Network Working Group                                           E. Wilde
Internet-Draft                                               UC Berkeley
Intended status: Standards Track                          A. Vaha-Sipila
Expires: March 24, 2008                                            Nokia
                                                            Sep 21, 2007

                URI Scheme for GSM Short Message Service

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).


   This memo specifies the Universal Resource Identifier (URI) scheme
   "sms" for specifying a recipient for an SMS message.  SMS messages
   are two-way paging messages that can be sent from and received by a
   mobile phone or a suitably equipped computer.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  What is GSM? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.2.  What is SMS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.3.  The "sms" URI Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     1.4.  "sms" URIs and SMS Web Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   2.  URI Scheme Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.1.  URI Scheme Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.2.  Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.3.  URI Scheme Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.4.  URI Scheme Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.5.  Encoding Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.6.  Applications/Protocols that use this URI Scheme Name . . . 12
     2.7.  Interoperability Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.9.  Contact  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   3.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   4.  Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.1.  From -12 to -13  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.2.  From -11 to -12  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.3.  From -10 to -11  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.4.  From -09 to -10  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.5.  From -08 to -09  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.6.  From -07 to -08  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.7.  From -06 to -07  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.8.  From -05 to -06  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.9.  From -04 to -05  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.10. From -03 to -04  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.11. From -02 to -03  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.12. From -01 to -02  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.13. From -00 to -01  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     4.14. Change Log of draft-wilde-sms-service  . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.2.  Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Appendix A.  Where to send Comments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 21

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1.  Introduction

   Compliant software MUST follow this specification.  The capitalized
   key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

1.1.  What is GSM?

   GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is a digital mobile
   phone standard which is used extensively in many parts of the world.
   First named after its frequency band around 900 MHz, GSM-900 has
   provided the basis for several other networks utilizing GSM
   technology, in particular GSM networks operating in the frequency
   bands around 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz.  When referring to "GSM" in this
   document, we mean any of these GSM-based networks that operate a
   short message service.

1.2.  What is SMS?

   The Short Message Service (SMS) [SMS] is an integral part of the GSM
   network technology.  It has been very successful and currently is a
   major source of revenue for many GSM operators.  SMS as a service is
   so successful that other Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN)
   technologies have adapted it as well, in particular the Integrated
   Services Digital Network (ISDN).  Because of this development, this
   memo uses the term "SMS client" to refer to user agents who are able
   to send and/or receive SMS messages.

1.2.1.  SMS content

   GSM SMS messages are alphanumeric paging messages that can be sent to
   and from SMS clients.  SMS messages have a maximum length of 160
   characters (7-bit characters from the GSM character set [SMS-CHAR]),
   or 140 octets.  Other character sets (such as UCS-2 16-bit
   characters, resulting in 70 character messages) MAY also be supported
   [SMS-CHAR], but are defined as being optional by the SMS
   specification.  Consequently, applications handling SMS messages as
   part of a chain of character processing applications MUST make sure
   that character sets are correctly mapped to and from the character
   set used for SMS messages.

   While the 160 character variety for SMS messages is by far the most
   widely used one, there are numerous other content types for SMS
   messages, such as small bitmaps ("operator logos") and simple formats
   for musical notes ("ring tones").  However, these formats are
   proprietary and are not considered in this memo.

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   SMS messages are very limited in length (140 octets), and the first
   versions of the SMS specification did not specify any standardized
   methods for concatenating SMS messages.  As a consequence, several
   proprietary methods were invented, but the current SMS specification
   does specify message concatenation.  In order to deal with this
   situation, SMS clients composing messages SHOULD use the standard
   concatenation method based on the header in the TP-User Data field as
   specified in the SMS specification [SMS].  When sending a message to
   an SMS recipient whose support for concatenated messages is unknown,
   the SMS client MAY opt to use the backwards-compatible (text-based)
   concatenation method defined in the SMS specification [SMS].
   Proprietary concatenation methods SHOULD NOT be used except in closed
   systems, where the capabilities of the recipient(s) are always known.

1.2.2.  SMS infrastructure

   SMS messages can be transmitted over an SMS client's network
   interface using the signaling channels of the underlying GSTN
   infrastructure, so there is no delay for call setup.  Alternatively,
   SMS messages MAY be submitted through other front-ends (for example
   Web services), which makes it possible for SMS clients to run on
   computers which are not directly connected to a GSTN network
   supporting SMS.

