Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                    R. Marin-Lopez
Request for Comments: 9061                               G. Lopez-Millan
Category: Standards Track                           University of Murcia
ISSN: 2070-1721                                     F. Pereniguez-Garcia
                                               University Defense Center
                                                               July 2021


          A YANG Data Model for IPsec Flow Protection Based on
                   Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

Abstract

   This document describes how to provide IPsec-based flow protection
   (integrity and confidentiality) by means of an Interface to Network
   Security Function (I2NSF) Controller.  It considers two main well-
   known scenarios in IPsec: gateway-to-gateway and host-to-host.  The
   service described in this document allows the configuration and
   monitoring of IPsec Security Associations (IPsec SAs) from an I2NSF
   Controller to one or several flow-based Network Security Functions
   (NSFs) that rely on IPsec to protect data traffic.

   This document focuses on the I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface by providing
   YANG data models for configuring the IPsec databases, namely Security
   Policy Database (SPD), Security Association Database (SAD), Peer
   Authorization Database (PAD), and Internet Key Exchange Version 2
   (IKEv2).  This allows IPsec SA establishment with minimal
   intervention by the network administrator.  This document defines
   three YANG modules, but it does not define any new protocol.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9061.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Terminology
     2.1.  Requirements Language
   3.  SDN-Based IPsec Management Description
     3.1.  IKE Case: IKEv2/IPsec in the NSF
     3.2.  IKE-less Case: IPsec (No IKEv2) in the NSF
   4.  IKE Case vs. IKE-less Case
     4.1.  Rekeying Process
     4.2.  NSF State Loss
     4.3.  NAT Traversal
     4.4.  NSF Registration and Discovery
   5.  YANG Configuration Data Models
     5.1.  The 'ietf-i2nsf-ikec' Module
       5.1.1.  Data Model Overview
       5.1.2.  YANG Module
     5.2.  The 'ietf-i2nsf-ike' Module
       5.2.1.  Data Model Overview
       5.2.2.  Example Usage
       5.2.3.  YANG Module
     5.3.  The 'ietf-i2nsf-ikeless' Module
       5.3.1.  Data Model Overview
       5.3.2.  Example Usage
       5.3.3.  YANG Module
   6.  IANA Considerations
   7.  Security Considerations
     7.1.  IKE Case
     7.2.  IKE-less Case
     7.3.  YANG Modules
   8.  References
     8.1.  Normative References
     8.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  XML Configuration Example for IKE Case
           (Gateway-to-Gateway)
   Appendix B.  XML Configuration Example for IKE-less Case
           (Host-to-Host)
   Appendix C.  XML Notification Examples
   Appendix D.  Operational Use Case Examples
     D.1.  Example of IPsec SA Establishment
       D.1.1.  IKE Case
       D.1.2.  IKE-less Case
     D.2.  Example of the Rekeying Process in IKE-less Case
     D.3.  Example of Managing NSF State Loss in the IKE-less Case
   Acknowledgements
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is an architecture that enables
   administrators to directly program, orchestrate, control, and manage
   network resources through software.  The SDN paradigm relocates the
   control of network resources to a centralized entity, namely the SDN
   Controller.  SDN Controllers configure and manage distributed network
   resources and provide an abstracted view of the network resources to
   SDN applications.  SDN applications can customize and automate the
   operations (including management) of the abstracted network resources
   in a programmable manner via this interface [RFC7149] [ITU-T.Y.3300]
   [ONF-SDN-Architecture] [ONF-OpenFlow].

   Recently, several network scenarios now demand a centralized way of
   managing different security aspects, for example, Software-Defined
   WANs (SD-WANs).  SD-WANs are SDN extensions providing software
   abstractions to create secure network overlays over traditional WAN
   and branch networks.  SD-WANs utilize IPsec [RFC4301] as an
   underlying security protocol.  The goal of SD-WANs is to provide
   flexible and automated deployment from a centralized point to enable
   on-demand network security services, such as IPsec Security
   Association (IPsec SA) management.  Additionally, Section 4.3.3
   ("Client-Specific Security Policy in Cloud VPNs") of [RFC8192]
   describes another example use case for a cloud data center scenario.
   The use case in [RFC8192] states that "dynamic key management is
   critical for securing the VPN and the distribution of policies".
   These VPNs can be established using IPsec.  The management of IPsec
   SAs in data centers using a centralized entity is a scenario where
   the current specification may be applicable.

   Therefore, with the growth of SDN-based scenarios where network
   resources are deployed in an autonomous manner, a mechanism to manage
   IPsec SAs from a centralized entity becomes more relevant in the
   industry.

   In response to this need, the Interface to Network Security Functions
   (I2NSF) charter states that the goal of this working group is "to
   define a set of software interfaces and data models for controlling
   and monitoring aspects of physical and virtual NSFs".  As defined in
   [RFC8192], a Network Security Function (NSF) is "a function that is
   used to ensure integrity, confidentiality, or availability of network
   communication; to detect unwanted network activity; or to block, or
   at least mitigate, the effects of unwanted activity".  This document
   pays special attention to flow-based NSFs that ensure integrity and
   confidentiality by means of IPsec.

   In fact, Section 3.1.9 of [RFC8192] states that "there is a need for
   a controller to create, manage, and distribute various keys to
   distributed NSFs"; however, "there is a lack of a standard interface
   to provision and manage security associations".  Inspired by the SDN
   paradigm, the I2NSF framework [RFC8329] defines a centralized entity,
   the I2NSF Controller, which manages one or multiple NSFs through an
   I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface.  In this document, an architecture is
   defined for allowing the I2NSF Controller to carry out the key
   management procedures.  More specifically, three YANG data models are
   defined for the I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface, which allows the I2NSF
   Controller to configure and monitor IPsec-enabled, flow-based NSFs.

   The IPsec architecture [RFC4301] defines a clear separation between
   the processing to provide security services to IP packets and the key
   management procedures to establish the IPsec SAs, which allows
   centralizing the key management procedures in the I2NSF Controller.
   This document considers two typical scenarios to autonomously manage
   IPsec SAs: gateway-to-gateway and host-to-host [RFC6071].  In these
   cases, hosts, gateways, or both may act as NSFs.  Due to its
   complexity, consideration for the host-to-gateway scenario is out of
   scope.  The source of this complexity comes from the fact that, in
   this scenario, the host may not be under the control of the I2NSF
   Controller and, therefore, it is not configurable.  Nevertheless, the
   I2NSF interfaces defined in this document can be considered as a
   starting point to analyze and provide a solution for the host-to-
   gateway scenario.

   For the definition of the YANG data models for the I2NSF NSF-Facing
   Interface, this document considers two general cases, namely:

   1.  IKE case.  The NSF implements the Internet Key Exchange Version 2
       (IKEv2) protocol and the IPsec databases: the Security Policy
       Database (SPD), the Security Association Database (SAD), and the
       Peer Authorization Database (PAD).  The I2NSF Controller is in
       charge of provisioning the NSF with the required information in
       the SPD and PAD (e.g., IKE credentials) and the IKE protocol
       itself (e.g., parameters for the IKE_SA_INIT negotiation).

   2.  IKE-less case.  The NSF only implements the IPsec databases (no
       IKE implementation).  The I2NSF Controller will provide the
       required parameters to create valid entries in the SPD and the
       SAD of the NSF.  Therefore, the NSF will only have support for
       IPsec whereas key management functionality is moved to the I2NSF
       Controller.

   In both cases, a YANG data model for the I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface
   is required to carry out this provisioning in a secure manner between
   the I2NSF Controller and the NSF.  Using YANG data modeling language
   version 1.1 [RFC7950] and based on YANG data models defined in
   [netconf-vpn] and [TRAN-IPSECME-YANG] and the data structures defined
   in [RFC4301] and [RFC7296], this document defines the required
   interfaces with a YANG data model for configuration and state data
   for IKE, PAD, SPD, and SAD (see Sections 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3).  The
   proposed YANG data model conforms to the Network Management Datastore
   Architecture (NMDA) defined in [RFC8342].  Examples of the usage of
   these data models can be found in Appendices A, B, and C.

   In summary, the objectives of this document are:

   *  To describe the architecture for I2NSF-based IPsec management,
      which allows for the establishment and management of IPsec
      Security Associations from the I2NSF Controller in order to
      protect specific data flows between two flow-based NSFs
      implementing IPsec.

   *  To map this architecture to the I2NSF framework.

   *  To define the interfaces required to manage and monitor the IPsec
      SAs in the NSF from an I2NSF Controller.  YANG data models are
      defined for configuration and state data for IPsec and IKEv2
      management through the I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface.  The YANG data
      models can be used via existing protocols, such as the Network
      Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040].
      Thus, this document defines three YANG modules (see Section 5) but
      does not define any new protocol.

2.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminology described in [ITU-T.Y.3300],
   [RFC8192], [RFC4301], [RFC6437], [RFC7296], [RFC6241], and [RFC8329].

   The following term is defined in [ITU-T.Y.3300]:

   *  Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

   The following terms are defined in [RFC8192]:

   *  Network Security Function (NSF)

   *  flow-based NSF

   The following terms are defined in [RFC4301]:

   *  Peer Authorization Database (PAD)

   *  Security Association Database (SAD)

   *  Security Policy Database (SPD)

   The following two terms are related or have identical definition/
   usage in [RFC6437]:

   *  flow

   *  traffic flow

   The following term is defined in [RFC7296]:

   *  Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)

   The following terms are defined in [RFC6241]:

   *  configuration data

   *  configuration datastore

   *  state data

   *  startup configuration datastore

   *  running configuration datastore

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  SDN-Based IPsec Management Description

   As mentioned in Section 1, two cases are considered, depending on
   whether the NSF implements IKEv2 or not: the IKE case and the IKE-
   less case.

3.1.  IKE Case: IKEv2/IPsec in the NSF

   In this case, the NSF implements IPsec with IKEv2 support.  The I2NSF
   Controller is in charge of managing and applying IPsec connection
   information (determining which nodes need to start an IKEv2/IPsec
   session, identifying the type of traffic to be protected, and
   deriving and delivering IKEv2 credentials, such as a pre-shared key
   (PSK), certificates, etc.) and applying other IKEv2 configuration
   parameters (e.g., cryptographic algorithms for establishing an IKEv2
   SA) to the NSF necessary for the IKEv2 negotiation.

   With these entries, the IKEv2 implementation can operate to establish
   the IPsec SAs.  The I2NSF User establishes the IPsec requirements and
   information about the endpoints (through the I2NSF Consumer-Facing
   Interface [RFC8329]), and the I2NSF Controller translates these
   requirements into IKEv2, SPD, and PAD entries that will be installed
   into the NSF (through the I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface).  With that
   information, the NSF can just run IKEv2 to establish the required
   IPsec SA (when the traffic flow needs protection).  Figure 1 shows
   the different layers and corresponding functionality.


               +-------------------------------------------+
               |          IPsec Management System          | I2NSF User
               +-------------------------------------------+
                                       |
                                       |  I2NSF Consumer-Facing
                                       |  Interface
               +-------------------------------------------+
               | IKEv2 Configuration, PAD and SPD Entries  | I2NSF
               |               Distribution                | Controller
               +-------------------------------------------+
                                       |
                                       |  I2NSF NSF-Facing
                                       |  Interface
               +-------------------------------------------+
               |   IKEv2  |      IPsec(PAD, SPD)           | Network
               |-------------------------------------------| Security
               |    IPsec Data Protection and Forwarding   | Function
               +-------------------------------------------+

                  Figure 1: IKE Case: IKE/IPsec in the NSF

   I2NSF-based IPsec flow protection services provide dynamic and
   flexible management of IPsec SAs in flow-based NSFs.  In order to
   support this capability in the IKE case, a YANG data model for IKEv2,
   SPD, and PAD configuration data and for IKEv2 state data needs to be
   defined for the I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface (see Section 5).

3.2.  IKE-less Case: IPsec (No IKEv2) in the NSF

   In this case, the NSF does not deploy IKEv2 and, therefore, the I2NSF
   Controller has to perform the IKEv2 security functions and management
   of IPsec SAs by populating and managing the SPD and the SAD.

   As shown in Figure 2, when an I2NSF User enforces flow-based
   protection policies through the Consumer-Facing Interface, the I2NSF
   Controller translates these requirements into SPD and SAD entries,
   which are installed in the NSF.  PAD entries are not required, since
   there is no IKEv2 in the NSF.


               +-----------------------------------------+
               |         IPsec Management System         | I2NSF User
               +-----------------------------------------+
                                   |
                                   |  I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface
                                   |
               +-----------------------------------------+
               |           SPD and SAD Entries           | I2NSF
               |              Distribution               | Controller
               +-----------------------------------------+
                                   |
                                   |  I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface
                                   |
               +-----------------------------------------+
               |             IPsec (SPD, SAD)            | Network
               |-----------------------------------------| Security
               |   IPsec Data Protection and Forwarding  | Function
               +-----------------------------------------+

            Figure 2: IKE-less Case: IPsec (No IKEv2) in the NSF

   In order to support the IKE-less case, a YANG data model for SPD and
   SAD configuration data and SAD state data MUST be defined for the
   NSF-Facing Interface (see Section 5).

   Specifically, the IKE-less case assumes that the I2NSF Controller has
   to perform some security functions that IKEv2 typically does, namely
   (non-exhaustive list):

   *  Initialization Vector (IV) generation

   *  prevention of counter resets for the same key

   *  generation of pseudorandom cryptographic keys for the IPsec SAs

   *  generation of the IPsec SAs when required based on notifications
      (i.e., sadb-acquire) from the NSF

   *  rekey of the IPsec SAs based on notifications from the NSF (i.e.,
      expire)

   *  NAT traversal discovery and management

   Additionally to these functions, another set of tasks must be
   performed by the I2NSF Controller (non-exhaustive list):

   *  IPsec SA's Security Parameter Index (SPI) random generation

   *  cryptographic algorithm selection

   *  usage of extended sequence numbers

   *  establishment of proper Traffic Selectors

4.  IKE Case vs. IKE-less Case

   In principle, the IKE case is easier to deploy than the IKE-less case
   because current flow-based NSFs (either hosts or gateways) have
   access to IKEv2 implementations.  While gateways typically deploy an
   IKEv2/IPsec implementation, hosts can easily install it.  As a
   downside, the NSF needs more resources to use IKEv2, such as memory
   for the IKEv2 implementation and computation, since each IPsec
   Security Association rekeying MAY involve a Diffie-Hellman (DH)
   exchange.

   Alternatively, the IKE-less case benefits the deployment in resource-
   constrained NSFs.  Moreover, IKEv2 does not need to be performed in
   gateway-to-gateway and host-to-host scenarios under the same I2NSF
   Controller (see Appendix D.1).  On the contrary, the complexity of
   creating and managing IPsec SAs is shifted to the I2NSF Controller
   since IKEv2 is not in the NSF.  As a consequence, this may result in
   a more complex implementation in the controller side in comparison
   with the IKE case.  For example, the I2NSF Controller has to deal
   with the latency existing in the path between the I2NSF Controller
   and the NSF (in order to solve tasks, such as rekey) or creation and
   installation of new IPsec SAs.  However, this is not specific to this
   contribution but a general aspect in any SDN-based network.  In
   summary, this complexity may create some scalability and performance
   issues when the number of NSFs is high.

   Nevertheless, literature around SDN-based network management using a
   centralized controller (like the I2NSF Controller) is aware of
   scalability and performance issues, and solutions have been already
   provided and discussed (e.g., hierarchical controllers, having
   multiple replicated controllers, dedicated high-speed management
   networks, etc.).  In the context of I2NSF-based IPsec management, one
   way to reduce the latency and alleviate some performance issues can
   be to install the IPsec policies and IPsec SAs at the same time
   (proactive mode, as described in Appendix D.1) instead of waiting for
   notifications (e.g., a sadb-acquire notification received from an NSF
   requiring a new IPsec SA) to proceed with the IPsec SA installation
   (reactive mode).  Another way to reduce the overhead and the
   potential scalability and performance issues in the I2NSF Controller
   is to apply the IKE case described in this document since the IPsec
   SAs are managed between NSFs without the involvement of the I2NSF
   Controller at all, except by the initial configuration (i.e., IKEv2,
   PAD, and SPD entries) provided by the I2NSF Controller.  Other
   solutions, such as Controller-IKE [IPSECME-CONTROLLER-IKE], have
   proposed that NSFs provide their DH public keys to the I2NSF
   Controller so that the I2NSF Controller distributes all public keys
   to all peers.  All peers can calculate a unique pairwise secret for
   each other peer, and there is no inter-NSF messages.  A rekey
   mechanism is further described in [IPSECME-CONTROLLER-IKE].

   In terms of security, the IKE case provides better security
   properties than the IKE-less case, as discussed in Section 7.  The
   main reason is that the NSFs generate the session keys and not the
   I2NSF Controller.

4.1.  Rekeying Process

   Performing a rekey for IPsec SAs is an important operation during the
   IPsec SAs management.  With the YANG data models defined in this
   document the I2NSF Controller can configure parameters of the rekey
   process (IKE case) or conduct the rekey process (IKE-less case).
   Indeed, depending on the case, the rekey process is different.

