Network Working Group                                            D. Xiao
Internet-Draft                                                       BEA
Intended status: Informational                                R. Merrick
Expires: July 4, 2008                                                IBM
                                                               P. Easton
                                                                T. Frank
                                                             Software AG
                                                              E. Johnson
                                                            January 2008

              URI Scheme for Java(tm) Message Service 1.0

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).


   This document defines the format of Uniform Resource Identifiers

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   (URI) as defined in [RFC3986], for designating connections and
   destination addresses used in the Java(tm) Messaging Service (JMS)
   [REF-JMS].  It was originally designed for particular uses, but
   should have general applicability wherever a JMS URI is needed to
   describe the connection to a JMS provider, and access to a JMS
   destination.  The syntax of this 'jms' URI is not compatible with any
   known current vendor implementation, but the expressivity of the
   format should permit all vendors to use it.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  URI Scheme Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Syntax of a jms URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  URI scheme semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     4.1.  Shared Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.2.  JNDI Variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.3.  Context Variant  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.4.  Custom parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Encoding considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Applications/protocols that use the JMS URI scheme name  . . .  9
   7.  Interoperability considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.1.  Reliability and Consistency  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.2.  Malicious Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.3.  Back-end Transcoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     8.4.  Semantic Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     8.5.  Other Security Concerns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   10. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 16

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1.  Introduction

   The "jms" URI scheme is used to designate a javax.jms.Destination
   object and an associated javax.jms.ConnectionFactory object, and
   optionally provide additional information concerning the way that the
   Destination object is to be used.  Probably the most common, and
   certainly the most compatible way in Java to retrieve such
   destinations, is via Java Naming and Directory Information (JNDI)
   [REF-JNDI] methods.  So as to extend compatibility to existing vendor
   mechanisms beyond JNDI lookup, the "jms" URI syntax allows variants
   on the core syntax.  The variant exists as an explicit part of the
   syntax so that tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with the variant
   can recognize the presence of a URI with an alternate interpretation.

   In its simplest and most interoperable form, this URI scheme starts
   with "jms:jndi:" plus a JNDI name for a Destination.  Since
   interaction with some resources may require JNDI contextual
   information or JMS headers and properties to be specified as well,
   the "jndi" variant of the "jms" URI scheme includes support for
   supplying this additional JNDI information as query parameters.

   While the "jndi" variant provides compatibility, vendors may define
   additional variants.  This specification defines two variants, "jndi"
   and "context".

1.1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   All syntax descriptions use the ABNF specified by [RFC4234],
   Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF.

2.  URI Scheme Name

   The name of the URI scheme is 'jms'.

3.  Syntax of a jms URI

   The following ABNF describes the jms scheme URI syntax:

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    jms-uri = "jms:" jms-variant ":" jms-dest
        [ '?' param  *([ '&' param ]) ]

    jms-variant = segment-nz-nc

    jms-dest = path-rootless ; specific meaning per variant

    param = param-name "=" param-value

    param-name = 1*(unreserved | pct-encoded)

    param-value = *(unreserved | pct-encoded)

    segment-nz-nc = ; as defined in RFC 3986

    path-rootless = ; as defined in RFC 3986

    unreserved = ; as defined in RFC 3986

    pct-encoded = ; as defined in RFC 3986

4.  URI scheme semantics

   The required particles in the JMS URI are the scheme name ("jms"),
   the variant identifier, and the "jms-dest" portions.  The two
   recognized variants (jms-variant above) are "jndi", and "context".
   The "jms-dest" portion identifies the JMS destination object in a way
   that is determined by the particular variant.

   Each variant may have query parameters specific to that variation.
   All such parameters that cannot be shared across schemes should use
   the name of the variant as the prefix to the parameters.  Parameters
   that apply across multiple variants, perhaps because they are
   generally applicable, such as JMS settings, should not have any
   particular prefix, and should not begin with any known prefix.  This
   latter convention enables tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with a
   particular variant to recognize that a particular URI includes
   parameters specific to that variant.

