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Versions: 00 01                                                         
Internet Research Task Force                                   D. McGrew
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Intended status: Informational                                   S. Shen
Expires: April 25, 2013                       Chinese Academy of Science
                                                        October 22, 2012


                     Ciphers in Use in the Internet
                   draft-irtf-cfrg-cipher-catalog-01

Abstract

   This note catalogs the ciphers in use on the Internet, to guide users
   and standards processes.  It presents the security goals, security
   analysis and results, specification, intellectual property
   considerations, and publication date of each cipher.  Background
   information and security guidance is provided as well.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as



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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.2.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  Attack Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2.  Security Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.2.1.  Exhaustive Search  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       2.2.2.  Attacks on reduced-round versions  . . . . . . . . . .  6
       2.2.3.  Indistinguishability and the birthday bound  . . . . .  6
   3.  Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  AES Compatibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  128-bit Block Ciphers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  ARIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  CLEFIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.3.  SMS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.4.  SEED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.5.  Camellia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.6.  CAST-256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.7.  Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.8.  Twofish  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.9.  Serpent  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   5.  64-bit Block Ciphers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.1.  MISTY1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.2.  SKIPJACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.3.  RC2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.4.  CAST-128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.5.  BLOWFISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.6.  International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) . . . . . . 17
     5.7.  GOST 28147-89  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.8.  Triple Data Encryption Standard (TDES) . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.9.  Data Encryption Standard (DES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   6.  Stream Ciphers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.1.  Kcipher-2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.2.  Rabbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.3.  RC4  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58




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1.  Introduction

   This note is a catalog of the ciphers in use on the Internet, and/or
   defined or referenced in IETF RFCs.

   This note is not a standards document; instead it aims to capture the
   consensus of the Cryto Forum Research Group at the time of
   publication, and to provide technical guidance to standards groups
   that are selecting ciphers.

   This note groups together ciphers with similar block structure, and
   lists ciphers in decreasing order of the year of their publication.

1.1.  Document History

   This is the second version of this note; it is a work in progress,
   and it should not yet be considered as representative of a consensus.
   Comments are solicited and should be sent to the authors and to
   cfrg@irtf.org.

   This section is to be removed by the RFC Editor upon publication as
   an RFC.

1.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


2.  Background

   A cipher is an encryption method.  Encryption is a transformation of
   data that uses a secret key to change a plaintext value, which needs
   to be kept secret, into a ciphertext value, which can be safely
   revealed without the loss of the confidentiality of the plaintext.
   Ciphertext can be converted back into plaintext, through the use of
   the secret key, via a decryption algorithm that is the reverse of the
   encryption algorithm.  Importantly, encryption does not protect the
   integrity or authenticity of the plaintext; it does not provide a
   data integrity service, or a data origin authentication service
   [RFC4949].

   Authenticated Encryption is an encryption method that does protect
   the integrity and authenticity of the plaintext, as well as the
   confidentiality of the plaintext.  Authenticated Encryption with
   Associated Data (AEAD) protects the confidentiality, integrity, and
   authenticity of the plaintext, and also protects the integrity and



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   authenticity of some associated data [RFC5116].

   A Block Cipher is an encryption algorithm that encrypts a fixed-size
   plaintext block with a secret key, resulting in a fixed-size
   ciphertext block.  The encryption is reversible, so that the
   plaintext block can be computed from the key and the ciphertext
   block.  Block ciphers are not directly used to encrypt data, but
   instead are used in a mode of operation, as described below.  A block
   cipher has two parameters: block size (the number of bits in the
   fixed-size blocks), and key size (the number of bits in the key).
   Some block ciphers accept more than one key size.

   A Block Cipher Mode of Operation is a method for encrypting and/or
   authenticating data.  Most modes of operation can operate on
   arbitrary-length data, unlike the block cipher itself, which can only
   operate on fixed length data.  The mode of operation logically breaks
   plaintext into fixed-size blocks, and processes these blocks using
   the block cipher (and other operations such as bitwise exclusive-or).

   A Stream Cipher is an encryption method that does not use a block
   cipher, and is not used in a mode of operation; instead, the stream
   cipher defines its own encryption method.  Most stream ciphers
   encrypt plaintext by generating pseudorandom data with a secret key,
   then bitwise exclusive-oring the pseudorandom data with the plaintext
   to produce the ciphertext.  Some stream ciphers take an
   Initialization Vector (IV) as input; a different IV is provided to
   the cipher for each different message that is encrypted.  A stream
   cipher has two parameters: IV size (the number of bits in the IV),
   and key size (the number of bits in the key).  Some stream ciphers
   accept more than one key size.

2.1.  Attack Models

   There are many different attack models that are used to analyze the
   security of ciphers.  An attack model is a formal statement of the
   attacker's capabilities.  A particular cipher may be strong in one
   attack model, but weak in another; the suitability of that cipher for
   use in a particular application will depend entirely on the
   attacker's actual capabilities in the real world.

   In a Known-Plaintext Attack (KPA), the attacker knows some (but not
   all) of the plaintexts that are encrypted with an unknown secret key,
   and can learn the resulting ciphertexts.  The attacker's goal is to
   determine the value of some of unknown plaintexts.

   In a Chosen-Plaintext Attack (CPA), the attacker can choose some (but
   not all) of the plaintexts that are encrypted with an unknown secret
   key, and can learn the resulting ciphertexts.  A CPA is adaptive if



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   the attacker can adapt the plaintexts that it chooses based on the
   ciphertexts that it observes.  The attacker's goal is to determine
   the value of some of the plaintexts that it does not choose and that
   it does not know.

   In a Chosen-Ciphertext Attack (CCA), the attacker can cause the
   decryption of some ciphertexts of its choice, and can learn the
   results of those decryptions.  The attacker can also observe the
   ciphertext resulting from the encryption of some unknown plaintexts.
   A CCA is adaptive if the attacker can adapt the ciphertexts that it
   chooses based on other data that it observes.  The attacker's goal is
   to determine the value of some of the unknown plaintexts.
   (Authenticated Encryption protects against these attacks.)

   In a Related-Key Attack (RKA), the attacker can cause the encryption
   of unknown plaintext values under two or more keys, where the
   relationship between the keys is known to the attacker, but the
   actual value of the keys is not known.  For example, if keys K1 and
   K2 are in use, the attacker might know the value of the bitwise
   exclusive-or of K1 and K2, while not knowing the value of either key.
   Related-Key Attacks do not have any effect on security when keys are
   chosen independently, as is the case in most communication security
   protocols.  It is a theoretical impossibility for a cipher to be
   resistant to all types of RKAs, which underscores the need for sound
   key generation and key management.

   In a Side-Channel Attack (SCA), the attacker has access to physical
   side information beyond the digital representation of the plaintexts
   and ciphertexts, such as the voltage levels used during the
   encryption process, or fine-grained timing information about the
   duration of the encryption operations.  SCAs act against an
   implementation of a cipher, rather than against the cipher design,
   since the side information is a property of the former and not the
   latter.  Nonetheless, it is important to study methods of defending a
   particular cipher design from SCAs.

   In a Key Recovery Attack (KRA), the attacker learns the secret key
   that is used to encrypt some ciphertext.  In a Plaintext Recovery
   Attack (PRA), the attacker learns some unknown plaintext, but does
   not learn the secret key.  A successful KRA is devastating, but a
   successful PRA can also be just as damaging.

2.2.  Security Goals

   There are several security goals for block ciphers; understanding
   these goals is important to understanding the actual security
   provided by ciphers in the real world.  This section reviews the most
   important security goals.



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2.2.1.  Exhaustive Search

   For each cipher, the best attack is described.  Any cipher can be
   defeated, in theory, by exhaustively searching over every possible
   key, but in practice this attack is computationally feasible only for
   smaller key sizes.  The 1998 Deep Crack machine cost $250,000 and
   could break a 56-bit key by exhaustive search in about one day [K98].
   Due to the exponentially fast decrease in the cost of computing power
   (Moore's Law), the length of a key that can be broken for a fixed
   amount of money goes up by one bit every 1.5 years.  Combining these
   facts, we estimate that a $250,000 machine can break 66-bit keys via
   exhaustive search in 2013, and that a $32M machine can break 73-bit
   keys.

2.2.2.  Attacks on reduced-round versions

   In most block ciphers, the encryption operation essentially consists
   of a round function that is repeated multiple times, each time with a
   different subkey.  The plaintext block is input to the first round,
   and the ciphertext block is the output of the final round.
   Cryptanalysts investigating the security of a block cipher often
   consider the strength of the cipher against reduced-round versions,
   that is, a variant of the cipher that includes fewer rounds than the
   actual cipher.  Most attacks against block ciphers can be easily
   generalized to attacks on reduced-round variants of block ciphers.
   The effectiveness of an attack against a block cipher is measured, in
   part, by the number of rounds that the attack can defeat.

   The number of chosen plaintext blocks, chosen ciphertext blocks, or
   known plaintext blocks that are used in an attack is an important
   measure of the strength of that attack.  For instance, an attack
   against a 128-bit block cipher that requires more than 2^64 known
   plaintext blocks has little effect on practical security, because
   those ciphers are not used to encrypt that much data with a single
   key (see Section 2.2.3).

2.2.3.  Indistinguishability and the birthday bound

   An encryption method is indistinguishable from random whenever its
   ciphertext cannot be distinguished from a random value by a
   computationally limited adversary.  This idea has been mathematically
   formalized, and is fundamental to the analysis of ciphers.  A cipher
   cannot be secure unless it is indistinguishable, and thus, this is
   the main security goal.

   Typical block cipher modes of operation are insecure when the amount
   of data processed by a single key is larger than w * 2^(w/2) bits,
   where w is the block size of the block cipher.  (Here and below 2^w



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   denotes 2 to the power w.)  This limit is called the birthday bound,
   by analogy to the fact that, in a group of people, a birthday common
   to two people is more likely than one might expect.  The birthday
   bound is a primary consideration for the security of block ciphers.
   Above the birthday bound, all of the block cipher modes of operation
   that are in common use are distinguishable from random, and are
   vulnerable to plaintext recovery attacks.

      The bound for a 64-bit block cipher is 2^34 bytes, or 4 Gigabytes,
      and

      The bound for a 128-bit block cipher is 2^67 bytes, or 128
      Trillion Gigabytes.

   In practice, it is highly desirable that the amount of data is
   significantly below the birthday bound, in order to make the
   likelihood of a successful plaintext recovery attack negligible.

   It is highly desirable that a block cipher be indistinguishable from
   random even if the attacker knows most of the 2^w possible w-bit
   plaintext/ciphertext pairs for a given key.  However, because of the
   birthday bound, a block cipher should not be used to encrypt more
   than 2^(w/2) plaintexts, and attacks against a block cipher that
   require more than 2^(w/2) plaintexts or ciphertexts likely have no
   effect on the practical security of that cipher.


3.  Guidance

   It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that any cipher used be secure in the KPA,
   adaptive CPA, and adaptive CCA models.  The security against this
   type of attack is determined by the cipher design.

   It is RECOMMENDED that any implementation of a cipher be secure in
   the SCA model, and it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that any implementation
   that must operate while in the physical possession of an attacker be
   secure in the SCA model.  The security against this type of attack is
   determined by the particulars of the implementation, and not the
   design of the cipher.  However, a specific cipher design may be
   easier to implement such that it is secure in the SCA model, compared
   to other ciphers.

