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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05                                             
Network Working Group                                     I. van Beijnum
Internet-Draft                                  Institute IMDEA Networks
Intended status: Experimental                           October 27, 2014
Expires: April 30, 2015

                    Extensions for Multi-MTU Subnets


   In the early days of the internet, many different link types with
   many different maximum packet sizes were in use.  For point-to-point
   or point-to-multipoint links, there are still some other link types
   (PPP, ATM, Packet over SONET), but multipoint subnets are now almost
   exclusively implemented as Ethernets.  Even though the relevant
   standards mandate a 1500 byte maximum packet size for Ethernet, more
   and more Ethernet equipment is capable of handling packets bigger
   than 1500 bytes.  However, since this capability isn't standardized,
   it is seldom used today, despite the potential performance benefits
   of using larger packets.  This document specifies mechanisms to
   negotiate per-neighbor maximum packet sizes so that nodes on a
   multipoint subnet may use the maximum mutually supported packet size
   between them without being limited by nodes with smaller maximum
   sizes on the same subnet.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 30, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Overview of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  The ND NODEMTU option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  The MTUTEST packet format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Changes to the RA MTU option semantics  . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  The TCP MSS option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     9.1.  Initialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     9.2.  Probing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     9.3.  Monitoring  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.4.  Neighbor MTU garbage collection . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   10. IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   11. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Appendix A.  Document and discussion information  . . . . . . . .  17
   Appendix B.  Advantages and disadvantages of larger packets . . .  17
     B.1.  Delay and jitter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     B.2.  Path MTU Discovery problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     B.3.  Packet loss through bit errors  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     B.4.  Undetected bit errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     B.5.  Interaction TCP congestion control  . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     B.6.  IEEE 802.3 compatibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     B.7.  Conclusion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21

1.  Introduction

   Some protocols inherently generate small packets.  Examples are VoIP,
   where it is necessary to send packets frequently before much data can
   be gathered to fill up the packet, and the DNS, where the queries are
   inherently small and the returned results also often do not fill up a

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   full 1500-byte packet.  However, most data that is transferred across
   the internet and private networks is part of long-lived sessons and
   requires segmentation by a transport protocol, which is almost always
   TCP.  These types of data transfers can benefit from larger packets
   in several ways:

   1.  A higher data-to-header ratio makes for fewer overhead bytes

   2.  Fewer packets means fewer per-packet operations for the source
       and destination hosts

   3.  Fewer packets also means fewer per-packet operations in routers
       and middleboxes

   4.  TCP performance increases with larger packet sizes

   Even though today, the capability to use larger packets (often called
   jumboframes) is present in a lot of Ethernet hardware, this
   capability typically isn't used because IP assumes a common MTU size
   for all nodes connected to a link or subnet.  In practice, this means
   that using a larger MTU requires manual configuration of the non-
   standard MTU size on all hosts and routers and possibly on layer 2
   switches connected to a subnet.  Also, the MTU size for a subnet is
   limited to that of the least capable router, host or switch.

   Perhaps in the future, when hosts support packetization layer path
   MTU discovery ([RFC4821], "Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery")
   in all relevant transport protocols, it will be possible to simply
   ignore MTU limitations by sending at the maximum locally supported
   size and determining the maximum packet size towards a correspondent
   from acknowledgements that come back for packets of different sizes.
   However, [RFC4821] must be implemented in every transport protocol,
   and problems arise in the case where hosts implementing [RFC4821]
   interact with hosts that don't implement this mechanism, but do use a
   larger than standard MTU.

   This document provides for a set of mechanisms that allow the use of
   larger packets between nodes that support them which interacts well
   with both manually configured non-standard MTUs and expected future
   [RFC4821] operation with larger MTUs.  This is done using a new IPv6
   Neighbor Discovery option and a new UDP-based protocol for exchanging
   MTU information and testing whether jumboframes can be transmitted

   Appendix B discusses several potential issues with larger packets,
   such as head-of-line blocking delays, path MTU discovery black holes
   and the strength of the CRC32 with increasing packet sizes.

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2.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Note that this specification is not standards track, and as such,
   can't overrule existing specifications.  Whenever [RFC2119] language
   is used, this must be interpreted within the context of this
   specification: while the specification as a whole is optional and
   non-standard, whenever it is implemented, such an implementation can
   only function properly when all MUSTs are observed.

3.  Terminology

   Advertised MTU:  The MTU size announced by a node to other nodes on
      the local subnet.

