JSON binding of IODEF
draft-ietf-mile-jsoniodef-00

Versions: 00                                                            
MILE                                                        T. Takahashi
Internet-Draft                                                 M. Suzuki
Intended status: Standards Track                                    NICT
Expires: March 30, 2018                               September 26, 2017


                         JSON binding of IODEF
                      draft-ietf-mile-jsoniodef-00

Abstract

   RFC 7970 [RFC7970] provides XML-based data representation on incident
   information, but the use of the IODEF data model is not limited to
   XML.  JSON representation is sometimes preferred since it is easy to
   handle from certain programming environments.  This draft represents
   the IODEF data model in JSON.  Note that this 00 version draft is
   prepared for the purpose of encouraging discussion on the need for
   JSON representation.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 30, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of



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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  The IODEF Information Model in JSON . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  IODEF-Document Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Incident Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.3.  Common Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.3.1.  restriction Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.3.2.  observable-id Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.4.  IncidentID Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.5.  AlternativeID Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.6.  RelatedActivity Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.7.  ThreatActor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.8.  Campaign Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.9.  Contact Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.9.1.  RegistryHandle Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.9.2.  PostalAddress Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.9.3.  Email Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.9.4.  Telephone Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.10. Discovery Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       2.10.1.  DetectionPattern Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.11. Method Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       2.11.1.  Reference Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     2.12. Assessment Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.12.1.  SystemImpact Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.12.2.  BusinessImpact Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.12.3.  TimeImpact Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       2.12.4.  MonetaryImpact Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       2.12.5.  Confidence Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     2.13. History Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       2.13.1.  HistoryItem Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     2.14. EventData Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     2.15. Expectation Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     2.16. System Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     2.17. Node Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       2.17.1.  Address Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       2.17.2.  NodeRole Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       2.17.3.  Counter Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     2.18. DomainData Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       2.18.1.  Nameserver Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       2.18.2.  DomainContacts Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     2.19. Service Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       2.19.1.  ServiceName Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       2.19.2.  ApplicationHeader Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16



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     2.20. EmailData Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     2.21. Record Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       2.21.1.  RecordPattern Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     2.22. WindowsRegistryKeysModified Class . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       2.22.1.  Key Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     2.23. CertificateData Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       2.23.1.  Certificate Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     2.24. FileData Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       2.24.1.  File Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     2.25. HashData Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       2.25.1.  Hash Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       2.25.2.  FuzzyHash Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     2.26. SignatureData Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     2.27. Indicator Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.27.1.  IndicatorID Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.27.2.  AlternativeIndicatorID Class . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.27.3.  Observable Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.27.4.  IndicatorExpression Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.27.5.  ObservableReference Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       2.27.6.  IndicatorReference Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       2.27.7.  AttackPhase Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   3.  Notable differences from RFC 7970 (to be deleted) . . . . . .  22
   4.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     4.1.  Minimal Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     4.2.  Indicators from a Campaign  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   5.  The IODEF Data Model (JSON Schema)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60

1.  Introduction

   RFC 7970 [RFC7970] defines an data model for sharing incident
   information.  It facilitates automated exchange of information among
   parties over networks.  The data model can be implemented in a form
   of XML, but it is not always suitable for implementation.  JSON-based
   representation is often useful.

   Therefore, in this document, we provide a means to represent IODEF
   data model in JSON.







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1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  The IODEF Information Model in JSON

   The data model of IODEF is defined in RFC 7970 [RFC7970], and this
   section illustrates their representations in JSON.  Note that the
   complete JSON schema is defined in Section 5.

2.1.  IODEF-Document Class

   The IODEF-Document class is the top level class in the IODEF data
   model.  This class is defined in Section 3.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970]
   and has the following fields: "version", "lang", "format-id",
   "private-enum-name", "private-enum-id", "Incident", and
   "AdditionalData".  An example of this class in JSON is as follows.
   Note that JSON representation in this draft treats attributes and
   elements of each class defined in RFC 7970 [RFC7970] equally and is
   agnostic on the order of their appearances.

    "IODEF-Document": {
      "version": "2.0",                                       //STRING
      "lang": "en",                                             //ENUM
      "format-id": "RFC7970",                                 //STRING
      "Incident": [ ... ]                                   //Incident
    }

                  Figure 1: IODEF-Document Class in JSON

2.2.  Incident Class

   The Incident class describes commonly exchanged information when
   reporting or sharing derived analysis from security incidents.  This
   class is defined in Section 3.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  It has the
   following fields: "purpose", "lang", "restriction", "ext-
   restriction", "IncidentID", "RelatedActivity", "GenrationTime",
   "Description", "Assessment", "Methods", "Contact", "EventData",
   "IndicatorData", "History", and "AdditionalData".  An example of this
   class in JSON is as follows.