   When encryption is in use, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that either 1)
   Authenticated Encryption or AEAD be used, or 2) an encryption method
   be used in conjunction with an algorithm that protects the
   authenticity of the data, such as a Message Authentication Code
   [RFC4949].




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   64-bit block ciphers SHOULD NOT be used in general-purpose systems,
   because of the plaintext recovery attacks that are possible against
   them.  When a 64-bit block cipher is used for legacy reasons, it is
   RECOMMENDED that the amount of data encrypted by a single key is 1
   Megabyte.  For special purpose applications in which the amount of
   encrypted data is below this threshold, 64-bit block ciphers MAY be
   used.

3.1.  AES Compatibility

   At present, the most widely used cipher is the Advanced Encryption
   Standard (see Section Section 4.7), which is believed to provide
   adequate security for the foreseeable future.  It has a block size of
   128 bits, and key sizes of 128, 192, or 256 bits.  We say that a
   cipher is AES-compatible if it supports the same block and key sizes,
   and that a cipher is partially AES-compatible if it supports the same
   block size and at least one of the key sizes.

   AES-compatible ciphers include ARIA, CAST-256, Camellia, Serpent, and
   Twofish.  Partly-AES-compatible ciphers include SEED and SMS4, both
   of which only support 128 bit keys.  All of these ciphers, except for
   SMS4, are either free from intellectual property claims, or are
   available worldwide royalty free.

   The existence of strong ciphers that are free of intellectual
   property restrictions shows that it is not necessary to use
   encumbered ciphers in order to obtain good security.


4.  128-bit Block Ciphers

4.1.  ARIA

   ARIA was first published in 2003 [NBC:KKP03] by a large group of
   researchers from the Republic of South Korea.  It is specified in
   [RFC5794], and supports a block length of 128 bits and keys length of
   128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits.  Thus ARIA is AES-compatible.

   IETF uses includes 21 RFCs and 11 Internet Drafts.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on ARIA.

   The best known attack against this cipher is meet-in-the-middle
   attack on 8 rounds (out of 12) with data complexity 2^56, which was
   shown in [MMA:TSLL10].  There have been other analyses as well.
   Classical linear and differential cryptanalysis were shown in [SPAA:
   BC03].  Truncated differentials, boomerang and slide attacks were
   shown in [INDOCRYPT:FFGL10] and [SPAA:BC03].  Impossible differential



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   cryptanalysis appared in [CANS:DuChe10].  SCA security was considered
   in [WISA:YHMOM06].

   In 2004, the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards selected ARIA
   as a standard cryptographic technique.  The algorithm uses a
   substitution-permutation network (SPN) structure like that of AES.
   The number of rounds is 12, 14, or 16, depending on the key sizes.
   ARIA uses two 8 x 8-bit substitution tables and their inverses in
   alternate rounds; one of these is the AES substitution table.  The
   key schedule processes the key using a 3-round 256-bit Feistel
   cipher.

4.2.  CLEFIA

   CLEFIA was designed by the SONY corporation, and was first published
   in 2007 [BC:SSAMI07],[FSE:SSAMI07].  It is specified in [RFC6114],
   and supports keys lengths of 128, 192, and 256.

   IETF uses include 1 RFC, which specifies the cipher, and 2 Internet
   Drafts, defining its use in IPsec and TLS.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on CLEFIA.  The owner
   of those rights is SONY.

   The best known attack against this cipher is the improbable
   differential cryptanalysis of reduced round CLEFIA presented in
   [INDOCRYPT:Tezcan10].  It requires 2^126.8 chosen plaintexts and
   breaks 13 (out of 18) rounds with a complexity of 2^126.8 encryptions
   for the key size of 128 bits.  Similar attacks apply for 14 and 15
   rounds of CLEFIA for the key sizes 192 and 256 bits,respectively.

   This cipher has also been analyzed by differential and linear
   cryptanalysis.  Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis was shown in
   [IDCC:TTSSSK08].  SCA has been considered; cryptanalysis using
   differential methods with cache trace patterns was described in [RSA:
   RebMuk11] and differential fault analysis was described in [ICICS:
   CheWuFen07].

   CLEFIA has 18, 22, or 16 rounds, for key sizes of 128 bits, 192 bits,
   and 256 bits, respectively.  It is intended to be used in Digital
   Rights Management (DRM) systems.

4.3.  SMS4

   SMS4 was first published in 2006.  It is specified in [SMS4], and
   supports a keys length of 128 bits.

   There are not yet any IETF uses.



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   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on SMS4.  The owner of
   those rights is BDST.

   The best known attack against SMS4 are the linear and differential
   attacks against 22 rounds (out of 32) shown in [LDC:KKHS08].  These
   attacks require 2^117 known plaintexts and 2^118 chosen plaintexts,
   respectively.  Rectangle and impossible differential attacks were
   shown in [AARRS:DT08].  Other attacks against reduced-round versions
   of SMS4 have appeared [ACISP:ZhaZhaWu08] [SAC:EtrRob08] [ICICS:
   TozDun08] [ICICS:Lu07].

   Algebraic and XLS attacks against reduced-round SMS4 have been pusued
   [CANS:ChoYapKho09] [ICISC:EriDinChr09] [INDOCRYPT:JiHu07].

   SMS4 is used in the Chinese National Standard for Wireless LAN WAPI.
   SMS4 was a proposed cipher to be used in IEEE 802.11i standard, but
   so far has been rejected by ISO.  One of the reasons for the
   rejection has been opposition to the WAPI fast-track proposal by the
   IEEE.  SMS4 uses an 8-bit substitution table, and performs 32 rounds
   to process one block.  A non-linear key schedule is used to produce
   the round keys.

4.4.  SEED

   SEED was first published in 1998.  It is specified in [RFC4269], and
   supports a key length of 128 bits.

   IETF use includes 7 RFCs and 1 Internet Draft, which specify the
   cipher and define its use in CMS, TLS, IPsec, SRTP, and MIKEY.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on SEED.

   The best attack against SEED is a differential attack against eight
   (out of 16) rounds [S11] that requires 2^125 chosen plaintexts.
   Differential and linear attacks were also shown [DC:YS03] [SKES:
   WMF03] [SCN:YanShi02].  SCA was considered in [WISA:YKHMP04].

   SEED is a 16-round Feistel network that uses two 8 x 8 S-boxes that
   are derived from discrete exponentiation, as in the design of the
   SAFER block cipher.  It was developed by the Korean Information
   Security Agency (KISA).  It is used broadly in South Korea, but not
   often used elsewhere.  It was adopted in Korea because the 40-bit
   "export strength" cryptography, as was common at the time in the
   Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) in web browers, was rightly regarded as
   insufficient; KISA developed its own the SEED standard to address
   this fact.  However, SEED is a national rather than international
   standard, and this fact limits the interoperability of SEED
   implementations in communications across national borders.



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4.5.  Camellia

   Camellia was first published in 2000 in [SC:AIKMMNT00].  It is
   specified in [RFC3713], and supports keys lengths 128, 192, and 256.

   IETF uses include 15 RFCs and 6 Internet Drafts, which specify the
   cipher and define its use in XMLsec, TLS, IPsec, OpenPGP, CMS, PSKC,
   and Kerberos.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on CAMELLIA.  The
   owner of those rights is NTT, who has stated that it "intends to
   grant royalty-free licenses for the essential patents" needed to
   implement Camellia [NTT].

   The best known attack against Camellia is an impossible differential
   attack against 10 (out of 18) rounds that uses 2^112.4 chosen
   plaintext blocks [ISPEC:BaiLi11].  Higher order differential attacks
   were shown in [HRDA:HSK02] and [SAC:HatSekKan02].  Truncated and
   impossible differential cryptanalysis have been presented [AC:
   SugKobIma01] [ICISC:LHLLY01] [FSE:KanMat01] [DLBRC:S02] [RSA:LKKD08]
   [SAC:WuZhaZha08] [SAC:MSDB09] [FSE:ShiKanAbe02].  Other analyses
   include the square attack (integral cryptanalysis) [ICICS:LeiLiFen07]
   [FSE:YeoParKim02] [ICICS:HeQin01] and collision attacks [CANS:
   JieZho06][SAC:WuFenChe04].

   Camellia is a 128-bit block cipher jointly developed by Mitsubishi
   and NTT.  The cipher has been approved for use by the ISO/IEC, the
   European Union's NESSIE project and the Japanese CRYPTREC project.
   The cipher has security levels and processing abilities comparable to
   the Advanced Encryption Standard.  Camellia's block size is 16 bytes
   (128 bits).  The block cipher was designed to be suitable for both
   software and hardware implementations, from low-cost smart cards to
   high-speed network systems.  Camellia is a Feistel cipher with either
   18 rounds (for 128-bit keys) or 24 rounds (for 192 or 256 bit keys).
   Every six rounds, a logical transformation layer is applied: the so-
   called "FL-function" or its inverse.  Camellia uses four 8 x 8-bit
   S-boxes with input and output affine transformations and logical
   operations.  The cipher also uses input and output key whitening.
   The diffusion layer uses a linear transformation based on an MDS
   matrix with a branch number of 5.

4.6.  CAST-256

   CAST-256 was first published in 1998 in [EA:C98].  It is specified in
   [RFC2612], and supports keys lengths 128, 160, 192, 224 and 256.

   Its IETF use is RFC 2612, which defines the cipher.




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   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on CAST-256 by
   Entrust.  According to RFC 2612, it "is available worldwide on a
   royalty-free and license-free basis for commercial and non-
   commercial uses."

   The best known attack against 12 (out of 48) rounds of CAST-256 is
   linear attack that requires 2^101 known plaintext blocks [SAC:
   WamWanHu08].  Other analysis includes differential and linear attacks
   [CA:AHTW99] higher order differential attacks [FSE:MorShiKan98].

   The CAST-256 (or CAST6) block cipher was submitted as a candidate for
   the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES); however, it was not among the
   five AES finalists.  It is an extension of an earlier cipher, CAST-
   128; both were designed according to the "CAST" design methodology
   invented by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares.  Howard Heys and
   Michael Wiener also contributed to the design.  CAST-256 uses the
   same elements as CAST-128, including S-boxes, but is adapted for a
   block size of 128 bits, twice the size of its 64-bit predecessor.  (A
   similar construction occurred in the evolution of RC5 into RC6).
   CAST-256 is composed of 48 rounds, sometimes described as 12 "quad-
   rounds", arranged in a generalised Feistel network.

4.7.  Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

   AES was first published in 1998 in [AP:DR99], and was originally
   called RIJNDAEL.  It is specified in [FIPS-197], and supports keys
   lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.

   IETF uses include 29 RFCs and 3 Internet Drafts.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on AES.

   The best known attack against this cipher is biclique cryptanalysis,
   which works against the full 10 rounds of AES-129 and requires 2^88
   chosen plaintexts and 2^126 operations [AC:BogKhoRec11].  Besides
   this work, there has been considerable attention paid to the AES
   cipher by cryptanalysts, making it the most-studied cipher ever.
   Much of this work is in the KPA, CPA, and CCA models [C:BouDerFou11]
   [FSE:DemSel08] [FSE:BucPysWei06] [INDOCRYPT:DTCB09] [INDOCRYPT:
   LDKK08] [SAC:MPRS09] [AC:PSCYL02] [SAC:ZWZF06] [CAOR:GM00] [KRBR:
   BDK05] [RKIDA:BDK06] [MITMA:DS08] [ACISP:FleGorLuc09] [SAC:
   KelMeiTav01] [FSE:GilPey10] [AC:DunKelSha10] [AFRICACRYPT:GalMin08]
   [FSE:Sasaki11] [EC:BirNik10] [ISC:ZWPKY08] [ISC:NakPav07].