   Confirmed MTU:  The largest packet size successfully received from
      the neighbor or the largest packet size sent to the neighbor for
      which an acknowledgment was received; whichever size is greater.

   Confirmed Time:  When a packet the size of the confirmed MTU was last
      received or acknowledged.

   Local MTU:  The MTU configured on an interface.  By default, this is
      the largest MTU size supported by the hardware, but the Local MTU
      may be lowered administratively or automatically based on policy.
      (For instance, the MTU may be set to the Standard MTU if the link
      speed is below 1000 Mbps.)

   MRU:  Maximum Receive Unit.  The size of the largest IP packet that
      can be received on an interface.  This document doesn't use the
      term MRU, and assumes that the MRU is equal to the MTU.

   MTU:  Maximum Transfer Unit.  The size of the largest IP packet that
      can be transmitted on an interface, considering hardware (and
      administrative) limitations.

   Neighbor:  Another node on a connected subnet.  Neighbors are
      identified by the combination of a link address and an IP version.
      The MTU may be set to different values for IPv4 and IPv6
      administratively, but it is assumed that if a node has multiple
      IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, the MTU for each set of addresses is the

   Neighbor MTU:  The currently used MTU towards a neighboring node on a
      subnet.  The Neighbor MTU reflects the current best understanding

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      of the maximum packet size that can successfully be transmitted
      towards that neighbor.

   Safe MTU:  The maximum packet size that is assumed to work without
      testing.  Defaults to the Standard MTU, but may be set to a
      subnet-wide higher or lower value administratively, or to a lower
      value using the MTU option in IPv6 Router Advertisements.

   Standard MTU:  The MTU specified in the relevant IPv4-over-... or
      IPv6-over-... document, which is 1500 for Ethernet ([RFC0894] and

4.  Overview of operation

   The mechanisms described in this document come into play when a node
   is connected to a subnet using an interface that supports an MTU size
   larger than the standard MTU size for that link type.

   For each remote node connected to such a subnet, the local node
   maintains a neighbor MTU setting.  The length of packets transmitted
   to a neighbor is always limited to the neighbor MTU size.

   When a node starts communicating with another node on the same
   subnet, it follows the following procedure:

   1.  Initialization: the neighbor MTU is set to local maximum MTU for
       the interface used to reach the neighbor.

   2.  Discovery: learning the other node's MTU.

   3.  Probing: determining the maximum packet size that can
       successfully be transmitted to and and received from the other
       node, considering the (unknown) maximum packet size supported by
       the layer 2 infrastructure.

   4.  Monitoring: making sure that when large packets are transmitted,
       they are not silently discarded, for instance as the result of a
       layer 2 reconfiguration.

   During the discovery and probing stages, the neighbor MTU is adjusted
   as new information becomes available.  The monitoring stage is
   ongoing.  If during the monitoring stage it is determined that large
   packets aren't successfully exchanged with the neighboring node, the
   neighbor MTU is set to the safe MTU and the node returns to the
   testing stage.

   Unless administrative configuration or policy specifies otherwise,
   the link, IPv4 and IPv6 MTU sizes are set to the maximum supported by

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   the hardware.  This means that when TCP sessions are created, they
   carry a maximum segment size (MSS) option that reflects the larger-
   than-standard MTU.

5.  The ND NODEMTU option

   All MTU values are 32-bit unsigned integers in network byte order.
   All other values are also unsigned and in network byte order .

   The MTU size and two flags are exchanged as an IPv6 Neighbor
   Discovery option.  The new option, as well as the MTU value it
   avertises, are named "NODEMTU".

                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     |     Type      |    Length     |           Reserved            |
     |                            NodeMTU                            |
     /                       HintMTU (optional)                      /

   Type: TBD

   Length: 1 or 2

   Reserved:  Set to 0 on transmission, ignored when received.

   NodeMTU  The maximum packet size the node wishes to receive on this

   HintMTU  The maximum packet size the node believes it can
      successfully receive on this interface at this time.  If the
      HintMTU is equal to the NodeMTU or no value for HintMTU is known,
      this field may be omitted and the Length field is set to 1.  If
      the HintMTU field is present, the Length field is set to 2.

   When a node's interface speed changes, it MAY advertise a new MTU,
   but it SHOULD remain prepared to receive packets of the maximum size
   advertised to neighbors previously (if the old maximum size is larger
   than the newly advertised one).

