. Manral, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links
         (TRILL): Adjacency", RFC 7177, DOI 10.17487/RFC7177, May 2014,

   [RFC7178] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Manral, V., Li, Y., Aldrin, S., and D.
         Ward, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL):
         RBridge Channel Support", RFC 7178, DOI 10.17487/RFC7178, May
         2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7178>.

   [RFC7348] - Mahalingam, M., Dutt, D., Duda, K., Agarwal, P., Kreeger,
         L., Sridhar, T., Bursell, M., and C. Wright, "Virtual
         eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN): A Framework for
         Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over Layer 3 Networks",
         RFC 7348, DOI 10.17487/RFC7348, August 2014, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC7780] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Zhang, M., Perlman, R., Banerjee, A.,
         Ghanwani, A., and S. Gupta, "Transparent Interconnection of

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 37]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                            TRILL over UDP

         Lots of Links (TRILL): Clarifications, Corrections, and
         Updates", RFC 7780, DOI 10.17487/RFC7780, February 2016,

   [RFC8221] - Wouters, P., Migault, D., Mattsson, J., Nir, Y., and T.
         Kivinen, "Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation Requirements
         and Usage Guidance for Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and
         Authentication Header (AH)", RFC 8221, DOI 10.17487/RFC8221,
         October 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8221>.

   [RFC8249] - Zhang, M., Zhang, X., Eastlake 3rd, D., Perlman, R., and
         S. Chatterjee, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links
         (TRILL): MTU Negotiation", RFC 8249, DOI 10.17487/RFC8249,
         September 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8249>.

   [LEphb] - R. Bless, "A Lower Effort Per-Hop Behavior )LE PHB)",
         draft-ietf-tsvwg-le-phb, work in progress.

Informative References

   [RFC4821] - Mathis, M. and J. Heffner, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
         Discovery", RFC 4821, DOI 10.17487/RFC4821, March 2007,

   [RFC6234] - Eastlake 3rd, D. and T. Hansen, "US Secure Hash
         Algorithms (SHA and SHA-based HMAC and HKDF)", RFC 6234, DOI
         10.17487/RFC6234, May 2011, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC6361] - Carlson, J. and D. Eastlake 3rd, "PPP Transparent
         Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) Protocol Control
         Protocol", RFC 6361, DOI 10.17487/RFC6361, August 2011,

   [RFC6864] - Touch, J., "Updated Specification of the IPv4 ID Field",
         RFC 6864, DOI 10.17487/RFC6864, February 2013, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC6936] - Fairhurst, G. and M. Westerlund, "Applicability Statement
         for the Use of IPv6 UDP Datagrams with Zero Checksums", RFC
         6936, DOI 10.17487/RFC6936, April 2013, <http://www.rfc-

   [RFC7172] - Eastlake 3rd, D., Zhang, M., Agarwal, P., Perlman, R.,
         and D. Dutt, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links
         (TRILL): Fine-Grained Labeling", RFC 7172, DOI
         10.17487/RFC7172, May 2014, <http://www.rfc-

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 38]

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   [RFC7173] - Yong, L., Eastlake 3rd, D., Aldrin, S., and J. Hudson,
         "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) Transport
         Using Pseudowires", RFC 7173, DOI 10.17487/RFC7173, May 2014,

   [RFC7296] - Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
         Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)",
         STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October 2014,

   [RFC7323] - Borman, D., Braden, B., Jacobson, V., and R.
         Scheffenegger, Ed., "TCP Extensions for High Performance", RFC
         7323, DOI 10.17487/RFC7323, September 2014, <https://www.rfc-

   [RFC8085] - Eggert, L., Fairhurst, G., and G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage
         Guidelines", BCP 145, RFC 8085, DOI 10.17487/RFC8085, March
         2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8085>.

   [RFC8086] - Yong, L., Ed., Crabbe, E., Xu, X., and T. Herbert, "GRE-
         in-UDP Encapsulation", RFC 8086, DOI 10.17487/RFC8086, March
         2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8086>.

   [IntareaTunnels] - J. Touch, M. Townsley, "IP Tunnels int he Internet
         Architecture", draft-ietf-intarea-tunnels, work in progress.

   [TRILLECN] - Eastlake, D., B. Briscoe, "TRILL: ECN (Explicit
         Congestion Notification) Support", draft-ietf-trill-ecn-
         support, work in progress.

   [PortRegistry] - https://www.iana.org/assignments/service-names-port-

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 39]

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   The following people have provided useful feedback on the contents of
   this document: Sam Hartman, Adrian Farrel, Radia Perlman, Ines
   Robles, Joe Touch, Mohammed Umair, Magnus Westerlund, Lucy Yong.

   Some of the material in this document is derived from [RFC8085] and

   The document was prepared in raw nroff. All macros used were defined
   within the source file.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 40]

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Authors' Addresses

      Margaret Cullen
      Painless Security
      14 Summer Street, Suite 202
      Malden, MA 02148

      Phone: +1-781-605-3459
      Email: margaret@painless-security.com
      URI:   http://www.painless-security.com

      Donald Eastlake
      Huawei Technologies
      155 Beaver Street
      Milford, MA  01757

      Phone: +1 508 333-2270
      Email: d3e3e3@gmail.com

      Mingui Zhang
      Huawei Technologies
      No.156 Beiqing Rd. Haidian District,
      Beijing 100095 P.R. China

      EMail: zhangmingui@huawei.com

      Dacheng Zhang
      Huawei Technologies

      Email: dacheng.zhang@huawei.com

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 41]

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Copyright, Disclaimer, and Additional IPR Provisions

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Margaret Cullen, et al                                         [Page 42]