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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05                                             
INTERNET-DRAFT                           Erik Nordmark, Sun Microsystems
November 21, 1997


                    Site prefixes in Neighbor Discovery

                 <draft-ietf-ipngwg-site-prefixes-01.txt>


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   ``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
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   (Europe), ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific
   Rim).

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

   This Internet Draft expires May 21, 1998.



Abstract

   This document specifies extensions to IPv6 Neighbor Discovery to
   carry site prefixes.  The site prefixes are used to reduce the effect
   of site renumbering by ensuring that the communication inside a site
   uses site-local addresses.












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Contents

   Status of this Memo..........................................    1

   1.  INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION..............................    3

   2.  TERMINOLOGY..............................................    4
      2.1.  Requirements........................................    4

   3.  OVERVIEW.................................................    4
      3.1.  Assumptions.........................................    5

   4.  UPDATED PREFIX OPTION FORMAT.............................    6
      4.1.  CONCEPTUAL VARIABLES................................    7

   5.  SENDING RULES............................................    8

   6.  RECEIVING RULES..........................................    8

   7.  USING THE SITE PREFIXES..................................    9
      7.1.  Host Name Lookups...................................    9
      7.2.  IPv6 Address Lookups................................   10

   8.  MULTIHOMED TO MULTIPLE SITES.............................   11
      8.1.  Detecting site multihoming..........................   11

   9.  SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS..................................   12

   10.  OPEN ISSUES.............................................   13

   REFERENCES...................................................   14

   AUTHOR'S ADDRESS.............................................   15

   APPENDIX A: CHANGES SINCE PREVIOUS DRAFT.....................   15
















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1.  INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION

   In order to maintain the aggregation of the global Internet routing
   tables it might be necessary for whole sites to renumber to use
   different prefixes for their global IPv6 addresses.  Such renumbering
   would not directly benefit the renumbered sites but instead be
   necessary for the scaling of the Internet as a whole.

   In order to increase the probability that such renumbering is viewed
   favorably by the sites themselves, which see little or no direct
   benefit, it is critical that both the effort of renumbering is kept
   at a minimum and also that the risk associated with renumbering is as
   small as possible.

   The Stateless address autoconfiguration [ADDRCONF] and support for
   router renumbering [ROUTER-RENUM] make it easier to renumber a site.
   However, these protocols do not by themselves address long-running
   TCP connections or cases where IP addresses have been stored in some
   configuration file.  Thus additional measures are needed to reduce
   the risk of renumbering.

   For many sites it is much more critical to maintain the internal
   communication than the intra-site communication over the Internet.
   Based on that observation this proposal tries to limit the effect of
   a site renumbering one or more of its global prefixes by ensuring
   that intra-site communication can use site-local addresses that are
   not effected by the site renumbering.  With this proposal it is
   possible to maintain internal long-running TCP connections or
   otherwise store IPv6 addresses for longer time than would have been
   possible without it.

   As specified in [ADDR-TODAY] IP addresses are no longer temporarily
   unique.  This implies, among other things, that applications should
   not store IPv6 addresses without a mechanisms for honoring the DNS
   time-to-live and refreshing the IPv6 address.  This protocol is not
   intended to deter from that recommendation but is merely based on the
   observation that the applications today might assume that IPv4
   addresses are temporarily unique and it is likely that some
   applications might not be corrected in their behavior as they are
   moved to IPv6.  It would be unfortunate if such application
   "brokenness" would lead sites to view site renumbering as a too risky
   or a too costly operation.

   This document does not address the general issues of renumbering such
   as renumbering a single host or a subnet.  It is targeted at site
   renumbering.  The proposal does not attempt to address how long-
   running TCP connections going outside a site will survive the site
   renumbering.



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   The author would like to acknowledge the contributions the IPNGWG
   working group and in particular Mike O'Dell who pointed out the
   importance of the problem, and Robert Elz who suggested this approach
   to solving the problem.