   For the IKE case, the rekeying process is carried out by IKEv2,
   following the information defined in the SPD and SAD (i.e., based on
   the IPsec SA lifetime established by the I2NSF Controller using the
   YANG data model defined in this document).  Therefore, IPsec
   connections will live unless something different is required by the
   I2NSF User or the I2NSF Controller detects something wrong.

   For the IKE-less case, the I2NSF Controller MUST take care of the
   rekeying process.  When the IPsec SA is going to expire (e.g., IPsec
   SA soft lifetime), it MUST create a new IPsec SA and it MAY remove
   the old one (e.g., when the lifetime of the old IPsec SA has not been
   defined).  This rekeying process starts when the I2NSF Controller
   receives a sadb-expire notification or, on the I2NSF Controller's
   initiative, based on lifetime state data obtained from the NSF.  How
   the I2NSF Controller implements an algorithm for the rekey process is
   out of the scope of this document.  Nevertheless, an example of how
   this rekey could be performed is described in Appendix D.2.

4.2.  NSF State Loss

   If one of the NSF restarts, it will lose the IPsec state (affected
   NSF).  By default, the I2NSF Controller can assume that all the state
   has been lost and, therefore, it will have to send IKEv2, SPD, and
   PAD information to the NSF in the IKE case and SPD and SAD
   information in the IKE-less case.

   In both cases, the I2NSF Controller is aware of the affected NSF
   (e.g., the NETCONF/TCP connection is broken with the affected NSF,
   the I2NSF Controller is receiving a sadb-bad-spi notification from a
   particular NSF, etc.).  Moreover, the I2NSF Controller keeps a list
   of NSFs that have IPsec SAs with the affected NSF.  Therefore, it
   knows the affected IPsec SAs.

   In the IKE case, the I2NSF Controller may need to configure the
   affected NSF with the new IKEv2, SPD, and PAD information.
   Alternatively, IKEv2 configuration MAY be made permanent between NSF
   reboots without compromising security by means of the startup
   configuration datastore in the NSF.  This way, each time an NSF
   reboots, it will use that configuration for each rebooting.  It would
   imply avoiding contact with the I2NSF Controller.  Finally, the I2NSF
   Controller may also need to send new parameters (e.g., a new fresh
   PSK for authentication) to the NSFs that had IKEv2 SAs and IPsec SAs
   with the affected NSF.

   In the IKE-less case, the I2NSF Controller SHOULD delete the old
   IPsec SAs in the non-failed nodes established with the affected NSF.
   Once the affected node restarts, the I2NSF Controller MUST take the
   necessary actions to reestablish IPsec-protected communication
   between the failed node and those others having IPsec SAs with the
   affected NSF.  How the I2NSF Controller implements an algorithm for
   managing a potential NSF state loss is out of the scope of this
   document.  Nevertheless, an example of how this could be performed is
   described in Appendix D.3.

4.3.  NAT Traversal

   In the IKE case, IKEv2 already provides a mechanism to detect whether
   some of the peers or both are located behind a NAT.  In this case,
   UDP or TCP encapsulation for Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
   packets [RFC3948] [RFC8229] is required.  Note that IPsec transport
   mode MUST NOT be used in this specification when NAT is required.

   In the IKE-less case, the NSF does not have the assistance of the
   IKEv2 implementation to detect if it is located behind a NAT.  If the
   NSF does not have any other mechanism to detect this situation, the
   I2NSF Controller SHOULD implement a mechanism to detect that case.
   The SDN paradigm generally assumes the I2NSF Controller has a view of
   the network under its control.  This view is built either by
   requesting information from the NSFs under its control or information
   pushed from the NSFs to the I2NSF Controller.  Based on this
   information, the I2NSF Controller MAY guess if there is a NAT
   configured between two hosts and apply the required policies to both
   NSFs besides activating the usage of UDP or TCP encapsulation of ESP
   packets [RFC3948] [RFC8229].  The interface for discovering if the
   NSF is behind a NAT is out of scope of this document.

   If the I2NSF Controller does not have any mechanism to know whether a
   host is behind a NAT or not, then the IKE case MUST be used and not
   the IKE-less case.

4.4.  NSF Registration and Discovery

   NSF registration refers to the process of providing the I2NSF
   Controller information about a valid NSF, such as certificate, IP
   address, etc.  This information is incorporated in a list of NSFs
   under its control.

   The assumption in this document is that, for both cases, before an
   NSF can operate in this system, it MUST be registered in the I2NSF
   Controller.  In this way, when the NSF starts and establishes a
   connection to the I2NSF Controller, it knows that the NSF is valid
   for joining the system.

   Either during this registration process or when the NSF connects with
   the I2NSF Controller, the I2NSF Controller MUST discover certain
   capabilities of this NSF, such as what are the cryptographic suites
   supported, the authentication method, the support of the IKE case
   and/or the IKE-less case, etc.

   The registration and discovery processes are out of the scope of this
   document.

5.  YANG Configuration Data Models

   In order to support the IKE and IKE-less cases, models are provided
   for the different parameters and values that must be configured to
   manage IPsec SAs.  Specifically, the IKE case requires modeling IKEv2
   configuration parameters, SPD and PAD, while the IKE-less case
   requires configuration YANG data models for the SPD and SAD.  Three
   modules have been defined: ietf-i2nsf-ikec (Section 5.1, common to
   both cases), ietf-i2nsf-ike (Section 5.2, IKE case), and ietf-i2nsf-
   ikeless (Section 5.3, IKE-less case).  Since the module ietf-i2nsf-
   ikec has only typedef and groupings common to the other modules, a
   simplified view of the ietf-i2nsf-ike and ietf-i2nsf-ikeless modules
   is shown.

5.1.  The 'ietf-i2nsf-ikec' Module

5.1.1.  Data Model Overview

   The module ietf-i2nsf-ikec only has definitions of data types
   (typedef) and groupings that are common to the other modules.

5.1.2.  YANG Module

   This module has normative references to [RFC3947], [RFC4301],
   [RFC4303], [RFC8174], [RFC8221], [RFC3948], [RFC8229], [RFC6991],
   [IANA-Protocols-Number], [IKEv2-Parameters],
   [IKEv2-Transform-Type-1], and [IKEv2-Transform-Type-3].

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-ikec@2021-07-14.yang"
   module ietf-i2nsf-ikec {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikec";
     prefix nsfikec;

     import ietf-inet-types {
       prefix inet;
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }

     organization
       "IETF I2NSF Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:  <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf/>
        WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>

        Author: Rafael Marin-Lopez
                  <mailto:rafa@um.es>

        Author: Gabriel Lopez-Millan
                  <mailto:gabilm@um.es>

        Author: Fernando Pereniguez-Garcia
                  <mailto:fernando.pereniguez@cud.upct.es>
       ";
     description
       "Common data model for the IKE and IKE-less cases
        defined by the SDN-based IPsec flow protection service.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL',
        'SHALL NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED',
        'NOT RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
        document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14
        (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when, they appear
        in all capitals, as shown here.

        Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons
        identified as authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 9061; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.";

     revision 2021-07-14 {
       description
         "Initial version.";
       reference
         "RFC 9061: A YANG Data Model for IPsec Flow Protection
                    Based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN).";
     }

     typedef encr-alg-t {
       type uint16;
       description
         "The encryption algorithm is specified with a 16-bit
          number extracted from the IANA registry.  The acceptable
          values MUST follow the requirement levels for
          encryption algorithms for ESP and IKEv2.";
       reference
         "IANA: Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2) Parameters,
                IKEv2 Transform Attribute Types, Transform Type 1 -
                Encryption Algorithm Transform IDs
          RFC 8221: Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation
                    Requirements and Usage Guidance for Encapsulating
                    Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header
                    (AH)
          RFC 8247: Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage
                    Guidance for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol
                    Version 2 (IKEv2).";
     }

     typedef intr-alg-t {
       type uint16;
       description
         "The integrity algorithm is specified with a 16-bit
          number extracted from the IANA registry.
          The acceptable values MUST follow the requirement
          levels for integrity algorithms for ESP and IKEv2.";
       reference
         "IANA: Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2) Parameters,
                IKEv2 Transform Attribute Types, Transform Type 3 -
                Integrity Algorithm Transform IDs
          RFC 8221: Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation
                    Requirements and Usage Guidance for Encapsulating
                    Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header
                    (AH)
          RFC 8247: Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage
                    Guidance for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol
                    Version 2 (IKEv2).";
     }

     typedef ipsec-mode {
       type enumeration {
         enum transport {
           description
             "IPsec transport mode.  No Network Address
              Translation (NAT) support.";
         }
         enum tunnel {
           description
             "IPsec tunnel mode.";
         }
       }
       description
         "Type definition of IPsec mode: transport or
          tunnel.";
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 3.2.";
     }

     typedef esp-encap {
       type enumeration {
         enum espintcp {
           description
             "ESP in TCP encapsulation.";
           reference
             "RFC 8229: TCP Encapsulation of IKE and
                        IPsec Packets.";
         }
         enum espinudp {
           description
             "ESP in UDP encapsulation.";
           reference
             "RFC 3948: UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP
                        Packets.";
         }
         enum none {
           description
             "No ESP encapsulation.";
         }
       }
       description
         "Types of ESP encapsulation when Network Address
          Translation (NAT) may be present between two NSFs.";
       reference
         "RFC 8229: TCP Encapsulation of IKE and IPsec Packets
          RFC 3948: UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP Packets.";
     }

     typedef ipsec-protocol-params {
       type enumeration {
         enum esp {
           description
             "IPsec ESP protocol.";
         }
       }
       description
         "Only the Encapsulation Security Protocol (ESP) is
          supported, but it could be extended in the future.";
       reference
         "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP).";
     }

     typedef lifetime-action {
       type enumeration {
         enum terminate-clear {
           description
             "Terminates the IPsec SA and allows the
              packets through.";
         }
         enum terminate-hold {
           description
             "Terminates the IPsec SA and drops the
              packets.";
         }
         enum replace {
           description
             "Replaces the IPsec SA with a new one:
              rekey.";
         }
       }
       description
         "When the lifetime of an IPsec SA expires, an action
          needs to be performed for the IPsec SA that
          reached the lifetime.  There are three possible
          options: terminate-clear, terminate-hold, and
          replace.";
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 4.5.";
     }

     typedef ipsec-traffic-direction {
       type enumeration {
         enum inbound {
           description
             "Inbound traffic.";
         }
         enum outbound {
           description
             "Outbound traffic.";
         }
       }
       description
         "IPsec traffic direction is defined in
          two directions: inbound and outbound.
          From an NSF perspective, inbound and
          outbound are defined as mentioned
          in Section 3.1 in RFC 4301.";
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 3.1.";
     }

     typedef ipsec-spd-action {
       type enumeration {
         enum protect {
           description
             "PROTECT the traffic with IPsec.";
         }
         enum bypass {
           description
             "BYPASS the traffic.  The packet is forwarded
              without IPsec protection.";
         }
         enum discard {
           description
             "DISCARD the traffic.  The IP packet is
              discarded.";
         }
       }
       description
         "The action when traffic matches an IPsec security
          policy.  According to RFC 4301, there are three
          possible values: BYPASS, PROTECT, and DISCARD.";
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 4.4.1.";
     }

     typedef ipsec-inner-protocol {
       type union {
         type uint8;
         type enumeration {
           enum any {
             value 256;
             description
               "Any IP protocol number value.";
           }
         }
       }
       default "any";
       description
         "IPsec protection can be applied to specific IP
          traffic and Layer 4 traffic (TCP, UDP, SCTP, etc.)
          or ANY protocol in the IP packet payload.
          The IP protocol number is specified with a uint8
          or ANY defining an enumerate with value 256 to
          indicate the protocol number.  Note that in case
          of IPv6, the protocol in the IP packet payload
          is indicated in the Next Header field of the IPv6
          packet.";
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 4.4.1.1
          IANA: Protocol Numbers.";
     }

     grouping encap {
       description
         "This group of nodes allows defining of the type of
          encapsulation in case NAT traversal is
          required and includes port information.";
       leaf espencap {
         type esp-encap;
         default "none";
         description
           "ESP in TCP, ESP in UDP, or ESP in TLS.";
       }
       leaf sport {
         type inet:port-number;
         default "4500";
         description
           "Encapsulation source port.";
       }
       leaf dport {
         type inet:port-number;
         default "4500";
         description
           "Encapsulation destination port.";
       }
       leaf-list oaddr {
         type inet:ip-address;
         description
           "If required, this is the original address that
            was used before NAT was applied over the packet.";
       }
       reference
         "RFC 3947: Negotiation of NAT-Traversal in the IKE
          RFC 8229: TCP Encapsulation of IKE and IPsec Packets.";
     }

     grouping lifetime {
       description
         "Different lifetime values limited to an IPsec SA.";
       leaf time {
         type uint32;
         units "seconds";
         default "0";
         description
           "Time in seconds since the IPsec SA was added.
            For example, if this value is 180 seconds, it
            means the IPsec SA expires in 180 seconds since
            it was added.  The value 0 implies infinite.";
       }
       leaf bytes {
         type uint64;
         default "0";
         description
           "If the IPsec SA processes the number of bytes
            expressed in this leaf, the IPsec SA expires and
            SHOULD be rekeyed.  The value 0 implies
            infinite.";
       }
       leaf packets {
         type uint32;
         default "0";
         description
           "If the IPsec SA processes the number of packets
            expressed in this leaf, the IPsec SA expires and
            SHOULD be rekeyed.  The value 0 implies
            infinite.";
       }
       leaf idle {
         type uint32;
         units "seconds";
         default "0";
         description
           "When an NSF stores an IPsec SA, it
            consumes system resources.  For an idle IPsec SA, this
            is a waste of resources.  If the IPsec SA is idle
            during this number of seconds, the IPsec SA
            SHOULD be removed.  The value 0 implies
            infinite.";
       }
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 4.4.2.1.";
     }

     grouping port-range {
       description
         "This grouping defines a port range, such as that
          expressed in RFC 4301, for example, 1500 (Start
          Port Number)-1600 (End Port Number).
          A port range is used in the Traffic Selector.";
       leaf start {
         type inet:port-number;
         description
           "Start port number.";
       }
       leaf end {
         type inet:port-number;
         must '. >= ../start' {
           error-message
             "The end port number MUST be equal or greater
              than the start port number.";
         }
         description
           "End port number.  To express a single port, set
            the same value as start and end.";
       }
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 4.4.1.2.";
     }

     grouping tunnel-grouping {
       description
         "The parameters required to define the IP tunnel
          endpoints when IPsec SA requires tunnel mode.  The
          tunnel is defined by two endpoints: the local IP
          address and the remote IP address.";
       leaf local {
         type inet:ip-address;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Local IP address' tunnel endpoint.";
       }
       leaf remote {
         type inet:ip-address;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Remote IP address' tunnel endpoint.";
       }
       leaf df-bit {
         type enumeration {
           enum clear {
             description
               "Disable the Don't Fragment (DF) bit
                in the outer header.  This is the
                default value.";
           }
           enum set {
             description
               "Enable the DF bit in the outer header.";
           }
           enum copy {
             description
               "Copy the DF bit to the outer header.";
           }
         }
         default "clear";
         description
           "Allow configuring the DF bit when encapsulating
            tunnel mode IPsec traffic.  RFC 4301 describes
            three options to handle the DF bit during
            tunnel encapsulation: clear, set, and copy from
            the inner IP header.  This MUST be ignored or
            has no meaning when the local/remote
            IP addresses are IPv6 addresses.";
         reference
           "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                      Section 8.1.";
       }
       leaf bypass-dscp {
         type boolean;
         default "true";
         description
           "If true, to copy the Differentiated Services Code
            Point (DSCP) value from inner header to outer header.
            If false, to map DSCP values
            from an inner header to values in an outer header
            following ../dscp-mapping.";
         reference
           "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                      Section 4.4.1.2.";
       }
       list dscp-mapping {
         must '../bypass-dscp = "false"';
         key "id";
         ordered-by user;
         leaf id {
           type uint8;
           description
             "The index of list with the
              different mappings.";
         }
         leaf inner-dscp {
           type inet:dscp;
           description
             "The DSCP value of the inner IP packet.  If this
              leaf is not defined, it means ANY inner DSCP value.";
         }
         leaf outer-dscp {
           type inet:dscp;
           default "0";
           description
             "The DSCP value of the outer IP packet.";
         }
         description
           "A list that represents an array with the mapping from the
            inner DSCP value to outer DSCP value when bypass-dscp is
            false.  To express a default mapping in the list where any
            other inner dscp value is not matching a node in the list,
            a new node has to be included at the end of the list where
            the leaf inner-dscp is not defined (ANY) and the leaf
            outer-dscp includes the value of the mapping.  If there is
            no value set in the leaf outer-dscp, the default value for
            this leaf is 0.";
         reference
           "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                      Section 4.4.1.2 and Appendix C.";
       }
     }

     grouping selector-grouping {
       description
         "This grouping contains the definition of a Traffic
          Selector, which is used in the IPsec policies and
          IPsec SAs.";
       leaf local-prefix {
         type inet:ip-prefix;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Local IP address prefix.";
       }
       leaf remote-prefix {
         type inet:ip-prefix;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Remote IP address prefix.";
       }
       leaf inner-protocol {
         type ipsec-inner-protocol;
         default "any";
         description
           "Inner protocol that is going to be
            protected with IPsec.";
       }
       list local-ports {
         key "start end";
         uses port-range;
         description
           "List of local ports. When the inner
            protocol is ICMP, this 16-bit value
            represents code and type.
            If this list is not defined,
            it is assumed that start and
            end are 0 by default (any port).";
       }
       list remote-ports {
         key "start end";
         uses port-range;
         description
           "List of remote ports. When the upper layer
            protocol is ICMP, this 16-bit value represents
            code and type.  If this list is not defined,
            it is assumed that start and end are 0 by
            default (any port).";
       }
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                    Section 4.4.1.2.";
     }

