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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
 Internet Draft                                           Norman Paskin
 Document: draft-paskin-doi-uri-02.txt                              IDF
 Expires: April 2003                                      Eamonn Neylon
                                                     Manifest Solutions
                                                           Tony Hammond
                                                       Elsevier Science
                                                                Sam Sun
                                                           October 2002
          The "doi" URI Scheme for Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
 Status of this Memo
    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
    all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
    Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
    Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
    other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
    months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
    documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
    as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
    This document defines the "doi" Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
    scheme for Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs). The DOI system was
    developed by the International DOI Foundation (http://www.doi.org),
    an open membership-based organization founded to develop a
    framework of infrastructure, policies and procedures to support the
    identification needs of providers of intellectual property. DOI
    identifiers are persistent across time and unique across network
    space. The "doi" URI scheme allows a DOI to be referenced by a URI
    for Internet applications.
 Table of Contents
    1. Introduction..................................................2
    2. The "doi" URI Scheme..........................................3
       2.1 "doi" URI Syntax Definition...............................3
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                          The "doi" URI Scheme             October 2002
       2.2 Reserved and Excluded Characters under "doi" scheme.......3
       2.3 Examples of "doi" URIs....................................4
    3. Security Considerations.......................................4
    4. Further Information...........................................4
    5. Acknowledgements..............................................4
    Author's Addresses...............................................5
 1. Introduction
    DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier [DOI], which is a managed
    identifier of an intellectual property entity across a common
    business sector. The DOI identifier enables the network retrieval
    of a set of related services. The DOI identifier is not constrained
    to a network application context. DOI identifiers have been widely
    deployed by the publishing industry. This specification defines the
    "doi" URI scheme for DOI identifiers referenced within Internet
    DOI identifiers are globally unique across the URI namespace and
    persistent over time. A DOI identifier can "be used as a reference
    to a resource well beyond the lifetime of the resource it
    identifies or of any naming authority involved in the assignment of
    its name" [RFC1737]. A "doi" URI has associated data related to the
    entity that the DOI identifies.
    The "doi" URI scheme defines a standard way to represent a DOI
    identifier under URI namespace. A "doi" URI may serve as a pure
    name or may be de-referenced by a network service. When used as a
    name, a "doi"-based URI is independent of any service protocol and
    accordingly, is not network de-referenceable. When used within a
    network reference (e.g. within a hyperlink), a DOI identifier does
    not have a native resolution system. It is instead transported
    using a network protocol to a specific service (e.g. the Handle
    System [HS], or a HTTP request to a proxy). Such service requests
    may also include supplemental query components specific to that
    DOIs must be registered through an appointed registration agency.
    The International DOI Foundation, which is the maintenance agency
    for the DOI, is responsible for the appointment of registration
    The "doi" URI scheme defined in this document conforms to the
    generic URI syntax as specified in RFC2396 [RFC2396]. UTF-8 [UTF-8]
    encoding is mandated for any DOI transmitted between "doi" user
    agent and any DOI service. Syntax for DOI identifier within the
    "doi" scheme is defined in accordance with ANSI/NISO Z39.84
    [NISO39.84] standard for Digital Object Identifier Syntax.
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                          The "doi" URI Scheme             October 2002
 2. The "doi" URI Scheme
 2.1 "doi" URI Syntax Definition
      doi             = scheme ":" doi-identifier
      scheme          = "doi"
      doi-identifier  = prefix "/" suffix
      prefix          = chars-no-slash
      suffix          = chars
      chars-no-slash  = 1*(%x00-2E  /  %x30-FF)
                        ; any character of the UCS [ISO10646] of
                        ; U+00A0 and beyond, except the '/'
                        ; character.
      chars           = 1*(%x00-FF)
                        ; any character of the UCS [ISO10646] of
                        ; U+00A0 and beyond.
    The prefix is always assigned to a registrant by a registration
    agency. The registrant is responsible for the creation of a valid
    suffix. The prefix corresponds to the creator naming authority at
    the time of construction only. The administration of any particular
    DOI may be transferred to another party at any time, so the prefix
    does not denote the administrative ownership of a particular DOI.