6.  The MTUTEST packet format

   The packets used to test whether large packets can be transmitted
   successfully and communicate status are sent using UDP ([RFC0768]).
   Their format is as follows:

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      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     |          Source Port          |       Destination Port        |
     |             Length            |           Checksum            |
     |      'M'      |      'T'      |      'U'      |      'T'      |
     |R|B|  Reserved |                     Nonce                     |
     |                            NodeMTU                            |
     |                            HintMTU                            |
     |                            Padding                            |
     ~                                                               ~
     |                                                               |

   Source port (UDP):  For outgoing requests: an ephemeral port number.
      For replies: 1022. (16 bits.)

   Destination port (UDP):  For outgoing requests: 1022.  For replies:
      the source port used in the request being replied to. (16 bits.)

   Length (UDP):  for IPv4 and IPv6 packets smaller than or equal to
      65575 bytes, the length of the UDP segment.  For IPv6 packets
      larger than 65575 bytes, 0 (as per [RFC2675]). (16 bits.)

   Checksum (UDP): the UDP checksum. (16 bits.)

   R: reply request flag.  If set to 0, no reply is sent.  If set to 1,
      the receiver is asked to send a reply.  (1 bit.)

   MTUT:  The value corresponding to the ASCII string "MTUT", used to
      differentiate MTUTEST packets from other UDP packets that use port
      1022.  Packets with a value other than "MTUT" at the beginning of
      the UDP payload MUST be ignored. (32 bits.)

   B: big reply request flag.  If set to 0, replies are not padded.  If
      set to 1, replies are padded to be the same size as the request.
      (1 bit.)

   Reserved: set to 0 on transmission, ignored on reception. (6 bits.)

   Nonce: a hard-to-guess value. (24 bits.)

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   NodeMTU:  The maximum packet size that the sender is prepared to
      receive at this time.  (32 bits.)

   HintMTU:  The maximum packet size that the sender believes it can
      successfully receive at this time.  (32 bits.)

   Padding:  Filled with 0 or more all-zero bytes on transmission,
      ignored on reception.

   In addition to the fields listed above, the following IP and link
   layer fields are taken into consideration:

   Source link-layer address:  On transmission: set automatically by the
      networking stack.  On reception: used to identify a neighbor.

   IP version:  On transmission: set automatically by the networking
      stack.  On reception: used to identify a neighbor.  (The IP
      version may also be identified implicitly through the API without
      directly observing the version field.)

   Time To Live / Hop Limit:  On transmission: set to 255.  On
      reception: if 255, the packet is processed.  If other than 255,
      the packet is silently discarded.  (To enforce that the protocol
      is only used within a local subnet.)

   Source IP address:  On transmission, for requests: set to the address
      the node intends to use to communicate with the neighbor.  For
      replies: set to the destination IP address in the request being
      replied to.  On reception: used to identify a neighbor.

   Destination IP address:  On transmission, for requests: set to the
      address the node intends to use to communicate with the neighbor.
      For replies: set to the source IP address in the request being
      replied to.

7.  Changes to the RA MTU option semantics

   Section 6.3.4 of [RFC4861] specifies:

   "If the MTU option is present, hosts SHOULD copy the option's value
   into LinkMTU so long as the value is greater than or equal to the
   minimum link MTU and does not exceed the maximum LinkMTU value
   specified in the link-type-specific document"

   This document changes the handling of the Router Advertisement MTU
   option such that it may also be used by routers to tell hosts that
   they SHOULD use an MTU larger than the LinkMTU and update their
   SafeMTU value.  If multiple routers advertise different MTUs that are

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   higher or lower than the standard MTU, behavior is undefined.  MTU
   options containing the standard MTU SHOULD be ignored.

   The ability to advertise a larger-than-standard MTU must be used with
   extreme care by nework administrators, as advertising an MTU size
   that exceeds the capabilities of routers or the layer 2
   infrastructure will lead to reachability problems.

   If the advertised larger-than-standard MTU is ignored or not
   supported by some hosts connected to the subnet, TCP will presumably
   still work because the MSS option ([RFC0793]) limits the size of
   transmitted TCP segments to what the receiver suports.  However, non-
   TCP protocols that use large packets will likely fail.  The most
   prominent example of this is DNS over UDP with EDNS0 when requesting
   large records, such as those used for DNSSEC ([RFC6891]).

8.  The TCP MSS option

   Hosts SHOULD advertise the maximum MTU size they are prepared to use
   on a link in the TCP MSS value, even during times when probing has
   failed: should larger neighbor MTUs be established later, it will not
   be possible to adjust the MSS for ongoing sessions.