   SMS messages sent with the GSTN SMS service MUST be sent as class 1
   SMS messages, if the client is able to specify the message class.  SMS Centers

   SMS messages are stored by an entity called SMS Center (SMSC), and
   sent to the recipient when the subscriber connects to the network.
   The number of a cooperative SMSC must be known to the SMS sender
   (i.e., the entity submitting the SMS message to a GSTN
   infrastructure) when sending the message (usually, the SMSC's number
   is configured in the SMS client and specific for the network operator
   to which the sender has subscribed).  In most situations, the SMSC
   number is part of the sending SMS client's configuration.  However,
   in some special cases (such as when the SMS recipient only accepts
   messages from a certain SMSC), it may be necessary to send the SMS
   message over a specific SMSC.

   Short messages can be mobile terminated (MT) or mobile originated
   (MO).  MT messages are the ones that arrive at SMS clients; MO
   messages are sent by SMS clients.  Networks may support either, both,
   or none of these.  For the purpose of this memo, it is important that
   the sending SMS client is allowed to submit MO messages, and that the
   receiver is allowed to receive MT messages.

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   The exact setup of message submission and delivery is not subject of
   this memo, it may incorporate additional hops in addition to the pure
   SMS transport.  For example, the sending SMS client may use a Web
   service to submit the SMS message, and the receiving SMS client may
   be set up to forward the SMS to an email account.  For the purpose of
   this memo, it is important that the receiver can be addressed by a
   GSTN number, and that the sender can submit an SMS message using this

1.2.3.  Universal Resource Identifiers

   One of the core specifications for identifying resources on the
   Internet is RFC 3986 [RFC3986], specifying the syntax and semantics
   of a Universal Resource Identifier (URI).  The most important notion
   of URIs are "schemes", which define a framework within which
   resources can be uniquely identified and addressed.  URIs enable
   users to access resources, and are used for very diverse schemes such
   as access protocols (HTTP, FTP), broadcast media (TV channels
   [RFC2838]), messaging (email [RFC2368]), and even telephone numbers
   (voice [RFC3966]).

   URIs often are mentioned together with Universal Resource Names
   (URNs) and/or Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), and it often is
   unclear how to separate these concepts.  For the purpose of this
   memo, only the term URI will be used, referring to the most
   fundamental concept.  The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has issued
   a note [uri-clarification] discussing the topic of URIs, URNs, and
   URLs in detail.

1.2.4.  SMS Messages and the Internet

   One of the important reasons for the universal access of the Web is
   the ability to access all information through a unique interface.
   This kind of integration makes it easy to provide information as well
   as to consume it.  One aspect of this integration is the support of
   user agents (in the case of the Web, commonly referred to as
   browsers) for multiple content formats (such as HTML, GIF, JPEG) and
   access schemes (such as HTTP, HTTPS, FTP).

   The "mailto" scheme has proven to be very useful and popular, because
   most user agents support it by providing an email composition
   facility when the user selects (e.g., clicks on) the URI.  Similarly,
   the "sms" scheme can be supported by user agents by providing an SMS
   message composition facility when the user selects the URI.  In cases
   where the user agent does not provide a built-in SMS message
   composition facility, the scheme could still be supported by opening
   a Web page which provides such a service.  The specific Web page to
   be used could be configured by the user, so that each user could use

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   the SMS message composition service of his choice.

   The goal of this memo is to specify the "sms" URI scheme, so that
   user agents (such as Web browsers and email clients) could start to
   support it.  The "sms" URI scheme identifies SMS message endpoints as
   resources.  When "sms" URIs are dereferenced, implementations MAY
   create a message and present it to be edited before being sent, or
   they MAY use additional services to provide the functionality
   necessary for composing a message and sending it to the SMS message
   endpoint.  SMS Messages and the Web

   SMS messages can provide an alternative to "mailto" URIs [RFC2368],
   or "tel" or "fax" URIs [RFC3966].  When a "sms" URI is activated, the
   user agent MAY start a program for sending an SMS message, just as
   "mailto" may open a mail client.  Unfortunately, most browsers do not
   support the external handling of internally unsupported URI schemes
   in the same generalized way as most of them support external handling
   of content for MIME types which they do not support internally.
   Ideally, user agents should implement generic URI parsers and provide
   a way to associate unsupported schemes with external applications (or
   Web services).

   The recipient of an SMS message need not be a mobile phone.  It can
   be a server that can process SMS messages, either by gatewaying them
   to another messaging system (such as regular electronic mail), or by
   parsing them for supplementary services.

