TRILL Working Group                                        Radia Perlman
INTERNET-DRAFT                                          Sun Microsystems
Intended status: Proposed Standard                   Donald Eastlake 3rd
Expires: July 21, 2010                                  Stellar Switches
                                                          Dinesh G. Dutt
                                                             Silvano Gai
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                          Anoop Ghanwani
                                                        January 22, 2010

                 RBridges: Base Protocol Specification

Status of This Document

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. This document may contain material
   from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly
   available before November 10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the
   copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF
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   IETF Standards Process.  Without obtaining an adequate license from
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   document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and
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   translate it into languages other than English.

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   RBridges provide optimal pair-wise forwarding without configuration,
   safe forwarding even during periods of temporary loops, and support
   for multipathing of both unicast and multicast traffic. They achieve
   these goals using IS-IS routing and encapsulation of traffic with a
   header that includes a hop count.

   RBridges are compatible with previous IEEE 802.1 customer bridges as
   well as IPv4 and IPv6 routers and end nodes. They are as invisible to
   current IP routers as bridges are and, like routers, they terminate
   the bridge spanning tree protocol.

   The design supports VLANs and optimization of the distribution of
   multi-destination frames based on VLAN and IP derived multicast
   groups.  It also allows unicast forwarding tables at transit RBridges
   to be sized according to the number of RBridges (rather than the
   number of end nodes), which allows their forwarding tables to be
   substantially smaller than in conventional customer bridges.


   Many people have contributed to this design, including the following,
   in alphabetic order:

      Bernard Aboba, Alia Atlas, Ayan Banerjee, Caitlin Bestler, Suresh
      Boddapati, David Michael Bond, Stewart Bryant, James Carlson, Dino
      Farinacci, Don Fedyk, Bill Fenner, Eric Gray, Joel Halpern, Andrew
      Lange, Israel Meilik, David Melman, Nandakumar Natarajan, Erik
      Nordmark, Jeff Pickering, Dan Romascanu, Sanjay Sane, Pekka
      Savola, Matthew R. Thomas, Joe Touch, Mark Townsley, Kate Zebrose.

   We invite you to join the mailing list at

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Table of Contents

      Status of This Document....................................1

      1. Introduction............................................7
      1.1 Algorhyme V2, by Ray Perlner...........................8
      1.2 Normative Content and Precedence.......................8
      1.3 Terminology and Notation in this document..............8
      1.4 Categories of Layer 2 Frames...........................9
      1.5 Acronyms..............................................10

      2. RBridges...............................................12
      2.1 General Overview......................................12
      2.2 End Station Addresses.................................13
      2.3 RBridge Encapsulation Architecture....................14
      2.4 Forwarding Overview...................................16
      2.4.1 Known-Unicast.......................................16
      2.4.2 Multi-destination...................................17
      2.5 RBridges and VLANs....................................18
      2.5.1 Link VLAN Assumptions...............................18
      2.6 RBridges and IEEE 802.1 Bridges.......................19
      2.6.1 RBridge Ports and 802.1 Layering....................19
      2.6.2 Incremental Deployment..............................21

      3. Details of the TRILL Header............................22
      3.1 TRILL Header Format...................................22
      3.2 Version (V)...........................................22
      3.3 Reserved (R)..........................................23
      3.4 Multi-destination (M).................................23
      3.5 TRILL Header Options..................................23
      3.6 Hop Count.............................................24
      3.7 RBridge Nicknames.....................................25
      3.7.1 Egress RBridge Nickname.............................26
      3.7.2 Ingress RBridge Nickname............................26
      3.7.3 RBridge Nickname Selection..........................26

      4. Other RBridge Design Details...........................29
      4.1 Ethernet Data Encapsulation...........................29
      4.1.1 VLAN Tag Information................................31
      4.1.2 Inner VLAN Tag......................................32
      4.1.3 Outer VLAN Tag......................................32
      4.1.4 Frame Check Sequence (FCS)..........................33
      4.2 Link State Protocol (IS-IS)...........................33
      4.2.1 IS-IS RBridge Identity..............................33
      4.2.2 IS-IS Instances.....................................34
      4.2.3 TRILL IS-IS Frames..................................34
      4.2.4 TRILL Link Hellos, DRBs, and Appointed Forwarders...35 P2P Hello Links...................................36 Designated RBridge................................36

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Table of Contents Continued Appointed VLAN-x Forwarder........................37 TRILL LSP Information.............................38
      4.2.5 TRILL ESADI.........................................41 TRILL ESADI Participation.........................43 TRILL ESADI Information...........................43
      4.2.6 SPF, Forwarding, and Ambiguous Destinations.........43
      4.3 Inter-RBridge Link MTU Size...........................44
      4.3.1 Determining Campus-Wide TRILL IS-IS MTU Size........44
      4.3.2 Testing Link MTU Size...............................45
      4.4 TRILL-Hello Protocol..................................46
      4.4.1 Rationale...........................................46
      4.4.2 TRILL-Hello Contents and Timing.....................47 TRILL Neighbor List...............................48
      4.4.3 TRILL MTU probe and TRILL Hello VLAN Tagging........49
      4.4.4 Multiple Ports on the Same Link.....................51
      4.4.5 VLAN Mapping Within a Link..........................52
      4.5 Distribution Trees....................................52
      4.5.1 Distribution Tree Calculation.......................55
      4.5.2 Multi-destination Frame Checks......................56
      4.5.3 Pruning the Distribution Tree.......................58
      4.5.4 Tree Distribution Optimization......................58
      4.5.5 Forwarding Using a Distribution Tree................59
      4.6 Frame Processing Behavior.............................60
      4.6.1 Receipt of a Native Frame...........................61 Native Unicast Case...............................61 Native Multicast and Broadcast Frames.............62
      4.6.2 Receipt of a TRILL Frame............................62 TRILL Control Frames..............................63 TRILL ESADI Frames................................63 TRILL Data Frames.................................64 Known Unicast TRILL Data Frames...................64 Multi-Destination TRILL Data Frames...............65
      4.6.3 Receipt of a Layer 2 Control Frame..................66
      4.7 IGMP, MLD, and MRD Learning...........................66
      4.8 End Station Address Details...........................67
      4.8.1 Learning End Station Addresses......................67
      4.8.2 Forgetting End Station Addresses....................69
      4.8.3 Shared VLAN Learning................................70
      4.9 RBridge Ports.........................................71
      4.9.1 RBridge Port Configuration..........................71
      4.9.2 RBridge Port Structure..............................72
      4.9.3 BPDU Handling.......................................74 Receipt of BPDUs..................................75 Root Bridge Changes...............................75 Transmission of BPDUs.............................76
      4.9.4 Dynamic VLAN Registration...........................76

      5. RBridge Configuration Parameters.......................77
      5.1 Per RBridge...........................................77

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Table of Contents Continued

      5.2 Per Port..............................................77
      5.3 Per VLAN..............................................78

      6. Security Considerations................................80
      6.1 VLAN Security Considerations..........................80
      6.2 BPDU/Hello Denial of Service Considerations...........81

      7. Assignment Considerations..............................83
      7.1 IANA Considerations...................................83
      7.2 IEEE Registration Authority Considerations............83

      8. Normative References...................................84
      9. Informative References.................................86

      Appendix A: Incremental Deployment Considerations.........88
      A.1 Link Cost Determination...............................88
      A.2 Appointed Forwarders and Bridged LANs.................88
      A.3 Wiring Closet Topology................................90
      A.3.1 The RBridge Solution................................91
      A.3.2 The VLAN Solution...................................91
      A.3.3 The Spanning Tree Solution..........................91
      A.3.4 Comparison of Solutions.............................92

      Appendix B: Trunk and Access Port Configuration...........93
      Appendix C: Multipathing..................................94
      Appendix D: Determination of VLAN and Priority............96

      Appendix E: Support of IEEE 802.1Q-2005 Amendments........97
      E.1 Completed Amendments..................................97
      E.2 In-process Amendments.................................98

      Appendix Z: Revision History..............................99
      Changes from -03 to -04...................................99
      Changes from -04 to -05..................................100
      Changes from -05 to -06..................................101
      Changes from -06 to -07..................................101
      Changes from -07 to -08..................................103
      Changes from -08 to -09..................................104
      Changes from -09 to -10..................................105
      Changes from -10 to -11..................................106
      Changes from -11 to -12..................................106
      Changes from -12 to -13..................................107
      Changes from -13 to -14..................................108
      Changes from -14 to -15..................................110

      Authors' Addresses.......................................112
      Copyright and IPR Provisions.............................113

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Table of Figures

      Figure 2.1: Interconnected RBridges.......................15
      Figure 2.2: An Ethernet Encapsulated TRILL Frame..........15
      Figure 2.3: A PPP Encapsulated TRILL Frame................15
      Figure 2.4: RBridge Port Model............................20
      Figure 3.1: TRILL Header..................................22
      Figure 3.2: Options Area Initial Flags Octet..............24
      Figure 4.1: TRILL Data Encapsulation over Ethernet........30
      Figure 4.2: VLAN Tag Information..........................31
      Figure 4.3: TRILL IS-IS Frame Format......................35
      Figure 4.4: TRILL ESADI Frame Format......................42
      Figure 4.5: Detailed RBridge Port Model...................73
      Figure A.1: Link Cost of a Bridged Link...................88
      Figure A.2: Wiring Closet Topology........................90
      Figure C.1: Multi-Destination Multipath...................94
      Figure C.2: Known Unicast Multipath.......................95

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1. Introduction

   In traditional IPv4 and IPv6 networks, each subnet has a unique
   prefix. Therefore, a node in multiple subnets has multiple IP
   addresses, typically one per interface. This also means that when an
   interface moves from one subnet to another, it changes its IP
   address. Administration of IP networks is complicated because IP
   routers require per port subnet address configuration. Careful IP
   address management is required to avoid creating subnets that are
   sparsely populated, wasting addresses.

   IEEE 802.1 bridges avoid these problems by transparently gluing many
   physical links into what appears to IP to be a single LAN [802.1D].
   However, 802.1 bridge forwarding using the spanning tree protocol has
   some disadvantages:

   o  The spanning tree protocol works by blocking ports, limiting the
      number of forwarding links, and therefore creates bottlenecks by
      concentrating traffic onto selected links.

   o  Forwarding is not pair-wise shortest path, but is instead whatever
      path remains after the spanning tree eliminates redundant paths.

   o  The Ethernet header does not contain a hop count (or TTL) field.
      This is dangerous when there are temporary loops such as when
      spanning tree messages are lost or components such as repeaters
      are added.

   o  VLANs can partition when spanning tree reconfigures.

   This document presents the design for RBridges (Routing Bridges
   [RBridges]) that implement the TRILL protocol and are poetically
   summarized below.  Rbridges combine the advantages of bridges and
   routers and, as specified in this document, are the application of
   link state routing to the VLAN aware customer bridging problem. With
   the exceptions discussed in this document, RBridges can incrementally
   replace IEEE [802.1Q-2005] or [802.1D] customer bridges.

   While RBridges can be applied to a variety of link protocols, this
   specification focuses on IEEE [802.3] links. Use with other link
   types is expected to be covered in other documents.

   For further discussion of the problem domain addressed by RBridges
   see [RFC5556].

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1.1 Algorhyme V2, by Ray Perlner

      I hope that we shall one day see
      A graph more lovely than a tree.

      A graph to boost efficiency
      While still configuration-free.

      A network where RBridges can
      Route packets to their target LAN.

      The paths they find, to our elation,
      Are least cost paths to destination!

      With packet hop counts we now see,
      The network need not be loop-free!

      RBridges work transparently,
      Without a common spanning tree.

1.2 Normative Content and Precedence

   The bulk of the normative material in this specification appears in
   Sections 1 through 4.  In case of conflict between provisions in
   these four sections, the provision in the higher numbered section

1.3 Terminology and Notation in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   "TRILL" is the protocol specified herein while an "RBridge" is a
   device that implement that protocol.  The second letter in Rbridge is
   case insensitive. Both Rbridge and RBridge are correct.

   In this document, the term "link", unless otherwise qualified, means
   "bridged LAN", that is to say, the combination of one or more [802.3]
   links with zero or more bridges, hubs, repeaters, or the like. The
   term "simple link" or the like is used indicate a point-to-point or
   multi-access link with no included bridges or RBridges.

   In this document, the term "port", unless otherwise qualified,
   includes physical, virtual [802.1AE], and pseudo [802.1X] ports. The
   term "physical port" or the like is used to indicate the physical

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   point of connection between an RBridge and a link.

   A "campus" is to RBridges as a "bridged LAN" is to bridges. An
   RBridge campus consists of a network of RBridges, bridges, hubs,
   repeaters, simple links, and the like and it is bounded by end
   stations and routers.

   The term "spanning tree" in this document includes both classic
   spanning tree and rapid spanning tree (RSTP).

   This document uses Hexadecimal Notation for MAC addresses. Two
   hexadecimal digits represent each octet (that is, 8-bit byte), giving
   the value of the octet as an unsigned integer. A hyphen separates
   successive octets. This document consistently uses IETF bit ordering
   although the physical order of bit transmission within an octet on an
   IEEE [802.3] link is from the lowest order bit to the highest order
   bit, the reverse.

1.4 Categories of Layer 2 Frames

   In this document, Layer 2 frames are divided into five categories:

      o  layer 2 control frames (such as BPDUs)
      o  native frames (non-TRILL-encapsulated data frames)
      o  TRILL data frames (TRILL-encapsulated data frames)
      o  TRILL control frames
      o  TRILL other frames

   The way these five types of frames are distinguished is as follows:

      o  Layer 2 control frames are those with a multicast destination
         address in the range 01-80-C2-00-00-00 to 01-80-C2-00-00-0F or
         equal to 01-80-C2-00-00-21. RBridges MUST NOT encapsulate and
         forward such frames, though they MAY, unless otherwise
         specified in this document, perform the layer 2 function (such
         as MAC level security) of the control frame.  Frames with a
         destination address of 01-80-C2-00-00-00 (BPDU) or
         01-80-C2-00-00-21 (VRP) are called "high level control frames"
         in this document. All other layer 2 control frames are called
         "low level control frames".

      o  Native frames are those that are not control frames and have an
         Ethertype other than "TRILL" or "L2-IS-IS" and have a
         destination MAC address that is not one of the 16 multicast
         addresses reserved for TRILL.

      o  TRILL data frames have the Ethertype "TRILL". In addition,
         TRILL data frames, if multicast, have the multicast destination

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         MAC address "All-RBridges".

      o  TRILL control frames have the Ethertype "L2-IS-IS". In
         addition, TRILL control frames, if multicast, have the
         multicast destination MAC addresses of "All-IS-IS-RBridges".
         (Note that ESADI frames look on the outside like TRILL data and
         are so handled but, when decapsulated, have the L2-IS-IS

      o  TRILL other frames are those with any of the 16 multicast
         destination addresses reserved for TRILL other than All-
         RBridges and All-IS-IS-RBridges. RBridges conformant to this
         specification MUST discard TRILL other frames.

1.5 Acronyms

      AllL1ISs - All Level 1 Intermediate Systems

      AllL2ISs - All Level 2 Intermediate Systems

      BPDU - Bridge PDU

      CHbH - Critical Hop-by-Hop

      CItE - Critical Ingress-to-Egress

      CSNP - Complete Sequence Number PDU

      DA - Destination Address

      DR - Designated Router

      DRB - Designated RBridge

      EAP - Extensible Authentication Protocol

      ECMP - Equal Cost Multi-Path

      EISS - Extended Internal Sublayer Service

      ESADI - End Station Address Distribution Information

      FCS - Frame Check Sequence

      GARP - Generic Attribute Registration Protocol

      GVRP - GARP VLAN Registration Protocol

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      IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

      IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

      IP - Internet Protocol

      IS-IS - Intermediate System to Intermediate System

      ISS - Internal Sublayer Service

      LAN - Local Area Network

      LSP - Link State PDU

      MAC - Media Access Control

      MLD - Multicast Listener Discovery

      MRD - Multicast Router Discovery

      MTU - Maximum Transmission Unit

      MVRP - Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol

      NSAP - Network Service Access Point

      P2P - Point-to-point

      PDU - Protocol Data Unit

      PPP - Point-to-Point Protocol

      RBridge - Routing Bridge

      RPF - Reverse Path Forwarding

      SA - Source Address

      SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol

      SPF - Shortest Path First

      TLV - Type, Length, Value

      TRILL - TRansparent Interconnection of Lots of Links

      VLAN - Virtual Local Area Network

      VRP - VLAN Registration Protocol

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2. RBridges

   This section provides a high-level overview of RBridges, which
   implement the TRILL protocol, omitting some details. Sections 3 and 4
   below provide more detailed specifications.

   TRILL, as described in this document and with the exceptions
   discussed herein, provides [802.1Q-2005] VLAN aware customer bridging
   service. As described below, TRILL is layered above the ports of an

   The RBridges specified by this document do not supply provider
   [802.1ad] or provider backbone [802.1ah] bridging or the like. The
   extension of TRILL to provide such provider services is left for
   future work that will be separately documented. However, provider or
   provider backbone bridges may be used to interconnect parts of an
   RBridge campus.

2.1 General Overview

   RBridges run a link state protocol amongst themselves. This gives
   them enough information to compute pair-wise optimal paths for
   unicast, and calculate distribution trees for delivery of frames
   either to destinations whose location is unknown or to multicast /
   broadcast groups. [RBridges] [RP1999]

   To mitigate temporary loop issues, RBridges forward based on a header
   with a hop count. RBridges also specify the next hop RBridge as the
   frame destination when forwarding unicast frames across a shared-
   media link, which avoids spawning additional copies of frames during
   a temporary loop.  A Reverse Path Forwarding Check and other checks
   are performed on multi-destination frames to further control
   potentially looping traffic (see Section 4.5.2).

   The first RBridge that a unicast frame encounters in a campus, RB1,
   encapsulates the received frame with a TRILL header that specifies
   the last RBridge, RB2, where the frame is decapsulated. RB1 is known
   as the "ingress RBridge" and RB2 is known as the "egress RBridge".
   To save room in the TRILL header and simplify forwarding lookups, a
   dynamic nickname acquisition protocol is run among the RBridges to
   select 2-octet nicknames for RBridges, unique within the campus,
   which are an abbreviation for the 6-octet IS-IS system ID of the
   RBridge.  The 2-octet nicknames are used to specify the ingress and
   egress RBridges in the TRILL header.

   Multipathing of multi-destination frames through alternative
   distribution tree roots and ECMP (Equal Cost MultiPath) of unicast
   frames are supported (see Appendix C).

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   Networks with a more mesh-like structure will benefit to a greater
   extent from the multipathing and optimal paths provided by TRILL than
   will more tree-like networks.

   RBridges run a protocol on a link to elect a "Designated RBridge"
   (DRB). The TRILL-IS-IS election protocol on a link is a little
   different from the IS-IS [ISO10589] election protocol, because in
   TRILL it is essential that only one RBridge be elected DRB, whereas
   in layer 3 IS-IS it is possible for multiple routers to be elected
   Designated Router (also known as Designated Intermediate System). As
   with an IS-IS router, the DRB may give a pseudonode name to the link,
   issue an LSP (Link State PDU) on behalf of the pseudonode, and issues
   CSNPs (Complete Sequence Number PDUs) on the link. Additionally, the
   DRB has some TRILL-specific duties, including specifying which VLAN
   will be the Designated VLAN used for communication between RBridges
   on that link (see Section

   The DRB either encapsulates / decapsulates all data traffic to/from
   the link, or, for load splitting, delegates this responsibility, for
   one or more VLANs, to other RBridges on the link.  There must at all
   times be at most one RBridge on the link that encapsulates /
   decapsulates traffic for a particular VLAN. We will refer to the
   RBridge appointed to forward VLAN-x traffic on behalf of the link as
   the "appointed VLAN-x forwarder" (see Section  (Section 2.5
   discusses VLANs further.)

   Rbridges SHOULD support SNMPv3 [RFC3411].  The Rbridge MIB will be
   specified in a separate document.  If IP service is available to an
   RBridge, it SHOULD support SNMPv3 over UDP over IPv4 [RFC3417] and
   IPv6 [RFC3419]; however, management can be used, within a campus,
   even for an RBridge that lacks an IP or other Layer 3 transport stack
   or which does not have a Layer 3 address, by transporting SNMP with
   Ethernet [RFC4789].

2.2 End Station Addresses

   An RBridge, RB1, which is the VLAN-x forwarder on any of its links
   MUST learn the location of VLAN-x end nodes, both on the links for
   which it is VLAN-x forwarder, and on other links in the campus. RB1
   learns the port, VLAN, and Layer 2 (MAC) addresses of end nodes on
   links for which it is VLAN-x forwarder from the source address of
   frames received, as bridges do (for example, see section 8.7 of
   [802.1Q-2005]), or through configuration or a Layer 2 explicit
   registration protocol such as IEEE 802.11 association and
   authentication. RB1 learns the VLAN and Layer 2 address of distant
   VLAN-x end nodes, and the corresponding RBridge to which they are
   attached, by looking at the ingress RBridge nickname in the TRILL
   header and the VLAN and source MAC address of the inner frame of

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   TRILL data frames that it decapsulates.

   Additionally, an RBridge that is the appointed VLAN-x forwarder on
   one or more links MAY use the End Station Address Distribution
   Information (ESADI) protocol to announce some or all of the attached
   VLAN-x end nodes on those links.

   An ESADI could be used to announce end nodes that have been
   explicitly enrolled. Such information might be more authoritative
   than that learned from data frames being decapsulated onto the link.
   Also, the addresses enrolled and distributed in this way can be more
   secure for two reasons: (1) the enrollment might be authenticated
   (for example by cryptographically based EAP methods via [802.1X]),
   and (2) ESADI also supports cryptographic authentication of its
   messages [RFC5304] for more secure transmission.

   If an end station is unplugged from one RBridge and plugged into
   another then, depending on circumstances, frames addressed to that
   end station can be black holed. This is, they can be sent just to the
   older RBridge that the end station used to be connected to until
   cached address information at some remote RBridge(s) times out,
   possibly for a number of minutes or longer. With ESADI, the link
   interruption from the unplugging can cause an immediate update to be

   Even if an ESADI is used to announce or learn attached end nodes,
   RBridges MUST still learn from received native frames and
   decapsulated TRILL data frames unless configured not to do so.
   Advertising end nodes using ESADI is optional, as is learning from
   these announcements.

   (See Section 4.8 for further end station address details.)

2.3 RBridge Encapsulation Architecture

   The Layer 2 technology used to connect Rbridges may be either IEEE
   [802.3] or some other link technology such as PPP [RFC1661].  This is
   possible since the RBridge relay function is layered on top of the
   Layer 2 technologies.  However, this document specifies only an IEEE
   802.3 encapsulation.

   Figure 2.1 shows two RBridges, RB1 and RB2, interconnected through an
   Ethernet cloud. The Ethernet cloud may include hubs, point-to-point
   or shared media, IEEE 802.1D bridges, or 802.1Q bridges.

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                              /            \
                 +-----+     /   Ethernet   \    +-----+
                 | RB1 |----<                >---| RB2 |
                 +-----+     \    Cloud     /    +-----+
                              \            /

                    Figure 2.1: Interconnected RBridges

   Figure 2.2 shows the format of a TRILL data or ESADI frame traveling
   through the Ethernet cloud between RB1 and RB2.

                    |     Outer Ethernet Header      |
                    |          TRILL Header          |
                    |     Inner Ethernet Header      |
                    |        Ethernet Payload        |
                    |         Ethernet FCS           |

             Figure 2.2: An Ethernet Encapsulated TRILL Frame

   In the case of media different from Ethernet, the header specific to
   that media replaces the outer Ethernet header. For example, Figure
   2.3 shows a TRILL encapsulation over PPP.

                    |           PPP Header           |
                    |          TRILL Header          |
                    |     Inner Ethernet Header      |
                    |        Ethernet Payload        |
                    |         Ethernet FCS           |

                Figure 2.3: A PPP Encapsulated TRILL Frame

   The outer header is link-specific and, although this document
   specifies only [802.3] links, other links are allowed.

   In both cases the Inner Ethernet Header and the Ethernet Payload come
   from the original frame and are encapsulated with a TRILL Header as

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   they travel between RBridges. Use of a TRILL header offers the
   following benefits:

   1. loop mitigation through use of a hop count field;

   2. elimination of the need for end station VLAN and MAC address
      learning in transit RBridges;

   3. direction of unicast frames towards the egress RBridge (this
      enables unicast forwarding tables of transit RBridges to be sized
      with the number of RBridges rather than the total number of end
      nodes); and,

   4. provision of a separate VLAN tag for forwarding traffic between
      RBridges, independent of the VLAN of the native frame.