9.  Operation

9.1.  Initialization

   When an interface is activated, an appropriate local MTU is
   determined, based on hardware limitations and admnistrative settings.
   Additionally, a policy may be in place to constrain packet sizes when
   operating at lower bandwidths, to avoid excessive delays as queues of
   large packets build up and cause significant head-of-line blocking
   for subsequent time-sensitive packts.  Also, layer 2 devices
   operating at lower interface speeds are less likely to support non-
   standard MTUs.

   In the absense of operational experience, this document RECOMMENDS
   limiting the use of larger than standard MTUs to interfaces operating
   at 400 Mbps or faster; and if a larger MTU is used for interfaces
   operating at lower speeds, a "mini jumbo" size of 2000 bytes or less
   is used for Ethernets.

   For IPv4, the local MTU is limited to 65535 bytes.  For IPv6, if
   [RFC2675] jumbograms are not supported, the local MTU is limited to
   65575 bytes.  These limits apply even if the interface hardware
   supports a larger MTU.  IPv6 nodes that implement [RFC2675]
   jumbograms MAY use MTU sizes larger than 65575 bytes.

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   When the interface speed changes, the local MTU MAY be changed to
   reflect the new speed.  However, the node SHOULD remain prepared to
   receive packets of the size of a previously advertised MTU.

   The local MTU MAY be different for IPv4 and IPv6.  The local MTU is
   the size used to calculate the value of the TCP MSS option.  The
   HintMTU is set to undefined.

   When sending Neighbor Solicitations and Neighbor Advertisements, a
   node includes its local MTU in the NodeMTU field of the NODEMTU
   option.  If the size of the HintMTU is known, it is also included.

   When a node starts communicating with a new IPv4 neighbor (i.e., ARP
   [RFC0826] messages are exchanged), the node sends a MTUTEST packet to
   the new neighbor and sets the neighbor MTU to the safe MTU.  The
   MTUTEST packet has the local MTU in the NodeMTU field.  If a hint MTU
   is known, it is included in the HintMTU field.  The R and B flags are
   set to 0.  No padding is included.

9.2.  Probing

   Upon reception of a Neighor Solicitation or a Neighbor Advertisement
   with the NODEMTU option or an MTUTEST packet, the node determines if
   the packet is received from a known neighbor IP address and a known
   neighor link layer address.  If the values match the values stored
   for a known neighbor, no action occurs.

   If the values match the values for a known link layer address and IP
   version, but an unknown IP address, the IP address is added to the
   list of IP addresses for the neighbor in question and the known
   neighbor MTU for the neighbor is applied to the new address.

   If the NodeMTU matches the NodeMTU previously sent by a known
   neighbor but the HintMTU as a different non-zero value, the HintMTU
   is updated.

   If the HintMTU sent by a known neighbor is 0, the neighbor MTU is set
   to the safe MTU, the HintMTU for the neighbor is set to unknown and
   the probing procedure is started.

   If the combination of link layer address and IP version is unknown,
   the neighbor MTU is set to the safe MTU, the HintMTU is set to the
   HintMTU value in the packet and the probing procedure is started.

   Before starting the probing procedure, a node compares its link layer
   address to the neighbor's link layer address.  If the node's link
   layer address is numerically larger than the neighbor's link layer
   address, the node applies a waiting period before starting the

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   probing procedure.  The waiting period SHOULD be at least 250
   milliseconds and at most 1 second.

   The probing procedure is as follows:

     Neighbor.ConfirmedTime = UNDEFINED

     if LocalMTU > Neighbor.AdvertisedMTU
       let Max = Neighbor.AdvertisedMTU
       let Max = LocalMTU

     # test with maximum supported packet size first
     # and finish probing upon success
     test (Max)
     if Success:
        Neighbor.MTU = Max

     # maximum size doesn't work, now find
     # what does work
     # assumption: 256 works for IPv4, 1280 for IPv6
     let WorksNo = Max
     if IPv6:
       let Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU = 1280
     if IPv4:
       let Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU = 256

     # test with the hinted size
     # if successful, this becomes the minimum for further tests
     # if unsuccessful, this becomes the maximum
     test (HintMTU)
     if Success:
       let Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU = HintMTU
       let WorksNo = HintMTU

     # test the smallest usable size larger than
     # the standard MTU (if that size is still
     # in the range to be tested) so we avoid wasting
     # time probing non-jumbo-capable nodes
     if (StandardMTU + 8 > Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU and StandardMTU + 8 < WorksNo)
       test (StandardMTU + 8)
       if Success:
         let Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU = StandardMTU + 8
         let WorksNo = StandardMTU + 8