2.  TERMINOLOGY

   This documents uses the terminology defined in [IPv6] and
   [DISCOVERY].


2.1.  Requirements

   The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD,
   SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, when they appear in this
   document, are to be interpreted as described in [KEYWORDS].

3.  OVERVIEW

   The goal of this extension to Neighbor Discovery is to make
   communication that is local to a single site use the site-local
   addresses instead of the global addresses.  If all communication
   internal to a site uses site-local addresses then the site's global
   addresses can be renumbered without having any affect on the internal
   communication.  Thus the risk associated with site renumbering is
   lowered - applications that store IPv6 addresses and long-running TCP
   connections will, as long as the communication is local to the site,
   continue to operate across the renumbering of the site.

   A few alternative solutions have been explored.  An early proposal
   was to place the site-local addresses in the name service (e.g., the
   DNS) and make sure they are returned first in the list of addresses
   returned to an application (to make it likely that the application
   will use that address).  That proposal has the disadvantage that the
   name service must return different addresses depending on who asks
   the question; if a node inside the site asks for an address it should
   return the site-local address(es) but if a node outside the site asks
   it must not return a site-local address.  This is referred to as the
   two-faced DNS.  While some sites use a two-faced DNS today as part of
   their firewall solution it would be rather unfortunate if each and
   every site had to deploy such a solution.  See [GSE-EVAL] for more
   discussion.

   This proposal takes a different approach.  The name service will only
   contain global addresses.  The routing infrastructure will be used to
   distribute information about which prefixes belong to the local site.
   This document only specifies how the site prefixes are distributed



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   from the routers to the hosts on each link.  However, other protocols
   such as [ROUTER-RENUM] might be extended to carry the site prefixes
   to all routers in a site.  The use of the routing infrastructure to
   carry the site prefixes avoids the "two-faced" issue above - the
   routers know which part of the network is inside the site thus they
   can naturally prevent this information from being distributed outside
   the site.

   The protocol is based on each host maintaining a list of all the
   currently active site prefixes.  The site prefixes are periodically
   advertised in Neighbor Discovery Router Advertisement messages and
   each prefix has an associated lifetime.

   Once a host has a list of the prefixes that apply to its site it uses
   this information to determine if the global addresses returned by the
   name service is part of its site.  If this is the case the host
   constructs the site-local address that corresponds to the global
   address by replacing the site prefix with the constant site-local
   prefix (fec0::0/48).  This will result in one or more site-local
   addresses being generated.  These addresses are then added to the set
   of addresses that will be used when communicating with the peer in
   such a way that the site-local addresses are tried before any of the
   global addresses.

   The host will perform the reverse operation when doing a reverse
   lookup (from an IPv6 address to a host name).  If the address being
   looked up is a site-local address the host constructs the
   corresponding global addresses by using the list of site prefixes and
   performs a reverse lookup on those addresses until a match is found.

   It is expected that both the forward and reverse lookup rules can be
   hidden from the applications by implementing them as part of the
   library that handles host name lookups.


3.1.  Assumptions

   The protocol assumes that the site uses a consistent subnet numbering
   scheme across all its global addresses and its site-local addresses.

   Thus, for every subnet in the site, the 16-bit subnet ID field
   [ADDR-ARCH] for the site-local address must have the same value as
   the Site-Local Aggregator(s) field in the global addresses.








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4.  UPDATED PREFIX OPTION FORMAT

   The protocol adds two new fields using previously reserved parts of
   the Prefix Information Option defined in [DISCOVERY].

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |     Type      |    Length     | Prefix Length |L|A|S| Resvd1  |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                         Valid Lifetime                        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                       Preferred Lifetime                      |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        | Site PLength  |           Reserved2                           |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                                                               |
        +                                                               +
        |                                                               |
        +                            Prefix                             +
        |                                                               |
        +                                                               +
        |                                                               |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   New fields:

      S              1-bit site prefix flag.  When set indicates that
                     this prefix, in addition to what might be specified
                     by the L and A flags, should be used to create
                     site-local addresses when an address matches the
                     first Site PLength part of the prefix.