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    "Incident": {
      "purpose": "reporting",                                   //ENUM
      "lang": "en",                                           //STRING
      "restriction": "green",                                   //ENUM
      "IncidentID": { ... },                        //IncidentID Class
      "RelatedActivity": [ ... ],              //RelatedActivity Class
      "GenerationTime": "2015-10-02T11:18:00-05:00",        //DateTime
      "Description": ["Incident class description field"], //ML_STRING
      "Assessment": [ ... ],                              //Assessment
      "Method": [ ... ],                                      //Method
      "Contact": [ ... ]                                     //Contact
      "EventData": [ ... ],                                //EventData
      "IndicatorData": { ... }                         //IndicatorData
      "History": { ... },                                    //History
      "AdditionalData": [ ... ],                      //AdditionalData
    }

                     Figure 2: Incident Class in JSON

2.3.  Common Attributes

   There are a number of recurring attributes used in the information
   model.  They are documented in this section.

2.3.1.  restriction Attribute

   RFC 7970 [RFC7970] defines the restriction Attribute as one of common
   attributes.  It is defined as below:

"restriction":{"enum": ["public", "partner", "need-to-know", "private", "default", "white", "green", "amber", "red", "ext-value"]}

                       Figure 3: restrition in JSON

   Note that you must use "ext-restriction" field (STRING type) when the
   value of "restriction" field is set to "ext-value".  The example on
   the use of the "ext-restriction" field is shown below.

      "restriction": "ext-value"                               // ENUM
      "ext-restriction": "registration required"             // STRING

                     Figure 4: ext-restrition in JSON

2.3.2.  observable-id Attribute

   RFC 7970 [RFC7970] defines the observable-id attribute as one of
   common attributes.  The value of this attribute is a unique
   identifier in the scope of the document.It is defined as below:




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                   "observable-id": {"type": "string"},

                      Figure 5: observable-id in JSON

2.4.  IncidentID Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.4 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  It has
   the following fields: "IncidentID", "id", "name", "instance",
   "restriction", and "ext-restriction".  The example below represents
   how to describe this class in JSON.

    "IncidentID": {
      "id": "nict20150518-0001",                             // STRING
      "name": "NICT_cert",                                   // STRING
      "instance": "cyberlab"                                 // STRING
      "restriction": "ext-value"                               // ENUM
      "ext-restriction": "registration required"             // STRING
    }

                    Figure 6: IncidentID Class in JSON

2.5.  AlternativeID Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.5 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

    "AltervativeID": {
      "restriction": "private",                                 //ENUM
      "IncidentID": [<<<omitted>>>]                       //IncidentID
    }

                   Figure 7: AlternativeID Class in JSON

2.6.  RelatedActivity Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.6 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.














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    "RelatedActivity": {
      "restriction": "private",                                 //ENUM
      "ThreatActor": [                                   //ThreatActor
        {
          "ThreatActorID": "TA-12-AGGRESSIVE-BUTTERFLY",
          "Description": "Aggressive Butterfly"
        }
      ],
      "Campaign": [                                         //Campaign
        {
          "CampaignID": "C-2015-59405",
          "Description": "Orange Giraffe"
        }
      ]
    }

                  Figure 8: RelatedActivity Class in JSON

2.7.  ThreatActor Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.7 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

             "ThreatActor": {
               "ThreatActorID": "TA-12-AGGRESSIVE-BUTTERFLY",
               "Description": "Aggressive Butterfly"
             }

                    Figure 9: ThreatActor Class in JSON

2.8.  Campaign Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.8 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

    "Campaign": {
      "CampaignID": "C-2015-59405",                           //STRING
      "Description": "Orange Giraffe"                      //ML_STRING
    }

                     Figure 10: Campaign Class in JSON

2.9.  Contact Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.9 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.





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                "Contact": {
                  "type": "organization",
                  "role": "creator",
                  "ContactName": "CSIRT for example.com",
                  "email": {
                    "emailTo": "contact@csirt.example.com"
                  }
                }

                     Figure 11: Contact Class in JSON

2.9.1.  RegistryHandle Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.9.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                    "RegistryHandle": {
                      "RegistryHandleName": "MyAPNIC",
                      "registry": "apnic",
                    }

                  Figure 12: RegistryHandle Class in JSON

2.9.2.  PostalAddress Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.9.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

       "PostalAddress": {
         "type": "mailing",
         "PAddress": "184-8795",
         "Description": "4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi Koganei Tokyo, Japan"
       },

                  Figure 13: PostalAddress Class in JSON

2.9.3.  Email Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.9.3 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                 "Email": {
                   "emailTo": "contact@csirt.example.com"
                 },

                      Figure 14: Email Class in JSON





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2.9.4.  Telephone Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.9.4 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                    "Telephone": {
                      "TelephoneNumber": "+81423275862"
                    },

                    Figure 15: Telephone Class in JSON

2.10.  Discovery Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.10 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                   "Discovery": {
                     "DetectionPattern": {
                       "Application": {
                         "Description": "Microsoft Win"
                       }
                     }
                   }

                    Figure 16: Discovery Class in JSON

2.10.1.  DetectionPattern Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.10.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                    "DetectionPattern": {
                      "Application": {
                        "Description": "Microsoft Win"
                      }
                    }

                 Figure 17: DetectionPattern Class in JSON

2.11.  Method Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.11 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.