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     # to establish an upper bound quickly,
     # test (320, 640, 1280, ) 2560, 5120, 10240, 20480, 40960, ...
     let Current = 320
     while (Current < WorksNo)
       if (Current > Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU)
         test (Current)
         if Success:
           let Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU = Current
           let WorksNo = Current
       let Current = Current * 2

     # we have now established that
     # WorksNo =< Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU * 2

     # further testing is based on a list of hints.
     # there SHOULD be a mechanism for administrators
     # to add hints.
     # hint sources:
     #   576: common PPP low delay
     #  1492: PPP over Ethernet [RFC2516]
     #  2304: 802.11
     # [CATALYST]:
     # 9216, 8092, 1600, 1998, 2000, 1546, 1530, 17976, 2018
     # sizes observed by the author:
     # 576, 4070, 9000, 16384, 64000
     let Hints = 576, 1492, 1530, 1998, 2304, 4070, 8092, 9000, 16384, 32000, 64000

     foreach Size in Hints
       if Size > Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU and Size < WorksNo
         test (Size)
         if Success:
           let Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU = Size
           let WorksNo = Size

     # finished testing, maximum working packet isze
     # is now known to within about a factor 1.5,
     # depending on the number of hints

     if Neighbor.ConfirmedTime <> UNDEFINED
       # we got at least one probe back, use discovered MTU
       Neighbor.MTU = Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU
       # we never got any probes back, neighbor probably does
       # not implement MTUTEST protocol, so we use the safe MTU
       Neighbor.MTU = SafeMTU

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     # done!

     # sending probes
     function test (Size)

     # wait 20 milliseconds between sending probes
     let MsecSinceProbe = now () - ProbeTime

     if (MsecSinceProbe < 20)
       sleep (20 - MsecSinceProbe)

     # create probe, request reply (but not a big one)
     let Probe.TTL = 255
     let Probe.ReplyFlag = 1
     Let Probe.BigFlag = 0
     Let Nonce = rand ()
     Let Probe.Nonce = Nonce
     let Probe.NodeMTU = LocalMTU
     let Probe.HintMTU = HintMTU
     let Probe.Padding = pad (Size - sizeof (Probe))
     send (Probe)

     let ProbeTime = now ()
     # wait 2000 milliseconds for reply
     # (this also avoids sending packets that are too large more
     # than once every two seconds)
     let Success = receive (Reply, 2000)

     if not Success
       return false

     if not (Reply.TTL = 255 and Reply.Nonce = Nonce
       and Reply.LinkAddress = Neighbor.LinkAddress)
         return false

     # valid reply received
     # note that Neighbor.MTU is not updated yet,
     # this happens after probing has finished
     Neighbor.ConfirmedMTU = Reply.NodeMTU
     Neighbor.ConfirmedTime = now ()
     Neighbor.HintMTU = Reply.HintMTU;
     if HintMTU < Size
       HintMTU = Size
     return true

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   Note that if at any time an unsolicited packet arrives from the
   neighbor and the confirmed MTU of that neighbor is smaller than the
   size of the packet received, the confirmed MTU for the neighbor is
   set to the size of the received packet.  If this happens during the
   probing procedure, this may lead to fewer outgoing probes being sent.
   The packets that update the confirmed MTU do not have to be MTUTEST
   protocol packets.

   There are no retransmissions.  Both nodes run the probing procedure,
   so there are two opportunities to succeed.  However, if both fail to
   determine the maximum packet size that can be used because of lost
   packets, the hosts will have to use a smaller packet size.

   It is assumed that the maximum packet size that A can send to B is
   the same as the maximum packet size that B can send to A.  As such,
   the reception of a large packet is treated the same as receiving an
   acknowledgment for a sent large packet.

9.3.  Monitoring

   Once a working neighbor MTU is found, large packets can be exchanged.
   Presumably, this situation will persist indefinitely.  However, it is
   possible that the network is reconfigured and then no longer supports
   the MTU used between two nodes.  The aim of the monitoring phase is
   to detect this when it happens and establish a working MTU value
   before sessions time out.

   For each neighbor (as defined by a unique combination of link layer
   address and IP version) with a neighbor MTU larger than the safe MTU,
   the ability to successfully send or receive large packets is
   monitored.  In the monitoring phase, a node tracks whether it sends
   any packets larger than the safe MTU to a neighbor and whether it
   receives either acknowledgments for those packets, or it receives
   packets of length neighbor MTU from that neighbor.  (So acknowledged
   outgoing packets don't have to be the maximum size supported to/from
   the neighbor, but incoming packets do.)