   When forwarding unicast frames between RBridges, the outer header has
   the MAC destination address of the next hop Rbridge, to avoid frame
   duplication if the inter-RBridge link is multi-access. Having the
   outer header specify the transmitting RBridge as source address
   ensures that any bridges inside the Ethernet cloud will not get
   confused, as they might be if multipathing is in use and they were to
   see the original source or ingress RBridge in the outer header.

2.4 Forwarding Overview

   RBridges are true routers in the sense that, in the forwarding of a
   frame by a transit RBridge, the outer layer 2 header is replaced at
   each hop with an appropriate layer 2 header for the next hop, and a
   hop count is decreased. Despite these modifications of the outer
   layer 2 header and the hop count in the TRILL Header, the original
   encapsulated frame is preserved, including the original frame's VLAN
   tag. See Section 4.6 for more details.

   From a forwarding standpoint, transit frames may be classified into
   two categories: known-unicast and multi-destination. Layer 2 control
   frames and TRILL control and TRILL other frames are not transit
   frames, are not forwarded by RBridges, and are not included in these

2.4.1 Known-Unicast

   These frames have a unicast inner MAC destination address
   (Inner.MacDA) and are those for which ingress RBridge knows the
   egress RBridge for the destination MAC address in the frame's VLAN.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 16]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   Such frames are forwarded Rbridge hop by Rbridge hop to their egress

2.4.2 Multi-destination

   These are frames that must be delivered to multiple destinations.

   Multi-destination frames include the following:

   1. unicast frames for which the location of the destination is
      unknown: the Inner.MacDA is unicast, but the ingress RBridge does
      not know its location in the frame's VLAN;

   2. multicast frames for which the Layer 2 destination address is
      derived from an IP multicast address: the Inner.MacDA is
      multicast, from the set of Layer 2 multicast addresses derived
      from IPv4 [RFC1112] or IPv6 [RFC2464] multicast addresses; these
      frames are handled somewhat differently in different subcases:

      2.1 IGMP [RFC3376] and MLD [RFC2710] multicast group membership

      2.2 IGMP [RFC3376] and MLD [RFC2710] queries and MRD [RFC4286]
          announcement messages;

      2.3 other IP derived Layer 2 multicast frames;

   3. multicast frames for which the Layer 2 destination address is not
      derived from an IP multicast address: the Inner.MacDA is
      multicast, and not from the set of Layer 2 multicast addresses
      derived from IPv4 or IPv6 multicast addresses;

   4. broadcast frames: the Inner.MacDA is broadcast (FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-

   RBridges build distribution trees (see Section 4.5) and use these
   trees for forwarding multi-destination frames. Each distribution tree
   reaches all RBridges in the campus, is shared across all VLANs, and
   may be used for the distribution of a native frame that was in any
   VLAN. However, the distribution of any particular frame on a
   distribution tree is pruned in different ways for different cases to
   avoid unnecessary propagation of the frame.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 17]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

2.5 RBridges and VLANs

   A VLAN is a way to partition end nodes in a campus into different
   Layer 2 communities [802.1Q-2005]. Use of VLANs requires
   configuration.  By default, the port of receipt determines the VLAN
   of a frame sent by an end station.  End stations can also explicitly
   insert this information in a frame.

   IEEE [802.1Q-2005] bridges can be configured to support multiple
   customer VLANs over a single simple link by inserting / removing a
   VLAN tag in the frame.  VLAN tags used by TRILL have the same format
   as VLAN tags defined in IEEE [802.1Q-2005]. As shown in Figure 2.2
   there are two places where such tags may be present in a TRILL-
   encapsulated frame sent over an IEEE [802.3] link: one in the outer
   header (Outer.VLAN) and one in the inner header (Inner.VLAN). Inner
   and outer VLANs are further discussed in Section 4.1.

   RBridges enforce delivery of a native frame originating in a
   particular VLAN only to other links in the same VLAN; however, there
   are a few differences in the handling of VLANs between an RBridge
   campus and an 802.1 bridged LAN as described below.

   (See Section 4.2.4 for further discussion of TRILL IS-IS operation on
   a link.)

2.5.1 Link VLAN Assumptions

   Certain configurations of bridges may cause partitions of a VLAN on a
   link. In that case, a frame sent by one RBridge to a neighbor on that
   link, might not arrive, if tagged with a VLAN that is partitioned due
   to bridge configuration.

   TRILL requires at least one VLAN per link that gives full
   connectivity to all the RBridges on that link. The default VLAN is 1,
   though RBridges may be configured to use a different VLAN. The DRB
   dictates to the other RBridges which VLAN to use.

   Since there will be only one appointed forwarder for any VLAN, say
   VLAN-x, on a link, if bridges are configured to cause VLAN-x to be
   partitioned on a link, some VLAN-x end nodes on that link may be
   orphaned (unable to communicate with the rest of the campus).

   It is possible for bridge and port configuration to cause VLAN
   mapping on a link (where a VLAN-x frame turns into a VLAN-y frame).
   TRILL detects this by inserting a copy of the outer VLAN into TRILL-
   Hello messages and checking it on receipt. If detected, it takes
   steps to ensure that there is at most a single appointed forwarder on
   the link, to avoid possible frame duplication or loops (see Section

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   TRILL behaves as conservatively as possible, avoiding loops rather
   than avoiding partial connectivity. As a result, lack of connectivity
   may result from bridge or port misconfiguration.

2.6 RBridges and IEEE 802.1 Bridges

   RBridge ports are, except as described below, layered on top of IEEE
   [802.1Q-2005] port facilities.

2.6.1 RBridge Ports and 802.1 Layering

   RBridge ports make use of [802.1Q-2005] port VLAN and priority
   processing.  In addition, they MAY implement other lower level 802.1
   protocols as well as protocols for the link in use, such as PAUSE
   (Annex 31B of [802.3]), port based access control [802.1X], MAC
   security [802.1AE], or link aggregation [802.1AX].

   However, RBridges do not use spanning tree and do not block ports as
   spanning tree does.  Figure 2.4 shows a high-level diagram of an
   RBridge with one port connected to an IEEE 802.3 link. Single lines
   represent the flow of control information, double lines the flow of
   both frames and control information.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 19]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

                          |                RBridge
                          |     Forwarding Engine, IS-IS, Etc.
                          | Processing of native and TRILL frames
                               |   |        ||         other ports...
                 +-------------+   |        ||
                 |                 |        ||
    +------------+-------------+   |        ||
    |         RBridge          |   |   +----++-------+ <- EISS
    |                          |   |   |             |
    | High-level Control Frame |   |   | 802.1Q-2005 |
    |  Processing (BPDU, VRP)  |   |   |  Port VLAN  |
    |                          |   |   |  & Priority |
    +-----------++-------------+   |   |  Processing |
                ||                 |   |             |
      +---------++-----------------+---+-------------+ <-- ISS
      |                                              |
      |    802.1/802.3 Low Level Control Frame       |
      |    Processing, Port/Link Control Logic       |
      |                                              |
                  ||        +------------+
                  ||        | 802.3 PHY  |
                  |+--------+ (Physical  +--------- 802.3
                  +---------+ Interface) +--------- Link
                            |            |

                      Figure 2.4: RBridge Port Model

   The upper interface to the low-level port / link control logic
   corresponds to the Internal Sublayer Service (ISS) in [802.1Q-2005].
   In RBridges, high-level control frames are processed above the ISS

   The upper interface to the port VLAN and priority processing
   corresponds to the Extended Internal Sublayer Service (EISS) in
   [802.1Q-2005]. In RBridges, native and TRILL frames are processed
   above the EISS interface and are subject to port VLAN and priority

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 20]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

2.6.2 Incremental Deployment

   Because RBridges are compatible with IEEE [802.1Q-2005] customer
   bridges, except as discussed in this document, a bridged LAN can be
   upgraded by incrementally replacing such bridges with RBridges.
   Bridges that have not yet been replaced are transparent to RBridge
   traffic. The physical links directly interconnected by such bridges,
   together with the bridges themselves, constitute bridged LANs. These
   bridged LANs appear to RBridges to be multi-access links.

   If the bridges replaced by RBridges were default configuration
   bridges, then their RBridge replacements will not require

   Because RBridges, as described in this document, only provide
   customer services, they cannot replace provider bridges or provider
   backbone bridges, just as a customer bridge can't replace a provider
   bridge. However, such provider devices can be part of the bridged LAN
   between RBridges. Extension of TRILL to support provider services is
   left for future work and will be separately documented.

   Of course, if the bridges replaced had any port level protocols
   enabled, such as port based access control [802.1X] or MAC security
   [802.1AE], replacement RBridges would need the same port level
   protocols enabled and similarly configured. In addition, the
   replacement RBridges would have to support the same link type and
   link level protocols as the replaced bridges.

   An RBridge campus will work best if all IEEE [802.1D] and
   [802.1Q-2005] bridges are replaced with RBridges, assuming the
   RBridges have the same speed and capacity as the bridges. However,
   there may be intermediate states, where only some bridges have been
   replaced by RBridges, with inferior performance.

   See Appendix A for further discussion of incremental deployment.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 21]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

3. Details of the TRILL Header

   This section specifies the TRILL header. Section 4 below provides
   other RBridge design details.

3.1 TRILL Header Format

   The TRILL header is shown in Figure 3.1 and is independent of the
   data link layer used. When that layer is IEEE [802.3], it is prefixed
   with the 16-bit TRILL Ethertype [RFC5342], making it 64 bit aligned.

                                   | V | R |M|Op-Length| Hop Count |
   |   Egress RBridge Nickname     |  Ingress RBridge Nickname     |

                         Figure 3.1: TRILL Header

   The header contains the following fields that are described in the
   sections referenced:

   o  V (Version): 2-bit unsigned integer. See Section 3.2.

   o  R (Reserved): 2 bits. See Section 3.3.

   o  M (Multi-destination): 1 bit. See Section 3.4.

   o  Op-Length (Options Length): 5-bit unsigned integer.  See Section

   o  Hop Count: 6-bit unsigned integer. See Section 3.6.

   o  Egress RBridge Nickname: 16-bit identifier. See Section 3.7.1.

   o  Ingress RBridge Nickname: 16-bit identifier. See Section 3.7.2.

3.2 Version (V)

   Version (V) is a two-bit field. Version zero of TRILL is specified in
   this document. An RBridge RB1 MUST check the V field in a received
   TRILL-encapsulated frame. If the V field has a value not recognized
   by RB1, then RB1 MUST silently discard the frame.

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

3.3 Reserved (R)

   The two R bits are reserved for future use in extensions to this
   version zero of the TRILL protocol. They MUST be set to zero when the
   TRILL header is added by an ingress RBridge, transparently copied but
   otherwise ignored by transit RBridges, and ignored by egress

3.4 Multi-destination (M)

   The Multi-destination bit (see Section 2.4.2) indicates that the
   frame is to be delivered to a class of destination end stations via a
   distribution tree and that the egress RBridge nickname field
   specifies the root for this tree.  In particular:

   o  M = 0 (FALSE) - The egress RBridge nickname contains a nickname of
      the egress Rbridge for a known unicast TRILL data frame;

   o  M = 1 (TRUE) - The egress RBridge nickname field contains a
      nickname that is the root of a distribution tree.  This nickname
      is selected by the ingress RBridge for a TRILL data frame or by
      the source RBridge for a TRILL ESADI frame.

3.5 TRILL Header Options

   There are provisions to express in the TRILL Header that a frame is
   using an optional capability and to encode information into the
   header in connection with that capability.

   The Op-Length header field gives the length of the expressed options
   in units of 4 octets, which allows up to 124 octets of options area.
   If Op-Length is zero there are no options present.  If options are
   present, they follow immediately after the Ingress Rbridge Nickname

   All Rbridges MUST be able to skip the number of 4-octet chunks
   indicated by the Op-Length field in order to find the inner frame,
   since RBridges must be able to find the destination MAC address and
   VLAN tag in the inner frame.  (Transit RBridges need such information
   to filter VLANs, IP multicast, and the like. Egress Rbridges need to
   find the inner header to correctly decapsulate and handle the inner

   To ensure backward compatible safe operation, when Op-Length is non-
   zero indicating that options are present, the top two bits of the
   first octet of the options area are specified as follows:

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 23]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

               | CHbH | CItE |          Reserved           |

               Figure 3.2: Options Area Initial Flags Octet

   If the CHbH (Critical Hop by Hop) bit is one, one or more critical
   hop-by-hop options are present. Transit RBridges that do not support
   one of the critical hop-by-hop options present, for example an
   RBridge that supported no options, MUST drop the frame. If the CHbH
   bit is zero, the frame is safe, from the point of view of options
   processing, for a transit RBridge to forward, regardless of what
   options that RBridge does or does not support. A transit RBridge that
   supports none of the options present MUST transparently forward the
   options area when it forwards a frame.

   If the CItE (Critical Ingress to Egress) bit is a one, one or more
   critical ingress-to-egress options are present. If it is zero, no
   such options are present.  If either CHbH or CItE is non-zero, egress
   RBridges that don't support any critical option present, for example
   an RBridge that supports no options, MUST drop the frame.  If both
   CHbH and CItE are zero, the frame is safe, from the point of view of
   options, for any egress RBridge to process, regardless of what
   options that RBridge does or does not support.

   Options, including the meaning of the bits labeled as Reserved in
   Figures 3.2, will be further specified in other documents and are
   expected to include provisions for hop-by-hop and ingress-to-egress
   options as well as critical and non-critical options.

   Note: Most RBridge implementations are expected to be optimized for
      the simplest and most common cases of frame forwarding and
      processing. The inclusion of options may and the inclusion of
      complex or lengthy options likely will cause frame processing
      using a "slow path" with inferior performance to "fast path"
      processing. Limited slow path throughput may cause such frames to
      be discarded.

3.6 Hop Count

   The Hop Count field is a 6-bit unsigned integer. An Rbridge drops
   frames received with a hop count of zero, otherwise it decrements the
   hop count.  (This behavior is different from IPv4 and IPv6 in order
   to support the later addition of a traceroute-like facility that
   would be able to get a hop count exceeded from an egress RBridge.)

   For known unicast frames, the ingress RBridge SHOULD set the Hop
   Count in excess of the number of RBridge hops it expects to the

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   egress RBridge to allow for alternate routing later in the path.

   For multi-destination frames, the Hop Count SHOULD be set by the
   ingress RBridge (or source RBridge for a TRILL ESADI frame) to at
   least the expected number of hops to the most distant RBridge. To
   accomplish this, RBridge RBn calculates, for each branch from RBn of
   the specified distribution tree rooted at RBi, the maximum number of
   hops in that branch.

   Multi-destination frames are of particular danger because a loop
   involving one or more distribution tree forks could result in the
   rapid generation of multiple copies of the frame, even with the
   normal TTL mechanism. It is for this reason that multi-destination
   frames are subject to a stringent Reverse Path Forwarding Check and
   other checks as described in Section 4.5.2. As an optional additional
   traffic control measure, when forwarding a multi-destination frame
   onto a distribution tree branch, transit RBridge RBm MAY decrease the
   hop count by more than 1 unless decreasing the hop count by more than
   1 would result in a Hop Count insufficient to reach all destinations
   in that branch of the tree rooted at RBi. Using a Hop Count close or
   equal to the minimum needed on multi-destination frames provides
   additional protection against problems with temporary loops when

   Although the RBridge MAY decrease the hop count of multi-destination
   frames by more than 1, under the circumstances described above, the
   RBridge forwarding a frame MUST decrease the hop count by at least 1,
   and discards the frame if it cannot do so because the hop count is 0.
   The option to decrease the hop count by more than 1 under the
   circumstances described above applies only to multi-destination
   frames, not to known unicast frames.

3.7 RBridge Nicknames

   Nicknames are 16-bit dynamically assigned quantities that act as
   abbreviations for RBridge's 48-bit IS-IS System ID to achieve a more
   compact encoding and can be used to specify potentially different
   trees with the same root. This assignment allows specifying up to
   2**16 RBridges; however, the value 0x0000 is reserved to indicate
   that a nickname is not specified, the values 0xFFC0 through 0xFFFE
   are reserved for future specification, and the value 0xFFFF is
   permanently reserved.  RBridges piggyback a nickname acquisition
   protocol on the link state protocol (see Section 3.7.3) to acquire
   one or more nicknames unique within the campus.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 25]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

3.7.1 Egress RBridge Nickname

   There are two cases for the contents of the egress RBridge nickname
   field, depending on the M-bit (see Section 3.4). The nickname is
   filled in by the ingress RBridge for TRILL data frames and by the
   source RBridge for TRILL ESADI frames.

   o  For known unicast TRILL data frames, M == 0 and the egress RBridge
      nickname field specifies the egress RBridge, that is, it specifies
      the RBridge that needs to remove the TRILL encapsulation and
      forward the native frame. Once the egress nickname field is set,
      it MUST NOT be changed by any subsequent transit RBridge.

   o  For multi-destination TRILL data frames and for TRILL ESADI
      frames, M == 1. The egress RBridge nickname field contains a
      nickname specifying the distribution tree selected to be used to
      forward the frame. This root nickname MUST NOT be changed by
      transit RBridges.

3.7.2 Ingress RBridge Nickname

   The ingress RBridge nickname is set to a nickname of the ingress
   RBridge for TRILL data frames and to a nickname of the source RBridge
   for TRILL ESADI frames. If the RBridge setting the ingress nickname
   has multiple nicknames, it SHOULD use the same nickname in the
   ingress field whenever it encapsulates a frame with any particular
   Inner.MacSA and Inner.VLAN value. This simplifies end node learning.

   Once the ingress nickname field is set, it MUST NOT be changed by any
   subsequent transit RBridge.

3.7.3 RBridge Nickname Selection

   The nickname selection protocol is piggybacked on TRILL IS-IS as

   o  The nickname or nicknames being used by an RBridge are carried in
      an IS-IS TLV (type-length-value data element) along with a
      priority of use value.  Each RBridge chooses its own nickname or

   o  Nickname values MAY be configured. An RBridge that has been
      configured with one or more nickname values will have priority for
      those nickname values over all Rbridges with non-configured

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 26]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   o  The nickname value 0x0000 and the values from 0xFFC0 through
      0xFFFF are reserved and MUST NOT be selected by or configured for
      an RBridge. The value 0x0000 is used to indicate that a nickname
      is not known.

   o  The priority of use field reported with a nickname is an unsigned
      8-bit value, where the most significant bit (0x80) indicates that
      the nickname value was configured. The bottom 7 bits have the
      default value 0x40, but MAY be configured to be some other value.
      Additionally, an RBridge MAY increase its priority after holding a
      nickname for some amount of time. However, the most significant
      bit of the priority MUST NOT be set unless the nickname value was

   o  Once an RBridge has successfully acquired a nickname it SHOULD
      attempt to reuse it in the case of a reboot.

   o  Each RBridge is responsible for ensuring that its nickname or each
      of its nicknames is unique.  If RB1 chooses nickname x, and RB1
      discovers, through receipt of an LSP for RB2 at any later time,
      that RB2 has also chosen x, then the RBridge with the numerically
      higher priority keeps the nickname, or if there is a tie in
      priority, the RBridge with the numerically higher IS-IS System ID
      keeps the nickname, and the other RBridge MUST select a new
      nickname. This can require an RBridge with a configured nickname
      to select a replacement nickname.

   o  To minimize the probability of nickname collisions, an RBridge
      selects a nickname randomly from the apparently available
      nicknames, based on its copy of the link state. This random
      selection can be by the RBridge hashing some of its parameters,
      e.g., SystemID, time and date, and other entropy sources, such as
      those given in [RFC4086], each time or by the RBridge using such
      hashing to create a seed and making any selections based on
      pseudo-random numbers generated from that seed [RFC4086]. The
      random numbers or seed and the algorithm used SHOULD make
      uniformly distributed selections over the available nicknames.
      Convergence to a nickname-collision free campus is accelerated by
      selecting new nicknames only from those that appear to be
      available and by having the highest priority nickname involved in
      a nickname conflict retain its value. There is no reason for all
      Rbridges to use the same algorithm for selecting nicknames.

   o  If two RBridge campuses merge, then transient nickname collisions
      are possible. As soon as each RBridge receives the LSPs from the
      other RBridges, the RBridges that need to change nicknames select
      new nicknames that do not, to the best of their knowledge, collide
      with any existing nicknames. Some RBridges may need to change
      nicknames more than once before the situation is resolved.

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   o  To minimize the probability of a new RBridge usurping a nickname
      already in use, an RBridge SHOULD wait to acquire the link state
      database from a neighbor before it announces any nicknames that
      were not configured.

   o  An RBridge by default has only a single nickname but MAY be
      configured to request multiple nicknames. Each such nickname could
      be the root of a shortest path tree from the RBridge but, since
      the tree number is used in tie breaking when there are multiple
      equal cost paths (see Section 4.5.1), the trees for the different
      nicknames will likely utilize different links. Because of the
      potential tree computation load it imposes, this capability to
      request multiple nicknames should be used sparingly, at a few
      RBridges that, because of campus topology, are particularly good
      places from which to calculate multiple different shortest path
      distribution trees. Such trees need separate nicknames so traffic
      can be multipathed across them.

   If it is desired for a pseudonode to be a tree root, the DRB MAY
   request one or more nicknames in the pseudonode LSP.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 28]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

4. Other RBridge Design Details

   Section 3 above specifies the TRILL header, while this Section
   specifies other RBridge design details.

4.1 Ethernet Data Encapsulation

   TRILL data and ESADI frames in transit on Ethernet links are
   encapsulated with an outer Ethernet header (see Figure 2.2). This
   outer header looks, to a bridge on the path between two RBridges,
   like the header of a regular Ethernet frame and therefore bridges
   forward the frame as they normally would. To enable RBridges to
   distinguish such TRILL frames, a new TRILL Ethertype (see Section
   7.2) is used in the outer header.

   Figure 4.1 details a TRILL data frame with an outer VLAN tag
   traveling on an Ethernet link as shown at the top of the Figure, that
   is, between transit RBridges RB3 and RB4. The native frame originated
   at end station ESa, was encapsulated by ingress RBridge RB1 and will
   ultimately be decapsulated by egress RBridge RB2 and delivered to
   destination end station ESb. The encapsulation shown has the
   advantage, in the absence of TRILL options, of aligning the original
   Ethernet frame at a 64-bit boundary.

   When a TRILL data frame is carried over an Ethernet cloud it has
   three pairs of addresses:

   o  Outer Ethernet Header: Outer Destination MAC Address (Outer.MacDA)
      and Outer Source MAC Address (Outer.MacSA): These addresses are
      used to specify the next hop RBridge and the transmitting RBridge,

   o  TRILL Header: Egress Nickname and Ingress Nickname. These specify
      nickname values of the egress and ingress RBridges, respectively,
      unless the frame is multi-destination, in which case the Egress
      Nickname specifies the root of the distribution tree on which the
      frame is being sent.

   o  Inner Ethernet Header: Inner Destination MAC Address (Inner.MacDA)
      and Inner Source MAC Address (Inner.MacSA): These addresses are as
      transmitted by the original end station, specifying, respectively,
      the destination and source of the inner frame.

   A TRILL data frame also potentially has two VLAN tags, as discussed
   in Sections 4.1.2 and 4.1.3 below, that can carry two different VLAN
   Identifiers and specify priority.

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

     +-----+  +-------+   +-------+       +-------+   +-------+  +----+
     | ESa +--+  RB1  +---+  RB3  +-------+  RB4  +---+  RB2  +--+ESb |
     +-----+  |ingress|   |transit|   ^   |transit|   |egress |  +----+
              +-------+   +-------+   |   +-------+   +-------+
   Outer Ethernet Header:             |
      |             Outer Destination MAC Address  (RB4)              |
      | Outer Destination MAC Address | Outer Source MAC Address      |
      |                Outer Source MAC Address  (RB3)                |
      | Ethertype = C-Tag [802.1Q]    | Outer.VLAN Tag Information    |
   TRILL Header:
      | Ethertype = TRILL             | V | R |M|Op-Length| Hop Count |
      | Egress (RB2) Nickname         | Ingress (RB1) Nickname        |
   Inner Ethernet Header:
      |             Inner Destination MAC Address  (ESb)              |
      | Inner Destination MAC Address | Inner Source MAC Address      |
      |                  Inner Source MAC Address  (ESa)              |
      | Ethertype = C-Tag [802.1Q]    | Inner.VLAN Tag Information    |
      | Ethertype of Original Payload |                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
      |                                  Original Ethernet Payload    |
      |                                                               |
   Frame Check Sequence:
      |               New FCS (Frame Check Sequence)                  |

            Figure 4.1: TRILL Data Encapsulation over Ethernet

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 30]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

4.1.1 VLAN Tag Information

   A "VLAN Tag" (formerly known as a Q-tag), also known as a "C-tag" for
   customer tag, includes a VLAN ID and a priority field as shown in
   Figure 4.2.  The "VLAN ID" may be zero, indicating the no VLAN is
   specified, just a priority, although such frames are called "priority
   tagged" rather than "VLAN tagged" [802.1Q-2005].