      Site PLength   8-bit unsigned integer.  This Site Prefix Length is
                     only valid when the S flag is set.  The number of
                     leading bits in the Prefix that are valid.  The
                     value ranges from 0 to 128.

   The defined format above allows a single Prefix Information option to
   carry a subnet prefix used for on-link and/or stateless address
   autoconfiguration [ADDRCONF] together with a site prefix since the
   site prefix(es) are normally sub-prefixes of the subnet prefixes.

   For example, if the subnet prefix is
           2000:1:2:653a::0/64
   and the site prefix is:
           2000:1:2::0/48
   this can be encoded in a single Prefix Information option with Prefix



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   Length being 64, Site PLength being 48 and the Prefix being
   2000:1:2:653a::0.



4.1.  CONCEPTUAL VARIABLES

   This document makes use of internal conceptual variables to describe
   protocol behavior and external variables that an implementation must
   allow system administrators to change.  The specific variable names,
   how their values change, and how their settings influence protocol
   behavior are provided to demonstrate protocol behavior.  An
   implementation is not required to have them in the exact form
   described here, so long as its external behavior is consistent with
   that described in this document.

   Hosts will need to maintain the following pieces of information.
   Unlike the information specific in [DISCOVERY] this information is
   not per interface but, for the bulk of this document, viewed as being
   for the host as a whole.

      Site Prefix List

                     A list of the site prefixes that have been received
                     in Router Advertisement messages that have not yet
                     timed out.  Each entry has an associated
                     invalidation timer value (extracted from the
                     advertisement) used to expire site prefixes when
                     they become invalid.  A special "infinity" timer
                     value specifies that a prefix remains valid
                     forever, unless a new (finite) value is received in
                     a subsequent advertisement.

                     Note that the Site Prefix List is separate from the
                     list of on-link prefixes called Prefix List in
                     [DISCOVERY].

   For normal operation the Site Prefix List is per node.  However, in
   order to discover that the node is multihomed to multiple sites the
   site prefixes have to be tracked for each interface.

   The conceptual Router variable called AdvPrefixList in [DISCOVERY] is
   extended to also contain site prefixes.  Conceptually this can be
   done by having each prefix both contain a AdvSubnetPrefixLength and a
   AdvSitePrefixLength field.  If one of the length fields is zero the
   prefix is not used as a on-link and/or addrconf prefix or a site
   prefix, respectively.  The same lifetime values will apply to both
   the subnet and site prefix aspects of a prefix in the AdvPrefixList.



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   The above are conceptual variables; Implementations are free to
   implement the router variables as a separate list for the site
   prefixes and the existing Neighbor Discovery AdvPrefixList for subnet
   prefixes.  However, it is desirable that such implementations still
   use a single Prefix Information option to encode both a site and a
   subnet prefix when the site prefix is just a sub-prefix of the subnet
   prefix.


5.  SENDING RULES

   When a router is sending Prefix options as part of sending Router
   Advertisement messages in addition to the rules in [DISCOVERY] is
   performs the following operations:

    o If the AdvSitePrefixLength field in the AdvPrefixList entry is
      non-zero set the S flag in the Prefix option to one and set the
      Site PLength to the AdvSitePrefixLength.

    o Only if the AdvSubnetPrefixLength field is non-zero should the L-
      bit and the A-bit be set from the AdvOnLinkFlag and the
      AdvAutonomousFlag fields, respectively.

    o The Prefix field and the lifetime fields are set is specified in
      [DISCOVERY].