     grouping ipsec-policy-grouping {
       description
         "Holds configuration information for an IPsec SPD
          entry.";
       leaf anti-replay-window-size {
         type uint32;
         default "64";
         description
           "To set the anti-replay window size.
            The default value is set
            to 64, following the recommendation in RFC 4303.";
         reference
           "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP),
                      Section 3.4.3.";
       }
       container traffic-selector {
         description
           "Packets are selected for
            processing actions based on Traffic Selector
            values, which refer to IP and inner protocol
            header information.";
         uses selector-grouping;
         reference
           "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                      Section 4.4.4.1.";
       }
       container processing-info {
         description
           "SPD processing.  If the required processing
            action is protect, it contains the required
            information to process the packet.";
         leaf action {
           type ipsec-spd-action;
           default "discard";
           description
             "If bypass or discard, container
              ipsec-sa-cfg is empty.";
         }
         container ipsec-sa-cfg {
           when "../action = 'protect'";
           description
             "IPsec SA configuration included in the SPD
              entry.";
           leaf pfp-flag {
             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "Each selector has a Populate From
                Packet (PFP) flag.  If asserted for a
                given selector X, the flag indicates
                that the IPsec SA to be created should
                take its value (local IP address,
                remote IP address, Next Layer
                Protocol, etc.) for X from the value
                in the packet.  Otherwise, the IPsec SA
                should take its value(s) for X from
                the value(s) in the SPD entry.";
           }
           leaf ext-seq-num {
             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "True if this IPsec SA is using extended
                sequence numbers.  If true, the 64-bit
                extended sequence number counter is used;
                if false, the normal 32-bit sequence
                number counter is used.";
           }
           leaf seq-overflow {
             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "The flag indicating whether
                overflow of the sequence number
                counter should prevent transmission
                of additional packets on the IPsec
                SA (false) and, therefore, needs to
                be rekeyed or whether rollover is
                permitted (true).  If Authenticated
                Encryption with Associated Data
                (AEAD) is used (leaf
                esp-algorithms/encryption/algorithm-type),
                this flag MUST be false.  Setting this
                flag to true is strongly discouraged.";
           }
           leaf stateful-frag-check {
             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "Indicates whether (true) or not (false)
                stateful fragment checking applies to
                the IPsec SA to be created.";
           }
           leaf mode {
             type ipsec-mode;
             default "transport";
             description
               "IPsec SA has to be processed in
                transport or tunnel mode.";
           }
           leaf protocol-parameters {
             type ipsec-protocol-params;
             default "esp";
             description
               "Security protocol of the IPsec SA.
                Only ESP is supported, but it could be
                extended in the future.";
           }
           container esp-algorithms {
             when "../protocol-parameters = 'esp'";
             description
               "Configuration of Encapsulating
                Security Payload (ESP) parameters and
                algorithms.";
             leaf-list integrity {
               type intr-alg-t;
               default "0";
               ordered-by user;
               description
                 "Configuration of ESP authentication
                  based on the specified integrity
                  algorithm.  With AEAD encryption
                  algorithms, the integrity node is
                  not used.";
               reference
                 "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP),
                            Section 3.2.";
             }
             list encryption {
               key "id";
               ordered-by user;
               leaf id {
                 type uint16;
                 description
                   "An identifier that unequivocally identifies each
                    entry of the list, i.e., an encryption algorithm
                    and its key length (if required).";
               }
               leaf algorithm-type {
                 type encr-alg-t;
                 default "20";
                 description
                   "Default value 20 (ENCR_AES_GCM_16).";
               }
               leaf key-length {
                 type uint16;
                 default "128";
                 description
                   "By default, key length is 128
                    bits.";
               }
               description
                 "Encryption or AEAD algorithm for the
                  IPsec SAs.  This list is ordered
                  following from the higher priority to
                  lower priority.  First node of the
                  list will be the algorithm with
                  higher priority.  In case the list
                  is empty, then no encryption algorithm
                  is applied (NULL).";
               reference
                 "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP),
                            Section 3.2.";
             }
             leaf tfc-pad {
               type boolean;
               default "false";
               description
                 "If Traffic Flow Confidentiality
                  (TFC) padding for ESP encryption
                  can be used (true) or not (false).";
               reference
                 "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP),
                            Section 2.7.";
             }
             reference
               "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP).";
           }
           container tunnel {
             when "../mode = 'tunnel'";
             uses tunnel-grouping;
             description
               "IPsec tunnel endpoints definition.";
           }
         }
         reference
           "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                      Section 4.4.1.2.";
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

5.2.  The 'ietf-i2nsf-ike' Module

   In this section, the YANG module for the IKE case is described.

5.2.1.  Data Model Overview

   The model related to IKEv2 has been extracted from reading the IKEv2
   standard in [RFC7296] and observing some open source implementations,
   such as strongSwan [strongswan] or Libreswan [libreswan].

   The definition of the PAD model has been extracted from the
   specification in Section 4.4.3 of [RFC4301].  (Note that many
   implementations integrate PAD configuration as part of the IKEv2
   configuration.)

   The definition of the SPD model has been mainly extracted from the
   specification in Section 4.4.1 and Appendix D of [RFC4301].

   The YANG data model for the IKE case is defined by the module "ietf-
   i2nsf-ike".  Its structure is depicted in the following diagram,
   using the notation syntax for YANG tree diagrams [RFC8340].

   module: ietf-i2nsf-ike
     +--rw ipsec-ike
       +--rw pad
       |  +--rw pad-entry* [name]
       |     +--rw name                           string
       |     +--rw (identity)
       |     |  +--:(ipv4-address)
       |     |  |  +--rw ipv4-address?            inet:ipv4-address
       |     |  +--:(ipv6-address)
       |     |  |  +--rw ipv6-address?            inet:ipv6-address
       |     |  +--:(fqdn-string)
       |     |  |  +--rw fqdn-string?             inet:domain-name
       |     |  +--:(rfc822-address-string)
       |     |  |  +--rw rfc822-address-string?   string
       |     |  +--:(dnx509)
       |     |  |  +--rw dnx509?                  binary
       |     |  +--:(gnx509)
       |     |  |  +--rw gnx509?                  binary
       |     |  +--:(id-key)
       |     |  |  +--rw id-key?                  binary
       |     |  +--:(id-null)
       |     |     +--rw id-null?                 empty
       |     +--rw auth-protocol?                 auth-protocol-type
       |     +--rw peer-authentication
       |        +--rw auth-method?         auth-method-type
       |        +--rw eap-method
       |        |  +--rw eap-type    uint64
       |        +--rw pre-shared
       |        |  +--rw secret?   yang:hex-string
       |        +--rw digital-signature
       |           +--rw ds-algorithm?           uint8
       |           +--rw (public-key)?
       |           |  +--:(raw-public-key)
       |           |  |  +--rw raw-public-key?   binary
       |           |  +--:(cert-data)
       |           |     +--rw cert-data?        binary
       |           +--rw private-key?            binary
       |           +--rw ca-data*                binary
       |           +--rw crl-data?               binary
       |           +--rw crl-uri?                inet:uri
       |           +--rw oscp-uri?               inet:uri
       +--rw conn-entry* [name]
       |  +--rw name                             string
       |  +--rw autostartup?                     autostartup-type
       |  +--rw initial-contact?                 boolean
       |  +--rw version?                         auth-protocol-type
       |  +--rw fragmentation
       |  |  +--rw enabled?   boolean
       |  |  +--rw mtu?      uint16
       |  +--rw ike-sa-lifetime-soft
       |  |  +--rw rekey-time?    uint32
       |  |  +--rw reauth-time?   uint32
       |  +--rw ike-sa-lifetime-hard
       |  |  +--rw over-time?   uint32
       |  +--rw ike-sa-intr-alg*  nsfikec:intr-alg-t
       |  +--rw ike-sa-encr-alg* [id]
       |  |  +--rw id                uint16
       |  |  +--rw algorithm-type?   nsfikec:encr-alg-t
       |  |  +--rw key-length?       uint16
       |  +--rw dh-group?                            fs-group
       |  +--rw half-open-ike-sa-timer?              uint32
       |  +--rw half-open-ike-sa-cookie-threshold?   uint32
       |  +--rw local
       |  |  +--rw local-pad-entry-name    string
       |  +--rw remote
       |  |  +--rw remote-pad-entry-name    string
       |  +--rw encapsulation-type
       |  |  +--rw espencap?   esp-encap
       |  |  +--rw sport?      inet:port-number
       |  |  +--rw dport?      inet:port-number
       |  |  +--rw oaddr*      inet:ip-address
       |  +--rw spd
       |  |  +--rw spd-entry* [name]
       |  |    +--rw name                   string
       |  |    +--rw ipsec-policy-config
       |  |      +--rw anti-replay-window-size?   uint32
       |  |      +--rw traffic-selector
       |  |      |  +--rw local-prefix      inet:ip-prefix
       |  |      |  +--rw remote-prefix     inet:ip-prefix
       |  |      |  +--rw inner-protocol?   ipsec-inner-protocol
       |  |      |  +--rw local-ports* [start end]
       |  |      |  |  +--rw start    inet:port-number
       |  |      |  |  +--rw end      inet:port-number
       |  |      |  +--rw remote-ports* [start end]
       |  |      |     +--rw start    inet:port-number
       |  |      |     +--rw end      inet:port-number
       |  |      +--rw processing-info
       |  |        +--rw action?         ipsec-spd-action
       |  |        +--rw ipsec-sa-cfg
       |  |         +--rw pfp-flag?              boolean
       |  |         +--rw ext-seq-num?           boolean
       |  |         +--rw seq-overflow?          boolean
       |  |         +--rw stateful-frag-check?   boolean
       |  |         +--rw mode?                  ipsec-mode
       |  |         +--rw protocol-parameters? ipsec-protocol-params
       |  |              +--rw esp-algorithms
       |  |              |  +--rw integrity*    intr-alg-t
       |  |              |  +--rw encryption* [id]
       |  |              |  |  +--rw id                uint16
       |  |              |  |  +--rw algorithm-type?   encr-alg-t
       |  |              |  |  +--rw key-length?       uint16
       |  |              |  +--rw tfc-pad?      boolean
       |  |              +--rw tunnel
       |  |                 +--rw local           inet:ip-address
       |  |                 +--rw remote          inet:ip-address
       |  |                 +--rw df-bit?         enumeration
       |  |                 +--rw bypass-dscp?    boolean
       |  |                 +--rw dscp-mapping* [id]
       |  |                    +--rw id            uint8
       |  |                    +--rw inner-dscp?   inet:dscp
       |  |                    +--rw outer-dscp?   inet:dscp
       |  +--rw child-sa-info
       |  |  +--rw fs-groups*                fs-group
       |  |  +--rw child-sa-lifetime-soft
       |  |  |  +--rw time?      uint32
       |  |  |  +--rw bytes?     yang:counter64
       |  |  |  +--rw packets?   uint32
       |  |  |  +--rw idle?      uint32
       |  |  |  +--rw action?    nsfikec:lifetime-action
       |  |  +--rw child-sa-lifetime-hard
       |  |     +--rw time?      uint32
       |  |     +--rw bytes?     yang:counter64
       |  |     +--rw packets?   uint32
       |  |     +--rw idle?      uint32
       |  +--ro state
       |     +--ro initiator?             boolean
       |     +--ro initiator-ikesa-spi?   ike-spi
       |     +--ro responder-ikesa-spi?   ike-spi
       |     +--ro nat-local?             boolean
       |     +--ro nat-remote?            boolean
       |     +--ro encapsulation-type
       |     |  +--ro espencap?   esp-encap
       |     |  +--ro sport?      inet:port-number
       |     |  +--ro dport?      inet:port-number
       |     |  +--ro oaddr*      inet:ip-address
       |     +--ro established?           uint64
       |     +--ro current-rekey-time?    uint64
       |     +--ro current-reauth-time?   uint64
       +--ro number-ike-sas
           +--ro total?               yang:gauge64
           +--ro half-open?           yang:gauge64
           +--ro half-open-cookies?   yang:gauge64

   The YANG data model consists of a unique "ipsec-ike" container
   defined as follows.  Firstly, it contains a "pad" container that
   serves to configure the Peer Authentication Database with
   authentication information about local and remote peers (NSFs).  More
   precisely, it consists of a list of entries, each one indicating the
   identity, authentication method, and credentials that a particular
   peer (local or remote) will use.  Therefore, each entry contains
   identity, authentication information, and credentials of either the
   local NSF or the remote NSF.  As a consequence, the I2NF Controller
   can store identity, authentication information, and credentials for
   the local NSF and the remote NSF.

   Next, a list "conn-entry" is defined with information about the
   different IKE connections a peer can maintain with others.  Each
   connection entry is composed of a wide number of parameters to
   configure different aspects of a particular IKE connection between
   two peers: local and remote peer authentication information, IKE SA
   configuration (soft and hard lifetimes, cryptographic algorithms,
   etc.), a list of IPsec policies describing the type of network
   traffic to be secured (local/remote subnet and ports, etc.) and how
   it must be protected (ESP, tunnel/transport, cryptographic
   algorithms, etc.), Child SA configuration (soft and hard lifetimes),
   and state information of the IKE connection (SPIs, usage of NAT,
   current expiration times, etc.).

   Lastly, the "ipsec-ike" container declares a "number-ike-sas"
   container to specify state information reported by the IKE software
   related to the amount of IKE connections established.

5.2.2.  Example Usage

   Appendix A shows an example of IKE case configuration for an NSF, in
   tunnel mode (gateway-to-gateway), with NSF authentication based on
   X.509 certificates.

5.2.3.  YANG Module

   This YANG module has normative references to [RFC5280], [RFC4301],
   [RFC5915], [RFC6991], [RFC7296], [RFC7383], [RFC7427], [RFC7619],
   [RFC8017], [ITU-T.X.690], [RFC5322], [RFC8229], [RFC8174], [RFC6960],
   [IKEv2-Auth-Method], [IKEv2-Transform-Type-4], [IKEv2-Parameters],
   and [IANA-Method-Type].

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-ike@2021-07-14.yang"
   module ietf-i2nsf-ike {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ike";
     prefix nsfike;

     import ietf-inet-types {
       prefix inet;
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }
     import ietf-yang-types {
       prefix yang;
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }
     import ietf-i2nsf-ikec {
       prefix nsfikec;
       reference
         "RFC 9061: A YANG Data Model for IPsec Flow Protection
                    Based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN).";
     }
     import ietf-netconf-acm {
       prefix nacm;
       reference
         "RFC 8341: Network Configuration Access Control
                    Model.";
     }

     organization
       "IETF I2NSF Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:  <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf/>
        WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>

        Author: Rafael Marin-Lopez
                  <mailto:rafa@um.es>

        Author: Gabriel Lopez-Millan
                  <mailto:gabilm@um.es>

        Author: Fernando Pereniguez-Garcia
                  <mailto:fernando.pereniguez@cud.upct.es>
       ";
     description
       "This module contains the IPsec IKE case model for the SDN-based
        IPsec flow protection service.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL',
        'SHALL NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED',
        'NOT RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
        document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14
        (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when, they appear
        in all capitals, as shown here.

        Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 9061; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.";

     revision 2021-07-14 {
       description
         "Initial version.";
       reference
         "RFC 9061: A YANG Data Model for IPsec Flow Protection
                    Based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN).";
     }

     typedef ike-spi {
       type uint64 {
         range "0..max";
       }
       description
         "Security Parameter Index (SPI)'s IKE SA.";
       reference
         "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                    (IKEv2), Section 2.6.";
     }

     typedef autostartup-type {
       type enumeration {
         enum add {
           description
             "IKE/IPsec configuration is only loaded into
              IKE implementation, but IKE/IPsec SA is not
              started.";
         }
         enum on-demand {
           description
             "IKE/IPsec configuration is loaded
              into IKE implementation.  The IPsec policies
              are transferred to the NSF, but the
              IPsec SAs are not established immediately.
              The IKE implementation will negotiate the
              IPsec SAs when they are required
              (i.e., through an ACQUIRE notification).";
         }
         enum start {
           description
             "IKE/IPsec configuration is loaded
              and transferred to the NSF's kernel, and the
              IKEv2-based IPsec SAs are established
              immediately without waiting for any packet.";
         }
       }
       description
         "Different policies to set IPsec SA configuration
          into NSF's kernel when IKEv2 implementation has
          started.";
     }

     typedef fs-group {
       type uint16;
       description
         "DH groups for IKE and IPsec SA rekey.";
       reference
         "IANA: Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2) Parameters,
                IKEv2 Transform Attribute Types, Transform Type 4 -
                Diffie-Hellman Group Transform IDs
          RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                    (IKEv2), Section 3.3.2.";
     }

     typedef auth-protocol-type {
       type enumeration {
         enum ikev2 {
           value 2;
           description
             "IKEv2 authentication protocol.  It is the
              only one defined right now.  An enum is
              used for further extensibility.";
         }
       }
       description
         "IKE authentication protocol version specified in the
          Peer Authorization Database (PAD).  It is defined as
          enumerated to allow new IKE versions in the
          future.";
       reference
         "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                    (IKEv2).";
     }

     typedef auth-method-type {
       type enumeration {
         enum pre-shared {
           description
             "Select pre-shared key as the
              authentication method.";
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2).";
         }
         enum eap {
           description
             "Select the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) as
              the authentication method.";
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2).";
         }
         enum digital-signature {
           description
             "Select digital signature as the authentication method.";
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2)
              RFC 7427: Signature Authentication in the Internet Key
                        Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2).";
         }
         enum null {
           description
             "Null authentication.";
           reference
             "RFC 7619: The NULL Authentication Method in the Internet
                        Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2).";
         }
       }
       description
         "Peer authentication method specified in the Peer
          Authorization Database (PAD).";
     }

     container ipsec-ike {
       description
         "IKE configuration for an NSF.  It includes PAD
          parameters, IKE connection information, and state
          data.";
       container pad {
         description
           "Configuration of the Peer Authorization Database
            (PAD).  Each entry of PAD contains authentication
            information of either the local peer or the remote peer.
            Therefore, the I2NSF Controller stores authentication
            information (and credentials) not only for the remote NSF
            but also for the local NSF.  The local NSF MAY use the
            same identity for different types of authentication
            and credentials.  Pointing to the entry for a local NSF
            (e.g., A) and the entry for remote NSF (e.g., B)
            is possible to specify all the required information to
            carry out the authentication between A and B (see
            ../conn-entry/local and ../conn-entry/remote).";
         list pad-entry {
           key "name";
           ordered-by user;
           description
             "Peer Authorization Database (PAD) entry.  It
              is a list of PAD entries ordered by the
              I2NSF Controller, and each entry is
              unequivocally identified by a name.";
           leaf name {
             type string;
             description
               "PAD-unique name to identify this
                entry.";
           }
           choice identity {
             mandatory true;
             description
               "A particular IKE peer will be
                identified by one of these identities.
                This peer can be a remote peer or local
                peer (this NSF).";
             reference
               "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet
                          Protocol, Section 4.4.3.1.";
             case ipv4-address {
               leaf ipv4-address {
                 type inet:ipv4-address;
                 description
                   "Specifies the identity as
                    a single 4-octet IPv4 address.";
               }
             }
             case ipv6-address {
               leaf ipv6-address {
                 type inet:ipv6-address;
                 description
                   "Specifies the identity as a
                    single 16-octet IPv6
                    address.  An example is
                    2001:db8::8:800:200c:417a.";
               }
             }
             case fqdn-string {
               leaf fqdn-string {
                 type inet:domain-name;
                 description
                   "Specifies the identity as a
                    Fully Qualified Domain Name
                    (FQDN) string.  An example is
                    example.com.  The string MUST
                    NOT contain any terminators
                    (e.g., NULL, Carriage Return
                    (CR), etc.).";
               }
             }
             case rfc822-address-string {
               leaf rfc822-address-string {
                 type string;
                 description
                   "Specifies the identity as a
                    fully qualified  email address
                    string (RFC 5322).  An example is
                    jsmith@example.com.  The string
                    MUST NOT contain any
                    terminators (e.g., NULL, CR,
                    etc.).";
                 reference
                   "RFC 5322: Internet Message Format.";
               }
             }
             case dnx509 {
               leaf dnx509 {
                 type binary;
                 description
                   "The binary
                    Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)
                    encoding of an ASN.1 X.500
                    Distinguished Name, as specified in IKEv2.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                              Certificate and Certificate Revocation
                              List (CRL) Profile
                    RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                              (IKEv2), Section 3.5.";
               }
             }
             case gnx509 {
               leaf gnx509 {
                 type binary;
                 description
                   "ASN.1 X.509 GeneralName structure,
                    as specified in RFC 5280, encoded
                    using ASN.1 Distinguished Encoding Rules
                    (DER), as specified in ITU-T X.690.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                              Certificate and Certificate Revocation
                              List (CRL) Profile.";
               }
             }
             case id-key {
               leaf id-key {
                 type binary;
                 description
                   "Opaque octet stream that may be
                    used to pass vendor-specific
                    information for proprietary
                    types of identification.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                              (IKEv2), Section 3.5.";
               }
             }
             case id-null {
               leaf id-null {
                 type empty;
                 description
                   "The ID_NULL identification is used
                    when the IKE identification payload
                    is not used.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 7619: The NULL Authentication Method in the
                              Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                              (IKEv2).";
               }
             }
           }
           leaf auth-protocol {
             type auth-protocol-type;
             default "ikev2";
             description
               "Only IKEv2 is supported right now, but
                other authentication protocols may be
                supported in the future.";
           }
           container peer-authentication {
             description
               "This container allows the security
                controller to configure the
                authentication method (pre-shared key,
                eap, digital-signature, null) that
                will be used with a particular peer and
                the credentials to use, which will
                depend on the selected authentication
                method.";
             leaf auth-method {
               type auth-method-type;
               default "pre-shared";
               description
                 "Type of authentication method
                  (pre-shared key, eap, digital signature,
                  null).";
               reference
                 "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                            (IKEv2), Section 2.15.";
             }
             container eap-method {
               when "../auth-method = 'eap'";
               leaf eap-type {
                 type uint32 {
                   range "1 .. 4294967295";
                 }
                 mandatory true;
                 description
                   "EAP method type specified with
                    a value extracted from the
                    IANA registry.  This
                    information provides the
                    particular EAP method to be
                    used.  Depending on the EAP
                    method, pre-shared keys or
                    certificates may be used.";
               }
               description
                 "EAP method description used when
                  authentication method is 'eap'.";
               reference
                 "IANA: Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
                        Registry, Method Types
                  RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                            (IKEv2), Section 2.16.";
             }
             container pre-shared {
               when "../auth-method[.='pre-shared' or
                     .='eap']";
               leaf secret {
                 nacm:default-deny-all;
                 type yang:hex-string;
                 description
                   "Pre-shared secret value.  The
                    NSF has to prevent read access
                    to this value for security
                    reasons.  This value MUST be
                    set if the EAP method uses a
                    pre-shared key or pre-shared
                    authentication has been chosen.";
               }
               description
                 "Shared secret value for PSK or
                  EAP method authentication based on
                  PSK.";
             }
             container digital-signature {
               when "../auth-method[.='digital-signature'
                     or .='eap']";
               leaf ds-algorithm {
                 type uint8;
                 default "14";
                 description
                   "The digital signature
                    algorithm is specified with a
                    value extracted from the IANA
                    registry.  Default is the generic
                    digital signature method.  Depending
                    on the algorithm, the following leafs
                    MUST contain information.  For
                    example, if digital signature or the
                    EAP method involves a certificate,
                    then leaves 'cert-data' and 'private-key'
                    will contain this information.";
                 reference
                   "IANA: Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)
                          Parameters, IKEv2 Authentication Method.";
               }
               choice public-key {
                 leaf raw-public-key {
                   type binary;
                   description
                     "A binary that contains the
                      value of the public key.  The
                      interpretation of the content
                      is defined by the digital
                      signature algorithm.  For
                      example, an RSA key is
                      represented as RSAPublicKey, as
                      defined in RFC 8017, and an
                      Elliptic Curve Cryptography
                      (ECC) key is represented
                      using the 'publicKey'
                      described in RFC 5915.";
                   reference
                     "RFC 5915: Elliptic Curve Private Key
                                Structure
                      RFC 8017: PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography
                                Specifications Version 2.2.";
                 }
                 leaf cert-data {
                   type binary;
                   description
                     "X.509 certificate data in DER
                      format.  If raw-public-key is
                      defined, this leaf is empty.";
                   reference
                     "RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key
                                Infrastructure Certificate
                                and Certificate Revocation
                                List (CRL) Profile.";
                 }
                 description
                   "If the I2NSF Controller
                    knows that the NSF
                    already owns a private key
                    associated to this public key
                    (e.g., the NSF generated the pair
                    public key/private key out of
                    band), it will only configure
                    one of the leaves of this
                    choice but not the leaf
                    private-key.  The NSF, based on
                    the public key value, can know
                    the private key to be used.";
               }
               leaf private-key {
                 nacm:default-deny-all;
                 type binary;
                 description
                   "A binary that contains the
                    value of the private key.  The
                    interpretation of the content
                    is defined by the digital
                    signature algorithm.  For
                    example, an RSA key is
                    represented as RSAPrivateKey, as
                    defined in RFC 8017, and an
                    Elliptic Curve Cryptography
                    (ECC) key is represented as
                    ECPrivateKey, as defined in RFC
                    5915.  This value is set
                    if public key is defined and the
                    I2NSF Controller is in charge
                    of configuring the
                    private key.  Otherwise, it is
                    not set and the value is
                    kept in secret.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 5915: Elliptic Curve Private Key
                              Structure
                    RFC 8017: PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography
                              Specifications Version 2.2.";
               }
               leaf-list ca-data {
                 type binary;
                 description
                   "List of trusted Certification
                    Authorities (CAs) certificates
                    encoded using ASN.1
                    Distinguished Encoding Rules
                    (DER).  If it is not defined,
                    the default value is empty.";
               }
               leaf crl-data {
                 type binary;
                 description
                   "A CertificateList structure, as
                    specified in RFC 5280,
                    encoded using ASN.1
                    Distinguished Encoding Rules
                    (DER), as specified in ITU-T
                    X.690.  If it is not defined,
                    the default value is empty.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                              Certificate and Certificate Revocation
                              List (CRL) Profile.";
               }
               leaf crl-uri {
                 type inet:uri;
                 description
                   "X.509 Certificate Revocation List
                    (CRL) certificate URI.
                    If it is not defined,
                    the default value is empty.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                              Certificate and Certificate Revocation
                              List (CRL) Profile.";
               }
               leaf oscp-uri {
                 type inet:uri;
                 description
                   "Online Certificate Status Protocol
                    (OCSP) URI.  If it is not defined,
                    the default value is empty.";
                 reference
                   "RFC 6960: X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure
                              Online Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP
                    RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                              Certificate and Certificate Revocation
                              List (CRL) Profile.";
               }
               description
                 "digital-signature container.";
             } /*container digital-signature*/
           } /*container peer-authentication*/
         }
       }
       list conn-entry {
         key "name";
         description
           "IKE peer connection information.  This list
            contains the IKE connection for this peer
            with other peers.  This will create, in
            real time, IKE Security Associations
            established with these nodes.";
         leaf name {
           type string;
           description
             "Identifier for this connection
              entry.";
         }
         leaf autostartup {
           type autostartup-type;
           default "add";
           description
             "By default, only add configuration
              without starting the security
              association.";
         }
         leaf initial-contact {
           type boolean;
           default "false";
           description
             "The goal of this value is to deactivate the
              usage of INITIAL_CONTACT notification
              (true).  If this flag remains set to false, it
              means the usage of the INITIAL_CONTACT
              notification will depend on the IKEv2
              implementation.";
         }
         leaf version {
           type auth-protocol-type;
           default "ikev2";
           description
             "IKE version.  Only version 2 is supported.";
         }
         container fragmentation {
           leaf enabled {
             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "Whether or not to enable IKEv2
                fragmentation (true or false).";
             reference
               "RFC 7383: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                          (IKEv2) Message Fragmentation.";
           }
           leaf mtu {
             when "../enabled='true'";
             type uint16 {
               range "68..65535";
             }
             description
               "MTU that IKEv2 can use
                for IKEv2 fragmentation.";
             reference
               "RFC 7383: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                          (IKEv2) Message Fragmentation.";
           }
           description
             "IKEv2 fragmentation, as per RFC 7383.  If the
              IKEv2 fragmentation is enabled, it is possible
              to specify the MTU.";
         }
         container ike-sa-lifetime-soft {
           description
             "IKE SA lifetime soft.  Two lifetime values
              can be configured: either rekey time of the
              IKE SA or reauth time of the IKE SA.  When
              the rekey lifetime expires, a rekey of the
              IKE SA starts.  When reauth lifetime
              expires, an IKE SA reauthentication starts.";
           leaf rekey-time {
             type uint32;
             units "seconds";
             default "0";
             description
               "Time in seconds between each IKE SA
                rekey.  The value 0 means infinite.";
           }
           leaf reauth-time {
             type uint32;
             units "seconds";
             default "0";
             description
               "Time in seconds between each IKE SA
                reauthentication.  The value 0 means
                infinite.";
           }
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2), Section 2.8.";
         }
         container ike-sa-lifetime-hard {
           description
             "Hard IKE SA lifetime.  When this
              time is reached, the IKE SA is removed.";
           leaf over-time {
             type uint32;
             units "seconds";
             default "0";
             description
               "Time in seconds before the IKE SA is
                removed.  The value 0 means infinite.";
           }
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2).";
         }
         leaf-list ike-sa-intr-alg {
           type nsfikec:intr-alg-t;
           default "12";
           ordered-by user;
           description
             "Integrity algorithm for establishing
              the IKE SA.  This list is ordered following
              from the higher priority to lower priority.
              The first node of the list will be the
              algorithm with higher priority.
              Default value 12 (AUTH_HMAC_SHA2_256_128).";
         }
         list ike-sa-encr-alg {
           key "id";
           min-elements 1;
           ordered-by user;
           leaf id {
             type uint16;
             description
               "An identifier that unequivocally
                identifies each entry of the list,
                i.e., an encryption algorithm and
                its key length (if required).";
           }
           leaf algorithm-type {
             type nsfikec:encr-alg-t;
             default "12";
             description
               "Default value 12 (ENCR_AES_CBC).";
           }
           leaf key-length {
             type uint16;
             default "128";
             description
               "By default, key length is 128 bits.";
           }
           description
             "Encryption or AEAD algorithm for the IKE
              SAs.  This list is ordered following
              from the higher priority to lower priority.
              The first node of the list will be the
              algorithm with higher priority.";
         }
         leaf dh-group {
           type fs-group;
           default "14";
           description
             "Group number for Diffie-Hellman
              Exponentiation used during IKE_SA_INIT
              for the IKE SA key exchange.";
         }
         leaf half-open-ike-sa-timer {
           type uint32;
           units "seconds";
           default "0";
           description
             "Set the half-open IKE SA timeout
              duration.  The value 0 implies infinite.";
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2), Section 2.";
         }
         leaf half-open-ike-sa-cookie-threshold {
           type uint32;
           default "0";
           description
             "Number of half-open IKE SAs that activate
              the cookie mechanism.  The value 0 implies
              infinite.";
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2), Section 2.6.";
         }
         container local {
           leaf local-pad-entry-name {
             type string;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "Local peer authentication information.
                This node points to a specific entry in
                the PAD where the authorization
                information about this particular local
                peer is stored.  It MUST match a
                pad-entry-name.";
           }
           description
             "Local peer authentication information.";
         }
         container remote {
           leaf remote-pad-entry-name {
             type string;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "Remote peer authentication information.
                This node points to a specific entry in
                the PAD where the authorization
                information about this particular
                remote peer is stored.  It MUST match a
                pad-entry-name.";
           }
           description
             "Remote peer authentication information.";
         }
         container encapsulation-type {
           uses nsfikec:encap;
           description
             "This container carries configuration
              information about the source and destination
              ports of encapsulation that IKE should use
              and the type of encapsulation that
              should be used when NAT traversal is required.
              However, this is just a best effort since
              the IKE implementation may need to use a
              different encapsulation, as described in
              RFC 8229.";
           reference
             "RFC 8229: TCP Encapsulation of IKE and IPsec
                        Packets.";
         }
         container spd {
           description
             "Configuration of the Security Policy
              Database (SPD).  This main information is
              placed in the grouping
              ipsec-policy-grouping.";
           list spd-entry {
             key "name";
             ordered-by user;
             leaf name {
               type string;
               description
                 "SPD-entry-unique name to identify
                  the IPsec policy.";
             }
             container ipsec-policy-config {
               description
                 "This container carries the
                  configuration of an IPsec policy.";
               uses nsfikec:ipsec-policy-grouping;
             }
             description
               "List of entries that will constitute
                the representation of the SPD.  In this
                case, since the NSF implements IKE, it
                is only required to send an IPsec policy
                from this NSF where 'local' is this NSF
                and 'remote' the other NSF.  The IKE
                implementation will install IPsec
                policies in the NSF's kernel in both
                directions (inbound and outbound) and
                their corresponding IPsec SAs based on
                the information in this SPD entry.";
           }
           reference
             "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                        (IKEv2), Section 2.9.";
         }
         container child-sa-info {
           leaf-list fs-groups {
             type fs-group;
             default "0";
             ordered-by user;
             description
               "If non-zero, forward secrecy is
                required when a new IPsec SA is being
                created, the (non-zero) value indicates
                the group number to use for the key
                exchange process used to achieve forward
                secrecy.
                This list is ordered following from the
                higher priority to lower priority.  The
                first node of the list will be the
                algorithm with higher priority.";
           }
           container child-sa-lifetime-soft {
             description
               "Soft IPsec SA lifetime.
                After the lifetime, the action is
                defined in this container
                in the leaf action.";
             uses nsfikec:lifetime;
             leaf action {
               type nsfikec:lifetime-action;
               default "replace";
               description
                 "When the lifetime of an IPsec SA
                  expires, an action needs to be
                  performed over the IPsec SA that
                  reached the lifetime.  There are
                  three possible options:
                  terminate-clear, terminate-hold, and
                  replace.";
               reference
                 "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet
                            Protocol, Section 4.5
                  RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                            (IKEv2), Section 2.8.";
             }
           }
           container child-sa-lifetime-hard {
             description
               "IPsec SA lifetime hard.  The action will
                be to terminate the IPsec SA.";
             uses nsfikec:lifetime;
             reference
               "RFC 7296: Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
                          (IKEv2), Section 2.8.";
           }
           description
             "Specific information for IPsec SAs.
              It includes the Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)
              group and IPsec SAs rekey lifetimes.";
         }
         container state {
           config false;
           leaf initiator {
             type boolean;
             description
               "It is acting as an initiator for this
                connection.";
           }
           leaf initiator-ikesa-spi {
             type ike-spi;
             description
               "Initiator's IKE SA SPI.";
           }
           leaf responder-ikesa-spi {
             type ike-spi;
             description
               "Responder's IKE SA SPI.";
           }
           leaf nat-local {
             type boolean;
             description
               "True if local endpoint is behind a
                NAT.";
           }
           leaf nat-remote {
             type boolean;
             description
               "True if remote endpoint is behind
                a NAT.";
           }
           container encapsulation-type {
             uses nsfikec:encap;
             description
               "This container provides information
                about the source and destination
                ports of encapsulation that IKE is
                using and the type of encapsulation
                when NAT traversal is required.";
             reference
               "RFC 8229: TCP Encapsulation of IKE and IPsec Packets.";
           }
           leaf established {
             type uint64;
             units "seconds";
             description
               "Seconds since this IKE SA has been
                established.";
           }
           leaf current-rekey-time {
             type uint64;
             units "seconds";
             description
               "Seconds before IKE SA is rekeyed.";
           }
           leaf current-reauth-time {
             type uint64;
             units "seconds";
             description
               "Seconds before IKE SA is
                reauthenticated.";
           }
           description
             "IKE state data for a particular
              connection.";
         } /* ike-sa-state */
       } /* ike-conn-entries */
       container number-ike-sas {
         config false;
         leaf total {
           type yang:gauge64;
           description
             "Total number of active IKE SAs.";
         }
         leaf half-open {
           type yang:gauge64;
           description
             "Number of half-open active IKE SAs.";
         }
         leaf half-open-cookies {
           type yang:gauge64;
           description
             "Number of half-open active IKE SAs with
              cookie activated.";
         }
         description
           "General information about the IKE SAs.  In
            particular, it provides the current number of
            IKE SAs.";
       }
     } /* container ipsec-ike */
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