   [802.1Qad] S-tags, also known as service tags, are beyond the scope
   of this document.

     | Priority  | C |                  VLAN ID                      |

                     Figure 4.2: VLAN Tag Information

   As recommended in [802.1Q-2005], Rbridges SHOULD be implemented so as
   to allow use of the full range of VLAN IDs from 0x001 through 0xFFE.
   Rbridges MAY support a smaller number of simultaneously active VLAN
   IDs. VLAN ID zero is the null VLAN identifier and indicates that no
   VLAN is specified while VLAN ID 0xFFF is reserved.

   The VLAN ID 0xFFF MUST NOT be used. Rbridges MUST discard any frame
   they receive with an Outer.VLAN ID of 0xFFF.  Rbridges MUST discard
   any frame for which they examine the Inner.VLAN ID and find it to be
   0xFFF; such examination is required at all egress Rbridges which
   decapsulate a frame.

   The "C" bit shown in Figure 4.2 is not used in TRILL. It MUST be set
   to zero and is ignored by receivers.

   As specified in [802.1Q-2005], the priority field contains an
   unsigned value from 0 through 7 where 1 indicates the lowest
   priority, 7 the highest priority, and the default priority zero is
   considered to be higher than priority 1 but lower than priority 2.
   The [802.1ad] amendment to [802.1Q-2005] permits mapping some
   adjacent pairs of priority levels into a single priority level with
   and without drop eligibility. Ongoing work in IEEE 802.1 (802.1az,
   Appendix E) suggests the ability to configure "priority groups" that
   have a certain guaranteed bandwidth.  RBridges ports MAY also
   implement such options.  RBridges are not required to implement any
   particular number of distinct priority levels but may treat one or
   more adjacent priority levels in the same fashion.

   Frames with the same source address, destination address, VLAN, and
   priority that are received on the same port as each other and are
   transmitted on the same port MUST be transmitted in the order
   received unless the RBridge classifies the frames into more fine
   grained flows, in which case this ordering requirement applies to

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   each such flow. (Such frames might not be sent out the same port if
   multipath is implemented. See Appendix C.)

   The C-Tag Ethertype [RFC5342] is 0x8100.

4.1.2 Inner VLAN Tag

   The "Inner VLAN Tag Information" (Inner.VLAN) field contains the VLAN
   tag information associated with the native frame when it was
   ingressed or the VLAN tag information associated with a TRILL ESADI
   frame when that frame was created.  When a TRILL frame passes through
   a transit RBridge, the Inner.VLAN MUST NOT be changed except when
   VLAN mapping is being intentionally performed within that RBridge.

   When a native frame arrives at an RBridge, the associated VLAN ID and
   priority are determined as specified in [802.1Q-2005] (see Appendix D
   and [802.1Q-2005] Section 6.7). If the RBridge is an appointed
   forwarder for that VLAN and the delivery of the frame requires
   transmission to one or more other links, this ingress RBridge forms a
   TRILL data frame with the associated VLAN ID and priority placed in
   the Inner.VLAN information.

   The VLAN ID is required at the ingress Rbridge as one element in
   determining the appropriate egress Rbridge for a known unicast frame
   and is needed at the ingress and every transit Rbridge for multi-
   destination frames to correctly prune the distribution tree.

4.1.3 Outer VLAN Tag

   TRILL frames sent by an RBridge, except for some TRILL-Hello frames,
   use an Outer.VLAN ID specified by the Designated RBridge (DRB) for
   the link onto which they are being sent, referred to as the
   Designated VLAN. For TRILL data and ESADI frames, the priority in the
   Outer.VLAN tag SHOULD be set to the priority in the Inner.VLAN tag.

   TRILL frames forwarded by a transit RBridge use the priority present
   in the Inner.VLAN of the frame as received.  TRILL data frames are
   sent with the priority associated with the corresponding native frame
   when received (see Appendix D).  TRILL IS-IS frames SHOULD be sent
   with priority 7.

   Whether an Outer.VLAN tag actually appears on the wire when a TRILL
   frame is sent depends on the configuration of the RBridge port
   through which it is sent in the same way as the appearance of a VLAN
   tag on a frame sent by an [802.1Q-2005] frame depends on the
   configuration of the bridge port (see Section 4.9.2).

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

4.1.4 Frame Check Sequence (FCS)

   Each Ethernet frame has a single Frame Check Sequence (FCS) that is
   computed to cover the entire frame, for detecting frame corruption
   due to bit errors on a link. Thus, when a frame is encapsulated, the
   original FCS is not included but is discarded. Any received frame for
   which the FCS check fails SHOULD be discarded (this may not be
   possible in the case of cut through forwarding). The FCS normally
   changes on encapsulation, decapsulation, and every TRILL hop due to
   changes in the outer destination and source addresses, the
   decrementing of the hop count, etc.

   Although the FCS is normally calculated just before transmission, it
   is desirable, when practical, for an FCS to accompany a frame within
   an RBridge after receipt. That FCS could then be dynamically updated
   to account for changes to the frame during Rbridge processing and
   used for transmission or checked against the FCS calculated for frame
   transmission.  This optional, more continuous use of an FCS would be
   helpful in detecting some internal RBridge failures such as memory

4.2 Link State Protocol (IS-IS)

   TRILL uses an extension of IS-IS [ISO10589] [RFC1195] as its routing
   protocol.  IS-IS has the following advantages:

   o  it runs directly over Layer 2, so therefore it may be run without
      configuration (no IP addresses need to be assigned);

   o  it is easy to extend by defining new TLV (type-length-value) data
      elements and sub-elements for carrying TRILL information;

   This section describes TRILL use of IS-IS, except for the TRILL-Hello
   protocol, which is described in Section 4.4, and the MTU-probe and
   MTU-ack messages that are described in Section 4.3.

4.2.1 IS-IS RBridge Identity

   Each RBridge has a unique 48-bit (6-octet) IS-IS System ID. This ID
   may be derived from any of the RBridge's unique MAC addresses.

   A pseudonode is assigned a 7-octet ID by the DRB that created it, by
   taking a 6-octet ID owned by the DRB, and appending another octet.
   The 6-octet ID used to form a pseudonode ID SHOULD be the DRB's ID
   unless the DRB has to create IDs for pseudonodes for more than 255
   links. The only constraint for correct operations is that the 7-octet

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 33]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   ID be unique within the campus, and that the 7th octet be nonzero. An
   RBridge has a 7-octet ID consisting of its 6-octet system ID
   concatenated with a zero octet.

   In this document we use the term "IS-IS ID" to refer to the 7-octet
   quantity that can either be the ID of an RBridge or a pseudonode.

4.2.2 IS-IS Instances

   TRILL implements a separate IS-IS instance from any used by Layer 3,
   that is, different from the one used by routers. Layer 3 IS-IS frames
   must be distinguished from TRILL IS-IS frames even when those Layer 3
   IS-IS frames are transiting an RBridge campus.

   Layer 3 IS-IS native frames have special multicast destination
   addresses specified for that purpose, such as AllL1ISs or AllL2ISs.
   When they are TRILL encapsulated, these multicast addresses appear as
   the Inner.MacDA and the Outer.MacDA will be the All-RBridges
   multicast address.

   Within TRILL, there is an IS-IS instance across all Rbridges in the
   campus as described in Section 4.2.3. This instance uses TRILL IS-IS
   frames that are distinguished by having a different Ethertype "L2-IS-
   IS". Additionally, for TRILL IS-IS frames that are multicast, there
   is a distinct multicast destination address of All-IS-IS-RBridges.
   TRILL IS-IS frames do not have a TRILL Header.

   ESADI is a separate protocol from the IS-IS instance implemented by
   all the RBridges. There is a separate ESADI instance for each VLAN,
   and ESADI frames are encapsulated just like TRILL data frames. After
   the TRILL header, the ESADI frame has an inner Ethernet header with
   the Inner.MacDA of "All-ESADI-RBridges" and the "L2-IS-IS" Ethertype
   followed by the ESADI frame.

4.2.3 TRILL IS-IS Frames

   All Rbridges must participate in the TRILL IS-IS instance, which
   constitutes a single Level 1 IS-IS area using the fixed area-ID zero.
   TRILL IS-IS frames are never forwarded by an RBridge but are locally
   processed on receipt. (Such processing may cause the RBridge to send
   additional TRILL IS-IS frames.)

   A TRILL IS-IS frame on an 802.3 link is structured as shown below.
   All such frames are Ethertype encoded. The RBridge port out which
   such a frame is sent will strip the outer VLAN tag if configured to
   do so.

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   Outer Ethernet Header:
      |             All-IS-IS-RBridges Multicast Address              |
      | All-IS-IS-RBridges continued  | Source RBridge MAC Address    |
      |             Source RBridge MAC Address continued              |
      | Ethertype = C-Tag [802.1Q]    | Outer.VLAN Tag Information    |
      |   L2-IS-IS Ethertype          |
   IS-IS Payload:
      | IS-IS Common Header, IS-IS PDU Specific Fields, IS-IS TLVs    |

   Frame Check Sequence:
      |                 FCS (Frame Check Sequence)                    |

                   Figure 4.3: TRILL IS-IS Frame Format

   The VLAN specified in the Outer.VLAN information will be the
   Designated VLAN for the link on which the frame is sent, except in
   the case of some TRILL-Hellos.

4.2.4 TRILL Link Hellos, DRBs, and Appointed Forwarders

   RBridges default to using TRILL Hellos unless, on a per port basis,
   they are configured to use P2P Hellos. TRILL-Hello frames are
   specified in Section 4.4.

   RBridges are normally configured to use P2P Hellos only when there
   are exactly two of them on a link. However, it can occur that
   RBridges are misconfigured as to which type of hello to use. This is
   safe but may cause lack of RBridge to RBridge connectivity. An
   RBridge port configured to use P2P Hellos ignores TRILL Hellos and an
   RBridge port configured to use TRILL Hellos ignores P2P Hellos.

   If any of the RBridge ports on a link is configured to use TRILL
   Hellos, one of such RBridge ports using TRILL Hellos is elected DRB
   (Designated RBridge) for the link. This election is based on
   configured priority (most significant field), and source MAC address,
   as communicated by TRILL-Hello frames. The DRB, as described in
   Section, designates the VLAN to be used on the link for
   inter-RBridge communication by the non-P2P RBridge ports and appoints
   itself or other RBridges on the link as appointed forwarder (see

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   Section for VLANs on the link. P2P Hello Links

   RBridge ports can be configured to use IS-IS P2P Hellos. This implies
   that the port is a point-to-point link to another RBridge. An RBridge
   MUST NOT provide any end station (native frame) service on a port
   configured to use P2P Hellos.

   As with Layer 3 IS-IS, such P2P ports do not participate in a DRB
   election. They send all frames VLAN tagged as being in the Desired
   Designated VLAN configured for the port although this tag may be
   stripped if the port is so configured. Since all traffic through the
   port should be TRILL frames or layer 2 control frames, such a port
   cannot be an appointed forwarder. RBridge P2P ports MUST use the IS-
   IS three-way handshake [RFC5303] so that extended circuit IDs are
   associated with the link for tie breaking purposes (see Section

   Even if all simple links in a network are physically point-to-point,
   if some of the nodes are bridges, the bridged LANs that include those
   bridges appear to be multi-access link to attached RBridges. This
   would necessitate using TRILL-Hellos for proper operation in many

   While it is safe to erroneously configure ports as P2P, this may
   result in lack of connectivity. Designated RBridge

   TRILL IS-IS elects one RBridge for each LAN link to be the Designated
   RBridge (DRB), that is, to have special duties. The Designated

   o  Chooses, for the link, and announces in its Hellos, the Designated
      VLAN ID to be used for inter-RBridge communication. This VLAN is
      used for all TRILL-encapsulated data and ESADI frames and TRILL
      IS-IS frames except some TRILL-Hello frames.

   o  If the link is represented in the IS-IS topology as a pseudonode,
      chooses a pseudonode ID and announces that in its Hellos and
      issues an LSP on behalf of the pseudonode.

   o  Issues CSNPs.

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   o  For each VLAN-x appearing on the link, chooses an RBridge on the
      link to be the appointed VLAN-x forwarder (the DRB MAY choose
      itself to be the appointed VLAN-x forwarder for all or some of the

   o  Before appointing a VLAN-x forwarder (including appointing
      itself), wait at least its Holding Time (to ensure it is DRB).

   o  If configured to send TRILL-Hello frames, continues to send them
      on all its enabled VLANs that have been configured in the
      Announcing VLANs set of the DRB, which defaults to all enabled
      VLANs. Appointed VLAN-x Forwarder

   The appointed VLAN-x forwarder for a link is responsible for the
   following points. In connection with the loop avoidance points, when
   an appointed forwarder for a port is "inhibited", it drops any native
   frames it receives and does not transmit but instead drops any native
   frames it decapsulates, in the VLAN for which it is appointed.

   o  Loop avoidance:

      -  Inhibiting itself for a time, configurable per port from zero
         to 30 seconds, which defaults to 30 seconds, after it sees a
         root bridge change on the link (see Section

      -  Inhibiting itself for VLAN-x, if it has received a Hello in
         which the sender asserts that it is appointed forwarder and
         that is either
         +  received on VLAN-x (has VLAN-x as its Outer.VLAN) or
         +  was originally sent on VLAN-x as indicated inside the body
            of the Hello.

      -  Optionally, not decapsulating a frame from ingress RBridge RBm
         unless it has RBm's LSP, and the root bridge on the link it is
         about to forward onto is not listed in RBm's list of root
         bridges for VLAN-x. This is known as the "decapsulation check"
         or "root bridge collision check".

   o  Unless inhibited (see above), receiving VLAN-x native traffic from
      the link and, forwarding it as appropriate.

   o  Receiving VLAN-x traffic for the link and, unless inhibited,
      transmitting it in native form after decapsulating it as

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   o  Learning the MAC address of local VLAN-x nodes by looking at the
      source address of VLAN-x frames from the link.

   o  Optionally learning the port of local VLAN-x nodes based on any
      sort of Layer 2 registration protocols, such as IEEE 802.11
      association and authentication.

   o  Keeping track of the { egress RBridge, VLAN, MAC address } of
      distant VLAN-x end nodes, learned by looking at the fields {
      ingress RBridge, Inner.VLAN ID, Inner.MacSA } from VLAN-x frames
      being received for decapsulation onto the link.

   o  Optionally observe native IGMP [RFC3376], MLD [RFC2710], and MRD
      [RFC4286] frames to learn the presence of local multicast
      listeners and multicast routers.

   o  Optionally listening to TRILL ESADI messages for VLAN-x to learn {
      egress RBridge, VLAN-x, MAC address } triplets and the confidence
      level of such explicitly advertised end nodes.

   o  Optionally advertising VLAN-x end nodes, on links for which it is
      appointed VLAN-x forwarder, in ESADI messages.

   o  Send TRILL-Hello frames on VLAN-x.

   o  Listening to BPDUs on the common spanning tree to learn the root
      bridge, if any, for that link and to report in its LSP the
      complete set of root bridges seen on any of its links for which it
      is appointed forwarder for VLAN-x.

   When an appointed forwarder observes that the DRB on a link has
   changed, it no longer considers itself appointed for that link until
   appointed by the new DRB. TRILL LSP Information

   The information items in the TRILL IS-IS LSP that are mentioned
   elsewhere in this document are listed below. Unless an item is stated
   in the list below to be optional, it MUST be included. Other items
   MAY be included unless their inclusion is prohibited elsewhere in
   this document. The actual encoding of this information and the IS-IS
   Type or sub-Type values for any new IS-IS TLV or sub-TLV data
   elements are specified in a separate document [layer2].

   1. The IS-IS IDs of neighbors (pseudonodes as well as RBridges) of
      RBridge RBn, and the cost of the link to each of those neighbors.
      RBridges MUST use the Extended IS Reachability TLV (#22, also
      known as "wide metric" [RFC5305]) and MUST NOT use the IS

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

      Reachability TLV (#2, also known as "narrow metric").  To
      facilitate efficient operation without configuration and
      consistent with [802.1D], RBridges SHOULD, by default, set the
      cost of a link to the integer part of twenty trillion
      (20,000,000,000,000) divided by the RBridge port's bit rate but
      not more than 2**24-2 (16,777,214); for example, the cost for a
      link accessed by a 1Gbps port would default to 20,000. (Note that
      2**24-1 has a special meaning in IS-IS and would exclude the link
      from SPF routes.)  However, the link cost MAY, by default, be
      decreased for aggregated links and/or increased if the link
      appears to be a bridged LAN.  The tested MTU for the link (see
      Section 4.3) MAY be included via a sub-TLV.

   2. The following information in connection with the nickname or each
      of the nicknames of RBridge RBn:

      2.1 The nickname value (2 octets).

      2.2 The unsigned 8-bit priority for RBn to have that nickname (see
          Section 3.7.3).

      2.3 The 16-bit unsigned priority of that nickname to becoming a
          distribution tree root.

   3. The maximum TRILL Header Version supported by RBridge RBn.

   4. The following information, in addition to the per nickname tree
      root priority, in connection with distribution tree determination
      and announcement. (See Section 4.5 for further details on how this
      information is used.)

      4.1 An unsigned 16-bit number that is the number of trees all
          RBridges in the campus calculate if RBn has the highest
          priority tree root.

      4.2 A second unsigned 16-bit number that is the number of trees
          RBn would like to use.

      4.3 A third unsigned 16-bit number that is the maximum number of
          distribution trees that RBn is able to calculate.

      4.4 A first list of nicknames that are intended roots of
          distribution trees all RBridges in the campus must calculate.

      4.5 A second list of nicknames that are roots that RBn would like
          to use when ingressing multi-destination frames.

   5. The list of VLAN IDs of VLANs directly connected to RBn for links
      on which RBn is the appointed forwarder for that VLAN.  (Note: an
      RBridge may advertise that it is connected to additional VLANs in

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

      order to receive additional frames to support certain VLAN based
      features beyond the scope of this specification as mentioned in
      Section 4.8.3 and in a separate document concerning VLAN mapping
      inside RBridges.) RBridges may associate advertised connectivity
      to different groups of VLANs with specific nicknames they hold. In
      addition, the LSP contains the following information on a per-VLAN

      5.1 Per VLAN Multicast Router attached flags: This is two bits of
          information that indicate whether there is an IPv4 and/or IPv6
          multicast router attached to the Rbridge on that VLAN. An
          RBridge that does not do IP multicast control snooping MUST
          set both of these bits (see Section 4.5.4). This information
          is used because IGMP [RFC3376] and MLD [RFC2710] Membership
          Reports MUST be transmitted to all links with IP multicast
          routers, and SHOULD NOT be transmitted to links without such
          routers. Also, all frames for IP-derived multicast addresses
          MUST be transmitted to all links with IP multicast routers
          (within a VLAN), in addition to links from which an IP node
          has explicitly asked to join the group the frame is for,
          except for some IP multicast addresses that MUST be treated as

      5.2 Per VLAN mandatory announcement of the set of IDs of Root
          bridges for any of RBn's links on which RBn is forwarder for
          that VLAN. Where MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) is
          running on a link, this is the root bridge of the CIST (Common
          and Internal Spanning Tree).  This is to quickly detect cases
          where two Layer 2 clouds accidentally get merged, and where
          there might otherwise temporarily be two DRBs for the same
          VLAN on the same link. (See Section

      5.3 Optionally, per VLAN Layer 2 multicast addresses derived from
          IPv4 IGMP and IPv6 MLD notification messages received from
          attached end nodes on that VLAN, indicating the location of
          listeners for these multicast addresses (see Section 4.5.5).

      5.4 Per VLAN ESADI participation flag, priority, and holding time.
          If this flag is one, it indicates that the RBridge wishes to
          receive such TRILL ESADI frames (see Section

      5.5 Per VLAN appointed forwarder status lost counter (see Section

   6. Optionally, the largest TRILL IS-IS frame that the RBridge can
      handle using the originatingLSPBufferSize TLV #14 (see Section

   7. Optionally, a list of VLAN groups where address learning is shared
      across that VLAN group (see Section 4.8.3).  Each VLAN group is a

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

      list of VLAN IDs, where the first VLAN ID listed in a group, if
      present, is the "primary" and the others are "secondary". This is
      to detect misconfiguration of features outside the scope of this
      document. RBridges that do not support features such as "shared
      VLAN learning" ignore this field.

   8. Optionally, the Authentication TLV #10 (see Section 6).


   RBridges that are the appointed VLAN-x forwarder for a link MAY
   participate in the TRILL end station address distribution information
   (ESADI) protocol for that VLAN. But all transit RBridges MUST
   properly forward TRILL ESADI frames as if they were multicast TRILL
   data frames. TRILL ESADI frames are structured like IS-IS frames but
   are always TRILL encapsulated on the wire as if they were TRILL data

   Because of this forwarding, it appears to an ESADI at an RBridge that
   it is directly connected by a shared virtual link to all other
   RBridges in the campus running ESADI for that VLAN.  RBridges that do
   not implement that ESADI or are not appointed forwarder for that VLAN
   do not decapsulate or locally process any TRILL ESADI frames they
   receive for that VLAN. In other words, these frames are transparently
   tunneled through transit RBridges. Such transit RBridges treat them
   exactly as multicast TRILL data frames and no special processing is
   invoked due to such forwarding.

   TRILL ESADI frames sent on an IEEE 802.3 link are structured as shown
   below. The outer VLAN tag will not be present if it was stripped by
   the port out which the frame was sent.

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   Outer Ethernet Header:
      |                Next Hop Destination Address                   |
      | Next Hop Destination Address  | Sending RBridge MAC Address   |
      |               Sending RBridge Port MAC Address                |
      | Ethertype = C-Tag [802.1Q]    | Outer.VLAN Tag Information    |
   TRILL Header:
      | Ethertype = TRILL             | V | R |M|Op-Length| Hop Count |
      | Egress (Dist. Tree) Nickname  | Ingress (Origin) Nickname     |
   Inner Ethernet Header:
      |             All-ESADI-RBridges Multicast Address              |
      | All-ESADI-RBridges continued  | Origin RBridge MAC Address    |
      |                Origin RBridge MAC Address continued           |
      | Ethertype = C-Tag [802.1Q]    | Inner.VLAN Tag Information    |
      | Ethertype = L2-IS-IS          |
   ESADI Payload (formatted as IS-IS):
      | IS-IS Common Header, IS-IS PDU Specific Fields, IS-IS TLVs    |

   Frame Check Sequence:
      |                  FCS (Frame Check Sequence)                   |

                   Figure 4.4: TRILL ESADI Frame Format

   The Next Hop Destination Address or Outer.MacDA is the All-RBridges
   multicast address. The VLAN specified in the Outer.VLAN information
   will always be the Designated VLAN for the link on which the frame is
   sent. The V and R fields will be zero while the M field will be one.
   The VLAN specified in the Inner.VLAN information will be the VLAN to
   which the ESADI applies. The Origin RBridge MAC Address or
   Inner.MacSA MUST be a globally unique MAC address owned by the
   RBridge originating the ESADI frame, for example any of its port MAC
   addresses, and each RBridge MUST use the same Inner.MacSA for all of
   the ESADI frames that RBridge originates.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 42]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol TRILL ESADI Participation

   An RBridge does not send any Hellos because of participation in an
   ESADI. The information available in the TRILL IS-IS link state
   database is sufficient to determine the ESADI DRB on the virtual link
   for each VLAN's ESADI. In particular, the link state database
   information for each RBridge includes the VLANs, if any, for which
   that RBridge is participating in an ESADI, its priority for being
   selected as DRB for each of those ESADIs, its holding time, and its
   IS-IS system ID for breaking ties in priority.

   An RBridge need not perform any routing calculation because of
   participation in an ESADI. Since all RBridges participating in ESADI
   for a particular VLAN appear to be connected to the same single
   virtual link, there are no routing decisions to be made. A
   participating RBridge merely transmits the ESDAI frames it originates
   on this virtual link.