   The RKA model for AES has also been well studied [C:BirKhoNik09]
   [SAC:JakDes03] [AC:BirKho09] [INDOCRYPT:ZZWF07] [INDOCRYPT:GorLuc08]
   [FSE:HKLP05] [RSA:BihDunKel06] [FSE:KimHonPre07] [IWSEC:Sasaki10].




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   Considerable work has been done on SCA, including power analysis
   attacks and defenses [CHES:GouMar11] [CHES:CFGRV11] [AFRICACRYPT:
   GenProQui11] [AFRICACRYPT:AliMuk11] [ACNS:LuPanHar10] [ACNS:CanBat08]
   [ACNS:TilHerMan07] [ASIACCS:NevSeiWan06] [ACISP:FouTun06] [ACNS:
   DusLetViv03] [INDOCRYPT:KumMukCho07] [ISC:BatGieLem08] [SAC:
   Bogdanov07] [CANS:ZhaYuLiu10] [CHES:KimHonLim11] [CHES:RKSF11] [SAC:
   CEJV02] [CHES:DerFouLer11] [ICISC:ZhaWuFen07] [INDOCRYPT:MDRM10]
   [INDOCRYPT:MulWysPre10] [FSE:OMPR05] [CHES:RivPro10] [CHES:
   Bogdanov08] [CHES:RenStaVey09] [CHES:SSHA08] [CHES:KerRey08] [CHES:
   TilHer08] [CHES:Jaffe07] [CHES:SLFP04] [CHES:PirQui03] [CHES:
   ManPraOsw05] [CHES:AkkGir01] [CHES:TriDeSGer02] [CHES:GolTym02] [RSA:
   BEPW10] [RSA:SakYagOht09] [FC:BloSei03] [ICICS:ZSMTS07] [RSA:
   SchPaa06] [ICISC:Mangard02] [INDOCRYPT:ProRoc10] [WISA:SchKim08]
   [WISA:OswSch05] [ICISC:CouGou05] [ICISC:Karroumi10] [SAC:BloGuaKru04]
   [SAC:BilGilEch04] [CHES:GebHoTiu05] [CHES:StaBerPre04].

   Cache-timing attacks and defenses have also been analyzed [RSA:
   Konighofer08] [CHES:KasSch09] [CHES:BonMir06] [RSA:AciSchKoc07] [RSA:
   OsvShaTro06] [SP:GulBanKre11] [ICICS:AciKoc06] [SAC:BloKru07] [SAC:
   NevSei06] [WISA:GalKizTun10].

   The mathematical structure of AES has also been studied [SCN:
   DaeRij06] [SAC:BaiVau05] [ICICS:MonVau04] [FSE:SonSeb03] [FSE:
   Wernsdorf02] [ICISC:SonSeb02] [C:MurRob02] [AC:BarBih02] [SAC:
   FegSchWhi01].

   (AES) is a specification for the encryption of electronic data.  It
   has been adopted by the U.S. government and is now used worldwide.
   AES was announced by National Institute of Standards and Technology
   (NIST) as U.S. FIPS PUB 197 (FIPS 197) on November 26, 2001 after a
   five-year standardization process in which fifteen competing designs
   were presented and evaluated before it was selected as the most
   suitable.  It became effective as a Federal government standard on
   May 26, 2002 after approval by the Secretary of Commerce.  It is
   available in many different encryption packages.  AES is the first
   publicly accessible and open cipher approved by the National Security
   Agency (NSA) for top secret information.  Originally called Rijndael,
   the cipher was developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daemen
   and Vincent Rijmen, and submitted by them to the AES selection
   process.  AES is based on a design principle known as a substitution-
   permutation network.  It is fast in both software and hardware.  AES
   operates on a 4 x 4 column-major order matrix of bytes, termed the
   state (versions of Rijndael with a larger block size have additional
   columns in the state).  Most AES calculations are done in a special
   finite field.The AES cipher is specified as a number of repetitions
   of transformation rounds that convert the input plaintext into the
   final output of ciphertext.  Each round consists of several
   processing steps, including one that depends on the encryption key.



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   A set of reverse rounds are applied to transform ciphertext back into
   the original plaintext using the same encryption key.

4.8.  Twofish

   Twofish was first published in 1998.  It is specified in [Twofish],
   and supports keys lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.

   IETF use include 9 RFCs, that specify its use in OpenPGP, SSH, and
   ZRTP.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on Twofish.

   Attack: The best known attack against this cipher is truncated
   differential attack,which was shown in [TC:MY00].  Truncated
   differential,impossible differential attack that breaks was shown in
   [TC:MY00].  The Saturation Attack - A Bait for Twofish was shown in
   [FSE:Lucks01].  Analysis: Improved Impossible Differentials on
   Twofish was shown in [INDOCRYPT:BihFur00].  On the Twofish Key
   Schedul was shown in [SAC:SKWWH98].

   Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128
   bits.  It was one of the five finalists of the Advanced Encryption
   Standard contest, but was not selected for standardisation.  Twofish
   is related to the earlier block cipher Blowfish.  Twofish's
   distinctive features are the use of pre-computed key-dependent
   S-boxes, and a relatively complex key schedule.Twofish borrows some
   elements from other designs; for example, the pseudo-Hadamard
   transform (PHT) from the SAFER family of ciphers.  Twofish uses the
   same Feistel structure as DES.  On most software platforms Twofish
   was slightly slower than Rijndael for 128-bit keys, but somewhat
   faster for 256-bit keys.  Twofish was designed by Bruce Schneier,
   John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, and Niels
   Ferguson; Twofish algorithm is free for anyone to use without any
   restrictions whatsoever.  It is one of a few ciphers included in the
   OpenPGP standard (RFC 4880).  However, Twofish has seen less
   widespread usage than Blowfish, which has been available longer.

4.9.  Serpent

   Serpent was first published in 1998.  It is specified in [Serpent],
   and supports keys lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.

   IETF uses include 6 RFCs, which specify its use in SSH.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on Serpent.

   Attack: The best known attack against this cipher is linear attack.



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   The Rectangle Attack - Rectangling the Serpent was shown in [EC:
   BihDunKel01].  Amplified Boomerang Attacks Against Reduced-Round MARS
   and Serpent was shown in [FSE:KelKohSch00].  A Differential-Linear
   Attack on 12-Round Serpent was shown in [INDOCRYPT:DunIndKel08].
   Analysis: Amplified boomerang,rectangle,differential
   cryptanalysis,linear cryptanalysis and differential-linear
   cryptanalysis were shown in [ABA:KKS00],[RA:BDK01],[DC:WH00],[LC:
   BDK02],[DLC:BDK03].  Multidimensional Linear Cryptanalysis of Reduced
   Round Serpent was shown in [ACISP:HerChoNyb08].  Experiments on the
   Multiple Linear Cryptanalysis of Reduced Round Serpent was shown in
   [FSE:ColStaQui08].  Differential-Linear Cryptanalysis of Serpent was
   shown in [FSE:BihDunKel03a].  Linear Cryptanalysis of Reduced Round
   Serpent was shown in [FSE:BihDunKel01].  A New Technique for
   Multidimensional Linear Cryptanalysis with Applications on Reduced
   Round Serpent was shown in [ICISC:ChoHerNyb08].  A Dynamic FPGA
   Implementation of the Serpent Block Cipher was shown in [CHES:
   Patterson00].  On the Pseudorandomness of the AES Finalists - RC6 and
   Serpent was shown in [FSE:IwaKur00].  Serpent: A New Block Cipher
   Proposal was shown in [FSE:BihAndKnu98].

   Serpent was a finalist in the AES contest,where it came second to
   Rijndael.Serpent was designed by Ross Anderson,Eli Biham,and Lars
   Knudsen.  Serpent was widely viewed as taking a more conservative
   approach to security than the other AES finalists, opting for a
   larger security margin: the designers deemed 16 rounds to be
   sufficient against known types of attack, but specified 32 rounds as
   insurance against future discoveries in cryptanalysis.  The Serpent
   cipher is in the public domain and has not been patented.  There are
   no restrictions or encumbrances whatsoever regarding its use.  As a
   result, anyone is free to incorporate Serpent in their software (or
   hardware implementations) without paying license fees.


5.  64-bit Block Ciphers

5.1.  MISTY1

   MISTY1 was first published in 1995.  It is specified in [RFC2994],
   and supports key lengths 128.

   IETF use includes RFC 2994, which specifies the cipher.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on MISTY1.  The owner
   of those rights is Mistsubishi.  According to [RFC2994], "the
   algorithm is freely available for academic (non-profit) use.
   Additionally, the algorithm can be used for commercial use without
   paying the patent fee if you contract with Mitsubishi Electric
   Corporation.  For more information, please contact at



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   MISTY@isl.melco.co.jp."

   Attack: An Improved Impossible Differential Attack on MISTY1 was
   shown in [AC:DunKel08a].  Higher Order Differential Attacks on
   Reduced-Round MISTY1 was shown in [ICISC:TSSK08].  Improved Integral
   Attacks on MISTY1 was shown in [SAC:SunLai09].  Analysis:
   Cryptanalysis of Reduced-Round MISTY was shown in [EC:Kuhn01].
   Improved Cryptanalysis of MISTY1 was shown in [FSE:Kuhn02].  Security
   Analysis of MISTY1 was shown in [WISA:THSK07].  Improving the
   Efficiency of Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis of Reduced
   Camellia and MISTY1 was shown in [RSA:LKKD08].  On MISTY1 Higher
   Order Differential Cryptanalysis was shown in [ICISC:BabFri00].
   Security of the MISTY Structure in the Luby-Rackoff Model was shown
   in [SAC:PirQui04].  Round Security and Super-Pseudorandomness of
   MISTY Type Structure was shown in [FSE:IYYK01].  A Very Compact
   Hardware Implementation of the MISTY1 Block Cipher was shown in
   [CHES:YamYajIto08].  New Block Encryption Algorithm MISTY was shown
   in [FSE:Matsui97].

5.2.  SKIPJACK

   SKIPJACK was first published in 1998, and is specified in [SKIPJACK].
   It supports a key length of 80 bits.

   IETF use includes 15 RFCs, which describe its use in CMS and TELNET.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on SKIPJACK.

   Attack: Saturation Attacks on Reduced Round Skipjack was shown in
   [FSE:KLLLL02].  Analysis: Provable Security for the Skipjack-like
   Structure against Differential Cryptanalysis and Linear Cryptanalysis
   was shown in [AC:SLLHP00].  Truncated Differentials and Skipjack was
   shown in [C:KnuRobWag99].  Cryptanalysis of Skipjack Reduced to 31
   Rounds Using Impossible Differentials was shown in [EC:BihBirSha99].
   Flaws in Differential Cryptanalysis of Skipjack was shown in [FSE:
   Granboulan01].  Markov Truncated Differential Cryptanalysis of
   Skipjack was shown in [SAC:ReiWag02].  Initial Observations on
   Skipjack:Cryptanalysis of Skipjack-3XOR (Invited Talk) was shown in
   [SAC:BBDRS98].