5.3.  The 'ietf-i2nsf-ikeless' Module

   In this section, the YANG module for the IKE-less case is described.

5.3.1.  Data Model Overview

   For this case, the definition of the SPD model has been mainly
   extracted from the specification in Section 4.4.1 and Appendix D in
   [RFC4301], though with some changes, namely:

   *  For simplicity, each IPsec policy (spd-entry) contains one Traffic
      Selector, instead of a list of them.  The reason is that actual
      kernel implementations only admit a single Traffic Selector per
      IPsec policy.

   *  Each IPsec policy contains an identifier (reqid) to relate the
      policy with the IPsec SA.  This is common in Linux-based systems.

   *  Each IPsec policy has only one name and not a list of names.

   *  Combined algorithms have been removed because encryption
      algorithms MAY include Authenticated Encryption with Associated
      Data (AEAD).

   *  Tunnel information has been extended with information about DSCP
      mapping.  The reason is that certain kernel implementations accept
      configuration of these values.

   The definition of the SAD model has been mainly extracted from the
   specification in Section 4.4.2 of [RFC4301], though with some
   changes, namely:

   *  For simplicity, each IPsec SA (sad-entry) contains one Traffic
      Selector, instead of a list of them.  The reason is that actual
      kernel implementations only admit a single Traffic Selector per
      IPsec SA.

   *  Each IPsec SA contains an identifier (reqid) to relate the IPsec
      SA with the IPsec policy.  The reason is that real kernel
      implementations allow this value to be included.

   *  Each IPsec SA is also named in the same way as IPsec policies.

   *  The model allows specifying the algorithm for encryption.  This
      can be Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) or
      non-AEAD.  If an AEAD algorithm is specified, the integrity
      algorithm is not required.  If a non-AEAD algorithm is specified,
      the integrity algorithm is required [RFC8221].

   *  Tunnel information has been extended with information about
      Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) mapping.  It is assumed
      that NSFs involved in this document provide ECN full functionality
      to prevent discarding of ECN congestion indications [RFC6040].

   *  The lifetime of the IPsec SAs also includes idle time and the
      number of IP packets as a threshold to trigger the lifetime.  The
      reason is that actual kernel implementations allow for setting
      these types of lifetimes.

   *  Information to configure the type of encapsulation (encapsulation-
      type) for IPsec ESP packets in UDP [RFC3948] or TCP [RFC8229] has
      been included.

   The notifications model has been defined using, as reference, the
   PF_KEYv2 specification in [RFC2367].

   The YANG data model for the IKE-less case is defined by the module
   "ietf-i2nsf-ikeless".  Its structure is depicted in the following
   diagram, using the notation syntax for YANG tree diagrams [RFC8340].

   module: ietf-i2nsf-ikeless
     +--rw ipsec-ikeless
       +--rw spd
       |  +--rw spd-entry* [name]
       |     +--rw name  string
       |     +--rw direction nsfikec:ipsec-traffic-direction
       |     +--rw reqid? uint64
       |     +--rw ipsec-policy-config
       |        +--rw anti-replay-window-size?   uint32
       |        +--rw traffic-selector
       |        |  +--rw local-prefix      inet:ip-prefix
       |        |  +--rw remote-prefix     inet:ip-prefix
       |        |  +--rw inner-protocol?   ipsec-inner-protocol
       |        |  +--rw local-ports* [start end]
       |        |  |  +--rw start    inet:port-number
       |        |  |  +--rw end      inet:port-number
       |        |  +--rw remote-ports* [start end]
       |        |     +--rw start    inet:port-number
       |        |     +--rw end      inet:port-number
       |        +--rw processing-info
       |           +--rw action?         ipsec-spd-action
       |           +--rw ipsec-sa-cfg
       |             +--rw pfp-flag?              boolean
       |             +--rw ext-seq-num?           boolean
       |             +--rw seq-overflow?          boolean
       |             +--rw stateful-frag-check?   boolean
       |             +--rw mode?                  ipsec-mode
       |             +--rw protocol-parameters? ipsec-protocol-params
       |              +--rw esp-algorithms
       |              |  +--rw integrity*    intr-alg-t
       |              |  +--rw encryption* [id]
       |              |  |  +--rw id                uint16
       |              |  |  +--rw algorithm-type?   encr-alg-t
       |              |  |  +--rw key-length?       uint16
       |              |  +--rw tfc-pad?      boolean
       |              +--rw tunnel
       |                 +--rw local           inet:ip-address
       |                 +--rw remote          inet:ip-address
       |                 +--rw df-bit?         enumeration
       |                 +--rw bypass-dscp?    boolean
       |                 +--rw dscp-mapping* [id]
       |                    +--rw id            uint8
       |                    +--rw inner-dscp?   inet:dscp
       |                    +--rw outer-dscp?   inet:dscp
       +--rw sad
         +--rw sad-entry* [name]
          +--rw name               string
          +--rw reqid?             uint64
          +--rw ipsec-sa-config
          |  +--rw spi                        uint32
          |  +--rw ext-seq-num?               boolean
          |  +--rw seq-overflow?              boolean
          |  +--rw anti-replay-window-size?   uint32
          |  +--rw traffic-selector
          |  |  +--rw local-prefix      inet:ip-prefix
          |  |  +--rw remote-prefix     inet:ip-prefix
          |  |  +--rw inner-protocol?   ipsec-inner-protocol
          |  |  +--rw local-ports* [start end]
          |  |  |  +--rw start    inet:port-number
          |  |  |  +--rw end      inet:port-number
          |  |  +--rw remote-ports* [start end]
          |  |     +--rw start    inet:port-number
          |  |     +--rw end      inet:port-number
          |  +--rw protocol-parameters? nsfikec:ipsec-protocol-params
          |  +--rw mode?                      nsfikec:ipsec-mode
          |  +--rw esp-sa
          |  |  +--rw encryption
          |  |  |  +--rw encryption-algorithm?   nsfikec:encr-alg-t
          |  |  |  +--rw key?                    yang:hex-string
          |  |  |  +--rw iv?                     yang:hex-string
          |  |  +--rw integrity
          |  |     +--rw integrity-algorithm?   nsfikec:intr-alg-t
          |  |     +--rw key?                   yang:hex-string
          |  +--rw sa-lifetime-hard
          |  |  +--rw time?      uint32
          |  |  +--rw bytes?     yang:counter64
          |  |  +--rw packets?   uint32
          |  |  +--rw idle?      uint32
          |  +--rw sa-lifetime-soft
          |  |  +--rw time?      uint32
          |  |  +--rw bytes?     yang:counter64
          |  |  +--rw packets?   uint32
          |  |  +--rw idle?      uint32
          |  |  +--rw action?    nsfikec:lifetime-action
          |  +--rw tunnel
          |  |  +--rw local           inet:ip-address
          |  |  +--rw remote          inet:ip-address
          |  |  +--rw df-bit?         enumeration
          |  |  +--rw bypass-dscp?    boolean
          |  |  +--rw dscp-mapping* [id]
          |  |  |  +--rw id            uint8
          |  |  |  +--rw inner-dscp?   inet:dscp
          |  |  |  +--rw outer-dscp?   inet:dscp
          |  |  +--rw dscp-values*    inet:dscp
          |  +--rw encapsulation-type
          |     +--rw espencap?   esp-encap
          |     +--rw sport?      inet:port-number
          |     +--rw dport?      inet:port-number
          |     +--rw oaddr*      inet:ip-address
          +--ro ipsec-sa-state
             +--ro sa-lifetime-current
             |  +--ro time?      uint32
             |  +--ro bytes?     yang:counter64
             |  +--ro packets?   uint32
             |  +--ro idle?      uint32
             +--ro replay-stats
                +--ro replay-window
                |  +--ro w?   uint32
                |  +--ro t?   uint64
                |  +--ro b?   uint64
                +--ro packet-dropped?       yang:counter64
                +--ro failed?               yang:counter64
                +--ro seq-number-counter?   uint64

      notifications:
        +---n sadb-acquire {ikeless-notification}?
        |  +--ro ipsec-policy-name    string
        |  +--ro traffic-selector
        |     +--ro local-prefix      inet:ip-prefix
        |     +--ro remote-prefix     inet:ip-prefix
        |     +--ro inner-protocol?   ipsec-inner-protocol
        |     +--ro local-ports* [start end]
        |     |  +--ro start    inet:port-number
        |     |  +--ro end      inet:port-number
        |     +--ro remote-ports* [start end]
        |        +--ro start    inet:port-number
        |        +--ro end      inet:port-number
        +---n sadb-expire {ikeless-notification}?
        |  +--ro ipsec-sa-name           string
        |  +--ro soft-lifetime-expire?   boolean
        |  +--ro lifetime-current
        |     +--ro time?      uint32
        |     +--ro bytes?     yang:counter64
        |     +--ro packets?   uint32
        |     +--ro idle?      uint32
        +---n sadb-seq-overflow {ikeless-notification}?
        |  +--ro ipsec-sa-name    string
        +---n sadb-bad-spi {ikeless-notification}?
           +--ro spi    uint32

   The YANG data model consists of a unique "ipsec-ikeless" container,
   which, in turn, is composed of two additional containers: "spd" and
   "sad".  The "spd" container consists of a list of entries that form
   the Security Policy Database.  Compared to the IKE case YANG data
   model, this part specifies a few additional parameters necessary due
   to the absence of an IKE software in the NSF: traffic direction to
   apply the IPsec policy and a "reqid" value to link an IPsec policy
   with its associated IPsec SAs since it is otherwise a little hard to
   find by searching.  The "sad" container is a list of entries that
   form the Security Association Database.  In general, each entry
   allows specifying both configuration information (SPI, Traffic
   Selectors, tunnel/transport mode, cryptographic algorithms and keying
   material, soft/hard lifetimes, etc.) as well as stating information
   (time to expire, replay statistics, etc.) of a concrete IPsec SA.

   In addition, the module defines a set of notifications to allow the
   NSF to inform the I2NSF Controller about relevant events, such as
   IPsec SA expiration, sequence number overflow, or bad SPI in a
   received packet.

5.3.2.  Example Usage

   Appendix B shows an example of an IKE-less case configuration for an
   NSF in transport mode (host-to-host).  Additionally, Appendix C shows
   examples of IPsec SA expire, acquire, sequence number overflow, and
   bad SPI notifications.

5.3.3.  YANG Module

   This YANG module has normative references to [RFC4301], [RFC4303],
   [RFC6991], [RFC8174] and [RFC8341].

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-ikeless@2021-07-14.yang"
   module ietf-i2nsf-ikeless {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless";
     prefix nsfikels;

     import ietf-inet-types {
       prefix inet;
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }
     import ietf-yang-types {
       prefix yang;
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }
     import ietf-i2nsf-ikec {
       prefix nsfikec;
       reference
         "RFC 9061: A YANG Data Model for IPsec Flow Protection
                    Based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN).";
     }
     import ietf-netconf-acm {
       prefix nacm;
       reference
         "RFC 8341: Network Configuration Access Control
                    Model.";
     }

     organization
       "IETF I2NSF Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:  <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf/>
        WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>

        Author: Rafael Marin-Lopez
                 <mailto:rafa@um.es>

        Author: Gabriel Lopez-Millan
                 <mailto:gabilm@um.es>

        Author: Fernando Pereniguez-Garcia
                 <mailto:fernando.pereniguez@cud.upct.es>
       ";
     description
       "Data model for IKE-less case in the SDN-based IPsec flow
        protection service.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL',
        'SHALL NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED',
        'NOT RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
        document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14
        (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when, they appear
        in all capitals, as shown here.

        Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons
        identified as authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 9061; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.";

     revision 2021-07-14 {
       description
         "Initial version.";
       reference
         "RFC 9061: A YANG Data Model for IPsec Flow Protection
                    Based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN).";
     }

     feature ikeless-notification {
       description
         "This feature indicates that the server supports
          generating notifications in the ikeless module.

          To ensure broader applicability of this module,
          the notifications are marked as a feature.
          For the implementation of the IKE-less case,
          the NSF is expected to implement this
          feature.";
     }