   The ability to track acknowledgment of non-MTUTEST packets is not
   required.  However, it is expected that hosts will be able to do this
   for TCP packets because the TCP state is readily available.

   Monitoring is happens in intervals.  This document RECOMMENDS that
   this interval is between 25 and 35 seconds for hosts and between 35
   and 45 seconds for routers.  At the end of each monitoring interval,
   if acknowledgments or large packets were received, everything is fine
   and the neighbor confirmed time is updated.

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   At the end of a monitoring interval, if no large packets were sent,
   everything is fine and nothing happens.

   At the end of a monitoring interval, if large packets were sent, but
   no acknowledgments or incoming maximum size packets were seen, there
   may have been a network reconfiguration that has made it impossible
   for large packets to be transmitted successfully between the two
   nodes.  To determine whether this is the case, the node sends an
   MTUTEST packet with lenght neighbor MTU.  The R flag is set to 1 and
   the B flag SHOULD be set to 0.  A random nonce and the local MTU and
   the hint MTU are included.

   The node waits 2 seconds for a reply.  If there is no reply, the
   probe is retransmitted and the node waits 4 seconds for a reply.  If
   after 4 seconds there is still no reply, the node sets the hint MTU
   to 0 and reinitializes all of the neighbor's MTU-related information
   to initial values.  Most notably, this means that the neighbor MTU is
   set to the safe MTU.

   If the node sets is own hint MTU to 0 or receives a hint MTU of 0
   from a neighbor using an ND or MTUTEST packet, the node MAY start
   sending probes to other neighbors before the monitoring interval
   expires.  However, nodes SHOULD limit the number of probes for all
   neighbors combined to no more than one every two seconds.  If a node
   has many neighbors and sending probes at one every two seconds would
   take too long, it MAY reset the neighbor MTUs of all of its neighbors
   to the safe MTU without sending probes if at least two neighbors
   appear to be affected by a reduction of the maximum working packet

9.4.  Neighbor MTU garbage collection

   The MTU size for a neighbor is garbage collected along with a
   neighbor's link address in accordance with regular ARP and neighbor
   discovery timeouts.  Additionally, a neighbor's MTU size is reset to
   unknown after dead neighbor detection declares a neighbor "dead".

10.  IANA considerations

   IANA is requested to assign a neighbor discovery option type value.

   [TO BE REMOVED: This registration should take place at the following
   location: http://www.iana.org/assignments/icmpv6-parameters

   UDP port 1022 is used in accordance with [RFC4727].  Presumably,
   unlike an ND option type value, a UDP port would be relatively easy
   to change when experimentation makes way for production deployment.

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11.  Security considerations

   Generating false neighbor discovery and MTUTEST packets with large
   MTUs may lead to a denial-of-serve condition, just like the
   advertisement of other false link parameters.  Requests are large and
   replies typically short to avoid the MTUTEST protocol being used as
   an amplification vector.  The nonce is used together with the
   ephemeral UDP port number to make sure that malicious nodes cannot
   generate a reply to a request in the blind.

12.  Acknowledgements

   This document benefited from feedback by Dave Thaler, Jari Arkko, Joe
   Touch and others.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC
              793, September 1981.

   [RFC0826]  Plummer, D., "Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
              converting network protocol addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
              address for transmission on Ethernet hardware", STD 37,
              RFC 826, November 1982.

   [RFC0894]  Hornig, C., "Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams
              over Ethernet networks", STD 41, RFC 894, April 1984.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2464]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
              Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998.

   [RFC2675]  Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
              RFC 2675, August 1999.

   [RFC4727]  Fenner, B., "Experimental Values In IPv4, IPv6, ICMPv4,
              ICMPv6, UDP, and TCP Headers", RFC 4727, November 2006.

   [RFC4821]  Mathis, M. and J. Heffner, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
              Discovery", RFC 4821, March 2007.

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   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC6891]  Damas, J., Graff, M., and P. Vixie, "Extension Mechanisms
              for DNS (EDNS(0))", STD 75, RFC 6891, April 2013.

13.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2516]  Mamakos, L., Lidl, K., Evarts, J., Carrel, D., Simone, D.,
              and R. Wheeler, "A Method for Transmitting PPP Over
              Ethernet (PPPoE)", RFC 2516, February 1999.

              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
              "Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
              (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer
              Specifications", IEEE Standard 802.3, 1985.