6.  RECEIVING RULES

   The host receiving a valid Router Advertisement follows the rules as
   specified in [DISCOVERY] with the following additions when parsing
   each received Prefix Information option.  For each prefix that has
   the S-flag set:

    o If the Site PLength is zero ignore the prefix.

    o If the prefix is the link-local or the site-local prefix ignore
      the prefix.

    o If the prefix is a multicast address ignore the prefix.

    o If the prefix is not already present in the Site Prefix List and
      the Valid Lifetime is zero, ignore the prefix.

    o If the prefix is not already present in the Site Prefix List and
      the Valid Lifetime is non-zero, create a new entry for the prefix
      in the Site Prefix List and initialize its invalidation timer to
      the Valid Lifetime value in the Prefix Information option.



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    o If the prefix is already present in the host's Site Prefix List as
      the result of a previously-received advertisement, reset its
      invalidation timer to the Valid Lifetime value in the Prefix
      Information option.  If the new Lifetime value is zero,
      immediately remove the prefix from the Site Prefix List.

   The bits in the Prefix after the first Site PLength bits MUST be
   ignored when the prefix is entered in the Site Prefix List and/or
   when it is compared against other site prefixes.  These bits might be
   non-zero when the Prefix option carries a subnet prefix in addition
   to a site prefix.

   Timing out a site prefix from the Site Prefix List SHOULD NOT affect
   any existing communication.  New communication will use the updated
   Site Prefix List after performing a host name lookup.


7.  USING THE SITE PREFIXES

   The following rules apply when a node looks up host names and
   addresses in a name service such as DNS.



7.1.  Host Name Lookups

   The goal is that when an address or multiple addresses are returned
   by the name server to the host that the host should, if one or more
   of those addresses match one of the site prefixes, prepend the
   corresponding site local address to the list of addresses that the
   application will attempt to use and remove the global address from
   the list.

   It is important to prepend them to the list so that the applications
   try the site-local addresses before any global address.  Also, the
   matched global addresses are removed from the list in order to
   prevent the applications from using global addresses for
   communication that is local to the site.

   A possible algorithm for doing these comparisons is as follows:

      1) Assume the name service returns the addresses A1, A2, A3, ...
         An and the prefixes in the Site Prefix List are SP1, SP2, ...
         SPm.  The Site PLength of each of the prefixes is Length(SPj).

      2) For each Ai compare it against all the SPj.  If the first
         Length(SPj) bits of Ai are equal to the first Length(SPj) bits
         of SPj then construct the site-local address corresponding to



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         Ai by concatenating the first Length(SPj) bits out of the
         site-local address (prefix) FEC0::0 and the last (128 -
         Length(SPj)) of Ai to form a new address.  Add this address to
         the front of the list (i.e. before A1) and remove Ai from the
         list.

      3) In some cases the above algorithm will create the same site-
         local address more than once thus it is desirable to remove the
         duplicates from the resulting list.

   For example, if the name service returns these addresses for a
   multihomed node:
           2837:a:b:987:X:Y:W:Z1
           2000:1:2:987:X:Y:W:Z1
           2837:a:b:34:X:Y:W:Z2
           2000:1:2:34:X:Y:W:Z2
           2abc:77:66:23:X:Y:W:Z3

   and the prefixes in the Site Prefix List are:
           2837:a:b::0/48
           2000:1:2::0/48

   The resulting list that the application should use should be (in
   order):
           fec0::987:X:Y:W:Z1
           fec0::987:X:Y:W:Z1      (duplicate - can be removed)
           fec0::34:X:Y:W:Z2
           fec0::34:X:Y:W:Z2       (duplicate - can be removed)
           2abc:77:66:23:X:Y:W:Z3



7.2.  IPv6 Address Lookups

   It is not sufficient to handle the forward lookup.  For instance, the
   node that receives packets and/or connections from a site-local
   address might have the desire to perform a reverse lookup to get a
   host name.  Thus these rules allow such a reverse lookup to succeed
   as long as the Site Prefix List contains all the prefixes that apply
   to the site.