     container ipsec-ikeless {
       description
         "Container for configuration of the IKE-less
          case. The container contains two additional
          containers: 'spd' and 'sad'.  The first allows the
          I2NSF Controller to configure IPsec policies in
          the Security Policy Database (SPD), and the second
          allows the I2NSF Controller to configure IPsec
          Security Associations (IPsec SAs) in the Security
          Association Database (SAD).";
       reference
         "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol.";
       container spd {
         description
           "Configuration of the Security Policy Database
            (SPD).";
         reference
           "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                      Section 4.4.1.2.";
         list spd-entry {
           key "name";
           ordered-by user;
           leaf name {
             type string;
             description
               "SPD-entry-unique name to identify this
                entry.";
           }
           leaf direction {
             type nsfikec:ipsec-traffic-direction;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "Inbound traffic or outbound
                traffic.  In the IKE-less case, the
                I2NSF Controller needs to
                specify the policy direction to be
                applied in the NSF.  In the IKE case,
                this direction does not need to be
                specified, since IKE
                will determine the direction that the
                IPsec policy will require.";
           }
           leaf reqid {
             type uint64;
             default "0";
             description
               "This value allows linking this
                IPsec policy with IPsec SAs with the
                same reqid.  It is only required in
                the IKE-less model since, in the IKE
                case, this link is handled internally
                by IKE.";
           }
           container ipsec-policy-config {
             description
               "This container carries the
                configuration of an IPsec policy.";
             uses nsfikec:ipsec-policy-grouping;
           }
           description
             "The SPD is represented as a list of SPD
              entries, where each SPD entry represents an
              IPsec policy.";
         } /*list spd-entry*/
       } /*container spd*/
       container sad {
         description
           "Configuration of the IPsec Security Association
            Database (SAD).";
         reference
           "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
                      Section 4.4.2.1.";
         list sad-entry {
           key "name";
           ordered-by user;
           leaf name {
             type string;
             description
               "SAD-entry-unique name to identify this
                entry.";
           }
           leaf reqid {
             type uint64;
             default "0";
             description
               "This value allows linking this
                IPsec SA with an IPsec policy with
                the same reqid.";
           }
           container ipsec-sa-config {
             description
               "This container allows configuring
                details of an IPsec SA.";
             leaf spi {
               type uint32 {
                 range "0..max";
               }
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "IPsec SA of Security Parameter Index (SPI).";
             }
             leaf ext-seq-num {
               type boolean;
               default "true";
               description
                 "True if this IPsec SA is using extended
                  sequence numbers.  If true, the 64-bit
                  extended sequence number counter is used;
                  if false, the normal 32-bit sequence
                  number counter is used.";
             }
             leaf seq-overflow {
               type boolean;
               default "false";
               description
                 "The flag indicating whether
                  overflow of the sequence number
                  counter should prevent transmission
                  of additional packets on the IPsec
                  SA (false) and, therefore, needs to
                  be rekeyed or whether rollover is
                  permitted (true).  If Authenticated
                  Encryption with Associated Data
                  (AEAD) is used (leaf
                  esp-algorithms/encryption/algorithm-type),
                  this flag MUST BE false. Setting this
                  flag to true is strongly discouraged.";
             }
             leaf anti-replay-window-size {
               type uint32;
               default "64";
               description
                 "To set the anti-replay window size.
                  The default value is set to 64,
                  following the recommendation in RFC 4303.";
               reference
                 "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP),
                            Section 3.4.3.";
             }
             container traffic-selector {
               uses nsfikec:selector-grouping;
               description
                 "The IPsec SA Traffic Selector.";
             }
             leaf protocol-parameters {
               type nsfikec:ipsec-protocol-params;
               default "esp";
               description
                 "Security protocol of IPsec SA, only
                  ESP so far.";
             }
             leaf mode {
               type nsfikec:ipsec-mode;
               default "transport";
               description
                 "Tunnel or transport mode.";
             }
             container esp-sa {
               when "../protocol-parameters = 'esp'";
               description
                 "In case the IPsec SA is an
                  Encapsulation Security Payload
                  (ESP), it is required to specify
                  encryption and integrity
                  algorithms and key materials.";
               container encryption {
                 description
                   "Configuration of encryption or
                    AEAD algorithm for IPsec
                    Encapsulation Security Payload
                    (ESP).";
                 leaf encryption-algorithm {
                   type nsfikec:encr-alg-t;
                   default "12";
                   description
                     "Configuration of ESP
                      encryption.  With AEAD
                      algorithms, the integrity-algorithm
                      leaf is not used.";
                 }
                 leaf key {
                   nacm:default-deny-all;
                   type yang:hex-string;
                   description
                     "ESP encryption key value.
                      If this leaf is not defined,
                      the key is not defined
                      (e.g., encryption is NULL).
                      The key length is
                      determined by the
                      length of the key set in
                      this leaf.  By default, it is
                      128 bits.";
                 }
                 leaf iv {
                   nacm:default-deny-all;
                   type yang:hex-string;
                   description
                     "ESP encryption IV value.  If
                      this leaf is not defined, the
                      IV is not defined (e.g.,
                      encryption is NULL).";
                 }
               }
               container integrity {
                 description
                   "Configuration of integrity for
                    IPsec Encapsulation Security
                    Payload (ESP).  This container
                    allows configuration of integrity
                    algorithms when no AEAD
                    algorithms are used and
                    integrity is required.";
                 leaf integrity-algorithm {
                   type nsfikec:intr-alg-t;
                   default "12";
                   description
                     "Message Authentication Code
                      (MAC) algorithm to provide
                      integrity in ESP (default
                      AUTH_HMAC_SHA2_256_128).
                      With AEAD algorithms,
                      the integrity leaf is not
                      used.";
                 }
                 leaf key {
                   nacm:default-deny-all;
                   type yang:hex-string;
                   description
                     "ESP integrity key value.
                      If this leaf is not defined,
                      the key is not defined (e.g.,
                      AEAD algorithm is chosen and
                      integrity algorithm is not
                      required).  The key length is
                      determined by the length of
                      the key configured.";
                 }
               }
             } /*container esp-sa*/
             container sa-lifetime-hard {
               description
                 "IPsec SA hard lifetime.  The action
                  associated is terminate and hold.";
               uses nsfikec:lifetime;
             }
             container sa-lifetime-soft {
               description
                 "IPsec SA soft lifetime.";
               uses nsfikec:lifetime;
               leaf action {
                 type nsfikec:lifetime-action;
                 description
                   "Action lifetime: terminate-clear,
                    terminate-hold, or replace.";
               }
             }
             container tunnel {
               when "../mode = 'tunnel'";
               uses nsfikec:tunnel-grouping;
               leaf-list dscp-values {
                 type inet:dscp;
                 description
                   "DSCP values allowed for ingress packets carried
                    over this IPsec SA.  If no values are specified, no
                    DSCP-specific filtering is applied.  When
                    ../bypass-dscp is false and a dscp-mapping is
                    defined, each value here would be the same as the
                    'inner' DSCP value for the DSCP mapping (list
                    dscp-mapping).";
                 reference
                   "RFC 4301: Security Architecture for the Internet
                              Protocol, Section 4.4.2.1.";
               }
               description
                 "Endpoints of the IPsec tunnel.";
             }
             container encapsulation-type {
               uses nsfikec:encap;
               description
                 "This container carries
                  configuration information about
                  the source and destination ports
                  that will be used for ESP
                  encapsulation of ESP packets and
                  the type of encapsulation when NAT
                  traversal is in place.";
             }
           } /*ipsec-sa-config*/
           container ipsec-sa-state {
             config false;
             description
               "Container describing IPsec SA state
                data.";
             container sa-lifetime-current {
               uses nsfikec:lifetime;
               description
                 "SAD lifetime current.";
             }
             container replay-stats {
               description
                 "State data about the anti-replay
                  window.";
               container replay-window {
                 leaf w {
                   type uint32;
                   description
                     "Size of the replay window.";
                 }
                 leaf t {
                   type uint64;
                   description
                     "Highest sequence number
                      authenticated so far,
                      upper bound of window.";
                 }
                 leaf b {
                   type uint64;
                   description
                     "Lower bound of window.";
                 }
                 description
                   "This container contains three
                    parameters that define the state
                    of the replay window: window size (w),
                    highest sequence number authenticated (t),
                    and lower bound of the window (b), according
                    to Appendix A2.1 in RFC 4303 (w = t - b + 1).";
                 reference
                   "RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP),
                              Appendix A.";
               }
               leaf packet-dropped {
                 type yang:counter64;
                 description
                   "Packets dropped
                    because they are
                    replay packets.";
               }
               leaf failed {
                 type yang:counter64;
                 description
                   "Number of packets detected out
                    of the replay window.";
               }
               leaf seq-number-counter {
                 type uint64;
                 description
                   "A 64-bit counter when this
                    IPsec SA is using Extended
                    Sequence Number or 32-bit
                    counter when it is not.
                    Current value of sequence
                    number.";
               }
             } /* container replay-stats*/
           } /*ipsec-sa-state*/
           description
             "List of SAD entries that form the SAD.";
         } /*list sad-entry*/
       } /*container sad*/
     } /*container ipsec-ikeless*/

     /* Notifications */

     notification sadb-acquire {
       if-feature "ikeless-notification";
       description
         "The NSF detects and notifies that
          an IPsec SA is required for an
          outbound IP packet that has matched an SPD entry.
          The traffic-selector container in this
          notification contains information about
          the IP packet that triggered this
          notification.";
       leaf ipsec-policy-name {
         type string;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "It contains the SPD entry name (unique) of
            the IPsec policy that hits the IP-packet-required
            IPsec SA.  It is assumed the
            I2NSF Controller will have a copy of the
            information of this policy so it can
            extract all the information with this
            unique identifier.  The type of IPsec SA is
            defined in the policy so the security
            controller can also know the type of IPsec
            SA that MUST be generated.";
       }
       container traffic-selector {
         description
           "The IP packet that triggered the acquire
            and requires an IPsec SA.  Specifically, it
            will contain the IP source/mask and IP
            destination/mask, protocol (udp, tcp,
            etc.), and source and destination
            ports.";
         uses nsfikec:selector-grouping;
       }
     }

     notification sadb-expire {
       if-feature "ikeless-notification";
       description
         "An IPsec SA expiration (soft or hard).";
       leaf ipsec-sa-name {
         type string;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "It contains the SAD entry name (unique) of
            the IPsec SA that is about to expire.  It is assumed
            the I2NSF Controller will have a copy of the
            IPsec SA information (except the cryptographic
            material and state data) indexed by this name
            (unique identifier) so it can know all the
            information (crypto algorithms, etc.) about
            the IPsec SA that has expired in order to
            perform a rekey (soft lifetime) or delete it
            (hard lifetime) with this unique identifier.";
       }
       leaf soft-lifetime-expire {
         type boolean;
         default "true";
         description
           "If this value is true, the lifetime expired is
            soft.  If it is false, the lifetime is hard.";
       }
       container lifetime-current {
         description
           "IPsec SA current lifetime.  If
            soft-lifetime-expired is true,
            this container is set with the
            lifetime information about current
            soft lifetime.
            It can help the NSF Controller
            to know which of the (soft) lifetime
            limits raised the event: time, bytes,
            packets, or idle.";
         uses nsfikec:lifetime;
       }
     }

     notification sadb-seq-overflow {
       if-feature "ikeless-notification";
       description
         "Sequence overflow notification.";
       leaf ipsec-sa-name {
         type string;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "It contains the SAD entry name (unique) of
            the IPsec SA that is about to have a sequence
            number overflow, and rollover is not permitted.
            When the NSF issues this event before reaching
            a sequence number, overflow is implementation
            specific and out of scope of this specification.
            It is assumed the I2NSF Controller will have a
            copy of the IPsec SA information (except the
            cryptographic material and state data) indexed
            by this name (unique identifier) so it can
            know all the information (crypto algorithms,
            etc.) about the IPsec SA in
            order to perform a rekey of the IPsec SA.";
       }
     }

     notification sadb-bad-spi {
       if-feature "ikeless-notification";
       description
         "Notify when the NSF receives a packet with an
          incorrect SPI (i.e., not present in the SAD).";
       leaf spi {
         type uint32 {
           range "0..max";
         }
         mandatory true;
         description
           "SPI number contained in the erroneous IPsec
            packet.";
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has registered the following namespaces in the "ns" subregistry
   within the "IETF XML Registry" [RFC3688]:

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikec
   Registrant Contact:  The IESG.
   XML:  N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ike
   Registrant Contact:  The IESG.
   XML:  N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless
   Registrant Contact:  The IESG.
   XML:  N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   IANA has registered the following YANG modules in the "YANG Module
   Names" registry [RFC6020]:

   Name:         ietf-i2nsf-ikec
   Maintained by IANA:  N
   Namespace:    urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikec
   Prefix:       nsfikec
   Reference:    RFC 9061

   Name:         ietf-i2nsf-ike
   Maintained by IANA:  N
   Namespace:    urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ike
   Prefix:       nsfike
   Reference:    RFC 9061

   Name:         ietf-i2nsf-ikeless
   Maintained by IANA:  N
   Namespace:    urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless
   Prefix:       nsfikels
   Reference:    RFC 9061

7.  Security Considerations

   First of all, this document shares all the security issues of SDN
   that are specified in the Security Considerations sections of
   [ITU-T.Y.3300] and [RFC7426].

   On the one hand, it is important to note that there MUST exist a
   security association between the I2NSF Controller and the NSFs to
   protect the critical information (cryptographic keys, configuration
   parameter, etc.) exchanged between these entities.  The nature of and
   means to create that security association is out of the scope of this
   document (i.e., it is part of device provisioning or onboarding).

   On the other hand, if encryption is mandatory for all traffic of an
   NSF, its default policy MUST be to drop (DISCARD) packets to prevent
   cleartext packet leaks.  This default policy MUST be preconfigured in
   the startup configuration datastore in the NSF before the NSF
   contacts the I2NSF Controller.  Moreover, the startup configuration
   datastore MUST be also preconfigured with the required ALLOW policies
   that allow the NSF to communicate with the I2NSF Controller once the
   NSF is deployed.  This preconfiguration step is not carried out by
   the I2NSF Controller but by some other entity before the NSF
   deployment.  In this manner, when the NSF starts/reboots, it will
   always first apply the configuration in the startup configuration
   before contacting the I2NSF Controller.

   Finally, this section is divided in two parts in order to analyze
   different security considerations for both cases: NSF with IKEv2 (IKE
   case) and NSF without IKEv2 (IKE-less case).  In general, the I2NSF
   Controller, as typically in the SDN paradigm, is a target for
   different type of attacks; see [SDNSecServ] and [SDNSecurity].  Thus,
   the I2NSF Controller is a key entity in the infrastructure and MUST
   be protected accordingly.  In particular, the I2NSF Controller will
   handle cryptographic material; thus, the attacker may try to access
   this information.  The impact is different depending on the IKE case
   or the IKE-less case.

7.1.  IKE Case

   In the IKE case, the I2NSF Controller sends IKEv2 credentials (PSK,
   public/private keys, certificates, etc.) to the NSFs using the
   security association between the I2NSF Controller and NSFs.  The
   I2NSF Controller MUST NOT store the IKEv2 credentials after
   distributing them.  Moreover, the NSFs MUST NOT allow the reading of
   these values once they have been applied by the I2NSF Controller
   (i.e., write-only operations).  One option is to always return the
   same value (i.e., all 0s) if a read operation is carried out.

   If the attacker has access to the I2NSF Controller during the period
   of time that key material is generated, it might have access to the
   key material.  Since these values are used during NSF authentication
   in IKEv2, it may impersonate the affected NSFs.  Several
   recommendations are important.

   *  IKEv2 configurations SHOULD adhere to the recommendations in
      [RFC8247].

   *  If PSK authentication is used in IKEv2, the I2NSF Controller MUST
      remove the PSK immediately after generating and distributing it.

   *  When public/private keys are used, the I2NSF Controller MAY
      generate both public key and private key.  In such a case, the
      I2NSF Controller MUST remove the associated private key
      immediately after distributing them to the NSFs.  Alternatively,
      the NSF MAY generate the private key and export only the public
      key to the I2NSF Controller.  How the NSF generates these
      cryptographic materials (public key/ private keys) and exports the
      public key is out of scope of this document.

   *  If certificates are used, the NSF MAY generate the private key and
      export the public key for certification to the I2NSF Controller.
      How the NSF generates these cryptographic material (public key/
      private keys) and exports the public key is out of scope of this
      document.

7.2.  IKE-less Case

   In the IKE-less case, the I2NSF Controller sends the IPsec SA
   information to the NSF's SAD that includes the private session keys
   required for integrity and encryption.  The I2NSF Controller MUST NOT
   store the keys after distributing them.  Moreover, the NSFs receiving
   private key material MUST NOT allow the reading of these values by
   any other entity (including the I2NSF Controller itself) once they
   have been applied (i.e., write-only operations) into the NSFs.
   Nevertheless, if the attacker has access to the I2NSF Controller
   during the period of time that key material is generated, it may
   obtain these values.  In other words, the attacker might be able to
   observe the IPsec traffic and decrypt, or even modify and re-encrypt,
   the traffic between peers.

   Finally, the security association between the I2NSF Controller and
   the NSFs MUST provide, at least, the same degree of protection as the
   one achieved by the IPsec SAs configured in the NSFs.  In particular,
   the security association between the I2NSF Controller and the NSFs
   MUST provide forward secrecy if this property is to be achieved in
   the IPsec SAs that the I2NSF Controller configures in the NSFs.
   Similarly, the encryption algorithms used in the security association
   between the I2NSF Controller and the NSF MUST have, at least, the
   same strength (minimum strength of a 128-bit key) as the algorithms
   used to establish the IPsec SAs.

7.3.  YANG Modules

   The YANG modules specified in this document define a schema for data
   that is designed to be accessed via network management protocols such
   as NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040].  The lowest NETCONF layer
   is the secure transport layer, and the mandatory-to-implement secure
   transport is Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC6242].  The lowest RESTCONF layer
   is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-implement secure transport is TLS
   [RFC8446].

   The Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC8341]
   provides the means to restrict access for particular NETCONF or
   RESTCONF users to a preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF or
   RESTCONF protocol operations and content.

   There are a number of data nodes defined in these YANG modules that
   are writable/creatable/deletable (i.e., config true, which is the
   default).  These data nodes may be considered sensitive or vulnerable
   in some network environments.  Write operations (e.g., edit-config)
   to these data nodes without proper protection can have a negative
   effect on network operations.  These are the subtrees and data nodes
   and their sensitivity/vulnerability:

   For the IKE case (ietf-i2nsf-ike):
      /ipsec-ike:  The entire container in this module is sensitive to
         write operations.  An attacker may add/modify the credentials
         to be used for the authentication (e.g., to impersonate an
         NSF), for the trust root (e.g., changing the trusted CA
         certificates), for the cryptographic algorithms (allowing a
         downgrading attack), for the IPsec policies (e.g., by allowing
         leaking of data traffic by changing to an allow policy), and in
         general, changing the IKE SA conditions and credentials between
         any NSF.

   For the IKE-less case (ietf-i2nsf-ikeless):
      /ipsec-ikeless:  The entire container in this module is sensitive
         to write operations.  An attacker may add/modify/delete any
         IPsec policies (e.g., by allowing leaking of data traffic by
         changing to an allow policy) in the /ipsec-ikeless/spd
         container, add/modify/delete any IPsec SAs between two NSF by
         means of /ipsec-ikeless/sad container, and, in general, change
         any IPsec SAs and IPsec policies between any NSF.