5.3.  RC2

   RC2 was first published in 1998.  It is specified in [RFC2268], and
   supports keys lengths of 8, 16, 24, ... , 1024 bits.

   IETF use includes 36 RFCs, which specify the cipher and describe its
   use in CMS, SMIME, TLS, and PKIX.




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   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on RC2, though
   [RFC2268] says that "RC2 is a registered trademark of RSA Data
   Security, Inc. RSA's copyrighted RC2 software is available under
   license from RSA Data Security, Inc."

   On the Design and Security of RC2 was shown in [FSE:KRRR98].
   Related-key cryptanalysis of 3-WAY Biham-DES,CAST DES-X, NewDES, RC2,
   and TEA was shown in [ICICS:KelSchWag97].

5.4.  CAST-128

   CAST-128 was first published in 1997.  It is specified in [RFC2144],
   and supports a key length of 128 bits.

   IETF use includes 20 RFCs that specify the cipher and define its use
   in OpenPGP, IPsec, CMS, and PKIX.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on CAST-128 by
   Entrust.  According to [RFC2144], "The CAST-128 cipher described in
   this document is available worldwide on a royalty-free basis for
   commercial and non-commercial uses."

5.5.  BLOWFISH

   BLOWFISH was first published in 1994.  It is specified in [Blowfish],
   and supports keys lengths 32,64,96, ... , 448.

   IETF use includes None.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on BLOWFISH.

   A New Class of Weak Keys for Blowfish was shown in [FSE:KarMan07].
   On the Weak Keys of Blowfish was shown in [FSE:Vaudenay96].
   Description of a New Variable-Length Key 64-bit Block Cipher
   (Blowfish) was shown in [FSE:Schneier93].

5.6.  International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA)

   IDEA was first published in 1992.  It is specified in [IDEA], and
   supports key length of 128 bits.

   IETF use includes 9 RFCs, which describe its use in TLS and IPsec
   (but not in OpenPGP, though IDEA was used in earlier PGP versions).

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on IDEA.  The owner of
   those rights is MediaCrypt AG.

   Attack: Two Attacks on Reduced IDEA was shown in [EC:BorKnuRij97].  A



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   New Attack on 6-Round IDEA was shown in [FSE:BihDunKel07b].  New
   Attacks Against Reduced-Round Versions of IDEA was shown in [FSE:
   Junod05].  Miss in the Middle Attacks on IDEA and Khufu was shown in
   [FSE:BihBirSha99].  A New Meet-in-the-Middle Attack on the IDEA Block
   Cipher was shown in [SAC:DemSelTur03].  Square-like Attacks on
   Reduced Rounds of IDEA was shown in [SAC:Demirci02].  Analysis: On
   the Security of the IDEA Block Cipher was shown in [EC:Meier93].
   Cryptanalysis of IDEA-X/2 was shown in [FSE:Raddum03].  New
   Cryptanalytic Results on IDEA was shown in [AC:BihDunKel06].  On
   Applying Linear Cryptanalysis to IDEA was shown in [AC:HawOCo96].
   Key-Schedule Cryptoanalysis of IDEA G-DES,GOST SAFER, and Triple-DES
   was shown in [C:KelSchWag96].  Fault Analysis Study of IDEA was shown
   in [RSA:ClaGieVer08].  Differential-Linear Weak Key Classes of IDEA
   was shown in [EC:Hawkes98].  Improved DST Cryptanalysis of IDEA was
   shown in [SAC:AyaSel06].  Weak Keys for IDEA was shown in
   [C:DaeGovVan93].  New Weak-Key Classes of IDEA was shown in [ICICS:
   BNPV02].

   DPA on n-Bit Sized Boolean and Arithmetic Operations and Its
   Application to IDEA RC6, and the HMAC-Construction was shown in
   [CHES:LemSchPaa04].  Switching Blindings with a View Towards IDEA was
   shown in [CHES:NeiPul04].  Tradeoffs in Parallel and Serial
   Implementations of the International Data Encryption Algorithm IDEA
   was shown in [CHES:CTLL01].  Revisiting the IDEA Philosophy was shown
   in [FSE:JunMac09].  Nonlinearity Properties of the Mixing Operations
   of the Block Cipher IDEA was shown in [INDOCRYPT:Yildirim03].  A Note
   on Weak Keys of PES IDEA,and Some Extended Variants was shown in
   [ISC:NakPreVan03].  IDEA: A Cipher For Multimedia Architectures? was
   shown in [SAC:Lipmaa98].

5.7.  GOST 28147-89

   The GOST 28147-89 was first published in 1989.  It is specified in
   [RFC5830], and supports a key length of 256 bits. 256 Bit
   Standardized Crypto for 650 GE - GOST Revisited was shown in [CHES:
   PosLinWan10].

   IETF use includes 7 RFCs.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on GOST 28147-89.

   Attack: A Single-Key Attack on the Full GOST Block Ciphe was shown in
   [FSE:Isobe11].  Analysis: Cryptanalysis of the GOST Hash Function was
   shown in [C:MPRKS08].  Key-Schedule Cryptoanalysis of IDEA G-DES,GOST
   SAFER, and Triple-DES was shown in [C:KelSchWag96].  Differential
   Cryptanalysis of Reduced Rounds of GOST was shown in [SAC:SekKan00].





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5.8.  Triple Data Encryption Standard (TDES)

   The Triple Data Encryption Standard (TDES, or sometimes 3DES) was
   first published in 1979.  It is specified in [FIPS-46-3], and
   supports key lengths of 112.

   IETF uses include citations in 143 RFCs, which describe the use of
   the cipher in IPsec, TLS, SMIME, CMS, PKIX, PPP, SSH, GSAKMP.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on TDES.  The owner of
   those rights is IBM.  According to [FIPS-46-3], TDES may be "covered
   by U.S. and foreign patents, including patents issued to the
   International Business Machines Corporation.  However, IBM has
   granted nonexclusive, royalty-free licenses under the patents to
   make, use and sell apparatus which complies with the standard."

   Attack: Attacking Triple Encryption was shown in [FSE:Lucks98].  A
   Known Plaintext Attack on Two-Key Triple Encryption was shown in [EC:
   VanWie90].  Analysis: The Security of Triple Encryption and a
   Framework for Code-Based Game-Playing Proofs was shown in [EC:
   BelRog06].

5.9.  Data Encryption Standard (DES)

   DES was first published in 1977.  It is specified in [FIPS-46], and
   its key length is 56 bits.

   IETF use includes 66 drafts and 158 RFCs.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on DES.  The owner of
   those rights is IBM.  According to [FIPS-46-3], TDES may be "covered
   by U.S. and foreign patents, including patents issued to the
   International Business Machines Corporation.  However, IBM has
   granted nonexclusive, royalty-free licenses under the patents to
   make, use and sell apparatus which complies with the standard."

   DES is currently obsolete; its key size is inadequate to protect
   against attackers with access to modern computing resources.  The
   security implications of using DES are discussed at length in
   [RFC4772].  Historically, DES was intstrumental in the development of
   moden cryptography; Differential [C:BihSha90] and Linear [EC:
   Matsui93] Cryptanalysis were developed through the analysis of the
   DES algorithm.

   DES was designed by an IBM research team led by Horst Feistel, a
   German-born cryptographer.  DES was a refinement of the earlier
   LUCIFER cipher, which is the first modern block cipher that has been
   publicly described.



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6.  Stream Ciphers

6.1.  Kcipher-2

   Kcipher-2 was first published in 2011.  It is specified in
   [I-D.kiyomoto-kcipher2] and supports a key length of 128 bits, and a
   128-bit initialization vector.

   IETF use includes 2 drafts, which specify the cipher and describe its
   use in TLS.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on Kcipher-2.  The
   owners of those rights are KDDI and Qualcomm.

   KCipher-2 has been used for industrial applications, especially for
   mobile health monitoring and diagnostic services in Japan.

6.2.  Rabbit

   Rabbit was first published in 2003 [FSE:BVPCS03] in a peer-reviewed
   workshop.  It is specified in [RFC4503], and supports a keys length
   of 128 bits, and a 64-bit IV.

   The only citation in IETF documents is the cipher specification
   itself.

   Intellectual Property Rights have been claimed on this cipher.  The
   owner of those rights is Cryptico A/S.

   The best known attacks against this cipher have a complexity greather
   than 2^128, and thus do not violate its security goals.
   Distinguishing attacks were shown in [ISC:LuDes10] [ISC:LuWanLin08].
   Side channels and fault injection attacks were considered in
   [INDOCRYPT:BerCanGou09] and [SAC:KirYou09], which described state-
   recovery attacks with 2^38 complexity.

   Rabbit is the only finalist from eSTREAM, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher
   Project, that appears in this note.  Rabbit has a relatively small
   internal state of about 64 bytes, and it updates all words of state
   at each iteration, in contrast to RC4 (Section 6.3).

6.3.  RC4

   RC4 was first described in 1994.  No normative specification exists;
   it is sometimes called ARCFOUR, which is short for alleged RC4.  The
   cipher supports key lengths of 8, 16, 24, ..., 1024 bits.  RC4 does
   not accept an initialization vector.




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   IETF use includes 54 RFCs and 23 drafts, which describe the use of
   RC4 in TLS, Kerberos, and SSH.

   Intellectual Property Rights have not been claimed on RC4.

   Attack: A Practical Attack on the Fixed RC4 in the WEP Mode was shown
   in [AC:Mantin05].  New State Recovery Attack on RC4 was shown in
   [C:MaxKho08].  Statistical Attack on RC4 - Distinguishing WPA was
   shown in [EC:SepVauVua11].  Predicting and Distinguishing Attacks on
   RC4 Keystream Generator was shown in [EC:Mantin05].  Attack on
   Broadcast RC4 Revisited was shown in [FSE:MaiPauSen11].  Key
   Collisions of the RC4 Stream Cipher was shown in [FSE:Matsui09].  Two
   Linear Distinguishing Attacks on VMPC and RC4A and Weakness of RC4
   Family of Stream Ciphers was shown in [FSE:Maximov05].  A Practical
   Attack on Broadcast RC4 was shown in [FSE:ManSha01].  Collisions for
   RC4-Hash was shown in [ISC:IndPre08].  Passive-Only Key Recovery
   Attacks on RC4 was shown in [SAC:VauVua07].  Generalized RC4 Key
   Collisions and Hash Collisions was shown in [SCN:CheMiy10].
   Analysis: New Correlations of RC4 PRGA Using Nonzero-Bit Differences
   was shown in [ACISP:MiySuk09].  Cache Timing Analysis of RC4 was
   shown in [ACNS:ChaFouLer11].  Impossible Fault Analysis of RC4 and
   Differential Fault Analysis of RC4 was shown in [FSE:BihGraNgu05].
   Statistical Analysis of the Alleged RC4 Keystream Generator was shown
   in [FSE:FluMcG00].  Analysis of RC4 and Proposal of Additional Layers
   for Better Security Margin was shown in [INDOCRYPT:MaiPau08].
   Analysis of Non-fortuitous Predictive States of the RC4 Keystream
   Generator was shown in [INDOCRYPT:PauPre03].  Cryptanalysis of RC4-
   like Ciphers was shown in [SAC:MisTav98].  Recovering RC4 Permutation
   from 2048 Keystream Bytes if j Is Stuck was shown in [ACISP:
   MaiPau08].  (Not So) Random Shuffles of RC4 was shown in
   [C:Mironov02].  Linear Statistical Weakness of Alleged RC4 Keystream
   Generator was shown in [EC:Golic97a].  New Form of Permutation Bias
   and Secret Key Leakage in Keystream Bytes of RC4 was shown in [FSE:
   MaiPau08].  Efficient Reconstruction of RC4 Keys from Internal States
   was shown in [FSE:BihCar08].  A New Weakness in the RC4 Keystream
   Generator and an Approach to Improve the Security of the Cipher was
   shown in [FSE:PauPre04].  One Byte per Clock: A Novel RC4 Hardware
   was shown in [INDOCRYPT:SSMS10].  New Results on the Key Scheduling
   Algorithm of RC4 was shown in [INDOCRYPT:AkgKavDem08].  Discovery and
   Exploitation of New Biases in RC4 was shown in [SAC:SepVauVua10].
   Permutation After RC4 Key Scheduling Reveals the Secret Key was shown
   in [SAC:PauMai07].  Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4
   was shown in [SAC:FluManSha01].