   SMS messages can be used to transport almost any kind of data (even
   though there is a very tight size limit), but the only standardized
   data formats are character-based messages in different character
   encodings.  SMS messages have a maximum length of 160 characters
   (when using 7-bit characters from the SMS character set), or 140
   octets.  However, SMS messages can be concatenated to form longer
   messages.  It is up to the user agent to decide whether to limit the
   length of the message, and how to indicate this limit in its user
   interface, if necessary.  There is one exception to this, see
   Section 1.3.5.  SMS Messages and Forms

   The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) [HTML401] provides a way to
   collect information from a user and pass it to a server for
   processing.  This functionality is known as "HTML forms".  A
   filled-in form is usually sent to the destination using the Hypertext
   Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or email.  However, SMS messages can also be
   used as the transport mechanism for these forms.  As SMS transport is

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   "out-of-band" as far as normal HTTP over TCP/IP is concerned, this
   provides a way to fill in forms offline, and send the data without
   making a TCP connection to the server, as the set-up time, cost, and
   overhead for a TCP connection are large compared to an SMS message.
   Also, depending on the network configuration, the sender's telephone
   number may be included in the SMS message, thus providing a weak form
   of authentication.

1.3.  The "sms" URI Scheme

   Syntax definitions are given using the Augmented BNF for Syntax
   Specifications [RFC4234].

1.3.1.  Applicability

   This URI scheme is intended for sending an SMS message to certain
   recipient(s).  The functionality is quite similar to that of the
   "mailto" URI, which (as per RFC 2368 [RFC2368]) can also be used with
   a comma-separated list of email addresses.

   In some situations, it may be necessary to guide the sender to send
   the SMS message via a certain SMS Center (SMSC).  For this purpose,
   the URI may specify the number of a specific SMSC.

   The notation for phone numbers is taken from [RFC3966].  Refer to
   this document for information on why this particular format was

   How the SMS message is sent to the SMSC is outside the scope of this
   specification.  SMS messages can be sent over the GSM air interface,
   by using a modem and a suitable protocol, or by accessing services
   over other protocols, such as a Web service for sending SMS messages.
   Also, SMS message service options like deferred delivery and delivery
   notification requests are not within the scope of this document.
   Such services MAY be requested from the network by the user agent if

   SMS messages sent as a result of this URI MUST be sent as class 1 SMS
   messages, if the user agent is able to specify the message class.

1.3.2.  Formal Definition

   The URI scheme's keywords specified in the following syntax
   description are case-insensitive.  The syntax of an "sms" URI is
   formally described as follows, where the URI base syntax is taken
   from RFC 3986 [RFC3986]:

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   sms-uri         =  scheme ":" hier-part [ "?" sms-body ]
   scheme          =  "sms"
   hier-part       =  sms-recipient *( "," sms-recipient )
   sms-recipient   =  sms-number [ smsc-qualifier ]
   sms-number      =  ( global-number / local-number )
   global-number   =  "+" local-number
   local-number    =  *phonedigit DIGIT *phonedigit
   smsc-qualifier  =  ";smsc=" sms-number
   sms-body        =  "body=" query

   Some illustrative examples using this syntax are given in
   Section 1.3.4.

   The syntax definition for "phonedigit" is taken from RFC 3966

   The syntax definition for "query" is taken from RFC 3986 [RFC3986],
   please refer to that document.

   The "sms-body" is used to define the body of the SMS message to be
   composed.  It consists of percent-encoded UTF-8 characters.
   Implementations MUST make sure that the sms-body characters are
   converted to a suitable character encoding before sending, the most
   popular being the 7-bit SMS character encoding, another variant
   (though not as universally supported as 7-bit SMS) is the UCS-2
   character encoding (both specified in [SMS-CHAR]).  Implementations
   MAY choose to discard (or convert) characters in the sms-body that
   are not supported by the SMS character set they are using to send the
   SMS message.  If they do discard or convert characters, they MUST
   notify the user.