   The ESADI DRB sends TRILL-ESADI-CSNP frames on the ESADI virtual
   link. For robustness, a participating RBridge that determines that
   some other RBridge should be ESADI DRB on such a virtual link and has
   not received or sent a TRILL-ESADI-CSNP in at least the ESADI DRB
   holding time MAY also send a TRILL-ESADI-CSNP on the virtual link. A
   participating RBridge that determines that no other RBridges are
   participating in an ESADI for a particular VLAN SHOULD NOT send ESADI
   information or TRILL-ESADI-CSNPs on the virtual link. TRILL ESADI Information

   The information in ESADI is the list of local end station MAC
   addresses known to the originating RBridge and, for each such
   address, a one octet unsigned "confidence" rating in the range 0-254
   (see Section 4.8).

   It is intended to optionally provide for VLAN ID translation within
   RBridges, as specified in a separate document. This includes
   translating TRILL ESADI frames. If TRILL ESADI frames could contain
   VLAN IDs in arbitrary internal locations, such translation would be
   impractical. Thus, TRILL ESADI frames MUST NOT contain the VLAN ID of
   the VLAN to which they apply in the body of the frame after the
   Inner.VLAN tag.

4.2.6 SPF, Forwarding, and Ambiguous Destinations

   This section describes the logical result desired. Alternative
   implementation methods may be used as long as they producing the same

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INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   forwarding behavior.

   When building a forwarding table, an RBridge RB1 calculates shortest
   paths from itself as described in [RFC1195] Appendix C.1. Nicknames
   are added into the shortest path calculation as a final step, just as
   with an end node. If multiple RBridges , say RBa and RBb, claim the
   same nickname, this is a transitory condition and one of RBa or RBb
   will defer and choose a new nickname. However, RB1 simply adds that
   nickname as if it were attached to both RBa and RBb, and uses its
   standard shortest path calculation to choose the next hop

   An ingress RBridge RB2 maps a native frame's known unicast
   destination MAC address and VLAN into an egress RBridge nickname. If
   RB2 learns addresses only from the observation of received and
   decapsulated frames, then such MAC addresses cannot be duplicated
   within a VLAN in RB2 tables because more recent learned information,
   if of a higher or equal confidence, overwrites previous information.
   However, duplicates of the same MAC within a VLAN can appear in ESADI
   data and between ESADI data and addresses learned from the
   observation of received and decapsulated frames, entered by manual
   configuration, or learned through layer 2 registration protocols. If
   duplicate MAC addresses occur within a VLAN, RB2 sends frames to the
   MAC with the highest confidence. If confidences are also tied between
   the duplicates, for consistency it is suggested that RB2 direct all
   such frames (or all such frames in the same ECMP flow) toward the
   same egress RBridge; however, the use of other policies will not
   cause a network problem since transit RBridges do not examine the
   Inner.MacDA for known unicast frames.

4.3 Inter-RBridge Link MTU Size

   There are two reasons why it is important to know what size of frame
   each inter-RBridge link in the campus can support:

   1. RBridge RB1 must know what size of link state information messages
      it can generate, that will be guaranteed to be forwardable across
      all inter-RBridge links in the campus.

   2. If traffic engineering tools know which links support larger than
      minimally acceptable data packet sizes, paths can be computed that
      can support large data packets.

4.3.1 Determining Campus-Wide TRILL IS-IS MTU Size

   There must be an agreement among all RBridges on the value of "Sz",
   the minimum acceptable inter-RBridge link size for the campus for the

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   proper operation of TRILL IS-IS. Once Sz is known, all RBridges MUST
   format their link state information messages to be in chunks of size
   at most Sz. Also, every RBridge RB1 SHOULD test each of its RBridge
   adjacencies, say to RB2, to ensure that the RB1-RB2 link can forward
   packets of at least size Sz.

   Sz has no direct effect on end-stations and is not directly related
   to any end-station to end-station "path MTU". Methods of using Sz or
   any link MTU information gathered by TRILL IS-IS in the traffic
   engineering of routes or the determination of any path MTU is beyond
   the scope of this document.

   Sz is determined by having each RBridge (optionally) advertise, in
   its LSP, its assumption of the value of the campus-wide Sz. This LSP
   element is known in IS-IS as the originatingLSPBufferSize, TLV #14.
   The default and minimum value for Sz, and the implicitly advertised
   value of Sz if the TLV is absent, is 1470 octets. This length (which
   is also the maximum size of a TRILL-Hello) was chosen to make it
   extremely unlikely that a TRILL control frame, even with reasonable
   additional headers, tags, and/or encapsulation, would encounter MTU
   problems on an inter-RBridge link.

   The campus-wide value of Sz is the smallest value of Sz advertised by
   any RBridge.

4.3.2 Testing Link MTU Size

   There are two new TRILL IS-IS message types for use between pairs of
   RBridge neighbors to test the bidirectional packet size capacity of
   their connection. These messages are:

      -- MTU-probe
      -- MTU-ack

   Both the MTU-probe and the MTU-ack are padded to the size being

   Sending of MTU-probes is optional; however, an RBridge RB2 that
   receives an MTU-probe from RB1 MUST respond with an MTU-ack padded to
   the same size as the MTU-probe. The MTU-probe MAY be multicast to
   All-RBridges, or unicast to a specific RBridge. The MTU-ack is
   normally unicast to the source of the MTU-probe to which it responds
   but MAY be multicast to All-RBridges.

   If RB1 fails to receive an MTU-ack to a probe of size X from RB2
   after k tries (where k is a configurable parameter whose default is
   3), then RB1 assumes the RB1-RB2 link cannot support size X. If X is
   not greater than Sz, then RB1 sets the "failed minimum MTU test" flag

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   for RB2 in RB1's Hello.  If size X succeeds, and X > Sz, then RB1
   advertises the largest tested X for each adjacency in the TRILL
   Hellos RB1 sends on that link, and RB1 MAY advertise X as an
   attribute of the link to RB2 in RB1's LSP.

4.4 TRILL-Hello Protocol

   The TRILL-Hello protocol is a little different from the layer 3 IS-IS
   LAN Hello protocol and uses a new type of IS-IS message known as a

4.4.1 Rationale

   The reason for defining this new type of link in TRILL is that in
   layer 3 IS-IS, the LAN Hello protocol may elect multiple Designated
   Routers (DRs) since, when choosing a DR, routers ignore other routers
   with whom they do not have 2-way connectivity. Also, layer 3 IS-IS
   LAN Hellos are padded, to avoid forming adjacencies between neighbors
   that can't speak the maximum sized packet to each other. This means,
   in layer 3 IS-IS, that neighbors that have connectivity to each
   other, but with an MTU on that connection less than what they
   perceive as maximum sized packets, will not see each other's Hellos.
   The result is that routers might form cliques, resulting in the link
   turning into multiple pseudonodes.

   This behavior is fine for layer 3, but not for layer 2, where loops
   may form if there are multiple DRBs. Therefore, the TRILL-Hello
   protocol is a little different from layer 3 IS-IS's LAN Hello

   One other issue with TRILL-Hellos is to ensure that subsets of the
   information can appear in any single message, and be processable, in
   the spirit of IS-IS LSPs and CSNPs. TRILL-Hello frames, completely
   independently of whether they are padded or not, can become very
   large. An example where this might be the case is when some sort of
   backbone technology interconnects hundreds of TRILL sites over what
   would appear to TRILL to be a giant Ethernet, where the RBridges
   connected to that cloud will perceive that backbone to be a single
   link with hundreds of neighbors.

   In TRILL (unlike in layer 3 IS-IS), the DRB is selected based solely
   on priority and MAC address. In other words, if RB2 receives a TRILL-
   Hello from RB1 with higher (priority, MAC), RB2 defers to RB1 as DRB,
   regardless of whether RB1 lists RB2 in RB1's TRILL-Hello.

   Although the neighbor list in a TRILL-Hello does not influence the

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   DRB election, it does determine what is announced in LSPs. RB1 only
   reports links to RBridges that it has two-way connectivity with. If
   RB1 is DRB on a link, and for whatever reason (MTU mismatch, or one-
   way connectivity) RB1 and RB2 do not have two-way connectivity, then
   RB2 does not report a link to RB1 (or the pseudonode), and RB1 (or
   RB1 on behalf of the pseudonode) does not report a link to RB2.

4.4.2 TRILL-Hello Contents and Timing

   The TRILL-Hello has a new IS-IS message type. It starts with the same
   fixed header as an IS-IS LAN Hello, which includes the 7-bit priority
   for the issuing RBridge to be DRB on that link. TRILL-Hellos are sent
   with the same timing as IS-IS LAN Hellos.

   TRILL-Hello messages, including their Outer.MacDA and Outer.MacSA,
   but excluding any Outer.VLAN or other tags, MUST NOT exceed 1470
   octets in length and SHOULD NOT be padded. The following information
   MUST appear in every TRILL-Hello. References to "TLV" may actually be
   a "sub-TLV" as specified in a separate document [layer2].

   1. The VLAN ID of the Designated VLAN for the link.

   2. A copy of the Outer.VLAN ID with which the Hello was tagged on

   3. A 16-bit port ID assigned by the sending RBridge to the port the
      TRILL-Hello is sent on such that no two ports of that RBridge have
      the same port ID.

   4. Two flags as follows:

      4.a A flag which, if set, indicates that the sender has detected
          VLAN mapping on the link, within the past 2 of its Holding

      4.b A flag which, if set, indicates that the sender believes it is
          appointed forwarder for the VLAN and port on which the TRILL-
          Hello was sent.

   The following information MAY appear

   1. The set of VLANs for which end station service is enabled on the

   2. Several flags as follows:

      2.a A flag which, if set, indicates that the sender's port was
          configured as an access port.

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      2.b A flag which, if set, indicates that the sender's port was
          configured as a trunk port.

      2.c A bypass pseudonode flag, as described below in this section.

   3. If the sender is DRB, the Rbridges (excluding itself) that it
      appoints as forwarders for that link and the VLANs for which it
      appoints them. As described below, this TLV is designed so that
      not all the appointment information need be included in each
      Hello.  Its absence means that appointed forwarders should
      continue as previously assigned.

   4. The TRILL neighbor list. This is a new TLV, not the same as the
      IS-IS Neighbor TLV, in order to accommodate fragmentation and
      reporting MTU on the link (see Section

   The appointed forwarders TLV specifies a range of VLANs and, within
   that range, specifies which Rbridge, if any, other than the DRB, is
   appointed forwarder for the VLANs in that range. Such TLVs sent by
   the DRB must eventually cover every possible VLAN. Appointing an
   RBridge as forwarder on a port for a VLAN that is not enabled on that
   port has no effect.

   It is anticipated that many links between RBridges will be point-to-
   point, in which case using a pseudonode merely adds to the
   complexity. If the DRB specifies the bypass pseudonode bit in its
   TRILL-Hellos, the RBridges on the link just report their adjacencies
   as point-to-point.  This has no effect on how LSPs are flooded on a
   link. It only affects what LSPs are generated.

   For example, if RB1 and RB2 are the only RBridges on the link and RB1
   is DRB, then if RB1 creates a pseudonode that is used, there are 3
   LSPs: for, say, RB1.25 (the pseudonode), RB1, and RB2, where RB1.25
   reports connectivity to RB1 and RB2, and RB1 and RB2 each just say
   they are connected to RB1.25.  Whereas if DRB RB1 sets the bypass
   pseudonode bit in its Hellos, then there will be only 2 LSPs: RB1 and
   RB2 each reporting connectivity to each other.

   A DRB SHOULD set the bypass pseudonode bit for its links unless, for
   a particular link, it has seen at least two simultaneous adjacencies
   on the link at some point since it last re-booted. TRILL Neighbor List

   The new TRILL Neighbor TLV includes the following information for
   each neighbor it lists:

   1. The neighbor's MAC address.

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   2. MTU size to this neighbor as a two-octet unsigned integer in units
      of 4-octet chunks. The value zero indicates that the MTU is

   3. A flag for "failed minimum MTU test".

   To allow partial reporting of neighbors, the neighbor IDs MUST be
   sorted by ID. If a set of neighbors { X1, X2, X3, ... Xn } are
   reported in RB1's Hello, then X1 < X2 < X3, ... < Xn. If RBridge
   RB2's ID is between X1 and Xn, and does not appear in RB1's Hello,
   then RB2 knows that RB1 has not heard RB2's Hello.

   Additionally there are two overall TRILL Neighbor List TLV flags:
   "the smallest ID I reported in this Hello is the smallest ID of any
   neighbor", and "the largest ID I reported in this Hello is the
   largest ID of any neighbor".  If all the neighbors fit in RB1's
   TRILL-Hello, both flags will be set.

   If RB1 reports { X1, ... Xn } in its Hello, with the "smallest" flag
   set, and RB2's ID is smaller than X1, then RB2 knows that RB1 has not
   heard RB2's Hello. Similarly, if RB2's ID is larger than Xn and the
   "largest" flag is set, then RB2 knows that RB1 has not heard RB2's

   To ensure that any RBridge RB2 can definitively determine whether RB1
   can hear RB2, RB1's neighbor list must eventually cover every
   possible range of IDs. In other words, if X1 is the smallest reported
   in one of RB1's neighbor lists, and the "smallest" flag is not set,
   then X1 must appear in a different TRILL-Hello fragment as well, as
   the largest ID reported in that fragment.  Or, fragments may overlap,
   as long as there is no gap, such that some range, say between Xi and
   Xj, never appears in any fragment.

4.4.3 TRILL MTU probe and TRILL Hello VLAN Tagging

   The MTU probe mechanism is designed to determine the MTU for
   transmissions between RBridges. MTU probes and probe acknowledgements
   are only sent on the Designated VLAN.

   An RBridge RBn maintains for each port the same VLAN information as a
   customer IEEE [802.1Q-2005] bridge, including the set of VLANs
   enabled for output through that port (see Section 4.9.2).  In
   addition, RBn maintains the following TRILL specific VLAN parameters
   per port:

      a) Desired Designated VLAN: the VLAN that RBn, if it is DRB, will
         specify in its TRILL-Hellos as the VLAN to be used by all
         RBridges on the link to communicate all TRILL frames, except

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         some TRILL-Hellos.  This MUST be a VLAN enabled on RBn's port.
         It defaults to the numerically lowest enabled VLAN ID, which is
         VLAN 1 for a default configuration RBridge.

      b) Designated VLAN: the VLAN being used on the link for all TRILL
         frames except some TRILL Hellos.  This is RBn's Desired
         Designated VLAN if RBn believes it is the DRB or the Designated
         VLAN in the DRB's Hellos if RBn is not the DRB.

      c) Announcing VLANs set. This defaults to the enabled VLANs set on
         the port but may be configured to be a subset of the enabled

      d) Forwarding VLANs set: the set of VLANs for which an RBridge
         port is appointed VLAN forwarder on the port. This MUST contain
         only enabled VLANs for the port, possibly all enabled VLANs.

   On each of its ports that is not configured to use P2P Hellos, an
   RBridge sends TRILL-Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with each VLAN in a set
   of VLANs. This set depends on the RBridge's DRB status and the above
   VLAN parameters.  RBridges send TRILL Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with
   the Designated VLAN, unless that VLAN is not enabled on the port.  In
   addition, the DRB sends TRILL Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with each
   enabled VLAN in its Announcing VLANs set. All non-DRB RBridges send
   TRILL-Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with all enabled VLANs that are in the
   intersection of their Forwarding VLANs set and their Announcing VLANs
   set. More symbolically, TRILL-Hello frames, when sent, are sent as

      If sender is DRB
         intersection ( Enabled VLANs,
            union ( Designated VLAN, Announcing VLANs ) )

      If sender is not DRB
         intersection ( Enabled VLANs,
            union ( Designated VLAN,
               intersection ( Forwarding VLANs, Announcing VLANs ) ) )

   Configuring the Announcing VLANs set to be null minimizes the number
   of TRILL-Hellos. In that case, TRILL-Hellos are only tagged with the
   Designated VLAN. Great care should be taken in configuring an RBridge
   to not send TRILL Hellos on any VLAN where that RBridge is appointed
   forwarder as, under some circumstances, this can lead to loops.

   The number of TRILL-Hellos is maximized, within this specification,
   by configuring the Announcing VLANs set to be the set of all enabled
   VLAN IDs, which is the default.  In that case, the DRB will send
   TRILL-Hello frames tagged with all its Enabled VLAN tags; in
   addition, any non-DRB RBridge RBn will send TRILL-Hello frames tagged
   with the Designated VLAN, if enabled, and tagged with all VLANs for

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   which RBn is an appointed forwarder. (It is possible to send even
   more TRILL-Hellos. In particular, non-DRB RBridges could send TRILL-
   Hellos on enabled VLANs for which they are not an appointed forwarder
   and which are not the Designated VLAN. This would cause no harm other
   than a further communications and processing burden.)

   When an RBridge port comes up, until it has heard a TRILL-Hello from
   a higher priority RBridge, it considers itself to be DRB on that port
   and sends TRILL-Hellos on that basis. Similarly, even if it has at
   some time recognized some other RBridge on the link as DRB, if it
   receives no TRILL-Hellos on that port from an RBridge with higher
   priority as DRB for a long enough time, as specified by IS-IS, it
   will revert to believing itself DRB.

4.4.4 Multiple Ports on the Same Link

   It is possible for an RBridge RB1 to have multiple ports to the same
   link. It is important for RB1 to recognize which of its ports are on
   the same link, so, for instance, if RB1 is appointed forwarder for
   VLAN A, RB1 knows that only one of its ports acts as appointed
   forwarder for VLAN A on that link.

   RB1 detects this condition based on receiving TRILL-Hello messages
   with the same IS-IS pseudonode ID on multiple ports. RB1 might have
   one set of ports, say { p1, p2, p3 } on one link, and another set of
   ports { p4, p5 } on a second link, and yet other ports, say p6, p7,
   p8, that are each on distinct links.  Let us call a set of ports on
   the same link as a "port group".

   If RB1 detects that a set of ports, say { p1, p2, p3 } are a port
   group on a link, then RB1 MUST ensure that it does not cause loops
   when it encapsulates and decapsulates traffic from/to that link. If
   RB1 is appointed forwarder for VLAN A on that Ethernet link, RB1 MUST
   encapsulate / decapsulate VLAN A on only one of the ports. However,
   if RB1 is appointed forwarder for more than one VLAN, RB1 MAY choose
   to load split among its ports, using one port for some set of VLANs,
   and another port for a disjoint set of VLANs.

   If RB1 detects VLAN mapping occurring, (see Section 4.4.5), then RB1
   MUST NOT load split as appointed forwarder, and instead MUST act as
   appointed VLAN forwarder on that link on only one of its ports in the
   port group.

   When forwarding TRILL-encapsulated multidestination frames to/from a
   link on which RB1 has a port group, RB1 MAY choose to load-split
   among its ports, provided that it does not duplicate frames, and
   provided that it keeps frames for the same flow on the same port. If
   RB1's neighbor on that link, RB2, accepts multidestination frames on

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   that tree on that link from RB1, RB2 MUST accept the frame from any
   of RB2's adjacencies to RB1 on that link.

   If an RBridge has more than one port connected to a link and those
   ports have the same MAC address, they can be distinguished by the
   port ID contain in TRILL-Hellos.

4.4.5 VLAN Mapping Within a Link

   IEEE [802.1Q-2005] does not provide for bridges changing the C-tag
   VLAN ID for a tagged frame they receive, that is, mapping VLANs.
   Nevertheless, some bridge products provide this capability and, in
   any case, bridged LANs can be configured to display this behavior.
   For example, a bridge port can be configured to strip VLAN tags on
   output and send the resulting untagged frames onto a link leading to
   another bridge's port configured to tag these frames with a different
   VLAN.  Although each port's configuration is legal under
   [802.1Q-2005], in the aggregate they perform manipulations not
   permitted to a single customer [802.1Q-2005] bridge.  Since RBridge
   ports have the same VLAN capabilities as customer [802.1Q-2005]
   bridges, this can occur even in the absence of bridges. (VLAN mapping
   is referred to in IEEE 802.1 as "VLAN ID translation".)

   RBridges include the Outer.VLAN ID inside every TRILL-Hello message.
   When a TRILL-Hello is received, RBridges compare this saved copy with
   the Outer.VLAN ID information associated with the received frame. If
   these differ and the VLAN ID inside the Hello is X and the Outer.VLAN
   is Y, it can be assumed that VLAN ID X is being mapped into VLAN ID

   When non-DRB RB2 detects VLAN mapping, based on receiving a TRILL-
   Hello where the VLAN tag in the body of the Hello differs from the
   one in the outer header, it sets a flag in all of its TRILL-Hellos
   for a period of two of its Holding Times since the last time RB2
   detected VLAN mapping.  When DRB RB1 is informed of VLAN mapping,
   either because of receiving a TRILL-Hello that has been VLAN-mapped,
   or because of seeing the "VLAN Mapping detected" flag in a neighbor's
   TRILL-Hello on the link, RB1 re-assigns VLAN forwarders to ensure
   there is only a single forwarder on the link for all VLANs.

4.5 Distribution Trees

   RBridges use distribution trees to forward multi-destination frames
   (see Section 2.4.2). Distribution Trees are bidirectional.  Although
   a single tree is logically sufficient for the entire campus, the
   computation of additional distribution trees is warranted for the

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   following reasons: it enables multipathing of multi-destination
   frames and enables the choice of a tree root closer to or, in the
   limit, identical with the ingress RBridge. Such a closer tree root
   improves the efficiency of the delivery of multi-destination frames
   that are being delivered to a subset of the links in the campus and
   reduces out-of-order delivery when a unicast address transitions
   between unknown and known. If applications are in use where
   occasional out-of-order unicast frames due to such transitions are a
   problem, the RBridge campus should be engineered to make sure they
   are of extremely low probability, such as by using ESADI or
   configuring addresses to eliminate unknown destination unicast

   An additional level of flexibility is the ability of an RBridge to
   acquire multiple nicknames, and therefore have multiple trees rooted
   at the same RBridge. Since the tree number is used as a tie breaker
   for equal cost paths, the different trees, even if rooted at the same
   RBridge, will likely utilize different equal cost paths.

   RBridges will precompute all the trees that might be used, and keep
   state for Reverse Path Forwarding Check filters (see Section 4.5.2).
   Also, since the tree number is used as a tie breaker, it is important
   for all RBridges to know:

   o  how many trees to compute
   o  which trees to compute
   o  what the tree number for each tree is
   o  which trees each ingress RBridge might choose (for building
      Reverse Path Forwarding Check filters).

   Each RBridge advertises in its LSP a "tree root" priority for its
   nickname or for each of its nicknames if it has been configured to
   have more than one. This is a 16-bit unsigned integer that defaults,
   for an unconfigured RBridge, to 0x8000. Tree roots are ordered with
   highest numerical priority being highest priority, then with system
   ID of the RBridge (numerically higher = higher priority) as tie
   breaker, and if that is equal, by the numerically higher nickname
   value having priority.

   Each RBridge advertises in its LSP the maximum number of distribution
   trees that it can compute and the number of trees that it wants all
   RBridges in the campus to compute.  The number of trees, k, that are
   computed for the campus is the number wanted by the RBridge RB1,
   which has the nickname with the highest "tree root" priority, but no
   more than the number of trees supported by the RBridge in the campus
   which supports the fewest trees. If RB1 does not specify the specific
   distribution tree roots as described below, then the k highest
   priority trees are the trees that will be computed by all RBridges.
   Note that some of these k highest priority trees might be rooted at
   the same RBridge, if that RBridge has multiple nicknames.

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   If an RBridge specifies the number of trees it can compute, or the
   number of trees it wants computed for the campus, as 0, it is treated
   as specifying them as 1. Thus k defaults to 1.

   In addition, the RBridge RB1 having the highest root priority
   nickname might explicitly advertise a set of s trees by providing a
   list of s nicknames. In that case, the first k of those s trees will
   be computed. If s is less than k, or if any of the s nicknames
   associated with the trees RB1 is advertising does not exist within
   the LSP database, then the RBridges still compute k trees, but the
   remaining trees they select are the highest priority trees, such that
   k trees are computed.

   There are two exceptions to the above, which can cause fewer
   distribution trees to be computed, as follows:

   o  A nickname whose tree root priority is zero is never used as a
      tree root except that if all nicknames have priority zero, the
      highest priority among them as determined by the tie breakers is
      used as a tree root so that there is always guaranteed to be at
      least one distribution tree.

   o As a transient condition, two or more identical nicknames can
      appear in the list of roots for trees to be computed. In such a
      case, it is useless to compute a tree for the nickname(s) that are
      about to be lost by the RBridges holding them. So a distribution
      tree is only computed for the instance of the nickname where the
      priority to hold that nickname value is highest, reducing the
      total number of trees computed. (It would also be of little use to
      go further down the priority ordered list of possible tree root
      nicknames to maintain the number of tree as the additional tree
      roots found this way would only be valid for a very brief nickname
      transition period.)

