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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
Internet Draft                                Norman Paskin
Document: draft-paskin-doi-uri-00.txt         IDF
Expires: August, 2002                         Eamonn Neylon
                                              Manifest Solutions
                                              Tony Hammond
                                              Elsevier Science
                                              Sam Sun
                                              February, 2002

         Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme for
                Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at:


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Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

 Copyright   (C) The Internet Society 2002.  All Rights Reserved.


This document defines the "doi" Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
scheme for Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs). The DOI system was
developed by the International DOI Foundation (http://www.doi.org),
an open membership-based organization founded to develop a framework
of infrastructure, policies and procedures to support the identification
needs of providers of intellectual property. DOI identifiers are
persistent across time and unique across network space. The "doi" URI
scheme allows a DOI to be referenced by a URI for Internet applications.

The key words "MUST", "MAY", and "SHOULD" used in this document are to
be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. Compliant software MUST
follow this specification.

1. Introduction

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier [DOI], which is a managed
identifier of an intellectual property entity across a common business
sector. The DOI identifier enables the network retrieval of a set of
related services. The DOI identifier is not constrained to a network
application context. DOI identifiers have been widely deployed by the
publishing industry. This specification defines the "doi" URI scheme
for DOI identifiers referenced within Internet applications.

DOI identifiers are globally unique across the URI namespace and
persistent over time. A DOI identifier can "be used as a reference to
a resource well beyond the lifetime of the resource it identifies or
of any naming authority involved in the assignment of its name" [RFC1737].
A "doi" URI has associated data related to the entity that the DOI

The "doi" URI scheme defines a standard way to represent a DOI identifier
under URI namespace. A "doi" URI may serve as a pure name or may be
de-referenced by a network service. When used as a name, a "doi"-based
URI is independent of any service protocol and accordingly, is not
network de-referenceable. When used within a network reference (e.g.
within a hyperlink), a DOI identifier does not have a native resolution
system. It is instead transported using a network protocol to a specific
service (e.g. the Handle System [HS], or a HTTP request to a proxy).
Such service requests may also include supplemental query components
specific to that service.

DOIs must be registered through an appointed registration agency. The
International DOI Foundation, which is the maintenance agency for the DOI,
is responsible for the appointment of registration agencies.

The "doi" URI scheme defined in this document conforms to the generic URI
syntax as specified in RFC2396 [RFC2396]. UTF-8 [UTF-8] encoding is
mandated for any DOI transmitted between "doi" user agent and any DOI
service. Syntax for DOI identifier within the "doi" scheme is defined in
accordance with ANSI/NISO Z39.84 [NISO39.84] standard for Digital Object
Identifier Syntax.

2. The ôdoiö URI Scheme

2.1.  ôdoiö Scheme Definition

    doi                 = scheme ":" doi-identifier

    scheme              = "doi"

    doi-identifier      = prefix "/" suffix

    prefix              = chars-no-slash

    suffix              = chars

    chars-no-slash      = 1*(%x00-2E  /  %x30-FF)
                        ; any character of the UCS [ISO10646] of U+00A0
                        ; and beyond, except the '/' character.

    chars               = 1*(%x00-FF)
                        ; any character of the UCS [ISO10646] of U+00A0
                        ; and beyond.

The prefix is always assigned to a registrant by a registration agency.
The registrant is responsible for the creation of a valid suffix. The
prefix corresponds to the creator naming authority at the time of
construction only. The administration of any particular DOI may be
transferred to another party at any time, so the prefix does not denote
the administrative ownership of a particular DOI.

NISO Z39.84 is the authoritative reference that specifies the rules for
 constructing a DOI. Once constructed, a DOI is to be interpreted as an
opaque identifier. The minimum constraints for validation of a DOI string
 are that the prefix and suffix components be non-empty.

2.2. Reserved and Excluded Characters under "doi" scheme

The "doi" syntax abide by the same set of excluded US-ASCII characters as
 specified in RFC2396. It further reserves the following characters that
are used in common service requests that may be used to append information
 to a DOI in certain circumstances (e.g. adding parameters resolution
instructions to a HTTP URL encoded service request):

     reserved = "?" | "&" | "=" | "#"

If the data for a "doi-identifier" component would conflict with the
reserved purpose, then the conflicting data must be escaped before forming
the URI. Details of the escape encoding can be found in RFC2396, section 2.4.

2.3. Examples of "doi" URIs

Some examples of syntactically valid "doi" URIs are given below:

     (a) doi:alpha-beta/182.342-24

where "alpha-beta" is the prefix and "182.342-24" is the suffix

     (b) doi:10.abc/ab/cd/ef

where "10.abc" is the prefix and "ab/cd/ef" is the suffix

     (c) doi:1.23/2002/january/21/4690

where "1.23" is the prefix and "january/21/4690" is the suffix

     (d) <element xmlns="doi:1.23/2002/january/21/4690">

The acquisition of DOI services can be achieved through the use other
protocols as a proxy to transfer to dedicated networked service components.
 Examples of such use are given below:

     (e) http://my.resolver.inc/resolve?id=doi%3Aalpha-beta%2Fmsws

is an OpenURL [NISO Z39.??] service request for "doi:alpha-beta/msws"

     (f) rtsp://service.net/query?doi%3A10.abc%2Fab%2Fcd%2Fef

is a service request for "doi:10.abc/ab/cd/ef"

3. Security Considerations

The "doi" URI scheme is subject to the same security implications as the
general URI scheme described in [RFC 2396].

When DOI values are used in resolution services, retrieval of DOI data
will be subject to the security considerations of the underlying protocol
used to access the DOI service.

4. Further Information

The current DOI system utilizes the Handle System [HS] for its identifier
resolution and administration. Information regarding the Handle System
can be found under http://www.handle.net/.

5. Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Larry Lannom and
Jason Petrone, of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives, to
this specification.

6. AuthorsÆ Addresses

Norman Paskin
The International DOI Foundation
PO Box 233, Kidlington,
Oxford, OX5 1XU, UK

Eamonn Neylon
Manifest Solutions
John Eccles House, Oxford Science Park
Oxford, OX4 4GP, United Kingdom

Tony Hammond
Elsevier Science
Jamestown Road
Camden Town, London NW1
United Kingdom

Sam Sun
Corporation for National Research Initiatives
1805 Preston White Dr., Suite 100
Reston, VA 20191

7. References

[DOI] The DOI System http://www.doi.org/
[HS] The Handle System http://www.handle.net/
[RFC2396] Berners-Lee, T., R. Fielding and L. Manister, "Uniform Resource
 Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt,
 August 1998.
[HTTP] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, T. Berners-Lee,
 "Hypertext Transfer Protocol - HTTP/1.1",
 January, 1997.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key Words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
 Levels", http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt, March 1997.
[NISO39.84] ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2000 Syntax for Digital Object Identifier,
[NISO Z39.??] ANSI/NISO Z39.??-2002 OpenURL Standard
[ISO10646]Information Technology - Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character
 Set (UCS) - Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane",
 ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.
[UTF-8] Yergeau, Francois, "UTF-8, A Transformation Format for Unicode and
 ISO10646", October 1996, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2044.txt
[RFC1737] K. Sollins and L. Masinter ôFunctional Requirements for Uniform
 Resource Namesö http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1737.txt, December 1994.