   It should be noted that the SMSC qualifier may appear only once per
   sms-recipient.  If multiple SMSC qualifiers are present, conforming
   software MUST interpret the first occurrence and ignore all other

1.3.3.  Processing an "sms" URI

   The following list describes the steps for processing an "sms" URI:

   1.  The "gstn-phone" of the first "sms-recipient" is extracted.  It
       is the phone number of the final recipient and it MUST be written
       in international form with country code, unless the number only
       works from inside a certain geographical area or a network.  Note
       that some numbers may work from several networks but not from the
       whole world - these SHOULD be written in international form.
       According to RFC 3966 [RFC3966], all international numbers MUST
       begin with a "+" character.  Hyphens, dots, and parentheses

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       (referred to as "visual separators" in RFC 3966) are used only to
       improve readability and MUST NOT convey any other meaning.

   2.  The "smsc-qualifier" of the first "sms-recipient" is extracted,
       if present.

   3.  The "sms-body" is extracted, if present.

   4.  The user agent should provide some means for message composition,
       either by implementing this itself, or by accessing a service
       providing it.  Message composition SHOULD start with the body
       extracted from the "sms-body", if present.

   5.  After message composition, a user agent SHOULD try to send the
       message first using the SMSC set in the "smsc-qualifier" (if
       present).  If that fails, the user agent MAY try another SMSC.

   6.  If the URI consists of a comma-separated list of recipients
       (i.e., contains multiple "sms-recipient" parts), all of them are
       processed in this manner.  Exactly the same message SHOULD be
       sent to all of the listed recipients, which means that the
       message resulting from the message composition step for the first
       recipient is used unaltered for all other recipients as well.

1.3.4.  Examples of Use


   This indicates an SMS message capable recipient at the given
   telephone number.  The message is sent using the user agent's default


   This indicates SMS message capable recipients at the given telephone
   numbers.  The identical message should be sent to both recipients
   using the user agent's default SMSC.


   This indicates that the SMS message should be sent using the SMSC at
   the given number.


   In this case, a message (initially being set to "hello there", which
   may be modified by the user before sending) will be sent via SMS
   using the user agent's default SMSC.

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1.3.5.  Using "sms" URIs in HTML Forms

   When using a "sms" type URI as an action URI for HTML form submission
   [HTML401], the form contents MUST be packaged in the SMS message just
   as they are packaged when using a "mailto" URI [RFC2368], using the
   "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" MIME type, effectively packaging
   all form data into URI compliant syntax [RFC3986].  The SMS message
   MUST NOT contain any HTTP headers, only the form data.  The MIME type
   is implicit.  It MUST NOT be transferred in the SMS message.

   The character encoding used for form submissions MUST be UTF-8
   [RFC2279].  It should be noted, however, that user agents MUST
   percent-encode form submissions before sending them.

   The user agent SHOULD inform the user about the possible security
   hazards involved when submitting the form (it is probably being sent
   as plain text over an air interface).

   If the form submission is longer than the maximum SMS message size,
   the user agent MAY either concatenate SMS messages, if it is able to
   do so, or it MAY refuse to send the message.  The user agent MUST NOT
   send out partial form submissions.

1.4.  "sms" URIs and SMS Web Services

   In many cases, user agents will not be able to directly compose and
   send SMS messages (because this requires that such a service is
   accessible to the system the user agent is running on).  However, it
   is likely that the user has access to a Web service that provides an
   SMS service, such as a Web site offering form-based SMS composition.
   Ideally, the user agent should access this Web service when
   activating an "sms" URI, thus enabling the user to use the Web

   One problem with this approach is that the Web service should somehow
   get the "sms" URI, in order to interpret it and set the required
   parameters (such as the receiver's phone number).  The easiest way to
   implement this is for the user agent to add the "sms" URI as query
   string to the Web service's URI.  Consequently, user agents
   supporting SMS Web services identified by URIs SHOULD append the
   "sms" URI as query string to the Web services URI when accessing the
   Web service.  Web services providing SMS composition facilities
   SHOULD expect to receive an "sms" URI as query string and should
   process it as described by this memo.  This method only can be
   applied for Web service URIs which permit query strings (such as
   "http" and "https" URIs).  For other Web service URIs (such as "ftp"
   and "mailto"), user agents as well as Web services MUST NOT use the
   query string.

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   It should be noted that RFC 3986 [RFC3986] defines that within query
   strings, the "gen-delims" characters ":", "/", "?", "#", "[", "]",
   and "@" are reserved.  It is therefore necessary to encode the "sms"
   URI accordingly before appending it as query string.