7.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks are due to Jon Callas and Kevin Igoe.



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8.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.


9.  Security Considerations

   Security is the main topic of this note.


10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

10.2.  Informative References

   [AARRS:DT08]
              Dunkelman, O. and D. Toz, "SMS4: Analysis of the Attacking
              Reduced-Round Versions of the SMS4", International
              Conference on Information and Communications Security-
              ICICS AARRS:DT08vol, 2008.

   [ABA:KKS00]
              Kelsey, J., Kohno, T., and B. Schneier, "Serpent:
              Amplified Boomerang Attacks Against Reduced-Round MARS and
              Serpent", Fast software encryption-FSE ABA:KKS00, 2000.

   [AC:BBGR09]
              Billet, O., Gueron, S., J., M., and R. Benadjila, "The
              Intel AES Instructions Set and the SHA-3 Candidates",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science asiacrypt09vol, 2009.

   [AC:BarBih02]
              Biham, E. and E. Barkan, "In How Many Ways Can You Write
              Rijndael?", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science asiacrypt02vol, 2002.

   [AC:BihDunKel06]
              Dunkelman, O., Keller, N., and E. Biham, "New
              Cryptanalytic Results on IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science asiacrypt06vol, 2006.

   [AC:BirKho09]
              Khovratovich, D. and A. Biryukov, "Related-Key
              Cryptanalysis of the Full AES-192 and AES-256", Lecture



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              Notes in Computer Science asiacrypt09vol, 2009.

   [AC:BogKhoRec11]
              Khovratovich, D., Rechberger, C., and A. Bogdanov,
              "Biclique Cryptanalysis of the Full AES", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science asiacrypt11vol, 2011.

   [AC:DunKel08a]
              Keller, N. and O. Dunkelman, "An Improved Impossible
              Differential Attack on MISTY1", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science asiacrypt08vol, 2008.

   [AC:DunKelSha10]
              Keller, N., Shamir, A., and O. Dunkelman, "Improved
              Single-Key Attacks on 8-Round AES-192 and AES-256",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science asiacrypt10vol, 2010.

   [AC:HawOCo96]
              O'Connor, L. and P. Hawkes, "On Applying Linear
              Cryptanalysis to IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science asiacrypt96vol, 1996.

   [AC:Lenstra01]
              K., A., "Unbelievable Security. Matching AES Security
              Using Public Key Systems (Invited Talk)", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science asiacrypt01vol, 2001.

   [AC:Mantin05]
              Mantin, I., "A Practical Attack on the Fixed RC4 in the
              WEP Mode", Lecture Notes in Computer
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   [AC:PSCYL02]
              Hak, S., Chee, S., Yoon, E., Lim, J., and S. Park, "On the
              Security of Rijndael-Like Structures against Differential
              and Linear Cryptanalysis", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science asiacrypt02vol, 2002.

   [AC:SLLHP00]
              Lee, S., In, J., Hong, S., Park, S., and J. Sung,
              "Provable Security for the Skipjack-like Structure against
              Differential Cryptanalysis and Linear Cryptanalysis",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science asiacrypt00vol, 2000.

   [AC:SMTM01]
              Morioka, S., Takano, K., Munetoh, S., and A. Satoh, "A
              Compact Rijndael Hardware Architecture with S-Box
              Optimization", Lecture Notes in Computer



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              Science asiacrypt01vol, 2001.

   [AC:SugKobIma01]
              Kobara, K., Imai, H., and M. Sugita, "Security of Reduced
              Version of the Block Cipher Camellia against Truncated and
              Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science asiacrypt01vol, 2001.

   [ACISP:FleGorLuc09]
              Gorski, M., Lucks, S., and E. Fleischmann, "Attacking 9
              and 10 Rounds of AES-256", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science acisp09vol, 2009.

   [ACISP:FouTun06]
              Tunstall, M. and J. J., "Cache Based Power Analysis
              Attacks on AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
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   [ACISP:HYYKT10]
              Yap, W., Hoo, C., Kiyomoto, S., Tanaka, T., and M.
              Henricksen, "Side-Channel Analysis of the K2 Stream
              Cipher", Lecture Notes in Computer Science acisp10vol,
              2010.

   [ACISP:HerChoNyb08]
              Yeon, J., Nyberg, K., and M. Hermelin, "Multidimensional
              Linear Cryptanalysis of Reduced Round Serpent", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science acisp08vol, 2008.

   [ACISP:MaiPau08]
              Paul, G. and S. Maitra, "Recovering RC4 Permutation from
              2048 Keystream Bytes if j Is Stuck", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science acisp08vol, 2008.

   [ACISP:MiySuk09]
              Sukegawa, M. and A. Miyaji, "New Correlations of RC4 PRGA
              Using Nonzero-Bit Differences", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science acisp09vol, 2009.

   [ACISP:ZhaZhaWu08]
              Zhang, W., Wu, W., and L. Zhang, "Cryptanalysis of
              Reduced-Round SMS4 Block Cipher", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science acisp08vol, 2008.

   [ACNS:CanBat08]
              Batina, L. and D. Canright, "A Very Compact ``Perfectly
              Masked'' S-Box for AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science acns08vol, 2008.



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   [ACNS:ChaFouLer11]
              Fouque, P., Leresteux, D., and T. Chardin, "Cache Timing
              Analysis of RC4", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science acns11vol, 2011.

   [ACNS:DusLetViv03]
              Letourneux, G., Vivolo, O., and P. Dusart, "Differential
              Fault Analysis on AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science acns03vol, 2003.

   [ACNS:HerOswMan06]
              Oswald, E., Mangard, S., and C. Herbst, "An AES Smart Card
              Implementation Resistant to Power Analysis Attacks",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science acns06vol, 2006.

   [ACNS:LuPanHar10]
              Pan, J., den, J., and J. Lu, "Principles on the Security
              of AES against First and Second-Order Differential Power
              Analysis", Lecture Notes in Computer Science acns10vol,
              2010.

   [ACNS:TilHerMan07]
              Herbst, C., Mangard, S., and S. Tillich, "Protecting AES
              Software Implementations on 32-Bit Processors Against
              Power Analysis", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science acns07vol, 2007.

   [AFRICACRYPT:AliMuk11]
              Mukhopadhyay, D. and S. Ali, "An Improved Differential
              Fault Analysis on AES-256", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science africacrypt11vol, 2011.

   [AFRICACRYPT:BSQPR08]
              Standaert, F., Quisquater, J., Pellegrin, P., Rouvroy, G.,
              and P. Bulens, "Implementation of the AES-128 on Virtex-5
              FPGAs", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science africacrypt08vol, 2008.

   [AFRICACRYPT:GalMin08]
              Minier, M. and S. Galice, "Improving Integral Attacks
              Against Rijndael-256 Up to 9 Rounds", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science africacrypt08vol, 2008.

   [AFRICACRYPT:GenProQui11]
              Prouff, E., Quisquater, M., and L. Genelle, "Montgomery's
              Trick and Fast Implementation of Masked AES", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science africacrypt11vol, 2011.




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   [AFRICACRYPT:MinPhaPou09]
              C.-W., R., Pousse, B., and M. Minier, "Distinguishers for
              Ciphers and Known Key Attack against Rijndael with Large
              Blocks", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science africacrypt09vol, 2009.

   [AFRICACRYPT:YapKhoPos10]
              Khoo, K., Poschmann, A., and H. Yap, "Parallelizing the
              Camellia and SMS4 Block Ciphers", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science africacrypt10vol, 2010.

   [AP:DR99]  Daemen, J. and V. Rijmen, "AES:AES Proposal: Rijndael",
              1999.

   [ASIACCS:NevSeiWan06]
              Seifert, J., Wang, Z., and M. Neve, "A refined look at
              Bernstein's AES side-channel analysis (Fast abstract)",  ,
              2006.

   [BC:SSAMI07]
              Shirai, T., Shibutani, K., Akishita, T., Moriai, S., and
              T. Iwata, "Clefia: The 128-bit blockcipher CLEFIA", 2007.

   [Blowfish]
              Schneier, "Description of a New Variable-Length Key, 64-
              Bit Block Cipher (Blowfish)", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science fse94vol, 1994.

   [C:BihSha90]
              Shamir, A. and E. Biham, "Differential Cryptanalysis of
              DES-like Cryptosystems", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science crypto90vol, 1991.

   [C:BirKhoNik09]
              Khovratovich, D., Nikolic, I., and A. Biryukov,
              "Distinguisher and Related-Key Attack on the Full AES-
              256", Lecture Notes in Computer Science crypto09vol, 2009.

   [C:BouDerFou11]
              Derbez, P., Fouque, P., and C. Bouillaguet, "Automatic
              Search of Attacks on Round-Reduced AES and Applications",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science crypto11vol, 2011.

   [C:DaeGovVan93]
              Govaerts, R., Vandewalle, J., and J. Daemen, "Weak Keys
              for IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer Science crypto93vol,
              1994.




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   [C:KelSchWag96]
              Schneier, B., Wagner, D., and J. Kelsey, "Key-Schedule
              Cryptoanalysis of IDEA G-DES,GOST SAFER, and Triple-DES,",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science crypto96vol, 1996.

   [C:KnuRobWag99]
              J., M., Wagner, D., and L. R., "Truncated Differentials
              and Skipjack", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science crypto99vol, 1999.

   [C:MPRKS08]
              Pramstaller, N., Rechberger, C., Kontak, M., Szmidt, J.,
              and F. Mendel, "Cryptanalysis of the GOST Hash Function",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science crypto08vol, 2008.

   [C:MaxKho08]
              Khovratovich, D. and A. Maximov, "New State Recovery
              Attack on RC4", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science crypto08vol, 2008.

   [C:Mironov02]
              Mironov, I., "(Not So) Random Shuffles of RC4", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science crypto02vol, 2002.

   [C:MurRob02]
              J., M. and S. Murphy, "Essential Algebraic Structure
              within the AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science crypto02vol, 2002.

   [CA:AHTW99]
              Adams, C., Heys, H., Tavares, S., and M. Wiener, "Cast-
              256:An Analysis of the CAST-256 Cipher", Proceedings of
              IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer
              Engineering CA:AHTW99, 1999.