    NISO Z39.84 is the authoritative reference that specifies the rules
    for constructing a DOI. Once constructed, a DOI is to be
    interpreted as an opaque identifier. The minimum constraints for
    validation of a DOI string are that the prefix and suffix
    components be non-empty.
 2.2 Reserved and Excluded Characters under "doi" scheme
    The "doi" syntax abide by the same set of excluded US-ASCII
    characters as specified in RFC2396. It further reserves the
    following characters that are used in common service requests that
    may be used to append information to a DOI in certain circumstances
    (e.g. adding parameters resolution instructions to a HTTP URL
    encoded service request):
         reserved = "?" | "&" | "=" | "#"
    If the data for a "doi-identifier" component would conflict with
    the reserved purpose, then the conflicting data must be escaped
    before forming the URI. Details of the escape encoding can be found
    in RFC2396, section 2.4.
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                          The "doi" URI Scheme             October 2002
 2.3 Examples of "doi" URIs
    Some examples of syntactically valid "doi" URIs are given below:
      (a) doi:alpha-beta/182.342-24
    where "alpha-beta" is the prefix and "182.342-24" is the suffix.
      (b) doi:10.abc/ab/cd/ef
    where "10.abc" is the prefix and "ab/cd/ef" is the suffix.
      (c) doi:1.23/2002/january/21/4690
    where "1.23" is the prefix and "january/21/4690" is the suffix.
      (d) <element xmlns="doi:1.23/2002/january/21/4690">
    The acquisition of DOI services can be achieved through the use
    other protocols as a proxy to transfer to dedicated networked
    service components.
    Examples of such use are given below:
      (e) http://my.resolver.inc/resolve?id=doi%3Aalpha-beta%2Fmsws
    is an OpenURL [OPENURL] service request for "doi:alpha-beta/msws".
      (f) rtsp://service.net/query?doi%3A10.abc%2Fab%2Fcd%2Fef
    is a service request for "doi:10.abc/ab/cd/ef".
 3. Security Considerations
    The "doi" URI scheme is subject to the same security implications
    as the general URI scheme described in [RFC 2396].
    When DOI values are used in resolution services, retrieval of DOI
    data will be subject to the security considerations of the
    underlying protocol used to access the DOI service.
 4. Further Information
    The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Larry
    Lannom and Jason Petrone, of the Corporation for National Research
    Initiatives, to this specification.
 5. Acknowledgements
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                          The "doi" URI Scheme             October 2002
    The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Larry
    Lannom and Jason Petrone, of the Corporation for National Research
    Initiatives, to this specification.
    [DOI] The DOI System http://www.doi.org/
    [HS] The Handle System http://www.handle.net/
    [RFC2396] Berners-Lee, T., R. Fielding and L. Manister, "Uniform
    Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", August 1998.
    [HTTP] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, T. Berners-
    Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol - HTTP/1.1", January, 1997.
    [NISO39.84] ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2000 Syntax for Digital Object
    [OPENURL] OpenURL specification. http://www.sfxit.com/OpenURL
    [ISO10646] Information Technology - Universal Multiple-Octet Coded
    Character Set (UCS) - Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual
    Plane", ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.
    [UTF-8] Yergeau, Francois, "UTF-8, A Transformation Format for
    Unicode and ISO10646", October 1996.
    [RFC1737] K. Sollins and L. Masinter "Functional Requirements for
    Uniform Resource Names", December 1994.
 Author's Addresses
    Norman Paskin
    The International DOI Foundation
    PO Box 233, Kidlington
    Oxford, OX5 1XU, UK
    Eamonn Neylon
    Manifest Solutions
    John Eccles House, Oxford Science Park
    Oxford, OX4 4GP, UK
    Tony Hammond
    Elsevier Science Ltd
    84 Theobald's Road
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                          The "doi" URI Scheme             October 2002
    London WC1X 8RR, UK
    Sam Sun
    Corporation for National Research Initiatives
    1805 Preston White Dr., Suite 100
    Reston, VA 20191, USA
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