   Examples of the URI scheme include:



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4.1.  Shared Parameters

   In addition to the required particles, the jms URI scheme supports
   the following "shared" parameters, which may be included as
   parameters in any order (following the '?' parameter-start indicator,
   and separated by '&').  This pattern is consistent with other non-
   hierarchical URI specifications.

4.1.1.  deliveryMode

   Indicates whether the request message is persistent or not.  This
   property corresponds to the JMS message header "JMSDeliveryMode"
   defined in section 3.4.2. of the JMS 1.1 specification.  This may be
   "PERSISTENT" or "NON_PERSISTENT".  If this parameter is not specified
   then the JMS default SHOULD be used.

4.1.2.  timeToLive

   The lifetime, in milliseconds, of the request message.  This property
   corresponds to the JMS Time-To-Live value defined in section 4.8 of
   the JMS 1.1 specification.  If this parameter is not specified then
   the JMS default SHOULD be used.

4.1.3.  priority

   The JMS priority associated with the request message.  As per section
   3.4.10 of the JMS 1.1 specification this must be a number between 0
   and 9, inclusive, and corresponds to the JMS message header
   "JMSPriority".  If this parameter is not specified then the JMS
   default SHOULD be used.

4.1.4.  replyToName

   This property corresponds to the JMS message header "JMSReplyTo"
   defined in section 3.4.6 of the JMS 1.1 specification.  Specifies the
   JMS destination object to which a response message should be sent in
   a way that is determined by the particular variant.

4.2.  JNDI Variant

   The "jndi" variant implies the use of JNDI for discovering the
   Destination object.  When this is specified as the variant, the jms-
   dest portion of the syntax is the name for JNDI lookup purposes.
   Additional JNDI specific parameters may be specified.  The JNDI
   specific parameters SHOULD only be processed when the URI variant is

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4.2.1.  JNDI Parameters  jndiConnectionFactoryName

   Specifies the JNDI name of the Java class providing the connection
   factory.  jndiInitialContextFactory

   Specifies the fully qualified Java class name of the
   "InitialContextFactory" implementation class to use.  jndiURL

   Specifies the JNDI provider URL, in a form consistent with
   javax.naming.spi.NamingManager.getURLContext(String scheme, Hashtable
   environment) as defined in the JNDI specification.

4.2.2.  Performing a JNDI Look-up

   To perform a look-up based on a JNDI variant URI an application must
   create a JNDI InitialContext object.  The InitialContext object can
   then be used to look up the JMS ConnectionFactory object (using the
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName" URI parameter); the target JMS
   Destination object (using the "jms-dest" portion of the JMS URI); and
   the "replyToName" JMS Destination object (if the "replyToName"
   parameter is specified on the URI).

   The application creates the InitialContext object by first setting up
   two properties: "Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY", with the value of
   the jndiInitialContextFactory JMS URI parameter; and
   "Context.PROVIDER_URL", with the value of the jndiURL URI parameter,
   and then passing the two properties to the InitialContext

   To locate a connection factory or destination object, the application
   passes the name of the object into the InitialContext.lookup()

   For example, the JMS URI...


   ...would be used by the following code sample to locate and retrieve

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   a JMS ConnectionFactory called "CONNFACT", and JMS Destinations
   called "REQ_QUEUE" and "RESP_QUEUE", from a file system JNDI context
   called "c:/JMSAdmin".

    * Preconditions on URI:
    * - portion "jms-dest" has been parsed into variable "jms_dest"
    * - parameters "jndiConnectionFactoryName",
    *   "jndiInitialContextFactory", "replyToName" and "jndiURL" have
    *   been parsed into variables of the same name
   Hashtable environment = new Hashtable();
   environment.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, jndiURL);
    *  Create File System Initial Context
   Context ctx = new InitialContext(environment);
    * Now get the JMS ConnectionFactory and Destination.  These will be
    * used later on in the application to create the JMS Connection and
    * send / receive messages
   ConnectionFactory jmsConnFact = (ConnectionFactory)
   Destination requestDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(jms_dest);
   Destination replyDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(replyToName);