   [CANS:ChoYapKho09]
              Yap, H., Khoo, K., and J. Choy, "An Analysis of the
              Compact XSL Attack on BES and Embedded SMS4", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science cans09vol, 2009.

   [CANS:DuChe10]
              Chen, J. and C. Du, "Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis
              of ARIA Reduced to 7 Rounds", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science cans10vol, 2010.

   [CANS:JieZho06]
              Zhongya, Z. and G. Jie, "Improved Collision Attack on
              Reduced Round Camellia", Lecture Notes in Computer



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              Science cans06vol, 2006.

   [CANS:RebSelDev06]
              David, A., S., A., and C. Rebeiro, "Bitslice
              Implementation of AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science cans06vol, 2006.

   [CANS:ZhaYuLiu10]
              Yu, Q., Wei, X., and C. N., "An Algorithm Based Concurrent
              Error Detection Scheme for AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science cans10vol, 2010.

   [CAOR:GM00]
              Gilbert, H. and M. Minier, "AES: A collision attack on
              seven rounds of Rijndael", Proceedings of the third AES
              candidate conference CAOR:GM00, 2000.

   [CHES:AkkGir01]
              Giraud, C. and M. Akkar, "An Implementation of DES and AES
              Secure against Some Attacks", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches01vol, 2001.

   [CHES:BBKK07]
              Bogdanov, A., Khovratovich, D., Kasper, T., and A.
              Biryukov, "Collision Attacks on AES-Based MAC: Alpha-MAC",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches07vol, 2007.

   [CHES:Bogdanov08]
              Bogdanov, A., "Multiple-Differential Side-Channel
              Collision Attacks on AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches08vol, 2008.

   [CHES:BonMir06]
              Mironov, I. and J. Bonneau, "Cache-Collision Timing
              Attacks Against AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches06vol, 2006.

   [CHES:BosOzeSta11]
              \\Ozen, O., Stam, M., and J. W., "Efficient Hashing Using
              the AES Instruction Set", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches11vol, 2011.

   [CHES:CFGRV11]
              Feix, B., Gagnerot, G., Roussellet, M., Verneuil, V., and
              C. Clavier, "Improved Collision-Correlation Power Analysis
              on First Order Protected AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches11vol, 2011.




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   [CHES:CTLL01]
              Hung, K., Heng, P., P., M., and O. Y., "Tradeoffs in
              Parallel and Serial Implementations of the International
              Data Encryption Algorithm IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches01vol, 2001.

   [CHES:Canright05]
              Canright, D., "A Very Compact S-Box for AES", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science ches05vol, 2005.

   [CHES:ChoGaj03]
              Gaj, K. and P. Chodowiec, "Very Compact FPGA
              Implementation of the AES Algorithm", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science ches03vol, 2003.

   [CHES:DanPraRol00]
              K., V., D., J., and A. Dandalis, "A Comparative Study of
              Performance of AES Final Candidates Using FPGAs", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science ches00vol, 2000.

   [CHES:DerFouLer11]
              Fouque, P., Leresteux, D., and P. Derbez, "Meet-in-the-
              Middle and Impossible Differential Fault Analysis on AES",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches11vol, 2011.

   [CHES:FelDomWol04]
              Dominikus, S., Wolkerstorfer, J., and M. Feldhofer,
              "Strong Authentication for RFID Systems Using the AES
              Algorithm", Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches04vol,
              2004.

   [CHES:FisDru01]
              Drutarovsk\\'y, M. and V. Fischer, "Two Methods of
              Rijndael Implementation in Reconfigurable Hardware",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches01vol, 2001.

   [CHES:GebHoTiu05]
              Ho, S., C., C., and C. H., "EM Analysis of Rijndael and
              ECC on a Wireless Java-Based PDA", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science ches05vol, 2005.

   [CHES:GolTym02]
              Tymen, C. and J. Dj., "Multiplicative Masking and Power
              Analysis of AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches02vol, 2002.

   [CHES:GooBen05]
              Benaissa, M. and T. Good, "AES on FPGA from the Fastest to



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              the Smallest", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches05vol, 2005.

   [CHES:GouMar11]
              Martinelli, A. and L. Goubin, "Protecting AES with
              Shamir's Secret Sharing Scheme", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches11vol, 2011.

   [CHES:Hamburg09]
              Hamburg, M., "Accelerating AES with Vector Permute
              Instructions", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches09vol, 2009.

   [CHES:HarWal07]
              Waldron, J. and O. Harrison, "AES Encryption
              Implementation and Analysis on Commodity Graphics
              Processing Units", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches07vol, 2007.

   [CHES:Jaffe07]
              Jaffe, J., "A First-Order DPA Attack Against AES in
              Counter Mode with Unknown Initial Counter", Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science ches07vol, 2007.

   [CHES:KasSch09]
              Schwabe, P. and E. K\\asper, "Faster and Timing-Attack
              Resistant AES-GCM", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches09vol, 2009.

   [CHES:KerRey08]
              Reyhani-Masoleh, A. and M. Mozaffari, "A Lightweight
              Concurrent Fault Detection Scheme for the AES S-Boxes
              Using Normal Basis", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches08vol, 2008.

   [CHES:KimHonLim11]
              Hong, S., Lim, J., and H. Kim, "A Fast and Provably Secure
              Higher-Order Masking of AES S-Box", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science ches11vol, 2011.

   [CHES:KuoVer01]
              Verbauwhede, I. and H. Kuo, "Architectural Optimization
              for a 1.82Gbits/sec VLSI Implementation of the AES
              Rijndael Algorithm", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches01vol, 2001.

   [CHES:LWFB07]
              Wolkerstorfer, J., Felber, N., Braendli, M., and S.



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              Lemsitzer, "Multi-gigabit GCM-AES Architecture Optimized
              for FPGAs", Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches07vol,
              2007.

   [CHES:LemSchPaa04]
              Schramm, K., Paar, C., and K. Lemke, "DPA on n-Bit Sized
              Boolean and Arithmetic Operations and Its Application to
              IDEA RC6,and the HMAC-Construction", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science ches04vol, 2004.

   [CHES:ManPraOsw05]
              Pramstaller, N., Oswald, E., and S. Mangard, "Successfully
              Attacking Masked AES ardware Implementations", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science ches05vol, 2005.

   [CHES:ManSch06]
              Schramm, K. and S. Mangard, "Pinpointing the Side-Channel
              Leakage of Masked AES Hardware Implementations", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science ches06vol, 2006.

   [CHES:MasRaiAhm06]
              Raissi, F., Ahmadian, M., and M. Masoumi, "NanoCMOS-
              Molecular Realization of Rijndael", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science ches06vol, 2006.

   [CHES:McLMcC01]
              V., J. and M. McLoone, "High Performance Single-Chip FPGA
              Rijndael Algorithm Implementations", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science ches01vol, 2001.

   [CHES:MorSat02]
              Satoh, A. and S. Morioka, "An Optimized S-Box Circuit
              Architecture for Low Power AES Design", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science ches02vol, 2002.

   [CHES:MorShaSal06]
              T., M., Salmasizadeh, M., and A. Moradi, "A Generalized
              Method of Differential Fault Attack Against AES
              Cryptosystem", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches06vol, 2006.

   [CHES:NNTHM10]
              Nekado, K., Toyota, T., Hongo, N., Morikawa, Y., and Y.
              Nogami, "Mixed Bases for Efficient Inversion in
              F_((2^2)^2)^2 and Conversion Matrices of SubBytes of AES",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches10vol, 2010.

   [CHES:NeiPul04]



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              Pulkus, J. and O. Nei\\sse, "Switching Blindings with a
              View Towards IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches04vol, 2004.

   [CHES:Patterson00]
              Patterson, C., "A Dynamic FPGA Implementation of the
              Serpent Block Cipher", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches00vol, 2000.

   [CHES:PirQui03]
              Quisquater, J. and G. Piret, "A Differential Fault Attack
              Technique against SPN Structures with Application to the
              AES and KHAZAD", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches03vol, 2003.

   [CHES:PosLinWan10]
              Ling, S., Wang, H., and A. Poschmann, "256 Bit
              Standardized Crypto for 650 GE - GOST Revisited", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science ches10vol, 2010.

   [CHES:ProRoc11]
              Roche, T. and E. Prouff, "Higher-Order Glitches Free
              Implementation of the AES Using Secure Multi-party
              Computation Protocols", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches11vol, 2011.

   [CHES:RKSF11]
              Kamel, D., Standaert, F., Flandre, D., and M. Renauld,
              "Information Theoretic and Security Analysis of a 65-
              Nanometer DDSLL AES S-Box", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches11vol, 2011.

   [CHES:RenStaVey09]
              Standaert, F., Veyrat-Charvillon, N., and M. Renauld,
              "Algebraic Side-Channel Attacks on the AES: Why Time also
              Matters in DPA", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches09vol, 2009.

   [CHES:RivPro10]
              Prouff, E. and M. Rivain, "Provably Secure Higher-Order
              Masking of AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches10vol, 2010.

   [CHES:SLFP04]
              Leander, G., Felke, P., Paar, C., and K. Schramm, "A
              Collision-Attack on AES:Combining Side Channel- and
              Differential-Attack", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches04vol, 2004.



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   [CHES:SRQL03]
              Rouvroy, G., Quisquater, J., Legat, J., and F. Standaert,
              "Efficient Implementation of Rijndael Encryption in
              Reconfigurable Hardware:Improvements and Design
              Tradeoffs", Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches03vol,
              2003.

   [CHES:SSHA08]
              Sugawara, T., Homma, N., Aoki, T., and A. Satoh, "High-
              Performance Concurrent Error Detection Scheme for AES
              Hardware", Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches08vol,
              2008.

   [CHES:SatMor03]
              Morioka, S. and A. Satoh, "Unified Hardware Architecture
              for 128-Bit Block Ciphers AES and Camellia", Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science ches03vol, 2003.

   [CHES:StaBerPre04]
              Berna, S., Preneel, B., and F. Standaert, "Power Analysis
              of an FPGA:Implementation of Rijndael:s Pipelining a DPA
              Countermeasure?", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches04vol, 2004.

   [CHES:TilGro06]
              Gro\\sssch\\adl, J. and S. Tillich, "Instruction Set
              Extensions for Efficient AES Implementation on 32-bit
              Processors", Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches06vol,
              2006.

   [CHES:TilGro07]
              Gro\\sssch\\adl, J. and S. Tillich, "Power Analysis
              Resistant AES Implementation with Instruction Set
              Extensions", Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches07vol,
              2007.

   [CHES:TilHer08]
              Herbst, C. and S. Tillich, "Attacking State-of-the-Art
              Software Countermeasures-A Case Study for AES", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science ches08vol, 2008.

   [CHES:TriDeSGer02]
              De, D., Germani, L., and E. Trichina, "Simplified Adaptive
              Multiplicative Masking for AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science ches02vol, 2002.

   [CHES:YamYajIto08]
              Yajima, J., Itoh, K., and D. Yamamoto, "A Very Compact



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              Hardware Implementation of the MISTY1 Block Cipher",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science ches08vol, 2008.

   [DC:WH00]  Wang, X. and L. Hui, "Serpent: The differential
              cryptanalysis of an AES finalist-serpent", Technical
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              Wyseur, B., Preneel, B., and Y. De, "Cryptanalysis of a
              Perturbated White-Box AES Implementation", Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science indocrypt10vol, 2010.