   Some of the readable data nodes in these YANG modules may be
   considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments.  It
   is thus important to control read access (e.g., via get, get-config,
   or notification) to these data nodes.  These are the subtrees and
   data nodes and their sensitivity/vulnerability:

   For the IKE case (ietf-i2nsf-ike):
      /ipsec-ike/pad:  This container includes sensitive information to
         read operations.  This information MUST NOT be returned to a
         client.  For example, cryptographic material configured in the
         NSFs (peer-authentication/pre-shared/secret and peer-
         authentication/digital-signature/private-key) are already
         protected by the NACM extension "default-deny-all" in this
         document.

   For the IKE-less case (ietf-i2nsf-ikeless):
      /ipsec-ikeless/sad/sad-entry/ipsec-sa-config/esp-sa:  This
         container includes symmetric keys for the IPsec SAs.  For
         example, encryption/key contains an ESP encryption key value
         and encryption/iv contains an Initialization Vector value.
         Similarly, integrity/key has an ESP integrity key value.  Those
         values MUST NOT be read by anyone and are protected by the NACM
         extension "default-deny-all" in this document.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [IANA-Method-Type]
              IANA, "Method Type",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/eap-numbers/>.

   [IANA-Protocols-Number]
              IANA, "Protocol Numbers",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.

   [IKEv2-Auth-Method]
              IANA, "IKEv2 Authentication Method",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ikev2-parameters/>.

   [IKEv2-Parameters]
              IANA, "Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)
              Parameters",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ikev2-parameters/>.

   [IKEv2-Transform-Type-1]
              IANA, "Transform Type 1 - Encryption Algorithm Transform
              IDs",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ikev2-parameters/>.

   [IKEv2-Transform-Type-3]
              IANA, "Transform Type 3 - Integrity Algorithm Transform
              IDs",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ikev2-parameters/>.

   [IKEv2-Transform-Type-4]
              IANA, "Transform Type 4 - Diffie-Hellman Group Transform
              IDs",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ikev2-parameters/>.

   [ITU-T.X.690]
              International Telecommunication Union, "Information
              Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic
              Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and
              Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation
              X.690, ISO/IEC 8825-1, February 2021.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3947]  Kivinen, T., Swander, B., Huttunen, A., and V. Volpe,
              "Negotiation of NAT-Traversal in the IKE", RFC 3947,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3947, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3947>.

   [RFC3948]  Huttunen, A., Swander, B., Volpe, V., DiBurro, L., and M.
              Stenberg, "UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP Packets",
              RFC 3948, DOI 10.17487/RFC3948, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3948>.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301,
              December 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4303>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5322, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5322>.

   [RFC5915]  Turner, S. and D. Brown, "Elliptic Curve Private Key
              Structure", RFC 5915, DOI 10.17487/RFC5915, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5915>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.

   [RFC6960]  Santesson, S., Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A.,
              Galperin, S., and C. Adams, "X.509 Internet Public Key
              Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP",
              RFC 6960, DOI 10.17487/RFC6960, June 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6960>.

   [RFC6991]  Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., "Common YANG Data Types",
              RFC 6991, DOI 10.17487/RFC6991, July 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6991>.

   [RFC7296]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
              Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.

   [RFC7383]  Smyslov, V., "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2) Message Fragmentation", RFC 7383,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7383, November 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7383>.

   [RFC7427]  Kivinen, T. and J. Snyder, "Signature Authentication in
              the Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)", RFC 7427,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7427, January 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7427>.

   [RFC7619]  Smyslov, V. and P. Wouters, "The NULL Authentication
              Method in the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2)", RFC 7619, DOI 10.17487/RFC7619, August 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7619>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC8017]  Moriarty, K., Ed., Kaliski, B., Jonsson, J., and A. Rusch,
              "PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Version 2.2",
              RFC 8017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8017, November 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8017>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8221]  Wouters, P., Migault, D., Mattsson, J., Nir, Y., and T.
              Kivinen, "Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation
              Requirements and Usage Guidance for Encapsulating Security
              Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH)", RFC 8221,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8221, October 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8221>.

   [RFC8229]  Pauly, T., Touati, S., and R. Mantha, "TCP Encapsulation
              of IKE and IPsec Packets", RFC 8229, DOI 10.17487/RFC8229,
              August 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8229>.

   [RFC8247]  Nir, Y., Kivinen, T., Wouters, P., and D. Migault,
              "Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage Guidance
              for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)",
              RFC 8247, DOI 10.17487/RFC8247, September 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8247>.

   [RFC8340]  Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, Ed., "YANG Tree Diagrams",
              BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>.

   [RFC8341]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>.

   [RFC8342]  Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture
              (NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [IPSECME-CONTROLLER-IKE]
              Carrel, D. and B. Weis, "IPsec Key Exchange using a
              Controller", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              carrel-ipsecme-controller-ike-01, 10 March 2019,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-carrel-
              ipsecme-controller-ike-01>.

   [ITU-T.Y.3300]
              International Telecommunications Union, "Y.3300: Framework
              of software-defined networking", June 2014,
              <https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.3300/en>.

   [libreswan]
              The Libreswan Project, "Libreswan VPN software",
              <https://libreswan.org/>.

   [netconf-vpn]
              Stefan Wallin, "Tutorial: NETCONF and YANG", January 2014,
              <https://ripe68.ripe.net/presentations/181-NETCONF-YANG-
              tutorial-43.pdf>.

   [ONF-OpenFlow]
              Open Networking Foundation, "OpenFlow Switch
              Specification", Version 1.4.0 (Wire Protocol 0x05),
              October 2013, <https://www.opennetworking.org/wp-
              content/uploads/2014/10/openflow-spec-v1.4.0.pdf>.

   [ONF-SDN-Architecture]
              Open Networking Foundation, "SDN architecture", Issue 1,
              June 2014, <https://www.opennetworking.org/wp-
              content/uploads/2013/02/TR_SDN_ARCH_1.0_06062014.pdf>.

   [RFC2367]  McDonald, D., Metz, C., and B. Phan, "PF_KEY Key
              Management API, Version 2", RFC 2367,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2367, July 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2367>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC6040]  Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
              Notification", RFC 6040, DOI 10.17487/RFC6040, November
              2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6040>.

   [RFC6071]  Frankel, S. and S. Krishnan, "IP Security (IPsec) and
              Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Document Roadmap", RFC 6071,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6071, February 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6071>.

   [RFC6437]  Amante, S., Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and J. Rajahalme,
              "IPv6 Flow Label Specification", RFC 6437,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6437, November 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6437>.

   [RFC7149]  Boucadair, M. and C. Jacquenet, "Software-Defined
              Networking: A Perspective from within a Service Provider
              Environment", RFC 7149, DOI 10.17487/RFC7149, March 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7149>.

   [RFC7426]  Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S.,
              Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-
              Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture
              Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7426>.

   [RFC8192]  Hares, S., Lopez, D., Zarny, M., Jacquenet, C., Kumar, R.,
              and J. Jeong, "Interface to Network Security Functions
              (I2NSF): Problem Statement and Use Cases", RFC 8192,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8192, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8192>.

   [RFC8329]  Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
              Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
              Functions", RFC 8329, DOI 10.17487/RFC8329, February 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8329>.

   [SDNSecServ]
              Scott-Hayward, S., O'Callaghan, G., and P. Sezer, "Sdn
              Security: A Survey", 2013 IEEE SDN for Future Networks and
              Services (SDN4FNS), pp. 1-7,
              DOI 10.1109/SDN4FNS.2013.6702553, November 2013,
              <https://doi.org/10.1109/SDN4FNS.2013.6702553>.

   [SDNSecurity]
              Kreutz, D., Ramos, F., and P. Verissimo, "Towards secure
              and dependable software-defined networks", Proceedings of
              the second ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Hot Topics in software
              defined networking, pp. 55-60,
              DOI 10.1145/2491185.2491199, August 2013,
              <https://doi.org/10.1145/2491185.2491199>.

   [strongswan]
              CESNET, "strongSwan: the OpenSource IPsec-based VPN
              Solution", <https://www.strongswan.org/>.

   [TRAN-IPSECME-YANG]
              Tran, K., Wang, H., Nagaraj, V. K., and X. Chen, "Yang
              Data Model for Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)", Work
              in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-tran-ipsecme-yang-01,
              18 March 2016, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-tran-ipsecme-yang-01>.

Appendix A.  XML Configuration Example for IKE Case (Gateway-to-Gateway)

   This example shows an XML configuration file sent by the I2NSF
   Controller to establish an IPsec SA between two NSFs (see Figure 3)
   in tunnel mode (gateway-to-gateway) with ESP, with authentication
   based on X.509 certificates (simplified for brevity with
   "base64encodedvalue==") and applying the IKE case.


                              +------------------+
                              | I2NSF Controller |
                              +------------------+
                       I2NSF NSF-Facing |
                              Interface |
                      /-----------------+---------------\
                     /                                   \
                    /                                     \
       +----+  +--------+                            +--------+  +----+
       | h1 |--| nsf_h1 |== IPsec_ESP_Tunnel_mode == | nsf_h2 |--| h2 |
       +----+  +--------+                            +--------+  +----+
              :1        :100                       :200       :1

    (2001:db8:1:/64)          (2001:db8:123:/64)       (2001:db8:2:/64)

     Figure 3: IKE Case, Tunnel Mode, X.509 Certificate Authentication

   <ipsec-ike xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ike"
   xmlns:nc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
     <pad>
       <pad-entry>
         <name>nsf_h1_pad</name>
         <ipv6-address>2001:db8:123::100</ipv6-address>
         <peer-authentication>
            <auth-method>digital-signature</auth-method>
            <digital-signature>
               <cert-data>base64encodedvalue==</cert-data>
               <private-key>base64encodedvalue==</private-key>
               <ca-data>base64encodedvalue==</ca-data>
            </digital-signature>
         </peer-authentication>
       </pad-entry>
       <pad-entry>
         <name>nsf_h2_pad</name>
         <ipv6-address>2001:db8:123::200</ipv6-address>
         <auth-protocol>ikev2</auth-protocol>
         <peer-authentication>
           <auth-method>digital-signature</auth-method>
           <digital-signature>
             <!-- RSA Digital Signature -->
             <ds-algorithm>1</ds-algorithm>
             <cert-data>base64encodedvalue==</cert-data>
             <ca-data>base64encodedvalue==</ca-data>
           </digital-signature>
         </peer-authentication>
       </pad-entry>
     </pad>
     <conn-entry>
        <name>nsf_h1-nsf_h2</name>
        <autostartup>start</autostartup>
        <version>ikev2</version>
        <initial-contact>false</initial-contact>
        <fragmentation><enabled>false</enabled></fragmentation>
        <ike-sa-lifetime-soft>
           <rekey-time>60</rekey-time>
           <reauth-time>120</reauth-time>
        </ike-sa-lifetime-soft>
        <ike-sa-lifetime-hard>
           <over-time>3600</over-time>
        </ike-sa-lifetime-hard>
        <!--AUTH_HMAC_SHA2_512_256-->
        <ike-sa-intr-alg>14</ike-sa-intr-alg>
        <!--ENCR_AES_CBC - 128 bits-->
        <ike-sa-encr-alg>
           <id>1</id>
        </ike-sa-encr-alg>
        <!--8192-bit MODP Group-->
        <dh-group>18</dh-group>
        <half-open-ike-sa-timer>30</half-open-ike-sa-timer>
        <half-open-ike-sa-cookie-threshold>
           15
        </half-open-ike-sa-cookie-threshold>
        <local>
            <local-pad-entry-name>nsf_h1_pad</local-pad-entry-name>
        </local>
        <remote>
            <remote-pad-entry-name>nsf_h2_pad</remote-pad-entry-name>
        </remote>
        <spd>
          <spd-entry>
             <name>nsf_h1-nsf_h2</name>
             <ipsec-policy-config>
               <anti-replay-window-size>64</anti-replay-window-size>
               <traffic-selector>
                  <local-prefix>2001:db8:1::0/64</local-prefix>
                  <remote-prefix>2001:db8:2::0/64</remote-prefix>
                  <inner-protocol>any</inner-protocol>
               </traffic-selector>
               <processing-info>
                  <action>protect</action>
                  <ipsec-sa-cfg>
                     <pfp-flag>false</pfp-flag>
                     <ext-seq-num>true</ext-seq-num>
                     <seq-overflow>false</seq-overflow>
                     <stateful-frag-check>false</stateful-frag-check>
                     <mode>tunnel</mode>
                     <protocol-parameters>esp</protocol-parameters>
                     <esp-algorithms>
                        <!-- AUTH_HMAC_SHA1_96 -->
                        <integrity>2</integrity>
                         <encryption>
                             <!-- ENCR_AES_CBC -->
                             <id>1</id>
                             <algorithm-type>12</algorithm-type>
                             <key-length>128</key-length>
                         </encryption>
                         <encryption>
                             <!-- ENCR_3DES-->
                             <id>2</id>
                             <algorithm-type>3</algorithm-type>
                         </encryption>
                        <tfc-pad>false</tfc-pad>
                     </esp-algorithms>
                     <tunnel>
                        <local>2001:db8:123::100</local>
                        <remote>2001:db8:123::200</remote>
                        <df-bit>clear</df-bit>
                        <bypass-dscp>true</bypass-dscp>
                    </tunnel>
                  </ipsec-sa-cfg>
               </processing-info>
             </ipsec-policy-config>
          </spd-entry>
        </spd>
        <child-sa-info>
           <!--8192-bit MODP Group -->
           <fs-groups>18</fs-groups>
           <child-sa-lifetime-soft>
              <bytes>1000000</bytes>
              <packets>1000</packets>
              <time>30</time>
              <idle>60</idle>
              <action>replace</action>
           </child-sa-lifetime-soft>
           <child-sa-lifetime-hard>
              <bytes>2000000</bytes>
              <packets>2000</packets>
              <time>60</time>
              <idle>120</idle>
           </child-sa-lifetime-hard>
        </child-sa-info>
      </conn-entry>
   </ipsec-ike>

Appendix B.  XML Configuration Example for IKE-less Case (Host-to-Host)

   This example shows an XML configuration file sent by the I2NSF
   Controller to establish an IPsec SA between two NSFs (see Figure 4)
   in transport mode (host-to-host) with ESP in the IKE-less case.


                            +------------------+
                            | I2NSF Controller |
                            +------------------+
                    I2NSF NSF-Facing |
                           Interface |
                /--------------------+-------------------\
               /                                          \
              /                                            \
         +--------+                                    +--------+
         | nsf_h1 |===== IPsec_ESP_Transport_mode =====| nsf_h2 |
         +--------+                                    +--------+
                 :100        (2001:db8:123:/64)       :200

                  Figure 4: IKE-less Case, Transport Mode

   <ipsec-ikeless
     xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless"
     xmlns:nc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
     <spd>
       <spd-entry>
           <name>
              in/trans/2001:db8:123::200/2001:db8:123::100
           </name>
           <direction>inbound</direction>
           <reqid>1</reqid>
           <ipsec-policy-config>
              <traffic-selector>
                <local-prefix>2001:db8:123::200/128</local-prefix>
                <remote-prefix>2001:db8:123::100/128</remote-prefix>
                <inner-protocol>any</inner-protocol>
              </traffic-selector>
              <processing-info>
                 <action>protect</action>
                 <ipsec-sa-cfg>
                   <ext-seq-num>true</ext-seq-num>
                   <seq-overflow>false</seq-overflow>
                   <mode>transport</mode>
                   <protocol-parameters>esp</protocol-parameters>
                   <esp-algorithms>
                      <!--AUTH_HMAC_SHA1_96-->
                      <integrity>2</integrity>
                      <!--ENCR_AES_CBC -->
                      <encryption>
                        <id>1</id>
                        <algorithm-type>12</algorithm-type>
                         <key-length>128</key-length>
                      </encryption>
                      <encryption>
                        <id>2</id>
                        <algorithm-type>3</algorithm-type>
                      </encryption>
                   </esp-algorithms>
                 </ipsec-sa-cfg>
               </processing-info>
             </ipsec-policy-config>
           </spd-entry>
           <spd-entry>
             <name>out/trans/2001:db8:123::100/2001:db8:123::200</name>
             <direction>outbound</direction>
             <reqid>1</reqid>
             <ipsec-policy-config>
               <traffic-selector>
                 <local-prefix>2001:db8:123::100/128</local-prefix>
                 <remote-prefix>2001:db8:123::200/128</remote-prefix>
                 <inner-protocol>any</inner-protocol>
               </traffic-selector>
               <processing-info>
                 <action>protect</action>
                 <ipsec-sa-cfg>
                   <ext-seq-num>true</ext-seq-num>
                   <seq-overflow>false</seq-overflow>
                   <mode>transport</mode>
                   <protocol-parameters>esp</protocol-parameters>
                   <esp-algorithms>
                     <!-- AUTH_HMAC_SHA1_96 -->
                     <integrity>2</integrity>
                     <!-- ENCR_AES_CBC -->
                     <encryption>
                        <id>1</id>
                        <algorithm-type>12</algorithm-type>
                        <key-length>128</key-length>
                     </encryption>
                     <encryption>
                        <id>2</id>
                        <algorithm-type>3</algorithm-type>
                     </encryption>
                   </esp-algorithms>
                  </ipsec-sa-cfg>
                </processing-info>
              </ipsec-policy-config>
           </spd-entry>
        </spd>
        <sad>
          <sad-entry>
            <name>out/trans/2001:db8:123::100/2001:db8:123::200</name>
            <reqid>1</reqid>
            <ipsec-sa-config>
               <spi>34501</spi>
               <ext-seq-num>true</ext-seq-num>
               <seq-overflow>false</seq-overflow>
               <anti-replay-window-size>64</anti-replay-window-size>
               <traffic-selector>
                 <local-prefix>2001:db8:123::100/128</local-prefix>
                 <remote-prefix>2001:db8:123::200/128</remote-prefix>
                    <inner-protocol>any</inner-protocol>
                </traffic-selector>
                <protocol-parameters>esp</protocol-parameters>
                <mode>transport</mode>
                <esp-sa>
                  <encryption>
                     <!-- //ENCR_AES_CBC -->
                     <encryption-algorithm>12</encryption-algorithm>
                     <key>01:23:45:67:89:AB:CE:DF</key>
                     <iv>01:23:45:67:89:AB:CE:DF</iv>
                  </encryption>
                  <integrity>
                     <!-- //AUTH_HMAC_SHA1_96 -->
                     <integrity-algorithm>2</integrity-algorithm>
                     <key>01:23:45:67:89:AB:CE:DF</key>
                  </integrity>
                </esp-sa>
            </ipsec-sa-config>
          </sad-entry>
          <sad-entry>
             <name>in/trans/2001:db8:123::200/2001:db8:123::100</name>
             <reqid>1</reqid>
             <ipsec-sa-config>
                 <spi>34502</spi>
                 <ext-seq-num>true</ext-seq-num>
                 <seq-overflow>false</seq-overflow>
                 <anti-replay-window-size>64</anti-replay-window-size>
                 <traffic-selector>
                    <local-prefix>2001:db8:123::200/128</local-prefix>
                    <remote-prefix>2001:db8:123::100/128</remote-prefix>
                    <inner-protocol>any</inner-protocol>
                 </traffic-selector>
                 <protocol-parameters>esp</protocol-parameters>
                 <mode>transport</mode>
                 <esp-sa>
                    <encryption>
                       <!-- //ENCR_AES_CBC -->
                       <encryption-algorithm>12</encryption-algorithm>
                       <key>01:23:45:67:89:AB:CE:DF</key>
                       <iv>01:23:45:67:89:AB:CE:DF</iv>
                    </encryption>
                    <integrity>
                       <!-- //AUTH_HMAC_SHA1_96 -->
                       <integrity-algorithm>2</integrity-algorithm>
                       <key>01:23:45:67:89:AB:CE:DF</key>
                    </integrity>
                  </esp-sa>
                  <sa-lifetime-hard>
                     <bytes>2000000</bytes>
                     <packets>2000</packets>
                     <time>60</time>
                     <idle>120</idle>
                  </sa-lifetime-hard>
                  <sa-lifetime-soft>
                     <bytes>1000000</bytes>
                     <packets>1000</packets>
                     <time>30</time>
                     <idle>60</idle>
                     <action>replace</action>
                  </sa-lifetime-soft>
            </ipsec-sa-config>
          </sad-entry>
       </sad>
   </ipsec-ikeless>