   The k trees calculated for a campus are ordered and numbered from 1
   to k. In addition to advertising the number k, RB1 might explicitly
   advertise a set of s trees by providing a list of s nicknames that
   are the root of the trees.

     - If s == k, then the trees are numbered in the order of RB1
       advertises them.

     - If s == 0, then the trees are numbered in order of decreasing
       priority. For example, if RB1 advertises only that k=2, then the
       highest priority tree is number 1 and the 2nd highest priority
       tree is number 2.

     - If s < k, then those advertised by RB1 are numbered from 1 in the
       order advertised. Then the remainder are chosen by priority order
       from among the remaining possible trees with the numbering

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       continuing. For example, if RB1 advertises k=4, advertises { Tx,
       Ty } as the nicknames of the root of the trees, and the campus
       wide priority ordering of trees in decreasing order is Ty > Ta >
       Tc > Tb > Tx, the numbering will be as follows: Tx is 1 and Ty is
       2 since that is the order they are advertised in by RB1. Then Ta
       is 3 and Tc is 4 because they are the highest priority trees that
       have not already been numbered.

4.5.1 Distribution Tree Calculation

   RBridges do not use spanning tree to calculate distribution trees.
   Instead, distribution trees are calculated based on the link state
   information, selecting a particular RBridge nickname as the root.
   Each RBridge RBn independently calculates a tree rooted at RBi by
   performing the SPF (Shortest Path First) calculation with RBi as the
   root without requiring any additional exchange of information.

   It is important, when building a distribution tree, that all RBridges
   choose the same links for that tree. Therefore, when there are equal
   cost paths for a particular tree, all RBridges need to use the same
   tie-breakers.  It is also desirable to allow splitting of traffic on
   as many links as possible. For this reason, a simple tie-breaker such
   as "always choose the parent with lower ID" would not be desirable.
   Instead, TRILL uses the tree number as a parameter in the tie-
   breaking algorithm.

   When building the tree number j, remember all possible equal cost
   parents for node N. After calculating the entire "tree" (actually,
   directed graph), for each node N, if N has "p" parents, then order
   the parents according to 7-octet IS-IS ID. For tree j, choose N's
   parent as choice j mod p.

   Note that there might be multiple equal cost links between N and
   potential parent P that have no pseudonodes, either because they are
   point-to-point links, or pseudonode-suppressed links. Such links will
   be treated as a single link for the purpose of tree building, because
   they all have the same parent P, whose IS-IS ID is "P.0".

   In other words, the set of potential parents for N, for the tree
   rooted at R, are those that give equally minimal cost paths from N to
   R, and which have distinct IS-IS IDs, based on what is reported in

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 55]

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4.5.2 Multi-destination Frame Checks

   When a multi-destination TRILL encapsulated frame is received by an
   RBridge, there are four checks performed, each of which may cause the
   frame to be discarded:

   1. Tree Adjacency Check: Each RBridge RBn keeps a set of adjacencies
      ( { port, neighbor } pairs ) for each distribution tree it is
      calculating.  One of these adjacencies is toward the tree root RBi
      and the others are toward the leaves. Once the adjacencies are
      chosen, it is irrelevant which ones are towards the root RBi, and
      which are away from RBi. RBridges MUST drop a multi-destination
      frame that arrives at a port from an RBridge that is not an
      adjacency for the tree on which the frame is being distributed.
      Let's suppose that RBn has calculated that adjacencies a, c, and f
      are in the RBi tree. A multi-destination frame for the
      distribution tree RBi is received only from one of the adjacencies
      a, c, or f (otherwise it is discarded) and forwarded to the other
      two adjacencies. Should RBn have multiple ports on a link, a
      multidestination frame it sends on one of these ports will be
      received by the others but will be discarded as an RBridge is not
      adjacent to itself.

   2. RPF Check: Another technique used by RBridges for avoiding
      temporary multicast loops during topology changes is the Reverse
      Path Forwarding Check. It involves checking that a multi-
      destination frame, based on the tree and the ingress RBridge,
      arrives from the expected link.  RBridges MUST drop multi-
      destination frames that fail the RPF check.

      To limit the amount of state necessary to perform the RPF check,
      each RBridge RB2 MUST announce which trees RB2 may choose when RB2
      ingresses a multi-destination packet.  When any RBridge, say, RB3,
      is computing the tree from nickname X, RB3 computes, for each
      RBridge RB2 that might act as ingress for tree X, the link on
      which RB3 should receive a packet from ingress RB2 on tree X, and
      note for that link that RB2 is a legal ingress RBridge for tree X.

      The information to determine which trees RB2 might choose is
      included in RB2's LSP. Similarly to how the highest priority
      RBridge RB1 specifies the k trees that will be computed by all
      RBridges, RB2 specifies a number j "number of ingress trees", can
      explicitly specify a set of nicknames of ingress trees in the
      field "specified ingress tree nicknames", or a combination of
      specified trees and trees selected from the highest priority
      trees. If RB2 specifies any trees that are not in the k trees as
      specified by RB1, they are ignored.

      The j potential ingress trees for RB2 are the ones with nicknames
      that RB2 has explicitly specified in "specified ingress tree

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      nicknames" (and that are included in the k campus-wide trees
      selected by highest priority RBridge RB1), with the remainder (up
      to the maximum of {j,k}) being the highest priority of the k
      campus-wide trees.

      The default value for j is 1. The value 0 for j is special and
      means that RB2 can pick any of the k trees being computed for the

   3. Parallel Links Check: If the tree-building and tie-breaking for a
      particular multi-destination frame distribution tree selects a
      non-pseudonode link between RB1 and RB2, that "RB1-RB2 link" might
      actually consist of multiple links. These parallel links would be
      visible to RB1 and RB2, but not to the rest of the campus (because
      the links are not represented by pseudonodes). If this bundle of
      parallel links is included in a tree, it is important for RB1 and
      RB2 to decide which link to use, but is irrelevant to other
      RBridges, and therefore, the tie-breaking algorithm need not be
      visible to any RBridges other than RB1 and RB2. In this case,
      RB1-RB2 adjacencies are ordered as follows, with the one "most
      preferred" adjacency being the one on which RB1 and RB2 transmit
      to and receive from each other.

      a) Most preferred are those established by P2P Hellos.  Tie-
         breaking among those is based on preferring the one with the
         numerically highest Extended Circuit ID as associated with the
         adjacency by the RBridge with the highest System ID.

      b) Next considered are those established through TRILL-Hello
         frames, with suppressed pseudonodes. Note that the pseudonode
         is suppressed in LSPs, but still appears in the TRILL-Hello,
         and therefore is available for this tie-breaking. Among these
         links, the one with the numerically largest pseudonode ID is

   4. Port Group Check: If an RBridge has multiple ports attached to the
      same link, a multidestination frame it is receiving will arrive on
      all of them. All but one received copy of such a frame MUST be
      discarded to avoid duplication. All such frames that are part of
      the same flow must be accepted on the same port to avoid re-

   When a topology change occurs (including apparent changes during
   start up), an RBridge MUST adjust its input distribution tree filters
   no later than it adjusts its output forwarding.

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4.5.3 Pruning the Distribution Tree

   Each distribution tree SHOULD be pruned per-VLAN, eliminating
   branches that have no potential receivers downstream. Multi-
   destination TRILL data frames SHOULD only be forwarded on branches
   that are not pruned.

   Further pruning SHOULD be done in two cases: (1) IGMP [RFC3376], MLD
   [RFC2710], and MRD [RFC4286] messages, where these are to be
   delivered only to links with IP Multicast routers; and (2) other
   multicast frames derived from an IP multicast address that should be
   delivered only to links that have registered listeners, plus links
   which have IP Multicast routers, except for IP multicast addresses
   which must be broadcast. Each of these cases are scoped per-VLAN.

   Let's assume that RBridge RBn knows that adjacencies (a, c, and f)
   are in the nickname1 distribution tree.  RBn marks pruning
   information for each of the adjacencies in the nickname1-tree. For
   each adjacency and for each tree, RBn marks:

   o  the set of VLANs reachable downstream,

   o  for each one of those VLANs, flags indicating whether there are
      IPv4 or IPv6 multicast routers downstream, and

   o  the set of Layer 2 multicast addresses derived from IP multicast
      groups for which there are receivers downstream.

4.5.4 Tree Distribution Optimization

   RBridges MUST determine the VLAN associated with all native frames
   they ingress and properly enforce VLAN rules on the emission of
   native frames at egress RBridge ports according to how those ports
   are configured and designated as appointed forwarders. RBridges
   SHOULD also prune the distribution tree of multi-destination frames
   according to VLAN.  But, since they are not required to do such
   pruning, they may receive TRILL data or ESADI frames that should have
   been VLAN pruned earlier in the tree distribution. They silently
   discard such frames. A campus may contain some Rbridges that prune on
   VLAN and some that do not.

   The situation is more complex for multicast. RBridges SHOULD analyze
   IP derived native multicast frames, and learn and announce listeners
   and IP multicast routers for such frames as discussed in Section 4.7
   below. And they SHOULD prune the distribution of IP derived multicast
   frames based on such learning and announcements. But, they are not
   required to prune based on IP multicast listener and router
   attachment state. And, unlike VLANs, where VLAN attachment state of

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   ports MUST be maintained and honored, RBridges are not required to
   maintain IP multicast listener and router attachment state.

   An RBridge that does not examine native IGMP [RFC3376], MLD
   [RFC2710], and MRD [RFC4286] frames that it ingresses MUST advertise
   that it has IPv4 and IPv6 IP multicast routers attached for all the
   VLANs for which it is an appointed forwarder.  It need not advertise
   any IP derived multicast listeners.  This will cause all IP derived
   multicast traffic to be sent to this RBridge for those VLANs. It then
   egresses that traffic onto the links for which it is appointed
   forwarder where the VLAN of the traffic matches the VLAN for which it
   is appointed forwarder on that link.  (This may cause the suppression
   of certain IGMP membership report messages from end stations but that
   is not significant as any multicast traffic such reports would be
   requesting will be sent to such end stations under these

   A campus may contain a mixture of Rbridges with different levels of
   IP derived multicast optimization. An RBridge may receive IP derived
   multicast frames that should have been pruned earlier in the tree
   distribution. It silently discards such frames.

   See also "Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol
   (IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches"

4.5.5 Forwarding Using a Distribution Tree

   With full optimization, forwarding a multi-destination data frame is
   done as follows. References to adjacencies below do not include the
   adjacency on which a frame was received.

   o  The RBridge RBn receives a multi-destination TRILL data frame with
      inner VLAN-x and a TRILL header indicating that the selected tree
      is the nickanme1 tree;

   o  if the source from which the frame was received is not one of the
      adjacencies in the nickname1 tree for the specified ingress
      RBridge, the frame is dropped (see Section 4.5.1);

   o  else, if the frame is an IGMP or MLD announcement message or an
      MRD query message, then the encapsulated frame is forwarded onto
      adjacencies in the nickname1 tree that indicate there are
      downstream VLAN-x IPv4 or IPv6 multicast routers as appropriate;

   o  else, if the frame is for a Layer 2 multicast address derived from
      an IP multicast group, but its IP address is not the range of IP
      multicast addresses that must be treated as broadcast, the frame

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      is forwarded onto adjacencies in the nickname1 tree that indicate
      there are downstream VLAN-x IP multicast routers of the
      corresponding type (IPv4 or IPv6), as well as adjacencies that
      indicate there are downstream VLAN-x receivers for that group

   o  else (the inner frame is for a Layer 2 multicast address not
      derived from an IP multicast group or an unknown destination or
      broadcast or an IP multicast address which is required to be
      treated as broadcast) the frame is forwarded onto an adjacency if
      and only if that adjacency is in the nickname1 tree, and marked as
      reaching VLAN-x links.

   For each link for which RBn is appointed forwarder, RBn additionally
   checks to see if it should decapsulate the frame and send it to the
   link in native form, or process the frame locally.

   TRILL ESADI frames will be delivered only to RBridges that are
   appointed forwarders for their VLAN. Such frames will be multicast
   throughout the campus, like other non-IP-derived multicast data
   frames, on the distribution tree chosen by the RBridge which created
   the TRILL ESADI frame, and pruned according to the Inner.VLAN ID.
   Thus all the RBridges that are appointed forwarders for a link in
   that VLAN receive them.

4.6 Frame Processing Behavior

   This section describes RBridge behavior for all varieties of received
   frames, including how they are forwarded when appropriate. Section
   4.6.1 covers native frames, Section 4.6.2 covers TRILL frames, and
   Section 4.6.3 covers layer 2 control frames. Processing may be
   organized or sequenced in a different way than described here as long
   as the result is the same. See Section 1.4 for frame type

   Corrupt frames, for example frames that are not a multiple of 8 bits,
   are too short or long for the link protocol/hardware in use, or have
   a bad FCS are discarded on receipt by an RBridge port as they are
   discarded on receipt at an IEEE 802.1 bridge port.

   Source address information ( { VLAN, Outer.MacSA, port } ) is learned
   by default from any frame with a unicast sources address (see Section

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4.6.1 Receipt of a Native Frame

   If the port is configured as disabled or if end station service is
   disabled on the port by configuring it as a trunk port or configuring
   it to use P2P Hellos, the frame is discarded.

   The ingress Rbridge RB1 determines the VLAN ID for a native frame
   according to the same rules as IEEE [802.1Q-2005] bridges do (see
   Appendix D and Section 4.9.2). Once the VLAN is determined, if RB1 is
   not the appointed forwarder for that VLAN on the port where the frame
   was received or is inhibited, the frame is discarded. If it is
   appointed forwarder for that VLAN and is not inhibited (see Section, then the native frame is forwarded according to if
   it is unicast and according to if it is multicast or
   broadcast. Native Unicast Case

   If the destination MAC address of the native frame is a unicast
   address, the following steps are performed.

   The Layer 2 destination address and VLAN are looked up in the ingress
   RBridge's database of MAC addresses and VLANs to find the egress
   RBridge RBm or the local egress port or to discover that the
   destination is the receiving RBridge or is unknown.  One of the
   following four cases will apply:

   1. If the destination is the receiving RBridge, the frame is locally

   2. If the destination is known to be on the same link from which the
      native frame was received but is not the receiving RBridge, the
      RBridge silently discards the frame, since the destination should
      already have received it.

   3. If the destination is known to be on a different local link for
      which RBm is the appointed forwarder, then RB1 converts the native
      frame to a TRILL data frame with an Outer.MacDA of the next hop
      RBridge towards RBm, a TRILL header with M = 0, an ingress
      nickname for RB1, and the egress nickname for RBm. If ingress RB1
      has multiple nicknames, it SHOULD use the same nickname in the
      ingress field whenever it encapsulates a native frame from any
      particular source MAC address and VLAN. This simplifies end node
      learning. If RBm is RB1, processing then proceeds as in;
      otherwise, the Outer.MacSA is set to the MAC address of the RB1
      port on the path to the next hop RBridge towards RBm and the frame
      is queued for transmission out that port.

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   4. If a unicast destination MAC is unknown in the frame's VLAN, RB1
      handles the frame as described in Section for a broadcast
      frame except that the Inner.MacDA is the original native frame's
      unicast destination address. Native Multicast and Broadcast Frames

   If the RBridge has multiple ports attached to the same link, all but
   one received copy of a native multicast or broadcast frame is
   discarded to avoid duplication. All such frames that are part of the
   same flow must be accepted on the same port to avoid re-ordering.

   If the frame is a native IGMP [RFC3376], MLD [RFC2710], or MRD
   [RFC4286] frame, then RB1 SHOULD analyze it, learn any group
   membership or IP multicast router presence indicated, and announce
   that information for the appropriate VLAN in its LSP (see Section

   For all multi-destination native frames, RB1 forwards the frame in
   native form to its links where it is appointed forwarder for the
   frame's VLAN, subject to further pruning and inhibition. In addition,
   it converts the native frame to a TRILL data frame with the All-
   RBridges multicast address as Outer.MacDA, a TRILL header with the
   multi-destination bit M = 1, the ingress nickname for RB1, and the
   egress nickname for the root of the distribution tree it decides to
   use. It then forwards the frame on the pruned distribution tree (see
   Section 4.5) setting the Outer.MacSA of each copy sent to the MAC
   address of the RB1 port on which it is sent.

   The default is for RB1 to write into the egress nickname field one of
   the nicknames for a distribution tree, from the set of distribution
   trees RB1 has announced it might use, whose root is least cost from
   RB1. RB1 MAY choose different distribution trees for different frames
   if RB1 has been configured to path-split multicast.  In that case RB1
   MUST select a tree by specifying a nickname that is a distribution
   tree root (see Section 4.5).  Also, RB1 MUST select a nickname that
   RB1 has announced (in RB1's own LSP) to be one of those that RB1
   might use.

4.6.2 Receipt of a TRILL Frame

   A TRILL frame has either the TRILL or L2-IS-IS Ethertype or has a
   multicast Outer.MacDA allocated to TRILL (see Section 7.2). The
   following tests are performed sequentially and the first which
   matches controls the handling of the frame:

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   1. If the Outer.MacDA is All-IS-IS-RBridges and the Ethertype is
      L2-IS-IS, the frame is handled as described in Section

   2. If the Outer.MacDA is a multicast address allocated to TRILL other
      than All-RBridges, the frame is discarded.

   3. If the Outer.MacDA is a unicast address other than the address of
      the receiving Rbridge, the frame is discarded.  (Such discarded
      frames are most likely addressed to another RBridge on a multi-
      access link and that other Rbridge will handle them.)

   4. If the Ethertype is not TRILL, the frame is discarded.

   5. If the Version field in the TRILL Header is greater than 0, the
      frame is discarded.

   6. If the hop count is 0, the frame is discarded.

   7. If the Outer.MacDA is multicast and the M bit is zero or if the
      Outer.MacDA is unicast and M bit is one, the frame is discarded.

   8. By default, an RBridge MUST NOT forward TRILL-encapsulated frames
      from a neighbor that it does not have a TRILL IS-IS adjacency
      with. RBridges MAY be configured per port to accept these frames
      for forwarding in cases where it is known that a non-peering
      device (such as an end-station) is configured to originate TRILL-
      encapsulated frames that can be safely forwarded.

   9. The Inner.MacDA is then tested. If it is the All-ESADI-RBridges
      multicast address and RBn implements the ESADI feature, processing
      proceeds as in Section below. If it is any other address
      or RBn does not implement the ESADI feature, processing proceeds
      as in Section TRILL Control Frames

   The frame is processed by the TRILL IS-IS instance on RBn and is not
   forwarded. TRILL ESADI Frames

   If M == 0, the frame is silently discarded.

   The egress nickname designates the distribution tree. The frame is
   forwarded as described in Section In addition, if the
   forwarding Rbridge is an appointed forwarder for a link in the

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   specified VLAN and implements a TRILL ESADI for that VLAN and ESADI
   is enabled, the inner frame is decapsulated and provided to that
   local ESADI. TRILL Data Frames

   The M flag is then checked. If it is zero, processing continues as
   described in Section, if it is one, processing continues as
   described in Section Known Unicast TRILL Data Frames

   The egress nickname in the TRILL header is examined and, if it is
   unknown or reserved, the frame is discarded.

   If RBn is a transit RBridge the hop count is decremented by one and
   the frame forwarded to the next hop RBridge towards the egress
   RBridge. (The provision permitting RBridges to decrease the hop count
   by more than one under some circumstances (see Section 3.6) applies
   only to multi-destination frames, not to the known unicast frames
   considered in this subsection.) The Inner.VLAN is not examined by a
   transit RBridge when it forwards a known unicast TRILL data frame.
   For the forwarded frame, the Outer.MacSA is the MAC address of the
   transmitting port, the Outer.MacDA is the unicast address of the next
   hop RBridge, and the VLAN is the Designated VLAN on the link onto
   which the frame is being transmitted.

   If RBn is not a transit RBridge, that is if the egress RBridge
   indicated is the RBridge performing the processing, the Inner.MacSA
   and Inner.VLAN ID are, by default, learned as associated with the
   ingress nickname unless that nickname is unknown or reserved or the
   Inner.MacSA is not unicast. Then the frame being forwarded is
   decapsulated to native form and the following checks are performed:

   o  The Inner.MacDA is checked. If it is not unicast, the frame is

   o  If the Inner.MacDA corresponds to the RBridge doing the
      processing, the frame is locally delivered.

   o  The Inner.VLAN ID is checked. If it is 0x0 or 0xFFF, the frame is

   o  The Inner.MacDA and Inner.VLAN ID are looked up in RBn's local
      address cache and the frame is then either sent onto the link
      containing the destination, if the RBridge is appointed forwarder

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      for that link for the frame's VLAN and is not inhibited (or
      discarded if it is inhibited), or processed as in one of the
      following two paragraphs.

   A known unicast TRILL data frame can arrive at the egress Rbridge
   only to find that the combination of Inner.MacDA and Inner.VLAN is
   not actually known by that RBridge. One way this can happen is that
   the address information may have timed out in the egress RBridge MAC
   address cache. In this case, the egress RBridge sends the native
   frame out on all links that are in the frame's VLAN for which the
   RBridge is appointed forwarder and has not been inhibited, except
   that it MAY refrain from sending the frame on links where it knows
   there cannot be an end station with the destination MAC address, for
   example the link port is configured as a trunk (see Section 4.9.1).

   If, due to manual configuration or learning from layer 2 registration
   or ESADI, the destination MAC and VLAN appear in RBn's local address
   cache for two or more links for which RBn is an uninhibited appointed
   forwarder for the frame's VLAN, RBn sends the frame on all such
   links. Multi-Destination TRILL Data Frames

   The egress and ingress nicknames in the TRILL header are examined
   and, if either is unknown or reserved, the frame is discarded.

   The Outer.MacSA is checked and the frame discarded if it is not a
   tree adjacency for the tree indicated by the egress RBridge nickname
   on the port where the frame was received.  The Reverse Path
   Forwarding Check is performed on the ingress and egress nicknames and
   the frame discarded if it fails. If there are multiple TRILL-Hello
   pseudonode suppressed parallel links to the previous hop RBridge, the
   frame is discarded if it has been received on the wrong one. If the
   RBridge has multiple ports connected to the link, the frame is
   discarded unless it was received on the right one. For more
   information on the checks in this paragraph, see Section 4.5.2.

   If the Inner.VLAN ID of the frame is 0x0 or 0xFFF, the frame is

   If the RBridge is an appointed forwarder for the Inner.VLAN ID of the
   frame, the Inner.MacSA and Inner.VLAN ID are, by default, learned as
   associated with the ingress nickname unless that nickname is unknown
   or reserved or the Inner.MacSA is not unicast. A copy of the frame is
   then decapsulated, sent in native form on those links in its VLAN for
   which the RBridge is appointed forwarder subject to additional
   pruning and inhibition as described in Section, and/or
   locally processed as appropriate.

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   The hop count is decreased (possibly by more than one, see Section
   3.6) and the frame is forwarded down the tree specified by the egress
   RBridge nickname pruned as described in Section 4.5.

   For the forwarded frame, the Outer.MacSA is set to that of the port
   on which the frame is being transmitted, the Outer.MacDA is the All-
   RBridges multicast address, and the VLAN is the Designated VLAN of
   the link on which the frame is being transmitted.

4.6.3 Receipt of a Layer 2 Control Frame

   Low-level control frames received by an RBridge are handled within
   the port where they are received as described in Section 4.9.

   There are two types of high-level control frames, distinguished by
   their destination address, which are handled as described in the
   sections referenced below.

      Name   Section   Destination Address

      BPDU   4.9.3     01-80-C2-00-00-00
      VRP    4.9.4     01-80-C2-00-00-21

4.7 IGMP, MLD, and MRD Learning

   Ingress RBridges SHOULD learn, based on native IGMP [RFC3376], MLD
   [RFC2710], and MRD [RFC4286] frames they receive in VLANs for which
   they are an uninhibited appointed forwarder, which IP derived
   multicast messages should be forwarded onto which links. Such frames
   are also, in general, encapsulated as TRILL data frames and
   distributed as described below and in Section 4.5.

   An IGMP or MLD membership report received in native form from a link
   indicates a multicast group listener for that group on that link. An
   IGMP or MLD query or an MRD advertisement received in native form
   from a link indicates the presence of an IP multicast router on that

   IP multicast group membership reports have to be sent throughout the
   campus and delivered to all IP multicast routers, distinguishing IPv4
   and IPv6. All IP-derived multicast traffic must also be sent to all
   IP multicast routers for the same version of IP.

   IP multicast data SHOULD only be sent on links where there is either
   an IP multicast router for that IP type (IPv4 or IPv6) or an IP
   multicast group listener for that IP multicast derived MAC address,

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   unless the IP multicast address is in the range required to be
   treated as broadcast.