   A possible algorithm for doing this is as follows:

      1) Assume the site-local address is A and the prefixes in the Site
         Prefix List are SP1, SP2, ... SPm.  The Site PLength of each of
         the prefixes is Length(SPj).

      2) First perform a regular reverse lookup of the IPv6 address.  If



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         the lookup succeeds or the lookup fails and the IPv6 address is
         not a site-local address there is nothing more to do.

      3) When the reverse lookup of a site-local address fails use the
         Site Prefix List to construct global addresses corresponding to
         the site-local address.  This is done by taking each entry in
         the Site Prefix List and using it to construct a global
         address.  For each of the SPj concatenate the first Length(SPj)
         bits from SPj and the last (128 - Length(SPj)) bits from A to
         form a new address.  Look up each of the resulting addresses
         until a match is found.

   For example, if the site-local address is:
           fec0::987:X:Y:W:Z1

   and the prefixes in the Site Prefix List are:
           2837:a:b::0/48
           2000:1:2::0/48

   The addresses that should be tried in the reverse lookup are:
           2837:a:b:987:X:Y:W:Z1
           2000:1:2:987:X:Y:W:Z1



8.  MULTIHOMED TO MULTIPLE SITES

   If a node is multihomed to multiple sites the above scheme can not be
   used unless all applications always associate an interface with each
   IP address.

   The algorithm outline below is able to detect when a node is site
   multihomed so that the modifications in the host name lookup can be
   disabled.  However, this can be avoided if the site boundaries are
   configured to be between nodes as opposed to "inside" a node.  This
   would make each node belong to at most one site with some interfaces
   on the node belonging to a "DMZ" between the sites.



8.1.  Detecting site multihoming

   A possible algorithm for doing this is as follows:

      1) Ignore all the interfaces for which there are no site prefixes.

      2) For the remainder of interfaces group the interfaces which
         share at least one site prefix together.



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      3) If the result is more than one grouping of interfaces the node
         is considered to be multihomed to more than one site.



9.  SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

   Router Advertisements are not required to be authenticated and even
   if they are authenticated it is unclear whether or not there would be
   a mechanisms to verify the authority of a particular node to send
   Router Advertisements.

   Neighbor Discovery uses the rule of HopCount 255 (set to 255 on
   transmit and verified to be 255 on reception) to drop any Neighbor
   Discovery packets that are sent non-neighboring nodes.  This limits
   any attack using ND to the neighbors.

   Without authentication and authorization this new mechanisms
   introduces a new type of denial of service attack.  A node on the
   link can send a router advertisement listing site prefixes that are
   in fact not part of the site.  For instance, it could advertise all
   addresses (prefix 0::0/0) as a site prefix).  Such an attack would
   result in all nodes on the link to fail initiate any new
   communication with any node outside the site.

   Furthermore this mechanism can also be used by an attacker on the
   link to "redirect" an arbitrary global prefix to a node inside the
   site that has the same low-order part of the address as the intended
   recipient.  Thus such an attack consists of one attacker on the link
   plus one cohort that has the same low order part of the address as
   the intended destination.

   This could be viewed as allowing some form of indirect spoofing of
   the addresses returned by the DNS independent whether or not the DNS
   itself is secure.  Thus introducing a secure DNS [DNSsec] would not
   remove this form of "address spoofing".  However, it seems like this
   threat is no worse than the other threats in [DISCOVERY] where any
   node on the link can intercept all packets sent on the link.

   The packets used to discover site prefixes, just like all other
   Neighbor Discovery protocol packet exchanges, can be authenticated
   using the IP Authentication Header [IPv6-AUTH].  A node SHOULD
   include an Authentication Header when sending Neighbor Discovery
   packets if a security association for use with the IP Authentication
   Header exists for the destination address.  The security associations
   may have been created through manual configuration or through the
   operation of some key management protocol.