   [CRC]      Jain, R., "Error Characteristics of Fiber Distributed Data
              Interface (FDDI), IEEE Transactions on Communications",
              August 1990.

              Cisco, "Jumbo/Giant Frame Support on Catalyst Switches
              Configuration Example",

Appendix A.  Document and discussion information

   The latest version of this document will always be available at
   http://www.muada.com/drafts/. Please direct questions and comments to
   the int-area mailinglist or directly to the author.

Appendix B.  Advantages and disadvantages of larger packets

   Although often desirable, the use of larger packets isn't universally
   advantageous for the following reasons:

   1.  Increased delay and jitter

   2.  Increased reliance on path MTU discovery

   3.  Increased packet loss through bit errors

   4.  Increased risk of undetected bit errors

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B.1.  Delay and jitter

   An low-bandwidth links, the additional time it takes to transmit
   larger packets may lead to unacceptable delays.  For instance,
   transmitting a 9000-byte packet takes 7.23 milliseconds at 10 Mbps,
   while transmitting a 1500-byte packet takes only 1.23 ms.  Once
   transmission of a packet has started, additional traffic must wait
   for the transmission to finish, so a larger maximum packet size
   immediately leads to a higher worst-case head-of-line blocking delay,
   and thus, to a bigger difference between the best and worst cases
   (jitter).  The increase in average delay depends on the number of
   packets that are buffered, the average packet size and the queuing
   strategy in use.  Buffer sizes vary greatly between implementations,
   from only a few buffers in some switches and on low-speed interfaces
   in routers, to hundreds of megabytes of buffer space on 10 Gbps
   interfaces in some routers.

   If we assume that the delays involved with 1500-byte packets on 100
   Mbps Ethernet are acceptable for most, if not all, applications, then
   the conclusion must be that 15000-byte packets on 1 Gbps Ethernet
   should also be acceptable, as the delay is the same.  At 10 Gbps
   Ethernet, much larger packet sizes could be accommodated without
   adverse impact on delay-sensitive applications.  At below 100 Mbps,
   larger packet sizes are probably not advisable.

B.2.  Path MTU Discovery problems

   PMTUD issues arise when routers can't fragment packets in transit
   because the DF bit is set or because the packet is IPv6, but the
   packet is too large to be forwarded over the next link, and the
   resulting "packet too big" ICMP messages from the router don't make
   it back to the sending host.  If there is a PMTUD black hole, this
   will typically happen when there is an MTU bottleneck somewhere in
   the middle of the path.  If the MTU bottleneck is located at either
   end, the TCP MSS (maximum segment size) option makes sure that TCP
   packets conform to the smallest MTU in the path.  PMTUD problems are
   of course possible with non-TCP protocols, but this is rare in
   practice because non-TCP protocols are generally not capable of
   adjusting their packet size on the fly and therefore use more
   conservative packet sizes which won't trigger PMTUD issues.

   Taking the delay and jitter issues to heart, maximum packet sizes
   should be larger for faster links and smaller for slower links.  This
   means that in the majority of cases, the MTU bottleneck will tend to
   be at, or close to, one of the ends of a path, rather than somewhere
   in the middle, as in today's internet, the core of the network is
   quite fast, while users usually connect to the core at lower speeds.

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   A crucial difference between PMTUD problems that result from MTUs
   smaller than the de facto standard 1500 bytes and PMTUD problems that
   result from MTUs larger than 1500 bytes is that in the latter case,
   only the party that's actually using the non-standard MTU is
   affected.  This puts potential problems, the potential benefits and
   the ability to solve any resulting problems in the same place: it's
   always possible to revert to a 1500-byte MTU if PMTUD problems can't
   be resolved otherwise.

   Considering the above and the work that's going on in the IETF to
   resolve PMTUD issues as they exist today, increasing MTUs where
   desired doesn't seem to involve undue risks.

B.3.  Packet loss through bit errors

   All transmission media are subject to bit errors.  In many cases, a
   bit error leads to a CRC failure, after which the packet is lost.  In
   other cases, packets are retransmitted a number of times, but if
   error conditions are severe, packets may still be lost because an
   error occurred at every try.  Using larger packets means that the
   chance of a packet being lost due to errors increases.  And when a
   packet is lost, more data has to be retransmitted.