   RBridges do not need to announce themselves as listeners to the IPv4
   All-Snoopers multicast group (the group used for MRD reports
   [RFC4286]), because the IPv4 multicast address for that group is in
   the range where all frames sent to that IP multicast addresses must
   be broadcast (see [RFC4541], Section 2.1.2). However, RBridges that
   are performing IPv6 derived multicast optimization MUST announce
   themselves as listeners to the IPv6 All-Snoopers multicast group.

   See also "Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol
   (IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches"

4.8 End Station Address Details

   RBridges have to learn the MAC addresses and VLANs of their locally
   attached end stations for link/VLAN pairs for which they are the
   appointed forwarder so they can

   o  forward the native form of incoming known unicast TRILL data
      frames onto the correct link and

   o  decide, for an incoming native unicast frame from a link, where
      the RBridge is the appointed forwarder for the frame's VLAN,
      whether the frame is

      -  known to have been destined for another end station on the same
         link, so the RBridge need do nothing, or

      -  has to be converted to a TRILL data frame and forwarded.

   RBridges need to learn the MAC addresses, VLANs, and remote RBridges
   of remotely attached end stations for VLANs for which they and the
   remote RBridge are an appointed forwarder, so they can efficiently
   direct native frames they receive that are unicast to those addresses
   and VLANs.

4.8.1 Learning End Station Addresses

   There are five independent ways an RBridge can learn end station
   addresses as follows:

   1. From the observation of VLAN-x frames received on ports where it
      is appointed VLAN-x forwarder, learning the { source MAC, VLAN,

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      port } triplet of received frames.

   2. The { source MAC, VLAN, ingress RBridge nickname } triplet of any
      native frames that it decapsulates.

   3. By Layer 2 registration protocols learning the { source MAC, VLAN,
      port } of end stations registering at a local port.

   4. By running one or more TRILL ESADIs that receive remote address
      information and/or transmit local address information.

   5. By management configuration.

   RBridges MUST implement capabilities 1 and 2 above. RBridges use
   these capabilities unless configured, for one or more particular
   VLANs and/or ports, not to learn from either received frames or from
   decapsulating native frames to be transmitted or both.

   RBridges MAY implement capabilities 3 and 4 above. If capability 4 is
   implemented, such ESADIs are run only when the RBridge is configured
   to do so on a per-VLAN basis.

   RBridges SHOULD implement capability 5.

   Entries in the table of learned MAC and VLAN addresses and associated
   information also have a one octet unsigned confidence level
   associated with each entry. Such information learned from the
   observation of data has a confidence of 0x20 unless configured to
   have a different confidence. This confidence level can be configured
   on a per RBridge basis separately for information learned from local
   native frames and that learned from remotely originated encapsulated
   frames.  Such information received via TRILL ESADI is accompanied by
   a confidence level in the range 0 to 254. Such information configured
   by management defaults to a confidence level of 255 but may be
   configured to have another value.

   The table of learned MAC addresses includes (1) { confidence, VLAN,
   MAC address, local port } for addresses learned from local native
   frames and local registration protocols, (2) { confidence, VLAN, MAC
   address, egress RBridge nickname } for addresses learned from remote
   encapsulated frames and ESADI link state databases, and (3)
   additional information to implement timeout of learned addresses,
   statically configured addresses, and the like.

   When a new address and related information learned from observing
   data frames are to be entered into the local database there are three

   A. If this is a new { address, VLAN } pair, the information is
      entered accompanied by the confidence level.

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   B. If there is already an entry for this { address, VLAN } pair with
      the same accompanying delivery information, the confidence level
      in the local database is set to the maximum of its existing
      confidence level and the confidence level with which it is being
      learned. In addition, if the information is being learned with the
      same or a higher confidence level than its existing confidence
      level, timer information is reset.

   C. If there is already an entry for this { address, VLAN } pair with
      different information, the learned information replaces the older
      information only if it is being learned with higher or equal
      confidence than that in the database entry. If it replaces older
      information, timer information is also reset.

4.8.2 Forgetting End Station Addresses

   While RBridges need to learn end station addresses as described
   above, it is equally important that they be able to forget such
   information. Otherwise, frames for end stations that have moved to a
   different part of the campus could be indefinitely black holed by
   RBridges with stale information as to the link to which the end
   station is attached.

   For end station address information locally learned from frames
   received, the time out from the last time a native frame was received
   or decapsulated with the information conforms to the recommendations
   of [802.1D]. It is referred to as the "Ageing Time" and is
   configurable per RBridge with a range of from 10 seconds to 1,000,000
   seconds and a default value of 300 seconds.

   The situation is different for end station address information
   acquired via TRILL ESADI. It is up to the originating RBridge to
   decide when to remove such information from the ESADI LSP (or up to
   ESADI timeouts if the originating RBridge becomes inaccessible).

   When an RBridge ceases to be appointed forwarder for VLAN-x on a
   port, it forgets all end station address information learned from the
   observation of VLAN-x native frames received on that port.  It also
   increments a per VLAN counter of the number of times it lost
   appointed forwarder status on one of its ports for that VLAN.

   When, for all of its ports, RBridge RBn is no longer appointed
   forwarder for VLAN-x, it forgets all end station address information
   learned from decapsulating VLAN-x native frames. Also, if RBn is
   participating in TRILL ESADI for VLAN-x, it ceases to so participate
   after sending a final LSP nulling out the end station address
   information for that VLAN which it had been originating. In addition,
   all other RBridges that are VLAN-x forwarder on at least one of their

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   ports notice that the link state data for RBn has changed to show
   that it no longer has a link on VLAN-x. In response, they forget all
   end station address information they have learned from decapsulating
   VLAN-x frames that show RBn as the ingress RBridge.

   When the appointed forwarder lost counter for RBridge RBn for VLAN-x
   is observed to increase via the TRILL IS-IS link state database but
   RBn continues to be an appointed forwarder for VLAN-x on at least one
   of its ports, every other RBridge that is an appointed forwarder for
   VLAN-x modifies the aging of all the addresses it has learned by
   decapsulating native frames in VLAN-x from ingress RBridge RBn as
   follows: The time remaining for each entry is adjusted to be no
   larger than a per RBridge configuration parameter called (to
   correspond to [802.1D]) "Forward Delay". This parameter is in the
   range of 4 to 30 seconds with a default value of 15 seconds.

4.8.3 Shared VLAN Learning

   RBridges can map VLAN IDs into a smaller number of identifiers for
   purposes of address learning, as [802.1Q-2005] bridges can. Then,
   when a lookup is done in learned address information, this identifier
   is used for matching in place of the VLAN ID. If the ID of the VLAN
   on which the address was learned is not retained, then there are the
   following consequences:

   o  The RBridge no longer has the information needed to participate in
      TRILL ESADI for the VLANs who's ID is not being retained.

   o  In cases where 4.8.2 above requires the discarding of learned
      address information based on a particular VLAN, when the VLAN ID
      is not available for entries under a shared VLAN identifier,
      instead the time remaining for each entry under that shared VLAN
      identifier is adjusted to be no longer than the RBridge's "Forward

   Although outside the scope of this specification, there are some
   Layer 2 features in which a set of VLANs has shared learning, where
   one of the VLANs is the "primary" and the other VLANs in the group
   are "secondaries". An example of this is where traffic from different
   communities are separated using VLAN tags, and yet some resource
   (such as an IP router or DHCP server) is to be shared by all the
   communities. A method of implementing this feature is to give a VLAN
   tag, say Z, to a link containing the shared resource, and have the
   other VLANs, say A, C, and D, be part of the group { primary = Z,
   secondaries = A, C, D }. An RBridge, aware of this grouping, attached
   to one of the secondary VLANs in the group also claims to be attached
   to the primary VLAN. So an RBridge attached to A would claim to also
   be attached to Z. An RBridge attached to the primary would claim to

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   be attached to all the VLANs in the group.

   This document does not specify how VLAN groups might be used.  Only
   RBridges that participate in a VLAN group will be configured to know
   about the VLAN group. However, to detect misconfiguration, an RBridge
   configured to know about a VLAN group SHOULD report the VLAN group in
   its LSP.

4.9 RBridge Ports

   Section 4.9.1 below describes the several RBridge port configuration
   bits, Section 4.9.2 gives a logical port structure in terms of frame
   processing, and Sections 4.9.3 and 4.9.4 describe the handling of
   high-level control frames.

4.9.1 RBridge Port Configuration

   There are four per port configuration bits as follows:

   o  Disable port bit. When this bit is set, all frames received or to
      be transmitted are discarded, with the possible exception of some
      layer 2 control frames that may be generated and transmitted or
      received and processed within the port. By default, ports are

   o  End station service disable (trunk port) bit. When this bit is
      set, all native frames received on the port and all native frames
      that would have been sent on the port are discarded. (See Appendix
      B.)  (Note that, for this document, "native frames" does not
      include layer 2 control frames.) By default, ports are not
      restricted to being trunk ports.

      If a port with end station service disabled reports, in a TRILL-
      Hello frame it sends out that port, which VLANs it provides end
      station support for, it reports that there are none.

   o  TRILL traffic disable (access port) bit. If this bit is set, the
      goal is to avoid sending any TRILL frames, except TRILL-Hello
      frames, on the port since it is intended only for native end
      station traffic.  By default, ports are not restricted to being
      access ports.  This bit is reported in TRILL-Hello frames. If RB1
      is the DRB and has this bit set in its TRILL-Hello, the DRB still
      appoints VLAN forwarders. However, usually no pseudonode is
      reported, and none of the inter-RBridge links associated with that
      link are reported in LSPs.

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      If the DRB RB1 does not have this bit set, but neighbor RB2 on the
      link does have the bit set, then RB1 does not appoint RB2 as
      appointed forwarder for any VLAN, and none of the RBridges
      (including the pseudonode) report RB2 as a neighbor in LSPs.

      In some cases even though the DRB has the "access port" flag set,
      the DRB MAY choose to create a pseudonode for the access port. In
      this case, the other RBridges report connectivity to the
      pseudonode in their LSP, but the DRB sets the "overload" flag in
      the pseudonode LSP.

   o  Use P2P Hellos bit. If this bit is set, Hellos sent on this port
      are IS-IS P2P Hellos. By default TRILL-Hellos are used. See
      Section for more information on P2P links.

   The dominance relationship of these four configuration bits is as
   follows, where configuration bits to the left dominate those to the
   right. That is to say, when any pair of bits are asserted,
   inconsistencies in behavior they mandate are resolved in favor of
   behavior mandated by the bit to the left in the this list.

         Disable > P2P > Access > Trunk

4.9.2 RBridge Port Structure

   An RBridge port can be modeled as having a lower level structure
   similar to that of an [802.1Q-2005] bridge port as shown in Figure
   4.5. In this figure, the double lines represent the general flow of
   the frames and information while single lines represent information
   flow only. The dashed lines in connection with VRP (GVRP/MVRP) are to
   show that VRP support is optional.  An actual RBridge port
   implementation may be structured in any way that provides the correct

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                     |                RBridge
                     | Interport Forwarding, IS-IS. Management, ...
                          ||                      |             ||
                    Trill || Data                 |             ||
                          ||                   +--+---------+   ||
            +-------------++-----+             |   TRILL    |   ||
            |    Encapsulation   |      +------+ IS-IS Hello|   ||
            |    Decapsulation   |      |      | Processing |   ||
            |     Processing     |      |      +-----++-----+   ||
            +--------------------+      |            ||         ||
            |  RBridge Appointed +------+            ||         ||
        +---+   Forwarder and    |                   ||         ||
        |   |  Inhibition Logic  +==============\\   ||   //====++
        |   +---------+--------+-+   Native       \\ ++ //
        |             |        |     Frames         \++/
        |             |        |                     ||
   +----+-----+  +- - + - - +  |                     ||
   |  RBridge |  |  RBridge |  |                     || All TRILL and
   |   BPDU   |  |    VRP   |  |                     || Native Frames
   |Processing|  |Processing|  |                     ||
   +-----++---+  + - - -+- -+  |            +--------++--+ <- EISS
         ||             |      |            |   802.1Q   |
         ||            |       |            | Port VLAN  |
         ||             |      |            |and priority|
         ||            |       |            | Processing |
     +---++------------++------+------------+------------+ <-- ISS
     |        802.1/802.3 Low Level Control Frame        |
     |        Processing, Port/Link Control Logic        |
                  ||        +------------+
                  ||        | 802.3 PHY  |
                  ++========+ (Physical  +======== 802.3
                            | Interface) |         Link

                  Figure 4.5: Detailed RBridge Port Model

   Low-level control frames are handled in the lower level port / link
   control logic in the same way as in an [802.1Q-2005] bridge port.
   This can optionally include a variety of 802.1 or link specific
   protocols such as PAUSE (Annex 31B of [802.3]), link layer discovery
   [802.1AB], link aggregation [802.1AX], MAC security [802.1AE], or
   port based access control [802.1X]. While handled at a low level,
   these frames may affect higher level processing. For example, a Layer
   2 registration protocol may affect the confidence in learned

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   addresses. The upper interface to this lower level port control logic
   corresponds to the Internal Sublayer Service (ISS) in [802.1Q-2005].

   High-level control frames (BPDUs and, if supported, VRP frames) are
   not VLAN tagged. Although they extend through the ISS interface, they
   are not subject to port VLAN processing. Behavior on receipt of a
   VLAN tagged BPDU or VLAN tagged VRP frame, is unspecified. If a VRP
   is not implemented, then all VRP frames are discarded.  Handling of
   BPDUs is described in Section 4.9.3. Handling of VRP frames is
   described in Section 4.9.4.

   Frames other than layer 2 control frames, that is, all TRILL and
   native frames, are subject to Port VLAN and priority processing which
   is the same as for an [802.1Q-2005] bridge.  The upper interface to
   the port VLAN and priority processing corresponds to the Extended
   Internal Sublayer Service (EISS) in [802.1Q-2005].

   In this model, RBridge port processing below the EISS layer is
   identical to an [802.1Q-2005] bridge except for (1) the handling of
   high-level control frames and (2) that the discard of frames that
   have exceeded the Maximum Transit Delay is not mandatory but MAY be

   As described in more detail elsewhere in this document, incoming
   native frames are only accepted if the RBridge is an uninhibited
   appointed forwarder for the frame's VLAN, after which they are
   normally encapsulated and forwarded; outgoing native frames are
   usually obtained by decapsulation and are only output if the RBridge
   is an uninhibited appointed forwarder for the frame's VLAN.

   TRILL-Hellos, MTU-probes, and MTU-acks are handled per port and, like
   all TRILL IS-IS frames, are never forwarded. They can affect the
   appointed forwarder and inhibition logic as well as the RBridge's

   Except TRILL-Hellos, MTU-probes, and MTU-acks, all TRILL control as
   well as TRILL data and ESADI frames are passed up to higher level
   RBridge processing on receipt and passed down for transmission on
   creation or forwarding. Note that these frames are never blocked due
   to the appointed forwarder and inhibition logic, which affects only
   native frames, but there are additional filters on some of them such
   as the Reverse Path Forwarding Check.

4.9.3 BPDU Handling

   If RBridge campus topology were static, RBridges would simply be end
   stations from a bridging perspective, terminating but not otherwise
   interacting with spanning tree. However, there are reasons for

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   RBridges to listen to and sometimes to transmit BPDUs as described
   below. Even when RBridges listen to and transmit BPDUs, this is a
   local RBridge port activity.  The ports of a particular RBridge never
   interact so as to make the RBridge as a whole a spanning tree node. Receipt of BPDUs

   Rbridges MUST listen to spanning tree BPDUs received on a port and
   keep track of the root bridge, if any, on that link.  If MSTP is
   running on the link, this is the CIST root. This information is
   reported per VLAN by the RBridge in its LSP and may be used as
   described in Section In addition, the receipt of spanning
   tree BPDUs is used as an indication that a link is a bridged LAN,
   which can affect the RBridge transmission of BPDUs.

   An RBridge MUST NOT encapsulate or forward any BPDU frame it

   RBridges discard any topology change BPDUs they receive, but note
   Section Root Bridge Changes

   A change in the root bridge seen in the spanning tree BPDUs received
   at an RBridge port may indicate a change in bridged LAN topology,
   including the possibility of the merger of two bridged LANs or the
   like, without any physical indication at the port. During topology
   transients, bridges may go into pre-forwarding states that block
   TRILL-Hello frames. For these reasons, when an RBridge sees a root
   bridge change on a port for which it is appointed forwarder for one
   or more VLANs, it is inhibited (discards all native frames received
   from or which it would otherwise have sent to the link) for a period
   of time between zero and 30 seconds. This time period is configurable
   per port and defaults to 30 seconds.

   For example, consider two bridged LANs carrying multiple VLANs, each
   with various RBridge appointed forwarders. Should they become merged,
   due to a cable being plugged in or the like, those RBridges attached
   to the original bridged LAN with the lower priority root will see a
   root bridge change while those attached to the other original bridged
   LAN will not. Thus all appointed forwarders in the first set will be
   inhibited for a time period while things are sorted out by BPDUs
   within the merged bridged LAN and TRILL-Hello frames between the
   RBridges involved.

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   When an RBridge ceases to be appointed forwarder for one or more
   VLANs out a particular port it SHOULD, as long as it continues to
   receive spanning tree BPDUs on that port, send topology change BPDUs
   until it sees the topology change acknowledged in a spanning tree

   RBridges MAY support a capability for sending spanning tree BPDUs for
   the purpose of attempting to force a bridged LAN to partition as
   discussed in Section A.3.3.

4.9.4 Dynamic VLAN Registration

   Dynamic VLAN registration provides a means for bridges (and less
   commonly end stations) to request that VLANs be enabled or disabled
   on ports leading to the requestor. This is done by VLAN registration
   protocol (VRP) frames: GVRP or MVRP. RBridges MAY implement GVRP
   and/or MVRP as described below.

   VRP frames are never encapsulated as TRILL frames between RBridges or
   forwarded in native form by an RBridge. If an RBridge does not
   implement a VRP, it discards any VRP frames received and sends none.

   RBridge ports may have dynamically enabled VLANs. If an RBridge
   supports a VRP, the actual enablement of dynamic VLANs is determined
   by GVRP/MVRP frames received at the port as it would be for an
   [802.1Q-2005] / [802.1ak] bridge.

   An RBridge that supports a VRP sends GVRP/MVRP frames as an
   [802.1Q-2005] / [802.1ak] bridge would send on each port that is not
   configured as an RBridge trunk port or P2P port. For this purpose, it
   sends VRP frames to request traffic in the VLANs for which it is
   appointed forwarder and in the Designated VLAN, unless the Designated
   VLAN is disabled on the port, and to not request traffic in any other

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5. RBridge Configuration Parameters

   This section lists configuration parameters for RBridges. It would be
   expected that the TRILL MIB will include the items listed in this
   section plus additional Rbridge status and data including traffic and
   error counts.

5.1 Per RBridge

   The following per RBridge parameters may be configured:

      o  Number of nicknames and, for each nickname, its nickname
         priority, priority to be selected as a distribution tree root,
         and the nickname value. (The nickname is configured if and only
         if the top bit of the nickname priority is a one (see Section

      o  The desired number of distribution trees for the campus, a
         desired number of distribution tree to use, the maximum number
         of distribution trees the RBridge can compute, and two lists of
         RBridge nicknames, as discussed in Section 4.5.

      o  The per RBridge parameters Ageing Timer, Forward Delay, and
         Maximum Transit Delay.

      o  Two octets that are, respectively, the confidence in { MAC,
         VLAN, local port } triples learned from locally received native
         frames and the confidence in { MAC, VLAN, remote RBridge }
         triples learned from decapsulating frames.

      o  The desired minimum acceptable inter-RBridge link MTU for the
         campus, that is, originatingLSPBufferSize.

      o  The number of failed MTU-probes before the RBridge concludes
         that a particular MTU is not supported.

   Static end station address information and priority of such end
   station information statically configured and learned in various ways
   can also be configured.

5.2 Per Port

   An RBridge has the following per port configuration parameters:

      o  The same parameters as an [802.1Q-2005] port in terms of C-VLAN
         IDs and, in addition, an Announcing VLANs set (see Section

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      o  The same parameters as an [802.1Q-2005] port in terms of frame
         priority code point mapping.

      o  The inhibition time for the port when it observed a change in
         the root bridge of an attached bridged LAN.

      o  The desired designated VLAN that the RBridge will advertise in
         its TRILL Hellos if it is DRB for the link via that port.

      o  Four per-port configuration bits: disable port, disable end
         station service (trunk), access port, and use P2P Hellos (see
         Section 4.9.1).

      o  Two bits per port such that (1) if the first is set, it disable
         learning { MAC address, VLAN, port } triples from locally
         received native frames on the port and (2) if the second is
         set, it disables learning { MAC address, VLAN, remote RBridge }
         triples from frames decapsulated for output on the port. (Such
         learning is disabled if either the per port or per VLAN bit
         mentioned below is set.)

      o  The priority of the RBridge to be DRB and its Holding Time via
         that port.

      o  A bit which, when set, enables the receipt of TRILL-
         encapsulated frames from a source with which the RBridges does
         not have an IS-IS adjacency.

      o  Configuration for the optional send-BPDUs solution to the
         wiring closet topology problem (see Section A.3.3) consists of
         Bridge Address of the RBridge with lowest System ID. If RB1 and
         RB2 are part of a wiring closet topology, both need to be
         configured to know about this, and know the ID that should be
         used in the spanning tree protocol on the specified port.

5.3 Per VLAN

   An RBridge has the following per VLAN configuration parameters:

      o  Per VLAN ESADI participation flag, 7-bit priority, and Holding

      o  RBridges may be configured to send and/or learn end station
         address information via ESADI on a per VLAN basis.

      o  Two bits per VLAN which, (1) if the first is set disable

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         learning { MAC address, VLAN, port } triples from locally
         received native frames in the VLAN and (2) if the second is set
         disable learning { MAC address, VLAN, remote RBridge } triples
         from frames decapsulated for output in the VLAN. (Such learning
         is disabled if either the per VLAN or per port bit mentioned
         above is set.)

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6. Security Considerations

   Layer 2 bridging is not inherently secure.  It is, for example,
   subject to spoofing of source addresses and bridging control
   messages.  A goal for TRILL is that RBridges do not add new issues
   beyond those existing in current bridging technology.

   Countermeasures are available such as to configure the TRILL IS-IS
   and ESADI instances to use IS-IS security [RFC5304] and ignore
   unauthenticated TRILL control and ESADI frames received. RBridges
   using IS-IS security will need configuration.

   IEEE 802.1 port admission and link security mechanisms, such as
   [802.1X] and [802.1AE], can also be used. These are best thought of
   as being implemented below TRILL (see Section 4.9.2) and are outside
   the scope of TRILL (just as they are generally out of scope for
   bridging standards [802.1D] and 802.1Q); however, TRILL can make use
   of secure registration through the confidence level communicated in
   optional TRILL ESADI (see Section 4.8).

   TRILL encapsulates native frames inside the RBridge campus while they
   are in transit between ingress RBridge and egress RBridge(s) as
   described in Sections 2.3 and 4.1.  Thus, TRILL ignorant devices with
   firewall features that cannot be detected by RBridges as end stations
   will generally not be able to inspect the content of such frames for
   security checking purposes. This may render them ineffective.  Layer
   3 routers and hosts appear to RBridges to be end stations and native
   frames will be decapsulated before being sent to such devices. Thus
   they will not see the TRILL Ethertype. Firewall devices that do not
   appear to an RBridge to be an end station, for example bridges with
   co-located firewalls, should be modified to understand TRILL

   RBridges do not prevent nodes from impersonating other nodes, for
   instance, by issuing bogus ARP/ND replies.  However, RBridges do not
   interfere with any schemes that would secure neighbor discovery.

6.1 VLAN Security Considerations

   TRILL supports VLANs. These provide logical separation of traffic but
   care should be taken in using VLANs for security purposes. To have
   reasonable assurance of such separation, all the RBridges and links
   (including bridged LANs) in a campus must be secured and configured
   so as to prohibit end stations from using dynamic VLAN registration
   frames or otherwise gaining access to any VLAN carrying traffic for
   which they are not authorized to read and/or inject.

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   Furthermore, if VLANs were used to keep some information off links
   where it might be observed in a bridged LAN, this will no longer
   work, in general, when bridges are replaced with RBridges; with
   encapsulation and a different outer VLAN tag, the data will travel
   the least cost transit path regardless of VLAN. Appropriate counter
   measures are to use end-to-end encryption or an appropriate TRILL
   security option should one be specified.