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   Received Authentication Headers in these packets, just like all
   Neighbor Discovery packets, MUST be verified for correctness and
   packets with incorrect authentication MUST be ignored.

   Confidentiality issues are addressed by the IP Security Architecture
   and the IP Encapsulating Security Payload documents [IPv6-SA, IPv6-
   ESP].



10.  OPEN ISSUES


    o This scheme has the assumption that the same subnet number (called
      Site-Local Aggregator(s) field for the global addresses) is
      assigned to a link and used for both site-local addresses and all
      global addresses that are advertised as site prefixes.  Is this a
      reasonable assumption?

    o This proposal can be viewed as creating a security hole in a
      secure name service such as DNSsec.  The proposal tries to limit
      the security hole by only allowing the mapping to/from the site-
      local prefix i.e., it does not allow arbitrary remapping from one
      IPv6 address to another.  When communication actually takes place
      after resolving a host name this hole is not any worse than the
      fact that any node on the link can intercept all packets sent on
      the link as described in [DISCOVERY].  But do we need to be
      concerned about the security of host name lookups and IP address
      lookups in the absence of any communication with the peer node?

    o Do we need to specify a common API that e.g. the BIND DNS resolver
      can use to access the Site Prefix List?

    o How should this handle a mobile node, which is communicating using
      site-local addresses, when it moves outside the site?  How would a
      mobile node detect that it has moved outside a site?















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REFERENCES


     [KEYWORDS] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

     [IPv6] S. Deering, R. Hinden, Editors, "Internet Protocol, Version
             6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 1883, January 1996.

     [ADDR-ARCH] S. Deering, R. Hinden, Editors, "IP Version 6
             Addressing Architecture", RFC 1884, January 1996.

     [DISCOVERY] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, and W. Simpson, "Neighbor
             Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 1970, August 1996.

     [ADDR-TODAY] B. Carpenter, J. Crowcroft, Y. Rekhter, "IPv4 Address
             Behavior Today", RFC 2101, February 1997.

     [GSE-EVAL] M. Crawford, A. Mankin, T. Narten, J. Stewart, L. Zhang,
             "IPng Analysis of the GSE Proposal", Internet Draft,
             draft-ietf-ipngwg-esd-analysis-00.txt.

     [ROUTER-RENUM] M. Crawford, and R. Hinden, "Router Renumbering for
             IPv6", Internet Draft, draft-ietf-ipngwg-router-renum-
             00.txt.

     [ADDRCONF] S. Thomson, T. Narten, "IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration",
             RFC 1971, August 1996.

     [IPv6-SA] R. Atkinson.  "Security Architecture for the Internet
             Protocol".  RFC 1825, August 1995.

     [IPv6-AUTH] R. Atkinson.  "IP Authentication Header", RFC 1826,
             August 1995.

     [IPv6-ESP] R. Atkinson.  "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
             RFC 1827, August 1995.

     [DNSsec] D. Eastlake, C. Kaufman, "Domain Name System Security
             Extensions", RFC 2065, January 1997.











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AUTHOR'S ADDRESS

        Erik Nordmark
        Sun Microsystems, Inc.
        901 San Antonio Road
        Palo Alto, CA 94303
        USA

        phone: +1 650 786 5166
        fax:   +1 650 786 5896
        email: nordmark@sun.com



APPENDIX A: CHANGES SINCE PREVIOUS DRAFT


   The following changes have been made since version 00 of the draft.

    o Removed mention of routing protocols.

    o Made the formed site-local addresses replace the global addresses
      in the list returned to the application.  This change prevents the
      "accidental" use of a global address when the application
      tries all of the returned
      addresses and for whatever reason it could not reach the node when
      it tried the site-local address(es).

    o Added describing how to the mechanism is automatically disabled on
      nodes which are  Multihomed to multiple sites.

    o Updated list of open issues.



















draft-ietf-ipngwg-site-prefixes-01.txt                         [Page 15]