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                           "Method": {
                             "Vulnerability": {}
                           }

                      Figure 18: Method Class in JSON

2.11.1.  Reference Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.11.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                      "Reference":{
                        "URL":"http://www.nict.go.jp"
                      }

                    Figure 19: Reference Class in JSON

2.12.  Assessment Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.12 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                     "Assessment": {
                       "BusinessImpact": {
                         "type": "breach-proprietary"
                       }
                     }

                    Figure 20: Assessment Class in JSON

2.12.1.  SystemImpact Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.12.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                            "SystemImpact":{
                              "severity":"low",
                              "type":"unknown"
                            },

                   Figure 21: SystemImpact Class in JSON

2.12.2.  BusinessImpact Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.12.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.





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                      "BusinessImpact": {
                        "type": "breach-proprietary"
                      }

                  Figure 22: BusinessImpact Class in JSON

2.12.3.  TimeImpact Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.12.3 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                           "TimeImpact":{
                             "value":"5 hours",
                             "metric":"elapsed"
                           }

                    Figure 23: TimeImpact Class in JSON

2.12.4.  MonetaryImpact Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.12.4 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                            "MonetaryImpact":{}

                  Figure 24: MonetaryImpact Class in JSON

2.12.5.  Confidence Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.12.5 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                           "Confidence": {
                             "rating": "medium"
                           }

                    Figure 25: Confidence Class in JSON

2.13.  History Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.13 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.









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               "History": {
                 "HistoryItem": {
                   "DateTime": "2015-10-15T11:18:00-05:00",
                   "action": "investigate"
                 }
               },

                     Figure 26: History Class in JSON

2.13.1.  HistoryItem Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.13.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                "HistoryItem": {
                  "DateTime": "2015-10-15T11:18:00-05:00",
                  "action": "investigate"
                }

                   Figure 27: HistoryItem Class in JSON

2.14.  EventData Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.14 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                 "EventData": {
                   "ReportTime": "2016-06-01 18:05:33",
                   "System": {
                     "category": "source",
                     "Node": {
                       "Address": {
                         "category": "ipv4-addr",
                         "AddressValue": "192.228.139.118"
                       },
                       "Location": "OrgID=7"
                     },
                     "Service": {
                       "ip-protocol": 6,
                       "Port": 49183
                     }
                 },

                    Figure 28: EventData Class in JSON







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2.15.  Expectation Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.15 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                         "Expectation": {
                           "action": "investigate"
                         },

                   Figure 29: Expectation Class in JSON

2.16.  System Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.17 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                       "System": {
                         "category": "source",
                         "Node": {
                           "Address": {
                             "category": "ipv4-addr",
                             "AddressValue": "192.228.139.118"
                           },
                           "Location": "OrgID=7"
                         },
                         "Service": {
                           "ip-protocol": 6,
                           "Port": 49183
                         }

                      Figure 30: System Class in JSON

2.17.  Node Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.18 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                         "Node": {
                           "Address": {
                             "category": "ipv4-addr",
                             "AddressValue": "192.228.139.118"
                           },

                       Figure 31: Node Class in JSON







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2.17.1.  Address Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.18.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                           "Address": {
                             "category": "ipv4-addr",
                             "AddressValue": "192.228.139.118"
                           },

                     Figure 32: Address Class in JSON

2.17.2.  NodeRole Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.18.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                "NodeRole": {
                                  "category": "client"
                                },

                     Figure 33: NodeRole Class in JSON

2.17.3.  Counter Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.18.3 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                 "Counter": {
                                   "value": "3",
                                   "type": "count",
                                   "unit": "packet"
                                 }

                     Figure 34: Counter Class in JSON

2.18.  DomainData Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.19 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                        "DomainData": {
                          "system-status": "innocent-hacked",
                          "domain-status": "assignedAndInactive",
                          "Name": "temp1.nict.go.jp"
                        },

                    Figure 35: DomainData Class in JSON



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2.18.1.  Nameserver Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.19.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                            "NameServers": {
                              "Server": "vgw.nict.go.jp",
                              "Address": {
                                "AddressValue": "133.243.18.5",
                                "category": "ipv4-addr"
                              }
                            }

                    Figure 36: Nameserver Class in JSON

2.18.2.  DomainContacts Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.19.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                "DomainContacts": {
                                  "Contact": {
                                    "role": "user",
                                    "type": "organization"
                                  }
                                }

                  Figure 37: DomainContacts Class in JSON

2.19.  Service Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.20 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

            "Service": {
              "ServiceName": {
                "Description": "It seems to be a scan from an infected machine."
              },
              "ip-protocol": 6,
              "Port": 49183
            }