1.4.1.  Example

   A document contains this fragment of (X)HTML:

   <a href="sms:+41796431851">Send me an SMS!</a>

   The user agent interpreting this document does not internally support
   SMS message composition or sending, but has been configured to access
   a Web service for handling "sms" URIs.  This Web service has the
   following URI:

   When the user activates the "sms" URI (e.g., by clicking on the text
   "Send me an SMS!"), the user agent sends a request to the SMS Web
   service and acts as if the activated URI had been:

   The SMS Web service is then responsible for parsing the query string
   and providing an appropriate interface, for example by already
   filling in the recipient address with the number provided by the
   "sms" URI.  This way, the non-SMS capable user agent and the SMS Web
   service can interact to provide the best integration of Web browsing
   and SMS messaging to the user.

2.  URI Scheme Registration

   This memo requests the registration of the Universal Resource
   Identifier (URI) scheme "sms" for specifying a recipient (and
   optionally a gateway) for an SMS message.  The registration request
   complies with RFC 4395 [RFC4395].

2.1.  URI Scheme Name


2.2.  Status


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2.3.  URI Scheme Syntax

   See Section 1.3.

2.4.  URI Scheme Semantics

   The "sms" defines a way how a message may be composed which is then
   transmitted using the SMS message transmission method.  This scheme
   can thus be compared to be "mailto" URI scheme [RFC2368].  See
   Section 1.3.3 for the details of operation.

2.5.  Encoding Considerations

   The optional body field of "sms" URIs may contain a message text, but
   this text uses percent-encoded UTF-8 characters and thus can always
   be represented using URI characters.  See Section 1.3 for the details
   of encoding.

2.6.  Applications/Protocols that use this URI Scheme Name

   The "sms" URI scheme is intended to be used in a similar way as the
   "mailto" URI scheme [RFC2368].  By using "sms" URIs, authors can
   embed information into documents which can be used as a starting
   point for initiating message composition.  Whether the client is
   sending the message itself (for example over a GSM air interface) or
   redirecting the user to a third party for message composition (such
   as a Web service for sending SMS messages) is outside of the scope of
   the URI scheme definition.

2.7.  Interoperability Considerations

   No interoperability issues have been identified.

2.8.  Security Considerations

   See Section 3.

2.9.  Contact

   Erik Wilde
   School of Information
   UC Berkeley
   Berkeley, CA 94720-4600

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3.  Security Considerations

   SMS messages are transported without any provisions for privacy or
   integrity, so SMS users should be aware of these inherent security
   problems of SMS messages.  Unlike electronic mail, where additional
   mechanisms exist to layer security features on top of the basic
   infrastructure, there currently is no such framework for SMS

   SMS messages very often are delivered almost instantaneously (if the
   receiving SMS client is online), but there is no guarantee for when
   SMS messages will be delivered.  In particular, SMS messages between
   different network operators sometimes take a long time to be
   delivered (hours or even days) or are not delivered at all, so
   applications SHOULD NOT make any assumptions about the reliability
   and performance of SMS message transmission.

   In most networks, sending SMS messages is not a free service.
   Therefore, SMS clients MUST make sure that any action that incurs
   costs is acknowledged by the end user, unless explicitly instructed
   otherwise by the end user.  If an SMS client has different ways of
   submitting an SMS message (such as a Web service and a phone line),
   then the end user MUST have a way to control which way is chosen.

   SMS clients often are limited devices (typically mobile phones), and
   the sending SMS client SHOULD NOT make any assumptions about the
   receiving SMS client supporting any non-standard services, such as
   proprietary message concatenation or proprietary content types.
   However, if the sending SMS client has prior knowledge about the
   receiving SMS client, then he MAY use this knowledge to compose non-
   standard SMS messages.

   There are certain special SMS messages defined in the SMS
   specification [SMS] that can be used, for example, to turn on
   indicators on the phone display, or to send data to certain
   communication ports (comparable to UDP ports) on the device.  Certain
   proprietary systems (for example, the Wireless Application Protocol
   [WAP]) define configuration messages that may be used to reconfigure
   the devices remotely.  Any SMS client SHOULD make sure that malicious
   use of such messages is not possible, for example by filtering out
   certain SMS User Data headers.  Gateways that accept SMS messages
   e.g. in e-mail messages or Web forms and pass them on to an SMSC,
   SHOULD implement this kind of 'firewalling' approach as well.

   Because the narrow bandwidth of the SMS communications channel, there
   should also be checks in place for excessively long concatenated
   messages.  As an example, it may take two minutes to transfer thirty
   concatenated text messages.