6.2 BPDU/Hello Denial of Service Considerations

   The TRILL protocol requires that an appointed forwarder at an RBridge
   port be temporarily inhibited if it sees a TRILL-Hello from another
   RBridge claiming to be the appointed forwarder for the same VLAN or
   sees a root bridge change out that port. Thus it would seem that
   forged BPDUs showing repeated root bridge changes and forged TRILL-
   Hello frames with the Appointed Forwarder flag set could represent a
   significant denial of service attack. However, the situation is not
   as bad as it seems.

   The best defense against forged TRILL-Hello frames or other IS-IS
   messages is the use of IS-IS security [RFC5304]. Rogue end-stations
   would not normally have access to the required IS-IS keying material
   needed to forge authenticatible messages.

   Authentication similar to IS-IS security is usually unavailable for
   BPDUs. However, it is also the case that in typical modern wired
   LANs, all the links are point-to-point. If you have an all-RBridged
   point-to-point campus, then the worst that an end-station can do by
   forging BPDUs or TRILL-Hello frames is to deny itself service. This
   could be either through falsely inhibiting the forwarding of native
   frames by the RBridge to which it is connected or by falsely
   activating the optional decapsulation check (see Section

   However, when an RBridge campus contains bridged LANs, those bridged
   LANs appear to any connected RBridges to be multi-access links. The
   forging of BPDUs by an end-station attached to such a bridged LAN
   could affect service to other end-stations attached to the same
   bridged LAN. Note that bridges never forward BPDUs but process them,
   although this processing may result in the issuance of further BPDUs.
   Thus, for an end-station to forge BPDUs to cause continuing changes
   in the root bridge as seen by an RBridge through intervening bridges
   would typically require it to cause root bridge thrashing throughout
   the bridged LAN that would be disruptive even in the absence of

   Some bridges can be configured to not send BPDUs and/or to ignore
   BPDUs on particular ports and RBridges can be configured not to
   inhibit appointed forwarding on a port due to root bridge changes;

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   however, such configuration should be used with caution as it can be

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7. Assignment Considerations

   This section discuses IANA and IEEE 802 assignment considerations.
   See [RFC5226].

7.1 IANA Considerations

   A new IANA registry is created for TRILL Parameters with two
   subregistries as below.

   The initial contents of the TRILL Nicknames subregistry is as

      0x0000 Reserved to indicate no nickname specified
      0x0001-0xFFBF Dynamically allocated by the RBridges within each
          RBridge campus
      0xFFC0-0xFFFE Available for allocation by RFC Required (single
          value) or IETF Review (single or multiple values)
      0xFFFF Permanently reserved

   The initial contents of the TRILL Multicast Address subregistry is as

      01-80-C2-XX-XX-X0  Assigned as All-RBridges
      01-80-C2-XX-XX-X1  Assigned as All-IS-IS-RBridges
      01-80-C2-XX-XX-X2  Assigned as All-ESADI-RBridges
      01-80-C2-XX-XX-X3 to 01-80-C2-XX-XX-XF  Available for allocation
                         by IETF Review

7.2 IEEE Registration Authority Considerations

   The Ethertype <tbd> is assigned by the IEEE Registration Authority to
   the TRILL Protocol.

   The Ethertype <tbd> is assigned by the IEEE Registration Authority
   for L2-IS-IS.

   The block of 16 multicast MAC addresses from <01-80-C2-XX-XX-X0> to
   <01-80-C2-XX-XX-XF> are assigned by the IEEE Registration Authority
   for IETF TRILL protocol use.

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8. Normative References

   [802.1ak] "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks /
      Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks / Multiple Registration
      Protocol", IEEE Standard 802.1ak-2007, 22 June 2007.

   [802.1D] "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks /
      Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges", 802.1D-2004, 9 June 2004.

   [802.1Q-2005] "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks
      / Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks", 802.1Q-2005, 19 May 2006.

   [802.3] "IEEE Standard for Information technology /
      Telecommunications and information exchange between systems /
      Local and metropolitan area networks / Specific requirements Part
      3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
      (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications",
      802.3-2008, 26 December 2008.

   [ISO10589] ISO/IEC 10589:2002, "Intermediate system to Intermediate
      system routeing information exchange protocol for use in
      conjunction with the Protocol for providing the Connectionless-
      mode Network Service (ISO 8473)," ISO/IEC 10589:2002.

   [layer2] Banerjee, A., et al., "Extensions to IS-IS for Layer-2
      Systems", draft-ietf-isis-layer2, work in progress.

   [RFC1112]  Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting", STD 5,
      RFC 1112, Stanford University, August 1989.

   [RFC1195] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for routing in TCP/IP and
      dual environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
      Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2464] Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
      Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998.

   [RFC2710] Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast
      Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, October 1999.

   [RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
      Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3", RFC
      3376, October 2002.

   [RFC3417] Presuhn, R., Ed., "Transport Mappings for the Simple
      Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3417, December

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   [RFC3419] Daniele, M. and J. Schoenwaelder, "Textual Conventions for
      Transport Addresses", RFC 3419, December 2002.

   [RFC4286] Haberman, B., Martin, J., "Multicast Router Discovery", RFC
      4286, December 2005.

   [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
      IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, May 2008.

   [RFC5303] Katz, D., Saluja, R., and D. Eastlake 3rd, "Three-Way
      Handshake for IS-IS Point-to-Point Adjacencies", RFC 5303, October

   [RFC5305] Li, T. and H. Smit, "IS-IS Extensions for Traffic
      Engineering", RFC 5305, October 2008.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 85]

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9. Informative References

   [802.1ad] "IEEE Standard for and metropolitan area networks / Virtual
      Bridged Local Area Networks / Provider Bridges", 802.1ad-2005, 26
      May 2005.

   [802.1ah] "IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks /
      Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks / Provider Backbone Bridges",
      802.1ah-2008, 1 January 2008.

   [802.1aj] Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks / Two-Port Media Access
      Control (MAC) Relay, 802.1aj Draft 4.2, 24 September 2009.

   [802.1AE] "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks /
      Media Access Control (MAC) Security", 802.1AE-2006, 18 August

   [802.1AX] "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks /
      Link Aggregation", 802.1AX-2008, 1 January 2008.

   [802.1X] "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks /
      Port Based Network Access Control", 802.1X-REV Draft 2.9, 3
      September 2008.

   [RBridges] Perlman, R., "RBridges: Transparent Routing", Proc.
      Infocom 2005, March 2004.

   [RFC1661] Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)", STD 51,
      RFC 1661, July 1994.

   [RFC3411] Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
      Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Protocol
      (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411, December 2002.

   [RFC4086] Eastlake, D., 3rd, Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
      "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June

   [RFC4541] Christensen, M., Kimball, K., and F. Solensky,
      "Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) and
      Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches", RFC 4541,
      May 2006.

   [RFC4789] Schoenwaelder, J. and T. Jeffree, "Simple Network
      Management Protocol (SNMP) over IEEE 802 Networks", RFC 4789,
      November 2006.

   [RFC5304] Li, T. and R. Atkinson, "IS-IS Cryptographic
      Authentication", RFC 5304, October 2008.

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   [RFC5342] Eastlake 3rd., D., "IANA Considerations and IETF Protocol
      Usage for IEEE 802 Parameters", BCP 141, RFC 5342, September 2008.

   [RFC5556] Touch, J. and R. Perlman, "Transparent Interconnection of
      Lots of Links (TRILL): Problem and Applicability Statement", RFC
      5556, May 2009.

   [RP1999] Perlman, R., "Interconnection: Bridges, Routers, Switches,
      and Internetworking Protocols, 2nd Edition", Addison Wesley
      Longman, Chapter 3, 1999.

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Appendix A: Incremental Deployment Considerations

   Some aspects of partial RBridge deployment are described below for
   link cost determination (Section A.1) and possible congestion due to
   appointed forwarder bottlenecks (Section A.2). A particular example
   of a problem related to the TRILL use of a single appointed forwarder
   per link per VLAN (the "wiring closet topology") is explored in
   detail in Section A.3.

A.1 Link Cost Determination

   With an RBridged campus having no bridges or repeaters on the links
   between RBridges, the RBridges can accurately determine the number of
   physical hops involved in a path and the line speed of each hop,
   assuming this is reported by their port logic. With intervening
   devices, this is no longer possible. For example, as shown in Figure
   A.1, the two bridges B1 and B2 can completely hide a slow link so
   that both Rbridges RB1 and RB2 incorrectly believe the link is

            +-----+        +----+        +----+        +-----+
            |     |  Fast  |    |  Slow  |    |  Fast  |     |
            | RB1 +--------+ B1 +--------+ B2 +--------+ RB2 |
            |     |  Link  |    |  Link  |    |  Link  |     |
            +-----+        +----+        +----+        +-----+

                  Figure A.1: Link Cost of a Bridged Link

   Even in the case of a single intervening bridge, two RBridges may
   know they are connected but each see the link as a different speed
   from how it is seen by the other.

   However, this problem is not unique to RBridges. Bridges can
   encounter similar situations due to links hidden by repeaters and
   routers can encounter similar situations due to links hidden by
   bridges, repeaters or Rbridges.

A.2 Appointed Forwarders and Bridged LANs

   With partial RBridge deployment, the RBridges may partition a bridged
   LAN into a relatively small number of relatively large remnant
   bridged LANs, or possibly not partition it at all so a single bridged
   LAN remains. Such configuration can result in the following problem:

   The requirement that native frames enter and leave a link via the
   link's appointed forwarder for the VLAN of the frame can cause

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   congestion or suboptimal routing. (Similar problems can occur within
   a bridged LAN due to the spanning tree algorithm.)  The extent to
   which such a problem will occur is highly dependent on the network
   topology. For example, if a bridged LAN had a star-like structure
   with core bridges that connected only to other bridges and peripheral
   bridges that connected to end stations and are connected to core
   bridges, the replacement of all of the core bridges by RBridges
   without replacing the peripheral bridges would generally improve
   performance without inducing appointed forwarder congestion.

   Solutions to this problem are discussed below and a particular
   example explored in Section A.3.

   Inserting RBridges so that all the bridged portions of the LAN stay
   connected to each other and have multiple RBridge connections is
   generally the least efficient arrangement.

   There are four techniques that may help if the problem above occurs
   and which can, to some extent, be used in combination:

   1. Replace more IEEE 802.1 customer bridges with RBridges so as to
      minimize the size of the remnant bridged LANs between RBridges.
      This requires no configuration of the RBridges unless the bridges
      they replace required configuration.

   2. Re-arrange network topology to minimize the problem.  If the
      bridges and RBridges involved are configured, this may require
      changes in their configuration.

   3. Configure the RBridges and bridges so that end stations on a
      remnant bridged LAN are separated into different VLANs that have
      different appointed forwarders. If the end stations were already
      assigned to different VLANs, this is straightforward (see Section If the end stations were on the same VLAN and have to be
      split into different VLANs, this technique may lead to
      connectivity problems between end stations.

   4. Configure the RBridges such that their ports which are connected
      to the bridged LAN send spanning tree BPDUs (see Section A.3.3) in
      such a way as to force the partition of the bridged LAN. (Note: A
      spanning tree is never formed through an RBridge but always
      terminates at RBridge ports.)  To use this technique, the RBridges
      must support this optional feature, and would need to be
      configured to use it, but the bridges involved would rarely have
      to be configured. This technique makes the bridged LAN unavailable
      for TRILL through traffic because the bridged LAN partitions.

   Conversely to item 3 above, there may be bridged LANs which use
   VLANs, or use more VLANs than would otherwise be necessary, to
   support the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol or otherwise reduce the

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   congestion that can be caused by a single spanning tree. Replacing
   the IEEE 802.1 bridges in such LANs with RBridges may enable a
   reduction in or elimination of VLANs and configuration complexity.

A.3 Wiring Closet Topology

   If 802.1 bridges are present and RBridges are not properly
   configured, the bridge spanning tree or the DRB may make
   inappropriate decisions.  Below is a specific example of the more
   general problem that can occur when a bridged LAN is connected to
   multiple RBridges.

   In cases where there are two (or more) groups of end nodes, each
   attached to a bridge (say B1 and B2), and each bridge is attached to
   an RBridge (say RB1 and RB2 respectively), with an additional link
   connecting B1 and B2 (see Figure A.2), it may be desirable to have
   the B1-B2 link only as a backup in case one of RB1 or RB2 or one of
   the links B1-RB1 or B2-RB2 fail.

                  |             |          |      |
                  |  Data    +-----+    +-----+   |
                  | Center  -| RB1 |----| RB2 |-  |
                  |          +-----+    +-----+   |
                  |             |          |      |
                                |          |
                                |          |
                  |             |          |      |
                  |          +----+     +----+    |
                  | Wiring   | B1 |-----| B2 |    |
                  | Closet   +----+     +----+    |
                  | Bridged                       |
                  | LAN                           |

                    Figure A.2: Wiring Closet Topology

   For example, B1 and B2 may be in a wiring closet and it may be easy
   to provide a short, high bandwidth, low cost link between them while
   RB1 and RB2 are at a distant data center such that the RB1-B1 and
   RB2-B2 links are slower and more expensive.

   Default behavior might be that one of RB1 or RB2 (say RB1) would
   become DRB for the bridged LAN including B1 and B2 and appoint itself
   forwarder for the VLANs on that bridged LAN. As a result, RB1 would
   forward all traffic to/from the link, so end nodes attached to B2

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   would be connected to the campus via the path B2-B1-RB1, rather than
   the desired B2-RB2. This wastes the bandwidth of the B2-RB2 path and
   cuts available bandwidth between the end stations and the data center
   in half. The desired behavior would be to make use of both the RB1-B1
   and RB2-B2 links.

   Three solutions to this problem are described below.

A.3.1 The RBridge Solution

   Of course, if B1 and B2 are replaced with RBridges, the right thing
   will happen without configuration (other than VLAN support), but this
   may not be immediately practical if bridges are being incrementally
   replaced by RBridges.

A.3.2 The VLAN Solution

   If the end stations attached to B1 and B2 are already divided among a
   number of VLANs, RB1 and RB2 could be configured so that which ever
   becomes DRB for this link will appoint itself forwarder for some of
   these VLANs and appoint the other RBridge for the remaining VLANs.
   Should either of the RBridges fail or become disconnected, the other
   will have only itself to appoint as forwarder for all the VLANs.

   If the end stations are all on a single VLAN, then it would be
   necessary to assign them between at least two VLANs to use this
   solution. This may lead to connectivity problems that might require
   further measures to rectify.

A.3.3 The Spanning Tree Solution

   Another solution is to configure the relevant ports on RB1 and RB2 to
   be part of a "wiring closet group", with a configured per RBridge
   port "Bridge Address" Bx (which may be RB1 or RB2's System ID). Both
   RB1 and RB2 emit spanning tree BPDUs on their configured ports as
   highest priority root Bx. This causes the spanning tree to logically
   partition the bridged LAN as desired by blocking the B1-B2 link at
   one end or the other (unless one of the bridges is configured to also
   have highest priority and has a lower ID, which we consider to be a
   misconfiguration).  With the B1-B2 link blocked, RB1 and RB2 cannot
   see each other's TRILL-Hellos via that link and each acts as
   Designated RBridge and appointed forwarder for its respective
   partition. Of course, with this partition, no TRILL through traffic
   can flow through the RB1-B1-B2-RB2 path.

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   In the spanning tree BPDU, the Root is "Bx" with highest priority,
   cost to Root is 0, Designated Bridge ID is "RB1" when RB1 transmits
   and "RB2" when RB2 transmits, and port ID is a value chosen
   independently by each of RB1 and RB2 to distinguish each of its own
   ports. (If RB1 and RB2 were actually bridges on the same shared
   medium with no bridges between them, the result would be that the one
   with the larger ID sees "better" BPDUs (because of the tie breaker on
   the third field: the ID of the transmitting bridge), and would turn
   off its port.)

   Should either RB1 or the RB1-B1 link or RB2 or the RB2-B2 link fail,
   the spanning tree algorithm will stop seeing one of the RBx roots and
   will unblock the B1-B2 link maintaining connectivity of all the end
   stations with the data center.

   If the link RB1-B1-B2-RB2 is on the cut set of the campus and RB2 and
   RB1 have been configured to believe they are part of a wiring closet
   group, the campus becomes partitioned as the link is blocked.

A.3.4 Comparison of Solutions

   Replacing all 802.1 customer bridges with RBridges is usually the
   best solution with the least amount of configuration required,
   possibly none.

   The VLAN solution works well with a relatively small amount of
   configuration if the end stations are already divided among a number
   of VLANs. If they are not, it becomes more complex and problematic.

   The spanning tree solution does quite well in this particular case.
   But it depends on both RB1 and RB2 having implemented the optional
   feature of being able to configure a port to emit spanning tree BPDUs
   as described in Section A.3.3 above. It also makes the bridged LAN
   whose partition is being forced unavailable for through traffic.
   Finally, while in this specific example it neatly breaks the link
   between the two bridges B1 and B2, if there were a more complex
   bridged LAN, instead of exactly two bridges, there is no guarantee
   that it would partition into roughly equal pieces. In such a case,
   you might end up with a highly unbalanced load on the RB1-B1 link and
   the RB2-B2 link although this is still better than using only one of
   these links exclusively.

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Appendix B: Trunk and Access Port Configuration

   Many modern bridged LANs are organized into a core and access model,
   The core bridges have only point-to-point links to other bridges
   while the access bridges connect to end stations, core bridges, and
   possibly other access bridges.  It seems likely that some RBridge
   campuses will be organized in a similar fashion.

   An RBridge port can be configured as a trunk port, that is, a link to
   another RBridge or RBridges, by configuring it to disable end station
   support. There is no reason for such a port to have more than one
   VLAN enabled and in its Announcing Set on the port. Of course, the
   RBridge (or RBridges) to which it is connected must have the same
   VLAN enabled. There is no reason for this VLAN to be other than the
   default VLAN 1 unless the link is actually over carrier Ethernet or
   other facilities that only provide some other specific VLAN or the
   like. Such configuration minimizes wasted TRILL-Hellos and eliminates
   useless decapsulation and transmission of multi-destination traffic
   in native form onto the link. (see Sections 4.2.4 and 4.9.1)

   An RBridge access port would be expected to lead to a link with end
   stations and possibly one or more bridges. Such a link might also
   have more than one RBridge connected to it to provide more reliable
   service to the end stations.  It would be a goal to minimize or
   eliminate transit traffic on such a link as it is intended for end
   station native traffic. This can be accomplished by turning on the
   access port configuration bit for the RBridge port or ports connected
   to the link as further detailed in Section 4.9.1.

   When designing RBridge configuration user interfaces, consideration
   should be given to making it convenient to configure ports as trunk
   and access ports.

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Appendix C: Multipathing

   Rbridges support multipathing of both known unicast and multi-
   destination traffic. Implementation of multipathing is optional.

   Multi-destination traffic can be multipathed by using different
   distribution tree roots for different frames. For example, assume
   that in Figure C.1 end stations attached to RBy are the source of
   various multicast streams each of which has multiple listeners
   attached to various of RB1 through RB9. Assuming equal bandwidth
   links, a distribution tree rooted at RBy will predominantly use the
   vertical links among RB1 through RB9 while one rooted at RBz will
   predominantly use the horizontal.  If RBy chooses its nickname as the
   distribution tree root for half of this traffic and an RBz nickname
   as the root for the other half, it may be able to substantially
   increase the aggregate bandwidth by making use of both the vertical
   and horizontal links among RB1 through RB9.

   Since the distribution trees an RBridge must calculate are the same
   for all RBridges and transit RBridges MUST respect the tree root
   specified by the ingress RBridge, a campus will operate correctly
   with a mix of RBridges some of which use different roots for
   different multi-destination frames they ingress and some of which use
   a single root for all such frames.

                              +---+               |
                             /  |  \              |
                           /    |    \            |
                         /      |      \          |
                      +---+   +---+   +---+       |
                      |RB1|---|RB2|---|RB3|       |
                      +---+   +---+   +---+\      |
                        |       |       |    \    |
                      +---+   +---+   +---+    \+---+
                      +---+   +---+   +---+    /+---+
                        |       |       |    /
                      +---+   +---+   +---+/
                      +---+   +---+   +---+

                  Figure C.1: Multi-Destination Multipath

   Known unicast equal cost multipathing (ECMP) can occur if, instead of
   using a tie-breaker criterion when building an SPF path between
   ingress and egress RBridges, information about equal cost paths is
   retained.  Different unicast frames can then be sent via different
   equal cost paths. For example, in Figure C.2, which shows only

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   RBridges and omits any bridges present, there are three equal cost
   paths between RB1 and RB2 and two equal cost paths between RB2 and

   A transit RBridge receiving a known unicast frame forwards it towards
   the egress RBridge and is not concerned with whether it believes
   itself to be on any particular path from the ingress RBridge or a
   previous transit RBridge.  Thus a campus will operate correctly with
   a mix of RBridges some of which implement ECMP and some of which do

   There are actually three possibilities for the parallel paths between
   RB1 and RB2 as follows:

   1. If two or three of these paths have pseudonodes, then all three
      will be distinctly visible in the campus wide link state and ECMP
      as described above is applicable.
   2. If the paths use P2P Hellos or otherwise do not have pseudonodes,
      these three paths would appear as a single adjacency in the link
      state. In this case, multipathing across them would be an entirely
      local matter for RB1 and RB2. It can be freely done for known
      unicast frames but not for multi-destination frames as described
      in Section 4.5.2.
   3. If and only if the three paths between RB1 and RB2 are single hop
      equal bandwidth links with no intervening bridges, then it would
      be permissible to combine them into one logical link through the
      [802.1AX] "link aggregation" feature. Rbridges MAY implement link
      aggregation since that feature operates below TRILL (see Section

                               +---+       double line = 10 Gbps
                 -----      ===|RB3|---     single line = 1 Gbps
                /     \   //   +---+   \
            +---+     +---+            +---+
         ===|RB1|-----|RB2|            |RB5|===
            +---+     +---+            +---+
                \     /   \    +---+   //
                 -----     ----|RB4|===

                    Figure C.2: Known Unicast Multipath

   When multipathing is used, frames that follow different paths will be
   subject to different delays and may be re-ordered.  While some
   traffic may be order/delay insensitive, typically most traffic
   consists of flows of frames where re-ordering within a flow is
   damaging. How to determine flows or what granularity flows should
   have is beyond the scope of this document. (This issue is discussed
   in [802.1AX].)

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Appendix D: Determination of VLAN and Priority

   A high-level, informative summary of how VLAN ID and priority are
   determined for incoming native frames, omitting some details, is
   given in the bulleted items below. For more detailed information, see

   o  When an untagged native frame arrives, an unconfigured RBridge
      associates the default priority zero and the VLAN ID 1 with it. It
      actually sets the VLAN for the untagged frame to be the "port VLAN
      ID" associated with that port. The port VLAN ID defaults to VLAN
      ID 1 but may be configured to be any other VLAN ID. An Rbridge may
      also be configured on a per port basis to discard such frames or
      to associate a different priority code point with them.
      Determination of the VLAN ID associated with an incoming untagged
      non-control frame may also be made dependent on the Ethertype or
      NSAP (referred to in 802.1 as the Protocol) of the arriving frame,
      the source MAC address, or other local rules.

   o  When a priority tagged native frame arrives, an unconfigured
      RBridge associates with it both the port VLAN ID, which defaults
      to 1, and the priority code point provided in the priority tag in
      the frame.  An Rbridge may be configured on a per port basis to
      discard such frames or to associate them with a different VLAN ID
      as described in the point immediately above.  It may also be
      configured to map the priority code point provided in the frame by
      specifying, for each of the eight possible values that might be in
      the frame, what actual priority code point will be associated with
      the frame by the RBridge.

   o  When a C-tagged (formerly called Q-tagged) native frame arrives,
      an unconfigured RBridge associates with it the VLAN ID and
      priority in the C-tag.  An RBridge may be configured on a per port
      per VLAN basis to discard such frames. It may also be configured
      on a per port basis to map the priority value as specified above
      for priority tagged frames.

   In 802.1, the process of associating a priority code point with a
   frame, including mapping a priority provided in the frame to another
   priority, is referred to as priority "regeneration".

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Appendix E: Support of IEEE 802.1Q-2005 Amendments

   This informational appendix briefly comments on RBridge support for
   completed and in-process amendments to IEEE [802.1Q-2005].  There is
   no assurance that existing RBridge protocol specifications or
   existing bridges will support not yet specified future [802.1Q-2005]
   amendments just as there is no assurance that existing bridge
   protocol specifications or existing RBridges will support not yet
   specified future TRILL amendments.

   The information below is frozen as of 25 October 2009. For the latest
   status, see the IEEE 802.1 working group ( ).