                     Figure 38: Service Class in JSON








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2.19.1.  ServiceName Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.20.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

              "ServiceName": {
                "Description": "It seems to be a scan from an infected machine."
              },

                   Figure 39: ServiceName Class in JSON

2.19.2.  ApplicationHeader Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.20.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                 "ApplicationHeader": {}

                Figure 40: ApplicationHeader Class in JSON

2.20.  EmailData Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.21 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                     "EmailData":{}

                    Figure 41: EmailData Class in JSON

2.21.  Record Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.22.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                              "Record": {
                                "RecordPattern": {
                                  "type": "regex",
                                  "value": "[0-9][A-Z]"
                                },
                                "RecordItem": {}
                              },

                      Figure 42: Record Class in JSON








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2.21.1.  RecordPattern Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.22.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                "RecordPattern": {
                                  "type": "regex",
                                  "value": "[0-9][A-Z]"
                                },

                  Figure 43: RecordPattern Class in JSON

2.22.  WindowsRegistryKeysModified Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.23 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                      "WindowsRegistryKeysModified": {
                        "Key": {
                          "KeyValue": "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx",
                          "KeyName":"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINExxxxxxx",
                        }
                      }

           Figure 44: WindowsRegistryKeysModified Class in JSON

2.22.1.  Key Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.23.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                        "Key": {
                          "KeyValue": "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx",
                          "KeyName":"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINExxxxxxx",
                        }

                       Figure 45: Key Class in JSON

2.23.  CertificateData Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.24 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.









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            "CertificateData": {
              "Certificate": {
                "X509Data": {
                  "X509IssuerSerial": {
                    "X509IssuerName": "CN=TAMURA Kent, OU=TRL, O=IBM, L=Yamato-shi, ST=Kanagawa, C=JP",
                    "X509SerialNumber": "12345678"
                  },
                  "X509SKI": "31d97bd7"
                }
              }
            }

                 Figure 46: CertificateData Class in JSON

2.23.1.  Certificate Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.24.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

              "Certificate": {
                "X509Data": {
                  "X509IssuerSerial": {
                    "X509IssuerName": "CN=TAMURA Kent, OU=TRL, O=IBM, L=Yamato-shi, ST=Kanagawa, C=JP",
                    "X509SerialNumber": "12345678"
                  },
                  "X509SKI": "31d97bd7"
                }
              }

                   Figure 47: Certificate Class in JSON

2.24.  FileData Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.25 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                              "FileData": {
                                "File": {
                                  "FileName": "dummy.exe"
                                }
                              },

                     Figure 48: FileData Class in JSON








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2.24.1.  File Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.25.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                "File": {
                                  "FileName": "dummy.exe"
                                }

                       Figure 49: File Class in JSON

2.25.  HashData Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.26 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                "HashData": {
                  "scope": "file-contents",
                  "Hash": {
                    "DigestMethod": "http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1",
                    "DigestValue": "xxxxxxxxxxx"
                  }
                }

                     Figure 50: HashData Class in JSON

2.25.1.  Hash Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.26.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                  "Hash": {
                    "DigestMethod": "http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1",
                    "DigestValue": "xxxxxxxxxxx"
                  }

                       Figure 51: Hash Class in JSON

2.25.2.  FuzzyHash Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.26.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                   "FuzzyHash": {
                                     "FuzzyHashValue": {}
                                   }

                    Figure 52: FuzzyHash Class in JSON



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2.26.  SignatureData Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.27 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                 "SignatureData": {
                                   "Signature": "xxxxxxxx"
                                 }

                  Figure 53: SignatureData Class in JSON

2.27.  Indicator Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                     "Indicator": {
                       "IndicatorID": {
                         "id": "G90823490",
                         "name": "csirt.example.com",
                         "version": "1"
                       },
                       "Description": "C2 domains",
                       "StartTime": "2014-12-02T11:18:00-05:00",
                       "Observable": {
                         "BulkObservable": {
                           "type": "fqdn"
                         },
                         "BulkObservableList": [
                           "kj290023j09r34.example.com",
                           "09ijk23jfj0k8.example.net",
                           "klknjwfjiowjefr923.example.org",
                           "oimireik79msd.example.org"
                         ]
                       }
                     }

                    Figure 54: Indicator Class in JSON

2.27.1.  IndicatorID Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29.1 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.