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   Unchecked input from a user MUST NOT be used to populate any other
   fields in a SMS message other than the User Data field (not including
   the User Data Header field).  All other parts, including the User
   Data Header, of the short message should only be generated by trusted

   By including SMS URIs in unsolicited messages (a.k.a. "spam") or
   other types of advertising, the originator of the SMS URIs may
   attempt to reveal an individual's phone number and/or to link the
   identity (i.e., e-mail address) used for messaging with the identity
   (i.e., phone number) used for the mobile phone.  This attempt to
   collect information may be a privacy issue, and user agents may make
   users aware of that risk before composing or sending SMS messages.
   Users agents which do not provide any feedback about this privacy
   issue make users more vulnerable to this kind of attack.

   A user agent SHOULD NOT send out SMS messages without the knowledge
   of the user, because of associated risks, which include sending
   masses of SMS messages to a subscriber without his consent, and the
   costs involved in sending an SMS message.

   The user agent SHOULD have some mechanism that the user can use to
   filter out unwanted destinations for SMS messages.  The user agent
   SHOULD also have some means of restricting the number of SMS messages
   being sent as the result of activating one "sms" URI.

   As suggested functionality, the user agent MAY offer a possibility
   for the user to filter out those gstn-phone numbers that are
   expressed in local format, as most premium-rate numbers are expressed
   in local format, and because determining the correct local context
   (and hence the validity of the number to this specific user) may be
   very difficult.

   When using SMS URIs as targets of forms (as described in
   Section 1.3.5), the user agent SHOULD inform the user about the
   possible security hazards involved when submitting the form (it is
   probably being sent as plain text over an air interface).

4.  Change Log

   This section will not be part of the final RFC text, it serves as a
   container to collect the history of the individual draft versions.

4.1.  From -12 to -13

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   o  Updated [SMS] to point to the latest version of the SMS spec (3GPP
      TS 23.040 V7.0.1).

   o  Removed support for telematic interworking from the draft.  This
      feature of SMS messaging is hard to understand, poorly supported
      by clients as well as network operators, and for these reasons
      would have been likely to see poor adoption in implementations

   o  Added some text making it more clear that all recipients SHOULD be
      sent the exact same message.

   o  Several small editiorial changes.

4.2.  From -11 to -12

   o  Integrated draft-wilde-sms-service-11 and
      draft-wilde-sms-uri-registration-00 into this draft.  This draft
      is now self-contained.

   o  Changed the phone number notation to use the definition from RFC
      3966 [RFC3966] rather than RFC 3601 (RFC 3966 is a simpler
      notation disallowing some of the special characters allowed by RFC

   o  Rephrased various parts of Section 3.

   o  Removed Section "Author/Change Controller".

   o  RFC 2806 (tel URI scheme) has been obsoleted by [RFC3966].

4.3.  From -10 to -11

   o  RFC 2234 (ABNF) has been obsoleted by [RFC4234].

   o  Updated reference information for [SMS] and [SMS-CHAR].

   o  Minor textual changes.

4.4.  From -09 to -10

   o  Added security consideration about filtering local format phone

   o  Changed IPR clause from RFC 3667 to RFC 3978 (updated version of
      RFC 3667).

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4.5.  From -08 to -09

   o  Fixed syntax error in hier-part and sms-recipient non-terminals,
      which allowed sms-recipients to be concatenated without comma

4.6.  From -07 to -08

   o  URIs are now defined by RFC 3986 [RFC3986], so the text (including
      the syntax definitions) and the references have been updated.

4.7.  From -06 to -07

   o  Changed IPR clause from RFC 2026 to RFC 3667 (updated version of
      RFC 2026).

4.8.  From -05 to -06

   o  Updated reference from draft-allocchio-gstn to RFC 3601.

4.9.  From -04 to -05

   o  Updated reference to SMS spec to the version referenced in the SMS
      service draft.

4.10.  From -03 to -04

   o  Updated reference to draft-allocchio-gstn (to revision -05).

4.11.  From -02 to -03

   o  Changed ordering of "change Log" section (descending to

   o  Clarified the wording at the beginning of Section 1.3.2 about only
      the keywords of the scheme being case-insensitive.

   o  Changed "sms-body" to be a URI query string.

   o  Added some text describing "sms" URIs as addressing resources.

4.12.  From -01 to -02

   o  Changed the sms-body field to percent-encoded UTF-8 characters.