   Both per-packet overhead and loss through errors reduce the amount of
   usable data transferred.  The optimum tradeoff is reached when both
   types of loss are equal.  If we make the simplifying assumption that
   the relationship between the bit error rate of a medium and the
   resulting number of lost packets is linear with packet size for
   reasonable bit error rates, the optimum packet size is computed as

   packet size = sqrt( overhead bytes / bit error rate )

   According to this, the optimum packet size is one or more orders of
   magnitude larger than what's commonly used today.  For instance, the
   maximum BER for 1000BASE-T is 10^-10, which implies an optimum packet
   size of 312250 bytes with Ethernet framing and IP overhead.

B.4.  Undetected bit errors

   Nearly all link layers employ some kind of checksum to detect bit
   errors so that packets with errors can be discarded.  In the case of
   Ethernet, this is a frame check sequence in the form of a 32-bit CRC.
   Assuming a strong frame check sequence algorithm, a 32-bit checksum
   suggests that there is a 1 in 2^32 chance that a packet with one or
   more bit errors in it has the same checksum as the original packet,
   so the bit errors go undetected and data is corrupted.  However,
   according to [CRC] the CRC-32 that's used for FDDI and Ethernet has

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   the property that packets between 376 and 11454 bytes long
   (including) have a Hamming distance of 3.  (Smaller packets have a
   larger Hamming distance, larger packets a smaller Hamming distance.)
   As a result, all errors where only a single bit is flipped or two
   bits are flipped, will be detected, because they can't result in the
   same CRC as the original packet.  The probability of a packet having
   undetected bit errors can be approximated as follows for a 32-bit

   PER = (PL * BER) ^ H / 2^32

   Where PER is the packet error rate, BER is the bit error rate, PL is
   the packet length in bits and H is the Hamming distance.  Another
   consideration is the impact of packet length on a multi-packet
   transmission of a given size.  This would be:

   TER = transmission length / PL * PER


   TER = transmission length / (PL ^ (H - 1) * BER ^ H) / 2^32

   Where TER is the transmission error rate.

   In the case of the Ethernet FCS and a Hamming distance of 3 for a
   large range of packet sizes, this means that the risk of undetected
   errors goes up with the square of the packet length, but goes down
   with the third power of the bit error rate.  This suggest that for a
   given acceptable risk of undetected errors, a maximum packet size can
   be calculated from the expected bit error rate.  It also suggests
   that given the low BER rates mandated for Gigabit Ethernet, packet
   sizes of up to 11454 bytes should be acceptable.

   Additionally, unlike properties such as the packet length, the frame
   check sequence can be made dependent on the physical media, so it
   should be possible to define a stronger FCS in future Ethernet
   standards, or to negotiate a stronger FCS between two stations on a
   point-to-point Ethernet link (i.e., a host and a switch or a router
   and a switch).

B.5.  Interaction TCP congestion control

   TCP performance is based on the inverse of the square of the packet
   loss probability.  Using larger and thus fewer packets is therefore a
   competitative advantage.  Larger packets increase burstiness, which
   can be problematic in some circumstances.  Larger packets also allow
   TCP to ramp up its transmission speed faster, which is helpful on
   fast links, where large packets will be more common.  In general, it

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   would seem advantageous for an individual user to use larger packets,
   but under some circumstances, users using smaller packets may be put
   at a slight disadvantage.

B.6.  IEEE 802.3 compatibility

   According to the IEEE 802.3 standard ([IEEE.802-3.1985]), the field
   following the Ethernet addresses is a length field.  However,
   [RFC0894] uses this field as a type field.  Ambiguity is largely
   avoided by numbering type codes above 2048.  The mechanisms described
   in this memo only apply to the standard [RFC0894] and [RFC2464]
   encapsulation of IPv4 and IPv6 in Ethernet, not to possible
   encapsulations of IPv4 or IPv6 in IEEE 802.3/IEEE 802.2 frames, so
   there is no change to the current use of the Ethernet length/type

B.7.  Conclusion

   Larger packets aren't universally desirable.  The factors that factor
   into the decision to use larger packets include:

   o  A link's bit error rate

   o  The number of bits per symbol on a link and hence the likelihood
      of multiple bit errors in a single packet

   o  The strength of the frame check sequence

   o  The link speed

   o  The number of buffers

   o  Queuing strategy

   o  Number of sessions on shared links and paths

   This means that choosing a good maximum packet size is, initially at
   least, the responsibility of hardware builders.  A conservative
   approach may be called for, but even under conservative assumptions,
   9000-byte jumboframes on Gigabit Ethernet links seem reasonable.

Author's Address

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   Iljitsch van Beijnum
   Institute IMDEA Networks
   Avda. del Mar Mediterraneo, 22
   Leganes, Madrid  28918

   Email: iljitsch@muada.com

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