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                            "IndicatorID": {
                              "id": "G90823490",
                              "name": "csirt.example.com",
                              "version": "1"
                            },

                   Figure 55: IndicatorID Class in JSON

2.27.2.  AlternativeIndicatorID Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29.2 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                              "AlternativeIndicatorID": {
                                "IndicatorReference": {
                                  "uid-ref": "xxxxx"
                                }
                              },

              Figure 56: AlternativeIndicatorID Class in JSON

2.27.3.  Observable Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29.3 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                         "Observable": {
                           "BulkObservable": {
                             "type": "fqdn"
                           },
                           "BulkObservableList": [
                             "kj290023j09r34.example.com",
                             "09ijk23jfj0k8.example.net",
                             "klknjwfjiowjefr923.example.org",
                             "oimireik79msd.example.org"
                           ]
                         }

                    Figure 57: Observable Class in JSON

2.27.4.  IndicatorExpression Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29.4 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                               "IndicatorExpression": {}

               Figure 58: IndicatorExpression Class in JSON



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2.27.5.  ObservableReference Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29.6 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                               "ObservableReference": {
                                 "uid-ref": "xxxxx"
                               },

               Figure 59: ObservableReference Class in JSON

2.27.6.  IndicatorReference Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29.7 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

                                 "IndicatorReference": {
                                   "uid-ref": "xxxxx"
                                 }

                Figure 60: IndicatorReference Class in JSON

2.27.7.  AttackPhase Class

   This class is defined in Section 3.29.8 of RFC 7970 [RFC7970].  The
   example below represents how to describe this class in JSON.

            "AttackPhase": {
              "Description": "Currently, the infected host is scanning arbitrary hosts to find next targets."
            }

                   Figure 61: AttackPhase Class in JSON

3.  Notable differences from RFC 7970 (to be deleted)

   o  Flow class is deleted, and EventData class now has the instance of
      System class.

   o  Record class is deleted, and the link to the Record class are
      directly connected to RecordData class, which is then renamed to
      Record class.

4.  Examples

   This section provides example of IODEF documents.  These examples do
   not represent the full capabilities of the data model or the the only
   way to encode particular information.




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4.1.  Minimal Example

   A document containing only the mandatory elements and attributes.

           {
             "version": "2.0",
             "lang": "en",
             "Incident": [
               {
                 "purpose": "reporting",
                 "restriction": "private",
                 "IncidentID": {
                   "id": 492382,
                   "name": "csirt.example.com"
                 },
                 "GenerationTime": "2015-07-18T09:00:00-05:00",
                 "Contact": [
                   {
                     "type": "organization",
                     "role": "creator",
                     "email": {
                       "emailTo": "contact@csirt.example.com"
                     }
                   }
                 ]
               }
             ]
           }

                 Figure 62: JSON representation example 1

4.2.  Indicators from a Campaign

   An example of C2 domains from a given campaign.

{
  "version": "2.0",
  "lang": "en",
  "Incidents": [
    {
      "purpose": "watch",
      "restriction": "green",
      "IncidentID": {
        "id": "897923",
        "name": "csirt.example.com"
      },
      "RelatedActivity": [
        {



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          "ThreatActor": [
            {
              "ThreatActorID": "TA-12-AGGRESSIVE-BUTTERFLY",
              "Description": "Aggressive Butterfly"
            }
          ],
          "Campaign": [
            {
              "CampaignID": "C-2015-59405",
              "Description": "Orange Giraffe"
            }
          ]
        }
      ],
      "GenerationTime": "2015-10-02T11:18:00-05:00",
      "Description": [
        "Summarizes the Indicators of Compromise for the Orange Giraffe campaign of the Aggressive Butterfly crime gang."
      ],
      "Assessment": [
        {
          "BusinessImpact": {
            "type": "breach-proprietary"
          }
        }
      ],
      "Contacts": [
        {
          "type": "organization",
          "role": "creator",
          "ContactName": "CSIRT for example.com",
          "Email": {
            "emailTo": "contact@csirt.example.com"
          }
        }
      ],
      "IndicatorList": [
        {
          "IndicatorID": {
            "id": "G90823490",
            "name": "csirt.example.com",
            "version": "1"
          },
          "Description": "C2 domains",
          "StartTime": "2014-12-02T11:18:00-05:00",
          "Observable": {
            "BulkObservable": {
              "type": "fqdn"
            },



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            "BulkObservableList": [
              "kj290023j09r34.example.com",
              "09ijk23jfj0k8.example.net",
              "klknjwfjiowjefr923.example.org",
              "oimireik79msd.example.org"
            ]
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

                 Figure 63: JSON representation example 2

5.  The IODEF Data Model (JSON Schema)

         {
         {
           "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#",
           "definitions": {
             "lang": {
               "enum": [
                 "en",
                 "jp"
               ]
             },
             "restriction": {
               "enum": [
                 "public",
                 "partner",
                 "need-to-know",
                 "private",
                 "default",
                 "white",
                 "green",
                 "amber",
                 "red",
                 "ext-value"
               ]
             },
             "URLtype": {
               "type": "string"
             },
             "IDtype": {
               "type": "string"
             },
             "ExtensionType": {



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               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "name": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "dtype": {
                   "enum": [
                     "boolean",
                     "byte",
                     "bytes",
                     "character",
                     "date-time",
                     "ntpstamp",
                     "integer",
                     "portlist",
                     "real",
                     "string",
                     "file",
                     "path",
                     "frame",
                     "packet",
                     "ipv4-packet",
                     "ipv6-packet",
                     "url",
                     "csv",
                     "winreg",
                     "xml",
                     "ext-value"
                   ]
                 },
                 "ext-dtype": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "meaning": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "formatid": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 }