   [INDOCRYPT:PauPre03]
              Preneel, B. and S. Paul, "Analysis of Non-fortuitous
              Predictive States of the RC4 Keystream Generator", Lecture



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              Notes in Computer Science indocrypt03vol, 2003.

   [INDOCRYPT:ProRoc10]
              Roche, T. and E. Prouff, "Attack on a Higher-Order Masking
              of the AES Based on Homographic Functions", Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science indocrypt10vol, 2010.

   [INDOCRYPT:SSMS10]
              Sinha, K., Maitra, S., P., B., and S. Sengupta, "One Byte
              per Clock: A Novel RC4 Hardware", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science indocrypt10vol, 2010.

   [INDOCRYPT:Tezcan10]
              Tezcan, C., "The Improbable Differential Attack:
              Cryptanalysis of Reduced Round CLEFIA", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science indocrypt10vol, 2010.

   [INDOCRYPT:Yildirim03]
              Murat, H., "Nonlinearity Properties of the Mixing
              Operations of the Block Cipher IDEA", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science indocrypt03vol, 2003.

   [INDOCRYPT:ZZWF07]
              Zhang, L., Wu, W., Feng, D., and W. Zhang, "Related-Key
              Differential-Linear Attacks on Reduced AES-192", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science indocrypt07vol, 2007.

   [ISC:BatGieLem08]
              Gierlichs, B., Lemke-Rust, K., and L. Batina, "Comparative
              Evaluation of Rank Correlation Based DPA on an AES
              Prototype Chip", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science isc08vol, 2008.

   [ISC:CGBS01]
              Gaj, K., Bellows, P., Schott, B., and P. Chodowiec,
              "Experimental Testing of the Gigabit IPSec-Compliant
              Implementations of Rijndael and Triple DES Using SLAAC-1V
              FPGA Accelerator Board", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science isc01vol, 2001.

   [ISC:GueKou08]
              E., M. and S. Gueron, "Vortex: A New Family of One-Way
              Hash Functions Based on AES Rounds and Carry-Less
              Multiplication", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science isc08vol, 2008.

   [ISC:IndPre08]
              Preneel, B. and S. Indesteege, "Collisions for RC4-Hash",



McGrew & Shen            Expires April 25, 2013                [Page 47]


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              Lecture Notes in Computer Science isc08vol, 2008.

   [ISC:LuDes10]
              Desmedt, Y. and Y. Lu, "Improved Distinguishing Attack on
              Rabbit", Lecture Notes in Computer Science isc10vol, 2010.

   [ISC:LuWanLin08]
              Wang, H., Ling, S., and Y. Lu, "Cryptanalysis of Rabbit",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science isc08vol, 2008.

   [ISC:NakPav07]
              Carlos, I. and J. Nakahara, "Impossible-Differential
              Attacks on Large-Block Rijndael", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science isc07vol, 2007.

   [ISC:NakPreVan03]
              Preneel, B., Vandewalle, J., and J. Nakahara, "A Note on
              Weak Keys of PES IDEA,and Some Extended Variants", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science isc03vol, 2003.

   [ISC:SatMor03]
              Morioka, S. and A. Satoh, "Hardware-Focused Performance
              Comparison for the Standard Block Ciphers AES Camellia,and
              Triple-DES", Lecture Notes in Computer Science isc03vol,
              2003.

   [ISC:ZWPKY08]
              Wu, W., Hong, J., Wook, B., Yeom, Y., and L. Zhang,
              "Improved Impossible Differential Attacks on Large-Block
              Rijndael", Lecture Notes in Computer Science isc08vol,
              2008.

   [ISPEC:BaiLi11]
              Bai and Li, "New Impossible Differential Attacks on
              Camellia", Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISPEC 2012,
              2011.

   [IWSEC:HSST08]
              Satoh, A., Sakane, H., Toda, K., and Y. Hori, "Bitstream
              Encryption and Authentication Using AES-GCM in Dynamically
              Reconfigurable Systems", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science iwsec08vol, 2008.

   [IWSEC:KRCJ06]
              Ryou, J., Choi, Y., Jun, S., and M. Kim, "Low Power AES
              Hardware Architecture for Radio Frequency Identification",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science iwsec06vol, 2006.




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   [IWSEC:Sasaki10]
              Sasaki, Y., "Known-Key Attacks on Rijndael with Large
              Blocks and Strengthening ShiftRow Parameter", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science iwsec10vol, 2010.

   [K98]      Cryptography Research, "Record Breaking DES Key Search
              Completed", 1998.

   [KRBR:BDK05]
              Bilham, E., Dunkelman, O., and N. Keller, "AES: Related-
              key boomerang and rectangle attacks", Advances in
              cryptology-EUROCRYPT KRBR:BDK05, 2005.

   [LC:BDK02]
              Bilham, E., Dunkelman, O., and N. Keller, "Serpent: Linear
              cryptanalysis of reduced round serpent", Fast software
              encryption-FSE 2003 LC:BDK02, 2002.

   [LDC:KKHS08]
              Kim, T., Kim, J., Hong, S., and J. Sun, "SMS4: Linear and
              Differential Cryptanalysis of Reduced SMS4 Block Cipher",
              Cryptology ePrint Archive LDC08vol, 2008.

   [MITMA:DS08]
              Demirci, H. and A. Selcuk, "AES: A meet-in-the-middle
              attack on 8-round AES", Fast software Encryption-
              FSE MITMA:DS08, 2008.

   [MMA:TSLL10]
              Tang, X., Sun, B., Li, R., and C. Li, "Aria: A Meet-in-
              the-middle Attack on Aria", 2010.

   [NBC:KKP03]
              Kwon, D., Kim, J., Park, S., Sung, S., Sohn, Y., Song, J.,
              Yeom, Y., Lee, S., Lee, J., Chee, S., Lee, J., Han, D.,
              and J. Hong, "Aria: New Block Cipher", In Proc.
              Information Security and Cryptology-ICISC , 2003.

   [NTT]      NTT, "Announcement of Royalty-free Licenses for Essential
              Patents of NTT Encryption and Digital Signature
              Algorithms", 2001.

   [PKC:JonRob05]
              J., M. and J. Jonsson, "Securing RSA-KEM via the AES",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science pkc05vol, 2005.

   [PODC:AEST06]
              Epstein, L., Shachnai, H., Tamir, T., and H. Attiya,



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              "Transactional contention management as a non-clairvoyant
              scheduling problem",  , 2006.

   [RA:BDK01]
              Bilham, E., Dunkelman, O., and N. Keller, "Serpent: The
              rectangle attack-rectangling the serpent", Advances in
              cryptology-EUROCRYPT RA:BDK01, 2001.

   [RFC2144]  Adams, C., "The CAST-128 Encryption Algorithm", RFC 2144,
              May 1997.

   [RFC2268]  Rivest, R., "A Description of the RC2(r) Encryption
              Algorithm", RFC 2268, March 1998.

   [RFC2612]  Adams, C. and J. Gilchrist, "The CAST-256 Encryption
              Algorithm", RFC 2612, June 1999.

   [RFC2994]  Ohta, H. and M. Matsui, "A Description of the MISTY1
              Encryption Algorithm", RFC 2994, November 2000.

   [RFC3713]  Matsui, M., Nakajima, J., and S. Moriai, "A Description of
              the Camellia Encryption Algorithm", RFC 3713, April 2004.

   [RFC4269]  Lee, H., Lee, S., Yoon, J., Cheon, D., and J. Lee, "The
              SEED Encryption Algorithm", RFC 4269, December 2005.

   [RFC4503]  Boesgaard, M., Vesterager, M., and E. Zenner, "A
              Description of the Rabbit Stream Cipher Algorithm",
              RFC 4503, May 2006.

   [RFC4772]  Kelly, S., "Security Implications of Using the Data
              Encryption Standard (DES)", RFC 4772, December 2006.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              RFC 4949, August 2007.

   [RFC5116]  McGrew, D., "An Interface and Algorithms for Authenticated
              Encryption", RFC 5116, January 2008.

   [RFC5794]  Lee, J., Lee, J., Kim, J., Kwon, D., and C. Kim, "A
              Description of the ARIA Encryption Algorithm", RFC 5794,
              March 2010.

   [RFC5830]  Dolmatov, V., "GOST 28147-89: Encryption, Decryption, and
              Message Authentication Code (MAC) Algorithms", RFC 5830,
              March 2010.

   [RFC6114]  Katagi, M. and S. Moriai, "The 128-Bit Blockcipher



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              CLEFIA", RFC 6114, March 2011.

   [RKIDA:BDK06]
              Bilham, E., Dunkelman, O., and N. Keller, "AES: Related-
              key impossible defferential attacks on 8-round AES-192",
              Topics in Cryptology-CT-RSA KRBR:BDK06, 2006.

   [RSA:AciSchKoc07]
              Schindler, W., Kaya, ., and O. Acii\\ccmez, "Cache Based
              Remote Timing Attack on the AES", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science rsa07vol, 2007.

   [RSA:BEPW10]
              Eisenbarth, T., Paar, C., Wienecke, M., and A. Bogdanov,
              "Differential Cache-Collision Timing Attacks on AES with
              Applications to Embedded CPUs", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science rsa10vol, 2010.

   [RSA:BihDunKel06]
              Dunkelman, O., Keller, N., and E. Biham, "Related-Key
              Impossible Differential Attacks on 8-Round AES-192",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science rsa06vol, 2006.

   [RSA:ClaGieVer08]
              Gierlichs, B., Verbauwhede, I., and C. Clavier, "Fault
              Analysis Study of IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science rsa08vol, 2008.

   [RSA:Konighofer08]
              K\\onighofer, R., "A Fast and Cache-Timing Resistant
              Implementation of the AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science rsa08vol, 2008.

   [RSA:LKKD08]
              Kim, J., Keller, N., Dunkelman, O., and J. Lu, "Improving
              the Efficiency of Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis of
              Reduced Camellia and MISTY1", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science rsa08vol, 2008.

   [RSA:MBPV05]
              Batina, L., Preneel, B., Verbauwhede, I., and N. Mentens,
              "A Systematic Evaluation of Compact Hardware
              mplementations for the Rijndael S-Box", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science rsa05vol, 2005.

   [RSA:OsvShaTro06]
              Shamir, A., Tromer, E., and D. Arne, "Cache Attacks and
              Countermeasures: The Case of AES", Lecture Notes in



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              Computer Science rsa06vol, 2006.

   [RSA:RebMuk11]
              Mukhopadhyay, D. and C. Rebeiro, "Cryptanalysis of CLEFIA
              Using Differential Methods with Cache Trace Patterns",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science rsa11vol, 2011.

   [RSA:SakYagOht09]
              Yagi, T., Ohta, K., and K. Sakiyama, "Fault Analysis
              Attack against an AES Prototype Chip Using RSL", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science rsa09vol, 2009.

   [RSA:SchPaa06]
              Paar, C. and K. Schramm, "Higher Order Masking of the
              AES", Lecture Notes in Computer Science rsa06vol, 2006.

   [RSA:TilHer08]
              Herbst, C. and S. Tillich, "Boosting AES Performance on a
              Tiny Processor Core", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science rsa08vol, 2008.