Appendix C.  XML Notification Examples

   In the following, several XML files are shown to illustrate different
   types of notifications defined in the IKE-less YANG data model, which
   are sent by the NSF to the I2NSF Controller.  The notifications
   happen in the IKE-less case.

   <sadb-expire xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless">
   <ipsec-sa-name>in/trans/2001:db8:123::200/2001:db8:123::100
   </ipsec-sa-name>
       <soft-lifetime-expire>true</soft-lifetime-expire>
          <lifetime-current>
             <bytes>1000000</bytes>
             <packets>1000</packets>
             <time>30</time>
             <idle>60</idle>
          </lifetime-current>
   </sadb-expire>

             Figure 5: Example of the sadb-expire Notification

   <sadb-acquire xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless">
       <ipsec-policy-name>in/trans/2001:db8:123::200/2001:db8:123::100
       </ipsec-policy-name>
       <traffic-selector>
           <local-prefix>2001:db8:123::200/128</local-prefix>
           <remote-prefix>2001:db8:123::100/128</remote-prefix>
           <inner-protocol>any</inner-protocol>
            <local-ports>
                 <start>0</start>
                 <end>0</end>
            </local-ports>
            <remote-ports>
                 <start>0</start>
                 <end>0</end>
            </remote-ports>
       </traffic-selector>
   </sadb-acquire>

             Figure 6: Example of the sadb-acquire Notification

   <sadb-seq-overflow
       xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless">
         <ipsec-sa-name>in/trans/2001:db8:123::200/2001:db8:123::100
         </ipsec-sa-name>
   </sadb-seq-overflow>

          Figure 7: Example of the sadb-seq-overflow Notification

   <sadb-bad-spi
            xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-ikeless">
           <spi>666</spi>
   </sadb-bad-spi>

             Figure 8: Example of the sadb-bad-spi Notification

Appendix D.  Operational Use Case Examples

D.1.  Example of IPsec SA Establishment

   This appendix exemplifies the applicability of the IKE case and IKE-
   less case to traditional IPsec configurations, that is, host-to-host
   and gateway-to-gateway.  The following examples assume the existence
   of two NSFs needing to establish an end-to-end IPsec SA to protect
   their communications.  Both NSFs could be two hosts that exchange
   traffic (host-to-host) or gateways (gateway-to-gateway), for example,
   within an enterprise that needs to protect the traffic between the
   networks of two branch offices.

   Applicability of these configurations appear in current and new
   networking scenarios.  For example, SD-WAN technologies are providing
   dynamic and on-demand VPN connections between branch offices or
   between branches and Software as a Service (SaaS) cloud services.
   Besides, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) services providing
   virtualization environments are deployments that often rely on IPsec
   to provide secure channels between virtual instances (host-to-host)
   and providing VPN solutions for virtualized networks (gateway-to-
   gateway).

   As can be observed in the following, the I2NSF-based IPsec management
   system (for IKE and IKE-less cases) exhibits various advantages:

   1.  It allows creating IPsec SAs among two NSFs, based only on the
       application of general flow-based protection policies at the
       I2NSF User.  Thus, administrators can manage all security
       associations in a centralized point with an abstracted view of
       the network.

   2.  Any NSF deployed in the system does not need manual
       configuration, therefore, allowing its deployment in an automated
       manner.

D.1.1.  IKE Case

                 +----------------------------------------+
                 |  I2NSF User  (IPsec Management System) |
                 +----------------------------------------+
                           |
                  (1)    Flow-based    I2NSF Consumer-Facing
                      Protection Policy       Interface
                           |
                 +---------|------------------------------+
                 |         |                              |
                 |         |   I2NSF Controller           |
                 |         V                              |
                 |   +--------------+ (2)+--------------+ |
                 |   |Translate into|--->|   NETCONF/   | |
                 |   |IPsec Policies|    |   RESTCONF   | |
                 |   +--------------+    +--------------+ |
                 |                          |     |       |
                 |                          |     |       |
                 +--------------------------|-----|-------+
                                            |     |
                I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface  |     |
                                            | (3) |
                  |-------------------------+     +---|
                  V                                   V
          +----------------------+         +----------------------+
          |       NSF A          |         |        NSF B         |
          | IKEv2/IPsec(SPD/PAD) |         | IKEv2/IPsec(SPD/PAD) |
          +----------------------+         +----------------------+

         Figure 9: Host-to-Host/Gateway-to-Gateway for the IKE Case

   Figure 9 describes the application of the IKE case when a data packet
   needs to be protected in the path between NSF A and NSF B:

   1.  The I2NSF User defines a general flow-based protection policy
       (e.g., protect data traffic between NSF A and B).  The I2NSF
       Controller looks for the NSFs involved (NSF A and NSF B).

   2.  The I2NSF Controller generates IKEv2 credentials for them and
       translates the policies into SPD and PAD entries.

   3.  The I2NSF Controller inserts an IKEv2 configuration that includes
       the SPD and PAD entries in both NSF A and NSF B.  If some of
       operations with NSF A and NSF B fail, the I2NSF Controller will
       stop the process and perform a rollback operation by deleting any
       IKEv2, SPD, and PAD configuration that had been successfully
       installed in NSF A or B.

   If the previous steps are successful, the flow is protected by means
   of the IPsec SA established with IKEv2 between NSF A and NSF B.

D.1.2.  IKE-less Case

                    +----------------------------------------+
                    | I2NSF User  (IPsec Management System)  |
                    +----------------------------------------+
                              |
                   (1)   Flow-based       I2NSF Consumer-Facing
                      Protection Policy      Interface
                              |
                    +---------|------------------------------+
                    |         |                              |
                    |         |   I2NSF Controller           |
                    |         V                              |
                    |  +--------------+ (2) +--------------+ |
                    |  |Translate into|---->|   NETCONF/   | |
                    |  |IPsec Policies|     |   RESTCONF   | |
                    |  +--------------+     +--------------+ |
                    |                         |     |        |
                    +-------------------------|-----|--------+
                                              |     |
                   I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface |     |
                                              | (3) |
                       |----------------------+     +--|
                       V                               V
              +----------------+             +----------------+
              |     NSF A      |             |     NSF B      |
              | IPsec(SPD/SAD) |             | IPsec(SPD/SAD) |
              +----------------+             +----------------+

      Figure 10: Host-to-Host/Gateway-to-Gateway for the IKE-less Case

   Figure 10 describes the application of the IKE-less case when a data
   packet needs to be protected in the path between NSF A and NSF B:

   1.  The I2NSF User establishes a general flow-based protection
       policy, and the I2NSF Controller looks for the involved NSFs.

   2.  The I2NSF Controller translates the flow-based security policies
       into IPsec SPD and SAD entries.

   3.  The I2NSF Controller inserts these entries in both NSF A and NSF
       B IPsec databases (i.e., SPD and SAD).  The following text
       describes how this would happen:

       *  The I2NSF Controller chooses two random values as SPIs, for
          example, SPIa1 for the inbound IPsec SA in NSF A and SPIb1 for
          the inbound IPsec SA in NSF B.  The value of the SPIa1 MUST
          NOT be the same as any inbound SPI in A.  In the same way, the
          value of the SPIb1 MUST NOT be the same as any inbound SPI in
          B.  Moreover, the SPIa1 MUST be used in B for the outbound
          IPsec SA to A, while SPIb1 MUST be used in A for the outbound
          IPsec SA to B.  It also generates fresh cryptographic material
          for the new inbound/outbound IPsec SAs and their parameters.

       *  After that, the I2NSF Controller simultaneously sends the new
          inbound IPsec SA with SPIa1 and new outbound IPsec SA with
          SPIb1 to NSF A and the new inbound IPsec SA with SPIb1 and new
          outbound IPsec SA with SPIa1 to B, together with the
          corresponding IPsec policies.

       *  Once the I2NSF Controller receives confirmation from NSF A and
          NSF B, it knows that the IPsec SAs are correctly installed and
          ready.

       Another alternative to this operation is the I2NSF Controller
       first sends the IPsec policies and new inbound IPsec SAs to A and
       B.  Once it obtains a successful confirmation of these operations
       from NSF A and NSF B, it proceeds with installing the new
       outbound IPsec SAs.  Even though this procedure may increase the
       latency to complete the process, no traffic is sent over the
       network until the IPsec SAs are completely operative.  In any
       case, other alternatives MAY be possible to implement step 3.

   4.  If some of the operations described above fail (e.g., NSF A
       reports an error when the I2NSF Controller is trying to install
       the SPD entry, the new inbound or outbound IPsec SAs), the I2NSF
       Controller MUST perform rollback operations by deleting any new
       inbound or outbound IPsec SA and SPD entry that had been
       successfully installed in any of the NSFs (e.g., NSF B) and stop
       the process.  Note that the I2NSF Controller MAY retry several
       times before giving up.

   5.  Otherwise, if the steps 1 to 3 are successful, the flow between
       NSF A and NSF B is protected by means of the IPsec SAs
       established by the I2NSF Controller.  It is worth mentioning that
       the I2NSF Controller associates a lifetime to the new IPsec SAs.
       When this lifetime expires, the NSF will send a sadb-expire
       notification to the I2NSF Controller in order to start the
       rekeying process.

   Instead of installing IPsec policies (in the SPD) and IPsec SAs (in
   the SAD) in step 3 (proactive mode), it is also possible that the
   I2NSF Controller only installs the SPD entries in step 3 (reactive
   mode).  In such a case, when a data packet requires to be protected
   with IPsec, the NSF that first saw the data packet will send a sadb-
   acquire notification that informs the I2NSF Controller that needs SAD
   entries with the IPsec SAs to process the data packet.  Again, if
   some of the operations installing the new inbound/outbound IPsec SAs
   fail, the I2NSF Controller stops the process and performs a rollback
   operation by deleting any new inbound/outbound SAs that had been
   successfully installed.

D.2.  Example of the Rekeying Process in IKE-less Case

   To explain an example of the rekeying process between two IPsec NSFs,
   A and B, assume that SPIa1 identifies the inbound IPsec SA in A and
   SPIb1 identifies the inbound IPsec SA in B.  The rekeying process
   will take the following steps:

   1.  The I2NSF Controller chooses two random values as SPI for the new
       inbound IPsec SAs, for example, SPIa2 for the inbound IPsec SA in
       A and SPIb2 for the inbound IPsec SA in B.  The value of the
       SPIa1 MUST NOT be the same as any inbound SPI in A.  In the same
       way, the value of the SPIb1 MUST NOT be the same as any inbound
       SPI in B.  Then, the I2NSF Controller creates an inbound IPsec SA
       with SPIa2 in A and another inbound IPsec SA in B with SPIb2.  It
       can send this information simultaneously to A and B.

   2.  Once the I2NSF Controller receives confirmation from A and B, the
       controller knows that the inbound IPsec SAs are correctly
       installed.  Then, it proceeds to send, in parallel to A and B,
       the outbound IPsec SAs: the outbound IPsec SA to A with SPIb2 and
       the outbound IPsec SA to B with SPIa2.  At this point, the new
       IPsec SAs are ready.

   3.  Once the I2NSF Controller receives confirmation from A and B that
       the outbound IPsec SAs have been installed, the I2NSF Controller,
       in parallel, deletes the old IPsec SAs from A (inbound SPIa1 and
       outbound SPIb1) and B (outbound SPIa1 and inbound SPIb1).

   If some of the operations in step 1 fail (e.g., NSF A reports an
   error when the I2NSF Controller is trying to install a new inbound
   IPsec SA), the I2NSF Controller MUST perform rollback operations by
   removing any new inbound SA that had been successfully installed
   during step 1.

   If step 1 is successful but some of the operations in step 2 fail
   (e.g., NSF A reports an error when the I2NSF Controller is trying to
   install the new outbound IPsec SA), the I2NSF Controller MUST perform
   a rollback operation by deleting any new outbound SA that had been
   successfully installed during step 2 and by deleting the inbound SAs
   created in step 1, in that order.

   If the steps 1 and 2 are successful but the step 3 fails, the I2NSF
   Controller will avoid any rollback of the operations carried out in
   steps 1 and 2, since new and valid IPsec SAs were created and are
   functional.  The I2NSF Controller MAY reattempt to remove the old
   inbound and outbound IPsec SAs in NSF A and NSF B several times until
   it receives a success or it gives up.  In the last case, the old
   IPsec SAs will be removed when their corresponding hard lifetime is
   reached.

D.3.  Example of Managing NSF State Loss in the IKE-less Case

   In the IKE-less case, if the I2NSF Controller detects that an NSF has
   lost the IPsec state, it could follow the next steps:

   1.  The I2NSF Controller SHOULD delete the old IPsec SAs on the non-
       failed nodes, established with the failed node.  This prevents
       the non-failed nodes from leaking plaintext.

   2.  If the affected node restarts, the I2NSF Controller configures
       the new inbound IPsec SAs between the affected node and all the
       nodes it was talking to.

   3.  After these inbound IPsec SAs have been established, the I2NSF
       Controller configures the outbound IPsec SAs in parallel.

   Steps 2 and 3 can be performed at the same time at the cost of a
   potential packet loss.  If this is not critical, then it is an
   optimization since the number of exchanges between the I2NSF
   Controller and NSFs is lower.

Acknowledgements

   Authors want to thank Paul Wouters, Valery Smyslov, Sowmini Varadhan,
   David Carrel, Yoav Nir, Tero Kivinen, Martin Bjorklund, Graham
   Bartlett, Sandeep Kampati, Linda Dunbar, Mohit Sethi, Martin
   Bjorklund, Tom Petch, Christian Hopps, Rob Wilton, Carlos
   J. Bernardos, Alejandro Perez-Mendez, Alejandro Abad-Carrascosa,
   Ignacio Martinez, Ruben Ricart, and all IESG members that have
   reviewed this document for their valuable comments.

Authors' Addresses

   Rafa Marin-Lopez
   University of Murcia
   Faculty of Computer Science
   Campus de Espinardo S/N
   30100  Murcia
   Spain

   Phone: +34 868 88 85 01
   Email: rafa@um.es


   Gabriel Lopez-Millan
   University of Murcia
   Faculty of Computer Science
   Campus de Espinardo S/N
   30100  Murcia
   Spain

   Phone: +34 868 88 85 04
   Email: gabilm@um.es


   Fernando Pereniguez-Garcia
   University Defense Center
   Spanish Air Force Academy
   MDE-UPCT
   30720 San Javier Murcia
   Spain

   Phone: +34 968 18 99 46
   Email: fernando.pereniguez@cud.upct.es