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               }
             },
             "SoftwareType": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "SoftwareReference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareReference"
                 },
                 "URL": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "SoftwareReference": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "value": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "spec-name": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "ext-spec-name": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "dtype": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "ext-dtype": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "spec-name"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Incident": {
               "title": "Incident",
               "description": "JSON schema for Incident class",
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "purpose": {



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                   "enum": [
                     "traceback",
                     "mitigation",
                     "reporting",
                     "watch",
                     "other",
                     "ext-value"
                   ]
                 },
                 "ext-purpose": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "status": {
                   "enum": [
                     "blabla"
                   ]
                 },
                 "ext-status": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "lang": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/lang"
                 },
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "IncidentID": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IncidentID"
                 },
                 "AlternativeID": {
                   "type": "object"
                 },
                 "RelatedActivity": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/RelatedActivity"
                   }
                 },
                 "DetectTime": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "StartTime": {



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                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "EndTime": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "RecoveryTime": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "ReportTime": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "GenerationTime": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "type": "string"
                   }
                 },
                 "Discovery": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/Discovery"
                   }
                 },
                 "Assessment": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/Assessment"
                   }
                 },
                 "Methods": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/Method"
                   }
                 },
                 "Contacts": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                   }
                 },
                 "EventData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/EventData"



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                   }
                 },
                 "IndicatorList": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/Indicator"
                   },
                 },
                 "History": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/History"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "IncidentID",
                 "GenerationTime",
                 "Contacts",
                 "purpose"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "IncidentID": {
               "title": "IncidentID",
               "description": "JSON schema for IncidentID class",
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "id": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "name": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "instance": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [



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                 "name"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "RelatedActivity": {
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "IncidentID": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/IncidentID"
                   }
                 },
                 "URL": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                   }
                 },
                 "ThreatActor": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ThreatActor"
                   }
                 },
                 "Campaign": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/Campaign"
                   }
                 },
                 "IndicatorID": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorID"
                   }
                 },
                 "Confidence": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Confidence"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {



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                     "type": "string"
                   }
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "ThreatActor": {
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "ThreatActorID": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "URL": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Campaign": {
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "CampaignID": {},
                 "URL": {



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                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               }
             },
             "Contact": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "role": {},
                 "ext-role": {},
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "ContactName": {},
                 "ContactTitle": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "RegistryHandle": {},
                 "PostalAddress": {},
                 "Email": {},
                 "Telephone": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Telephone"
                 },
                 "Timezone": {},
                 "Contact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },



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               "required": [
                 "role",
                 "type"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "RegistryHandle": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "RegistryHandleName": {},
                 "registry": {},
                 "ext-registry": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "registry"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "PostalAddress": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "type": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "ext-type": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "PAddress": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "PAddress"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Email": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "EmailTo": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }



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               },
               "required": [
                 "EmailTo"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Telephone": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "TelephoneNumber": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "TelephoneNumber"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Discovery": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "source": {},
                 "ext-source": {},
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Contact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                 },
                 "DetectionPattern": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/DetectionPattern"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "DetectionPattern": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {



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                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "Application": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "DetectionConfiguration": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "Application"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Method": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "References": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/Reference"
                   }
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "AttackPattern": {},
                 "Vulnerability": {},
                 "Weakness": {},
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }



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                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Reference": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "ReferenceName": {},
                 "URL": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Assessment": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "occurrence": {},
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "IncidentCategory": {},
                 "SystemImpact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/SystemImpact"
                 },
                 "BusinessImpact": {},
                 "TimeImpact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/TimeImpact"
                 },
                 "MonetaryImpact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/MonetaryImpact"
                 },
                 "IntendedImpact": {},
                 "Counter": {



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                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Counter"
                 },
                 "MitigatingFactor": {},
                 "Cause": {},
                 "Confidence": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Confidence"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "SystemImpact": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "severity": {},
                 "completion": {},
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "type"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "BusinessImpact": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "severity": {},
                 "ext-severity": {},
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "type"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false



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             },
             "TimeImpact": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "value": {},
                 "severity": {},
                 "metric": {},
                 "ext-metric": {},
                 "duration": {},
                 "ext-duration": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "metric"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "MonetaryImpact": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "MonetaryImpactValue": {},
                 "severity": {},
                 "currency": {}
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Confidence": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "ConfidenceValue": {},
                 "rating": {},
                 "ext-rating": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "rating"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "History": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "HistoryItem": {}



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               },
               "required": [
                 "HistoryItem"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "HistoryItem": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "action": {},
                 "ext-action": {},
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "DateTime": {},
                 "IncidentID": {},
                 "Contact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "DefinedCOA": {},
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "DateTime",
                 "action"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "EventData": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },



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                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "DetectTime": {},
                 "StartTime": {},
                 "EndTime": {},
                 "RecoveryTime": {},
                 "ReportTime": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Contact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                 },
                 "Discovery": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Discovery"
                 },
                 "Assessment": {},
                 "Method": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Method"
                 },
                 "System": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/System"
                 },
                 "Expectation": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Expectation"
                 },
                 "Record": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Record"
                 },
                 "EventData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/EventData"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "ReportTime"
               ],



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               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Expectation": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "action": {},
                 "ext-action": {},
                 "severity": {},
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "DefinedCOA": {},
                 "StartTime": {},
                 "EndTime": {},
                 "Contact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "System": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "category": {
                   "enum": [
                     "source",
                     "target",
                     "intermediate",
                     "sensor",
                     "infrastructure",
                     "ext-value"
                   ]
                 },
                 "ext-category": {},
                 "interface": {},
                 "spoofed": {},
                 "virtual": {},
                 "ownership": {},



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                 "ext-ownership": {},
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "Node": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Node"
                 },
                 "NodeRole": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/NodeRole"
                 },
                 "Service": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Service"
                 },
                 "OperatingSystem": {},
                 "Counter": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Counter"
                 },
                 "AssetID": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "Node"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Node": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "DomainData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/DomainData"
                 },
                 "Address": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Address"
                 },



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                 "PostalAddress": {},
                 "Location": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Counter": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Counter"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Address": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "AddressValue": {},
                 "category": {},
                 "ext-category": {},
                 "vlan-name": {},
                 "vlan-num": {
                   "type": "integer"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "category"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "NodeRole": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "category": {},
                 "ext-category": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "category"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Counter": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "value": {



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                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "unit": {},
                 "ext-unit": {},
                 "meaning": {},
                 "duration": {},
                 "ext-duration": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "type",
                 "unit"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "DomainData": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "system-status": {},
                 "ext-system-status": {},
                 "domain-status": {},
                 "ext-domain-status": {},
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "Name": {},
                 "DateDomainWasChecked": {},
                 "RegistrationDate": {},
                 "ExpirationDate": {},
                 "RelatedDNS": {},
                 "NameServers": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/NameServers"
                 },
                 "DomainContacts": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/DomainContacts"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "Name",
                 "system-status",
                 "domain-status"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "NameServers": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {



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                 "Server": {},
                 "Address": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Address"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "Server",
                 "Address"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "DomainContacts": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "SameDomainContact": {},
                 "Contact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "Contact"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Service": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "ip-protocol": {},
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "ServiceName": {},
                 "Port": {},
                 "Portlist": {},
                 "ProtoCode": {},
                 "ProtoType": {},
                 "ProtoField": {},
                 "ApplicationHeader": {},
                 "EmailData": {},
                 "Application": {}
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "ServiceName": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "IANAService": {},



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                 "URL": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "ApplicationHeader": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "ApplicationHeaderField": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "ApplictionHeaderField"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "EmailData": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "EmailTo": {},
                 "EmailFrom": {},
                 "EmailSubject": {},
                 "EmailX-Mailer": {},
                 "EmailHeaderField": {},
                 "EmailHeaders": {},
                 "EmailBody": {},
                 "EmailMessage": {},
                 "HashData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/HashData"
                 },
                 "SignatureData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/SignatureData"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Record": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {



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                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "DateTime": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "Applicadtion": {},
                 "RecordPattern": {},
                 "RecordItem": {},
                 "URL": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "FileData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/FileData"
                 },
                 "WindowsRegistryKeysModified": {},
                 "CertificateData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/CertificateData"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "RecordPattern": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "RecordPatternValue": {},
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "offset": {},
                 "offsetunit": {},
                 "ext-offsetunit": {},
                 "instance": {
                   "type": "integer"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "type"
               ],



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               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "WindowsRegistryKeysModified": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "observabile-id": {},
                 "Key": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "Key"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Key": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "registryaction": {},
                 "ext-registryaction": {},
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "KeyName": {},
                 "KeyValue": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "KeyName"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "CertificateData": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "Certificate": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Certificate"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "Certificate"
               ],



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               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Certificate": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "X509Data": {},
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "X509Data"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "FileData": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "observable-id": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"
                 },
                 "File": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/File"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "File"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "File": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "FileName": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "FileSize": {},
                 "FileType": {},
                 "URL": {



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                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "HashData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/HashData"
                 },
                 "SignatureData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/SignatureData"
                 },
                 "AssociatedSoftware": {},
                 "FileProperties": {}
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "HashData": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "scope": {},
                 "HashTargetID": {},
                 "Hash": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Hash"
                 },
                 "FuzzyHash": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/FuzzyHash"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "scope"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Hash": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "DigestMethod": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "DigestValue": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "CanonicalizationMethod": {},
                 "Application": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "DigestMethod",
                 "DigestValue"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false