   [RSA:WolOswLam02]
              Oswald, E., Lamberger, M., and J. Wolkerstorfer, "An ASIC
              Implementation of the AES S-Boxes", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science rsa02vol, 2002.

   [RSA:WuLuLai04]
              Lu, S., Laih, C., and S. Wu, "Design of AES Based on Dual
              Cipher and Composite Field", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science rsa04vol, 2004.

   [S11]      Sung, J., "Differential cryptanalysis of eight-round
              SEED", Information Processing Letters Volume 111, 2011.

   [SAC:AyaSel06]
              Aydin, A. and E. Serdar, "Improved DST Cryptanalysis of
              IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac06vol, 2006.

   [SAC:BBDRS98]
              Biryukov, A., Dunkelman, O., Richardson, E., Shamir, A.,
              and E. Biham, "Initial Observations on Skipjack:
              Cryptanalysis of Skipjack-3XOR (Invited Talk)", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science sac98vol, 1999.

   [SAC:BaiVau05]
              Vaudenay, S. and T. Baign\\`eres, "Proving the Security of
              AES Substitution-Permutation Network", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac05vol, 2005.



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   [SAC:BilGilEch04]
              Gilbert, H., Ech-Chatbi, C., and O. Billet, "Cryptanalysis
              of a White Box AES Implementation", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac04vol, 2004.

   [SAC:BloGuaKru04]
              Guajardo, J., Krummel, V., and J. Bl\\omer, "Provably
              Secure Masking of AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac04vol, 2004.

   [SAC:BloKru07]
              Krummel, V. and J. Bl\\omer, "Analysis of Countermeasures
              Against Access Driven Cache Attacks on AES", Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science sac07vol, 2007.

   [SAC:Bogdanov07]
              Bogdanov, A., "Improved Side-Channel Collision Attacks on
              AES", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac07vol, 2007.

   [SAC:CEJV02]
              A., P., Johnson, H., C., P., and S. Chow, "White-Box
              Cryptography and an AES Implementation", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac02vol, 2003.

   [SAC:CanOsv09]
              Arne, D. and D. Canright, "A More Compact AES", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science sac09vol, 2009.

   [SAC:DemSelTur03]
              Aydin, A., Ture, E., and H. Demirci, "A New Meet-in-the-
              Middle Attack on the IDEA Block Cipher", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac03vol, 2004.

   [SAC:Demirci02]
              Demirci, H., "Square-like Attacks on Reduced Rounds of
              IDEA", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac02vol, 2003.

   [SAC:EtrRob08]
              J., M. and J. Etrog, "The Cryptanalysis of Reduced-Round
              SMS4", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac08vol, 2008.

   [SAC:FegSchWhi01]
              Schroeppel, R., Whiting, D., and N. Ferguson, "A Simple
              Algebraic Representation of Rijndael", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac01vol, 2001.

   [SAC:FluManSha01]
              Mantin, I., Shamir, A., and S. R., "Weaknesses in the Key



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              Scheduling Algorithm of RC4", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac01vol, 2001.

   [SAC:HatSekKan02]
              Sekine, H., Kaneko, T., and Y. Hatano, "Higher Order
              Differential Attack of Camellia (II)", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac02vol, 2003.

   [SAC:JakDes03]
              Desmedt, Y. and G. Jakimoski, "Related-Key Differential
              Cryptanalysis of 192-bit Key AES Variants", Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science sac03vol, 2004.

   [SAC:KelMeiTav01]
              Meijer, H., E., S., and L. Keliher, "Improving the Upper
              Bound on the Maximum Average Linear Hull Probability for
              Rijndael", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac01vol,
              2001.

   [SAC:KirYou09]
              M., A. and A. Kircanski, "Differential Fault Analysis of
              Rabbit", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac09vol, 2009.

   [SAC:LeiChaFen05]
              Chao, L., Feng, K., and D. Lei, "New Observation on
              Camellia", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac05vol,
              2005.

   [SAC:Lipmaa98]
              Lipmaa, H., "IDEA: A Cipher For Multimedia
              Architectures?", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac98vol, 1999.

   [SAC:MPRS09]
              Peyrin, T., Rechberger, C., Schl\\affer, M., and F.
              Mendel, "Improved Cryptanalysis of the Reduced Gr\ostl
              Compression Function ECHO Permutation and AES Block
              Cipher,", Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac09vol,
              2009.

   [SAC:MSDB09]
              Shakiba, M., Dakhilalian, M., Bagherikaram, G., and H.
              Mala, "New Results on Impossible Differential
              Cryptanalysis of Reduced-Round Camellia-128", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science sac09vol, 2009.

   [SAC:MisTav98]
              E., S. and S. Mister, "Cryptanalysis of RC4-like Ciphers",



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              Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac98vol, 1999.

   [SAC:NevSei06]
              Seifert, J. and M. Neve, "Advances on Access-Driven Cache
              Attacks on AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac06vol, 2006.

   [SAC:Nikolic10]
              Nikolic, I., "Tweaking AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac10vol, 2010.

   [SAC:PauMai07]
              Maitra, S. and G. Paul, "Permutation After RC4 Key
              Scheduling Reveals the Secret Key", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac07vol, 2007.

   [SAC:PirQui04]
              Quisquater, J. and G. Piret, "Security of the MISTY
              Structure in the Luby-Rackoff Model: Improved Results",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac04vol, 2004.

   [SAC:ReiWag02]
              Wagner, D. and B. Reichardt, "Markov Truncated
              Differential Cryptanalysis of Skipjack", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac02vol, 2003.

   [SAC:SKWWH98]
              Kelsey, J., Whiting, D., Wagner, D., Hall, C., and B.
              Schneier, "On the Twofish Key Schedule", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac98vol, 1999.

   [SAC:SekKan00]
              Kaneko, T. and H. Seki, "Differential Cryptanalysis of
              Reduced Rounds of GOST", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac00vol, 2001.

   [SAC:SepVauVua10]
              Vaudenay, S., Vuagnoux, M., and P. Sepehrdad, "Discovery
              and Exploitation of New Biases in RC4", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science sac10vol, 2010.

   [SAC:SunLai09]
              Lai, X. and X. Sun, "Improved Integral Attacks on MISTY1",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac09vol, 2009.

   [SAC:Tsow09]
              Tsow, A., "An Improved Recovery Algorithm for Decayed AES
              Key Schedule Images", Lecture Notes in Computer



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              Science sac09vol, 2009.

   [SAC:VauVua07]
              Vuagnoux, M. and S. Vaudenay, "Passive-Only Key Recovery
              Attacks on RC4", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac07vol, 2007.

   [SAC:WamWanHu08]
              Wang, X., Hu, C., and M. Wang, "New Linear Cryptanalytic
              Results of Reduced-Round of CAST-128 and CAST-256",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac08vol, 2008.

   [SAC:WuFenChe04]
              Feng, D., Chen, H., and W. Wu, "Collision Attack and
              Pseudorandomness of Reduced-Round Camellia", Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science sac04vol, 2004.

   [SAC:WuZhaZha08]
              Zhang, L., Zhang, W., and W. Wu, "Improved Impossible
              Differential Cryptanalysis of Reduced-Round Camellia",
              Lecture Notes in Computer Science sac08vol, 2008.

   [SAC:ZWZF06]
              Wu, W., Zhang, L., Feng, D., and W. Zhang, "Improved
              Related-Key Impossible Differential Attacks on Reduced-
              Round AES-192", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science sac06vol, 2006.

   [SC:AIKMMNT00]
              AOKI, K., ICHIKAWA, T., KANDA, M., MATSUI, M., MORIAI, S.,
              NAKAJIMA, J., and T. TOKITA, "Camellia: Specification of
              Camellia--128-bit block cipher", 2000.

   [SCN:CheMiy10]
              Miyaji, A. and J. Chen, "Generalized RC4 Key Collisions
              and Hash Collisions", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science scn10vol, 2010.

   [SCN:DaeRij06]
              Rijmen, V. and J. Daemen, "Understanding Two-Round
              Differentials in AES", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science scn06vol, 2006.

   [SCN:NikRijSch08]
              Rijmen, V., Schl\\affer, M., and S. Nikova, "Using Normal
              Bases for Compact Hardware Implementations of the AES
              S-Box", Lecture Notes in Computer Science scn08vol, 2008.




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   [SCN:YanShi02]
              Shimoyama, T. and H. Yanami, "Differential Cryptanalysis
              of a Reduced-Round SEED", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science scn02vol, 2002.

   [SKES:WMF03]
              Wu, W., Ma, H., and D. Feng, "SEED: Security on Korean
              Encryption Standard", Acta Electronica Sinica 2003-2004,
              2003.

   [SKIPJACK]
              U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology,
              "SKIPJACK and KEA Specifications", 1998.

   [SMS4]     OSCCA, "The SMS4 Block Cipher", 2006.

   [SP:GulBanKre11]
              Bangerter, E., Krenn, S., and D. Gullasch, "Cache Games -
              Bringing Access-Based Cache Attacks on AES to Practice",
               , 2011.

   [SPAA:BC03]
              Biryukov, A. and C. Canniere, "Security and Performance
              Analysis of Aira", ARIA-COSIC report.pdf SPAA03vol, 2003.

   [Serpent]  Anderson, Biham, and Knudsen, "The Serpent Block Cipher",
              1998.

   [TC:MY00]  Moriai, S. and Y. Yin, "Twofish: Cryptanalysis of
              twofish(2)", Technical report,IEICE TC:MY00, 2000.

   [Twofish]  Schneier, Kelsey, Whiting, Wagner, Hall, and Fergusen,
              "The Twofish Block Cipher", 1998.

   [WISA:GalKizTun10]
              Kizhvatov, I., Tunstall, M., and J. Gallais, "Improved
              Trace-Driven Cache-Collision Attacks against Embedded AES
              Implementations", Lecture Notes in Computer
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   [WISA:OswSch05]
              Schramm, K. and E. Oswald, "An Efficient Masking Scheme
              for AES Software Implementations", Lecture Notes in
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   [WISA:SchKim08]
              Hee, C. and J. Schmidt, "A Probing Attack on AES", Lecture
              Notes in Computer Science wisa08vol, 2008.



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   [WISA:THSK07]
              Hatano, Y., Sugio, N., Kaneko, T., and H. Tanaka,
              "Security Analysis of MISTY1", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science wisa07vol, 2007.

   [WISA:TriKor04]
              Korkishko, L. and E. Trichina, "Secure and Efficient AES
              Software Implementation for Smart Cards", Lecture Notes in
              Computer Science wisa04vol, 2004.

   [WISA:YHMOM06]
              Herbst, C., Mangard, S., Oswald, E., Moon, S., and H. Yoo,
              "Investigations of Power Analysis Attacks and
              Countermeasures for ARIA", Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science wisa06vol, 2006.

   [WISA:YKHMP04]
              Kim, C., Ha, J., Moon, S., Park, I., and H. Yoo, "Side
              Channel Cryptanalysis on SEED", Lecture Notes in Computer
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Authors' Addresses

   David McGrew
   Cisco Systems
   13600 Dulles Technology Drive
   Herndon, VA  20171
   USA

   Email: mcgrew@cisco.com


   Sean Shen
   Chinese Academy of Science
   No.4 South 4th Zhongguancun Street
   Beijing,   100190
   China

   Phone: +86 10-58813038
   Email: shenshuo@cnnic.cn










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