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4.13.  From -00 to -01

   o  Added the "sms-body" field and its processing rules.

   o  Added Section 1.4 about using "sms" URIs as query strings for SMS
      Web services.

   o  Fixed typo in ABNF (said "global-phone" instead of "gstn-phone").

   o  Added some explanatory text about form submissions using email
      Telematic Interworking.

   o  Added some text about character encoding in form submissions.

4.14.  Change Log of draft-wilde-sms-service

   This section contains the change log of draft-wilde-sms-service-11
   before it was incorporated into this document at version

4.14.1.  From -10 to -11

   o  RFC 2234 (ABNF) has been obsoleted by [RFC4234].

   o  Added new security issue in Section 3.

   o  Updated reference information for [SMS] and [SMS-CHAR].

   o  Minor textual changes.

4.14.2.  From -09 to -10

   o  Changed IPR clause from RFC 3667 to RFC 3978 (updated version of
      RFC 3667).

4.14.3.  From -08 to -09

   o  No changes, re-release for alignment with draft-wilde-sms-uri.

4.14.4.  From -07 to -08

   o  No changes, re-release for alignment with draft-wilde-sms-uri.

4.14.5.  From -06 to -07

   o  Changed IPR clause from RFC 2026 to RFC 3667 (updated version of
      RFC 2026).

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4.14.6.  From -05 to -06

   o  Updated reference from draft-allocchio-gstn-05 to RFC 3601.

4.14.7.  From -04 to -05

   o  No changes, re-release for alignment with draft-wilde-sms-uri.

4.14.8.  From -03 to -04

   o  Updated reference to draft-allocchio-gstn (to revision -05).

4.14.9.  From -02 to -03

   o  Changed ordering of "change Log" section (descending to

   o  Fixed some spelling errors.

4.14.10.  From -01 to -02

   o  Removed address specification for X.400 SMS from ABNF
      (surprisingly not part of the SMS spec).

   o  Added some explanatory text about character set mapping for SMS

   o  Added text requiring the use of message class 1 for sending SMS

4.14.11.  From -00 to -01

   o  Added a number of new security considerations.

   o  Added the "PID" qualif-type1 keyword and the section about "SMS
      Telematic Interworking" (removed in -13, available as Section
      1.2.3 in -12).

5.  References

5.1.  Normative References

   [HTML401]  Raggett, D., Le Hors, A., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01
              Specification", W3C REC-html401, December 1999,

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate

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              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2279]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", RFC 2279, January 1998.

   [RFC2822]  Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822,
              April 2001.

   [RFC3966]  Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers",
              RFC 3966, December 2004.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 3986,
              January 2005.

   [RFC4234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.

   [RFC4395]  Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
              Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", RFC 4395,
              February 2006.

   [SMS]      European Telecommunications Standards Institute, "3GPP TS
              23.040 V7.0.1 (2007-03): 3rd Generation Partnership
              Project; Technical Specification Group Core Network and
              Terminals; Technical realization of the Short Message
              Service (SMS) (Release 7)", March 2007, <http://

              European Telecommunications Standards Institute, "TS 100
              900 (GSM 03.38 version 7.2.0 Release 1998): Digital
              Cellular Telecommunications System (Phase 2+); Alphabets
              and language-specific information", July 1999, <http://

5.2.  Non-Normative References

   [RFC2368]  Hoffmann, P., Masinter, L., and J. Zawinski, "The mailto
              URL scheme", RFC 2368, June 1998.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC2838]  Zigmond, D. and M. Vickers, "Uniform Resource Identifiers
              for Television Broadcasts", RFC 2838, May 2000.

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   [WAP]      WAP Forum, "Wireless Application Protocol - Architecture
              Specification (WAP-210-WAPArch-20010712)", July 2001.

              World Wide Web Consortium, "URIs, URLs, and URNs:
              Clarifications and Recommendations 1.0", W3C uri-
              clarification , September 2001,

Appendix A.  Where to send Comments

   Please send all comments and questions concerning this document to
   Erik Wilde.

Appendix B.  Acknowledgements

   This document has been prepared using the IETF document DTD described
   in RFC 2629 [RFC2629].

   Thanks to Claudio Allocchio, Lisa Dusseault, and Larry Masinter for
   their comments.

Authors' Addresses

   Erik Wilde
   UC Berkeley
   Berkeley, CA 94720-4600

   Phone: +1-510-6432253

   Antti Vaha-Sipila


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