E.1 Completed Amendments

   802.1ad-2005 Provider Bridges - Sometimes called "Q-in-Q", because
         VLAN tags used to be called "Q-tags", 802.1ad specifies
         Provider Bridges that tunnel customer bridge traffic within
         service VLAN tags (S-tags). If the customer LAN is an RBridge
         campus, that traffic will be bridged by Provider Bridges.
         Customer bridge features involving Provider Bridge awareness,
         such as the ability to configure a customer bridge port to add
         an S-tag to a frame before sending it to a Provider Bridge, are
         below the EISS layer and can be supported in RBridge ports
         without modification to the TRILL protocol.
   802.1ag-2007 Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) - This 802.1 feature
         is at least in part dependent on the symmetric path and other
         characteristics of spanning tree. The comments provided to the
         IETF TRILL working group by the IEEE 802.1 working group stated
         that "TRILL weakens the applicability of CFM.".
   802.1ak-2007 Multiple Registration Protocol - Supported to the extent
         described in Section 4.9.4.
   802.1ah-2008 Provider Backbone Bridges - Sometimes called "MAC-in-
         MAC", 802.1ah provides for Provider Backbone Bridges that
         tunnel customer bridge traffic within different outer MAC
         addresses and using a tag (the "I-tag") to preserve the
         original MAC addresses and signal other information. If the
         customer LAN is an RBridge campus, that traffic will be bridged
         by Provider Backbone Bridges. Customer bridge features
         involving Provider Backbone Bridge awareness, such as the
         ability to configure a customer bridge port to add an I-tag to
         a frame before sending it to a Provider Backbone Bridge, are
         below the EISS layer and can be supported in RBridge ports
         without modification to the TRILL protocol.
   802.1Qaw-2009 Management of Data-Driven and Data-Dependent
         Connectivity Fault - Amendment building on 802.1ag. See
         comments on 802.1ag-2007 above.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 97]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   802.1Qay-2009 Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering -
         Amendment building on 802.1ah to configure traffic engineered
         routing. See comments on 802.1ah-2008 above.

E.2 In-process Amendments

   The following are amendments to IEEE [802.1Q-2005] that are in
   process. As such, the brief comments below are based on drafts and
   may be incorrect for later versions or any final amendment.

   802.1aj Two-port MAC Relay - This amendment specifies a MAC relay
         that will be transparent to RBridges. RBridges are compatible
         with IEEE 802.1aj devices as currently specified, in the same
         sense that IEEE 802.1Q-2005 bridges are compatible with such
   802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging - This amendment provides for improved
         routing in bridged LANs.
   802.1Qat Stream Reservation Protocol - Modification to 802.1Q to
         support the 802.1 Timing and Synchronization. This protocol
         reserves resources for streams at supporting bridges.
   802.1Qau Congestion Notification - It currently appears that
         modifications to RBridge behavior above the EISS level would be
         needed to support this amendment. Such modifications are beyond
         the scope of this document.
   802.1Qav Forwarding and Queuing Enhancements for Time-Sensitive
         Streams - Modification to 802.1Q to support the 802.1 Timing
         and Synchronization protocol. This amendment specifies methods
         to support the resource reservations made through the 802.1Qat
         protocol (see above).
   802.1Qaz Enhanced Transmission Selection - It appears that this
         amendment will be below the EISS layer and can be supported in
         RBridge ports without modification to the TRILL protocol.
   802.1Qbb Priority-based Flow Control - Commonly called "per priority
         pause", it appears that this amendment will be below the EISS
         layer and can be supported in RBridge ports without
         modification to the TRILL protocol.
   802.1bc Remote Customer Service Interfaces. This is an extension to
         802.1Q provider bridging. See 802.1ad-2005 above.
   802.1Qbe Multiple Backbone Service Instance Identifier (I-SID)
         Registration Protocol (MIRP). This is an extension to 802.1Q
         provider backbone bridging. See 802.1ah-2008 above.
   802.1Qbf Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE)
         Infrastructure Segment Protection. This amendment extends
         802.1Q to support certain types of failover between provider
         backbone bridges. See 802.1ah-2008 above.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 98]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

Appendix Z: Revision History

   RFC Editor: Please delete this Appendix Z before publication. In
   addition, please replace the string "<RFC-this-document>" where it
   occurs in this document with "RFC xxxx" where xxxx is the RFC number
   assigned to this document.

Changes from -03 to -04

    1. Divide IANA Considerations section into IANA and IEEE parts. Add
       IANA considerations for TRILL Header variations and reserved bit
       and normative references to RFCs 2434 and 4020.

    2. Add note on the terms Rbridge and TRILL to section 1.2.

    3. Remove IS-IS marketing text.

    4. Split Section 3 into Sections 3 and 4.  Add a new top level
       section "5. Pseudo Code", renumbering following sections. Move
       pseudo code that was in old Section 3 into Section 5 and make
       section 3 more textural.  This idea is that Section 3 and 4 have
       more readable text descriptions with some corner cases left out
       for simplicity while section 5 has more structured and complete

    5. Revised and extended Security Considerations section.

    6. Move multicast router attachment bit and IGMP membership report
       information from the per-VLAN IS-IS instance to the core IS-IS
       instance so the information can be used by core RBridges to prune
       distribution trees.

    7. Remove ARP/ND optimization.

    8. Change TRILL Header to add option feature. Add option section.

    9. Change TRILL Header to expand Version field to the Variation
       field. Add TRILL message variations (8 bits) supported to the per
       RBridge link state information.

   10. Distinguish TRILL data and IS-IS messages by using Variation = 0
       and 1.

   11. Consistently state that VLAN pruning and IP derived multicast
       pruning of distribution trees are SHOULD.

   12. Add text and pseudo code to discard TRILL Ethertype data frames
       received on a port that does not have an IS-IS adjacency on it.

R. Perlman, et al                                              [Page 99]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   13. Add end station address learning section.  Specify end station
       address learning from decapsulated native frames.

   14. Add nickname allocation priority and optional nickname
       configuration. Reserve nickname values zero and 0xFFFF.

   15. Explain about multiple Designated RBridges because of multiple

   16. Add Incremental Deployment Considerations Section incorporating
       expanded Wiring Closet Topology Section.

   17. Add more detail on VLAN tag information and material on frame

   18. Miscellaneous minor editing and terminology updates.

Changes from -04 to -05

   NOTE: Section 5 was NOT updated as indicated below but the remainder
   of the draft was so updated.

    1. Mention optional VLAN and multicast optimization in Abstract.

    2. Change to distinguish TRILL IS-IS from TRILL data frames based on
       the Inner.MacDA instead of a TRILL Header bit.

    3. Split IP multicast router attached bit in two so you can
       separately indicate attachment of IPv4 and IPv6 routers.  Provide
       that these bits must be set if an RBridge does not actually do
       multicast control snooping on ingressed traffic.

    4. Add the term "port VLAN ID" (PVID).

    5. Drop references to PIM. Improve discussions of IGMP, MLD, and MRD

    6. Move M bit over one and create two-bit pruning field at the
       bottom of the "V" combined field.

    7. Add pruning control values of V and discussion of same.

    8. Permit optional unicast transmission of multi-destination frames
       when there is only one received out a port.

    9. Miscellaneous minor editing and terminology updates.

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 100]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

Changes from -05 to -06

    1. Revise Section 2 discussion of DRB determination in the presence
       of VLANs and move it to Section 2.2. Adjust VLAN handling

    2. Change "V" field to be a 2-bit version fields followed by 2
       reserved bits. Make corresponding changes to eliminate the
       inclusion in the header of frame analysis indicating type of
       multi-destination pruning which is proper for frame.  Thus all
       non-ingress RBridges that wish to perform such pruning are forced
       to do full frame analysis. Make further corresponding changes in
       IANA Considerations.

    3. The Inner.MacDA for TRILL IS-IS frames is changed to a second
       multicast address: All-IS-IS-RBridges. IEEE Allocation
       Considerations, etc., are correspondingly changed.

    4. Note in Section 6 that bridges can hide slow links and generally
       make it harder from RBridges to determine the cost of an RBridge
       to RBridge hop that is a bridged LAN.

    5. Add material noting that replacement of bridges by RBridges can
       cause connectivity between previously isolated islands of the
       same VLAN.

    6. Expand Security Considerations by mentioning RFC 3567 and
       indicating that TRILL enveloping may reduce the effectively of
       TRILL-ignorant firewall functionality.

    7. Extensive updates to pseudo code.

    8. Change to one DRB per physical link that dictates the inter-
       RBridge VLAN for the link, appoints forwarders per-VLAN, can be
       configured to send Hellos on multiple VLANs, etc.

    9. Add a minimal management by SNMP statement to Section 2.

   10. Delete explicit requirement to process TRILL frames arriving on a
       port even if the port implements spanning tree and is in spanning
       tree blocked state.

   11. Miscellaneous minor editing and terminology updates.

Changes from -06 to -07

   [WARNING: Section 5 of draft -07 was not fully updated to incorporate
   the changes below.]

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 101]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

    1. Drop recommendation to set "bridge" flags in some 802.1AB frame

    2. Add Section 2.5 giving an informative description of zero
       configuration behavior for 802.1D and 802.1Q-2005 bridges and

    3. Add Section 4.7 (renumbering the former 4.7 to be 4.9) on the
       receipt, handing, and transmission of MVRP and other MRP frames
       by RBridges. Add references to 802.1ak.

    4. Add Section 4.8 on Multipathing.

    5. Partial changes to Section 5 to correspond with changes elsewhere
       in the draft.

    6. Addition of frame category definitions in Section 1.2.

    7. Addition of Section 10, Acronyms.

    8. Add note in Section 6.2 that difficult in link cost determination
       due to intervening devices is not confined to RBridges.

    9. Re-ordered some sections in Section 6.

   10. Added a paragraph about taking care if trying to use VLANs for
       security to Security Considerations Section and re-ordered
       paragraphs in that section.

   11. Added mention of being able to configure a port so that native
       frames are not send and are dropped on receipt. Probably need to
       say more about this.

   12. Remove material about pseudo node suppression.

   13. Fix a few cases where hop count was off by one.

   14. Add option critical bits when option area length non-zero.

   15. Replace some remaining references to Q-tag with C-tag.

   16. Miscellaneous minor editing and terminology updates. Changed
       Figure numbers to be relative to major section. Added Table

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 102]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

Changes from -07 to -08

    1. Add "low" and "high" level control frame definitions to Section
       1.2 and note concerning frames that would qualify as both "TRILL"
       and "control" frames. Utilize these defined frame types more
       consistently through the document.

    2. Move substantial areas of tutorial, motivational, and
       informational text to Appendices, or a separate document,
       including Sections numbered 2.5, 4.8, 6.3, and 6.4 in version
       -07. Remove pseudo-code (Section 5 in version -07).

    3. Move link Hellos / VLAN specification and discussion to a new
       subsection of Section 4.

    4. Replace distribution tree root flag per RBridge with new logic
       which orders all RBridges in a campus as to their priority to be
       a distribution tree root and provides for the highest priority
       distribution tree root to dictate the numbers of trees in the
       campus. RBridges use the tree with least cost from themselves to
       the tree root for multi-destination frame distribution, or the n
       such trees if they multi-path multi-destination traffic.

    5. Add "Access" port configuration bit and Appendix on Trunk and
       Access Links.

    6. Add statement that use of S-tags in TRILL is outside the scope of
       this document.

    7. Add new section on RBridge port structure (Section 4.7) which
       includes discussion of RBridge interactions with BPDUs and
       revised interactions with VRP frames. Make provisions for dynamic
       VLAN registration a "MAY" implement and agnostic between GVRP and
       MVRP. Remove references to 802.1ak. Simplify text related to VRP.
       Remove related configuration option.

    8. Add requirement to adjust input filters no later than output

    9. Add requirement for configurable (default 30 second) inhibition
       on RBridge decapsulation out a port if a root bridge change has
       just been observed on that port.

   10. Add provisions for propagating topology change to attached
       bridged LAN when an RBridge is de-appointed forwarder. Also other
       end station addressing forgetting details including per VLAN
       forwarding status dropped counter.

   11. Delete requirement that appointed forwarder wait until it has
       received all the LSPs listed in the first CSNP (if any) it has

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 103]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

       received from its neighbors before forwarding frames off a link.

   12. Add explicit criterion for when an RBridge port defers to the DRB
       indicated in a Hello it receives even if that Hello is not from
       the DRB or even from an RBridge in direct communication with the

   13. Add provisions for pseudonode minimization.

   14. Update reference to RFC 2434 to be to RFC 5226.

   15. Miscellaneous minor editing and terminology updates. Add Figures
       index after Table of Contents.

Changes from -08 to -09

    1. Specify SHOULD as the implementation requirement for SNMPv3

    2. Change default confidence level to 0x20 for addresses learned
       from observing locally received native frames and from
       decapsulating TRILL data frames. This provides more space for
       lower confidence levels.

    3. Add security consideration for observation of traffic no longer
       constrained to links in its Inner.VLAN due to TRILL

    4. Updated bridge configuration assumptions in Section 2.3.1.

    5. Use "inhibited" to describe the status of an appointed forwarder
       when it is temporarily discarding all received native frames and
       not sending any native frames.

    6. In Section 4.4, there was an implication that the priority to be
       a tree root and the number of trees to be computed had not only
       default values for a zero configuration RBridge but could also be
       individually present or absent in the LSP for the RBridge. This
       tends to lead to a variable-length sub-TLV or multiple sub-TLVs
       in the LSP that leads to additional code paths to test. So
       various "if advertised" conditional clauses have been removed.

    7. Reserve nicknames 0xFFC0 through 0xFFFE as well as 0x0000 and
       0xFFFF and provide IANA Considerations for their allocation.

    8. Improve Figure 4.1, "TRILL Data Encapsulation over Ethernet" by
       generalizing it and adding an RBridge diagram.

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 104]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

    9. Add "access port" bit to Hello. Extend and clarify behavior for
       access ports and for the occurrence of the IS Neighbor TLV in
       TRILL Hellos.

   10. Miscellaneous minor editing.

Changes from -09 to -10

    1. Split Section 2.4 into two subsections inserting 2.4.1 with a
       simplified RBridge port diagram and discussion of how RBridges
       mostly use the mechanisms of IEEE 802.1Q-2005 bridges below the
       EISS layer.

    2. Remove the "SHOULD" requirement that the hop count for multi-
       destination frames not be set by the ingress RBridge in excess of
       the distance through the distribution tree to the most remote

    3. Remove any implication that addresses received by ESADI are
       always better than those learned from the data plane.

    4. Rephrase language concerning the case where a known unicast
       native frame in receive by an RBridge to be output in native form
       on another link of that RBridge so that instead of describing
       this as logically forwarding the frame in native form it is
       described as logically encapsulating and then decapsulating the

    5. Remove language saying that a TRILL Ethertype frame with a
       broadcast outer destination address MAY be treated as if its
       outer destination address was All-RBridges.

    6. Clarify that all TRILL data frames with unknown or reserved
       egress nicknames are discarded.

    7. Substantially expand Figure 4.5 at the upper port layers and
       correspondingly expand the accompanying text that is now Section

    8. Change TRILL IS-IS frames so they are no longer encapsulated but
       have the All-IS-IS-RBridges Outer.MacDA. Change the Inner.MacDA
       of ESADI frames to be the new All-ESADI-RBridges multicast

    9. Update reference to RFC 3567 to be to RFC 5304.

   10. Miscellaneous minor editing changes.

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 105]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

Changes from -10 to -11

    1. Add BPDU/Hello denial of service section to Security

    2. Remove general prohibition on RBridges sending spanning tree

    3. Change ESADI from "End Station Address Distribution Instance" to
       "End Station Address Distribution Information".

    4. Delete redundant requirement that TRILL IS-IS Hellos contain an
       extra field distinguishing the port from which they are sent.
       This need is met by the source MAC address.

    5. Add Maximum Transit Delay for RBridges with enforcement a MAY.

    6. Confused note re DRB deferral deleted.

    7. Update boilerplate and make miscellaneous minor editing changes.

Changes from -11 to -12

    1. Changes in the determination of the distribution trees to allow
       the highest priority RBridge to explicitly list some or all of
       the tree roots. Change the listing of distribution trees an
       RBridge can use in encapsulating multi-destination frames to
       allow the RBridge to not explicitly list all the roots it can

    2. Add figures and a little text illustrating the structure of TRILL
       IS-IS and TRILL ESADI frames.

    3. Add brief discussion of Hello size limitations.

    4. Extend appointed forwarder inhibition to also occur on receiving
       a Hello sent on VLAN-x as well as received on VLAN-x in cases of
       VLAN translation.

    5. Provide for the allocation of a block of 16 multicast addresses
       for TRILL use by the IETF Registration Authority. RBridges
       conforming to this specification discard frames sent to any of
       these addresses other than All-RBridges and All-IS-IS-RBridges.
       (All-ESADI-RBridges is only allowed as an Inner.MacDA.)

    6. Add text on MTU and add Protection Hellos so there are now two
       kinds of Hellos, Adjacency and Protection.

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 106]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

    7. Add text mandating the RBridges with the Extended IS Adjacency
       TLV (#22) and do not use the IS Adjacency TLV (#2).

    8. Add text requiring and specifying "tie breaking" to select only
       one when sending multi-destination frames between RBridges
       connected by multiple parallel links. Mandate three-way handshake
       on links configured to use P2P Hellos to provide Extended Circuit

    9. Add section and material on using P2P Hellos.

   10. Miscellaneous minor editing changes.

Changes from -12 to -13

    1. Eliminate all references to "Hello time", replacing with
       appropriate references to Holding Time.

    2. Response to IEEE 802.1 comments: Replace all occurrences to
       "[802.1Q]" with "[802.1Q-2005]" to make it absolutely, positively
       clear that we don't claim to support the "current" 802.1Q as
       amended. Add Appendix E to summarize the current state of support
       by this draft for the current 802.1Q adopted and in-process

    3. Improve wording on frame types terminology in Section 1.3.

    4. Permit multiple nicknames per Rbridge.

    5. Make tie breaker on building distribution trees be the "tree
       number" which counts trees rooted at different nicknames at the
       same Rbridge as different trees.

    6. Renumber 4.3 through 4.7 to be 4.5 through 4.9 and add new
       sections 4.3 on MTU-probe and MTU-probe-ack and 4.4 on the TRILL-
       Hello protocol that approximately corresponds to the previous
       Section 4.2.4.

    7. Change TRILL control (IS-IS) messages to be indicated by the
       L2-IS-IS Ethertype. Add that Ethertype to Section 5 and Section

    8. Eliminate references to TRILL IS-IS instance as "core".

    9. Eliminate feature whereby encapsulated multi-destination frames
       being sent to only one next hop RBridge of interest could be sent

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 107]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

   10. Update references to Problem and Applicability Statement draft to
       be to RFC 5556.

   11. Change how the Hop Count is handled so it is tested on receipt of
       an encapsulated frame and discarded if it is zero and then not
       tested when decremented on forwarding.

   12. Clarify and correct handling of multiple parallel links between
       adjacent RBridges providing tie-breaking.

   13. Correct DRB election to specify MAC address as tie breaker, not
       System ID.

   14. Change default number of multi-destination frames to be
       calculated for the campus from 2 to 1. Provide for RBridges to
       advertise how many trees they can calculate and limit number of
       trees to the minimum such number across all RBridges in the

   15. Provide that when an appointed forwarder observes that the DRB on
       a link has changed, it no longer considers itself appointed for
       that link until appointed by the new DRB.

   16. Add new section 4.4.4 and material in 4.5.2 and other spots on
       port groups, renumbering the former 4.4.4 as 4.4.5.

   17. Miscellaneous editing changes.

Changes from -13 to -14

    1. Clarify Section 4.5.2 and specify that the extended circuit ID
       specified by the RBridge with the highest System ID is the one
       use for tie breaking.

    2. Specify a maximum size for TRILL-Hello messages (1470 bytes) and
       that they SHOULD NOT be padded.

    3. Note in that the measured MTU for a link may be
       advertised in a sub-TLV of wide metric.

    4. Add default link cost specification to item 1.

    5. Add note that the VLANs an RBridge is advertising connectivity to
       may be associated with particular nicknames of that RBridge as
       per draft-ietf-isis-layer2-01.txt.

    6. Update 802.3 reference to 802.3-2008.

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 108]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

    7. Parts of Section 5 that duplicated Section 7 were eliminated from
       Section 5 and the RBridge configuration parameters description in
       Section 5 was made more complete.

    8. Add references to RFC 3417 and 3419 in connection with SNMP

    9. Update Appendix E.

   10. Update references to Clause 43 of 802.3 to be to 802.1AX-2008 and
       add a couple of references to Annex 31B of 802.3.

   11. Clarify that the ways in which RBridges differ in behavior from
       802.1Q-2005 bridges are specified in this document.

   12. Define "port" to clarify that it includes virtual and pseudo

   13. Clarify that RBridges, as defined in this document, do *not*
       offer services equivalent to provider or provider backbone
       bridges and that extensions of TRILL in that direction are left
       for future work. However, provider and/or provider backbone
       bridges may be used to connect parts of an RBridge campus.

   14. Add a statement that the optimal and multipath features of TRILL
       are of more benefit to more mesh-like networks.

   15. Add rapid updating of MAC attachment location as a motivation for

   16. Add explanation and motivation for optional decrease of hop
       count, for multi-destination frames only, by more than one.

   17. Clarify that an RBridge selecting a new nickname does so only
       from the nicknames which appear free, based on its copy of the
       link state database, which accelerates convergence to stable

   18. Provide that priority to be tree root is per nickname, not per
       Rbridge, and recommend the sparing use of multiple-nicknames at
       an Rbridge.

   19. Specify that an RBridge campus is a single Level 1 IS-IS area
       with area-ID zero.

   20. Add material on ambiguous destinations to new section 4.2.6, and elsewhere: duplicate nicknames or VLAN/MAC addresses.

   21. Clarify that the link MTU testing and campus wide inter-RBridge
       MTU determination are to support proper TRILL IS-IS operation, do

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 109]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

       not relate directly to end station traffic, and do not provide
       and end-to-end path MTU service or determination.

   22. Specify that TRILL-Hellos are sent with the same timing as IS-IS
       LAN Hellos.

   23. Add brief statement on how to avoid re-ordering of frames when a
       VLAN/MAC address changes between known and unknown.

   24. Permit ports to be configured to accept TRILL-encapsulated frames
       from devices with which the RBridge does not have an IS-IS

   25. Expand ECMP discussion in Appendix C to account for various cases
       under this current draft.

   26. Specify the default state for the port disable, trunk, access,
       and P2P configuration bits.

   27. Add definition of "campus".

   28. Add "SHOULD" requirement for an RBridge with multiple nicknames
       to use the same one as ingress when encapsulating native frames
       from the same MAC and VLAN.

   29.  Many miscellaneous editing changes.

Changes from -14 to -15

   There were only two technical changes from -14 to -15, as listed in
   items 1 and 9 below.

    1. Add port ID to TRILL-Hello by adding one sentence each to section
       4.4.2 and 4.4.4.

    2. Change name of IANA registry to "TRILL Parameter Registry".

    3. Clarify in Section 4.1.4 that the TRILL encapsulated frames have
       only one FCS, that is, the encapsulated payload does not include
       an FCS.

    4. Clarify description of tree numbering at the end of 4.5

    5. Clarify in Section 4.5.5 that multi-destionation frames are not
       sent back out the port they are received on.

    6. Clarify that the meaning of the Reserved bits in Figure 3.2 will
       be specified in other documents. Improve wording of description

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 110]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

       of critial bits.

    7. Add normative references in Section 4.2 to draft-ietf-isis-layer2
       and add it to the normative references list.

    8. Clarify the TRILL IS-IS frames are always Ethertype encoded.

    9. Fix next to last paragraph of Section 4.7 so an RBridge doing
       IPv6 multicast optimization does have to announce it is in the
       IPv6 All-Snoopers Group.

   10. Fix about a dozen typos, mostly one character changes.

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 111]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

Authors' Addresses

   Radia Perlman
   Sun Microsystems
   16 Network Circle
   Menlo Park, CA 94025

   Phone: +1-650-960-1300

   Donald E. Eastlake, 3rd
   Stellar Switches
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA

   Phone: +1-508-634-2066

   Dinesh G. Dutt
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA

   Phone: +1-408-527-0955

   Silvano Gai
   Cisco Systems
   2600 San Tomas Expressway
   Santa Clara, CA 95051 USA

   Phone: +1-408-387-6123

   Anoop Ghanwani
   Brocade Communications Systems
   1745 Technology Drive
   San Jose, CA 95110 USA

   Phone: +1-408-333-7149

R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 112]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                          RBridge Protocol

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R. Perlman, et al                                             [Page 113]