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             },
             "FuzzyHash": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "FuzzyHashValue": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                 },
                 "Application": {},
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "FuzzyHashValue"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "SignatureData": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "Signature": {
                   "SignatureValue": "xxxxxxxx",
                   "id": "xxxxxxxx"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "Signature"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Indicator": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "IndicatorID": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorID"
                 },
                 "AlternativeIndicatorID": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/AlternativeIndicatorID"
                 },



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                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "StartTime": {},
                 "EndTime": {},
                 "Confidence": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Confidence"
                 },
                 "Contact": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"
                 },
                 "Observable": {},
                 "ObservableReference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/ObservableReference"
                 },
                 "IndicatorExpression": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorExpression"
                 },
                 "IndicatorReference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorReference"
                 },
                 "NodeRole": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/NodeRole"
                 },
                 "AttackPhase": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/AttackPhase"
                 },
                 "Reference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Reference"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "IndicatorID"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "IndicatorID": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "id": {},
                 "name": {
                   "type": "string"



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                 },
                 "version": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "name",
                 "version"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "AlternativeIndicatorID": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "IndicatorReference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorReference"
                 }
               },
               "required": [
                 "IndicatorReference"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "Observable": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "restriction": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"
                 },
                 "ext-restriction": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "System": {},
                 "Address": {},
                 "DomainData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/DomainData"
                 },
                 "EmailData": {},
                 "Service": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Service"
                 },
                 "WindowsRegistryKeysModified": {},



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                 "FileData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/FileData"
                 },
                 "CertificateData": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/CertificateData"
                 },
                 "RegistryHandle": {},
                 "Record": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Record"
                 },
                 "EventData": {},
                 "Incident": {},
                 "Expectation": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Expectation"
                 },
                 "Reference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Reference"
                 },
                 "Assessment": {},
                 "DetectionPattern": {},
                 "HistoryItem": {},
                 "BulkObservable": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "BulkObservable": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "type": {},
                 "ext-type": {},
                 "BulkObservableFormant": {},
                 "BulkObservableList": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }



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                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "BulkObservableFormat": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "Hash": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/Hash"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "IndicatorExpression": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "operator": {},
                 "ext-operator": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "IndicatorExpression": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorExpression"
                 },
                 "Observable": {},
                 "ObservableReference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/ObservableReference"
                 },
                 "IndicatorReference": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorReference"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },



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             "ObservableReference": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "uid-ref": {}
               },
               "required": [
                 "uid-ref"
               ],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "IndicatorReference": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "uid-ref": {},
                 "euid-ref": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "version": {
                   "type": "string"
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             },
             "AttackPhase": {
               "type": "object",
               "properties": {
                 "AttackPhaseID": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "URL": {
                   "$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"
                 },
                 "Description": {
                   "type": "string"
                 },
                 "AdditionalData": {
                   "type": "array",
                   "items": {
                     "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
                   }
                 }
               },
               "required": [],
               "additionalProperties": false
             }
           },
           "title": "IODEF-Document",



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           "description": "JSON schema for IODEF-Document class",
           "type": "object",
           "properties": {
             "version": {
               "type": "string"
             },
             "lang": {
               "$ref": "#/definitions/lang"
             },
             "format-id": {
               "type": "string"
             },
             "private-enum-name": {
               "type": "string"
             },
             "private-enum-id": {
               "type": "string"
             },
             "Incidents": {
               "type": "array",
               "items": {
                 "$ref": "#/definitions/Incident"
               }
             },
             "AdditionalData": {
               "type": "array",
               "items": {
                 "$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"
               }
             }
           },
           "required": [
             "version",
             "Incidents"
           ],
           "additionalProperties": false
         }

                          Figure 64: JSON schema

6.  Acknowledgements

   TBD.








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7.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

8.  Security Considerations

   This memo does not provide any further security considerations than
   the one described in RFC 7970 [RFC7970].

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [min_ref]  authSurName, authInitials., "Minimal Reference", 2006.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7970]  Danyliw, R., "The Incident Object Description Exchange
              Format Version 2", RFC 7970, DOI 10.17487/RFC7970,
              November 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7970>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [DOMINATION]
              Mad Dominators, Inc., "Ultimate Plan for Taking Over the
              World", 1984, <http://www.example.com/dominator.html>.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2629, June 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2629>.

   [RFC3552]  Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC
              Text on Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3552, July 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3552>.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.








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Authors' Addresses

   Takeshi Takahashi
   NICT
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Koganei, Tokyo  184-8795
   Japan

   Phone: +81 42 327 5862
   Email: takeshi_takahashi@nict.go.jp


   Mio Suzuki
   NICT
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Koganei, Tokyo  184-8795
   Japan

   Email: mio@nict.go.jp
































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