   The ConnectionFactory is used to create a Connection, which itself is
   used to create a Session.  The session can then be used to create the
   MessageProducer - which sends messages to the target destination, and
   the MessageConsumer which receives messages from the replyToName
   destination (as shown in the following code extract)

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    * Create a producer to send a message to the request destination
    * that was specified in the URI, then create the message, setting
    * the replyToName destination in the message to the one specified
    * in the URI, and send it.
   MessageProducer producer = sess.createProducer(requestDest);
   BytesMessage reqMsg = sess.createBytesMessage();
    * Create a consumer to get a message from the replyToName
    * destination using a selector to get the specific response to this
    * request. The responder must set the correlation ID of the response
    * to the message ID of the request message
   MessageConsumer consumer = sess.createConsumer(replyDest,
           "JMSCorrelationID = '" + reqMsg.getJMSMessageID() + "'");
   Message respMsg = (Message) consumer.receive(300000);

4.3.  Context Variant

   The "context" variant intends that the jms-dest is purely a logical
   name, and the application will somehow bind that logical name to an
   actual destination.  How this binding is done is outside the scope of
   this specification.  Note that all of the shared parameters defined
   above may be used with this variant, although it defines no
   additional parameters.

4.3.1.  Performing a Context Lookup

   The lookup mechanism for the context variant must result in the same
   set of JMS objects as those produced by a JNDI variant URI lookup -
   that is a JMS ConnectionFactory; a JMS Destination object for the
   target destination; and a JMS Destination for the replyToName (if
   specified) .

4.4.  Custom parameters

   The set of parameters is extensible.  Any other vendor- or
   application-defined parameter may be supplied, in the URI, by passing
   it as "param-name=param-value" just like the set of well-known

   _Warning_: Vendors and applications MUST NOT include sensitive
   information (such as authorization tokens) in a URI.  Other means of
   authorization, authentication, and identification should be used.

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   Also see the security discussion below about properties that may be
   duplicated as JMS message properties.

5.  Encoding considerations

   The jms URI scheme distinguishes between "unreserved" characters and
   "pct-encoded" characters, as defined in [RFC3986].  Apart from these
   encoding considerations, the characters '?' and '&' MUST be encoded
   when they appear within the "jms-dest" particle (for example, a JNDI
   name) or in query parameters.  The character ':' SHOULD be escaped,
   when appearing in the "jms-dest" portion of the syntax.

   Conversions to and from IRIs should follow the rules of RFC 3987,
   sections 3.1 and 3.2.  As per sections 1.2c and 6.4 of [RFC3987], all
   parts of the jms URI MUST use the UTF-8 encoding when converting to
   and from IRI format.

6.  Applications/protocols that use the JMS URI scheme name

   A variety of vendors provide implementations of the JMS Service
   Provider Interface.  These products interoperate at the API level, in
   the Java programming language.

   Some vendors have provided additional products which interoperate
   with their own SPI implementations.  These extensions may also be
   able to make use of this URI scheme.

   The vendors working on this URI scheme are also working on a
   specification for carrying SOAP messages over their respective
   implementations of JMS [REF-SOAPJMS].  In addition, the Service
   Component Architecture Bindings TC [1] at OASIS will employ the jms
   URI scheme to identify JMS Destinations in appropriate circumstances.

7.  Interoperability considerations

   This jms URI scheme focuses on identifying a JMS Destination object,
   and some characteristics of communication using that Destination, and
   specifically excludes any notion of describing how JMS itself is
   implemented and how it delivers messages.  As a consequence of this
   focus, interoperability concerns are limited to how implementations
   obtain and use a Destination object.

   This scheme definition describes two variants for obtaining a
   Destination.  These variants achieve their aims with the use of JNDI
   and JMS APIs, with no new APIs or protocols defined here.  As a

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   consequence, interoperability concerns may arise as a result of
   implementations that do not conform to the specifications for those
   APIs.  Further, the use of Java, and JNDI in particular, means that
   the configuration of the execution environment, and the use of Java
   ClassLoaders may affect the interpretation of any given URI.
   Consumers of these URIs are urged to consider the scope and
   consistency of the environment across which these URIs will be

   As described in Section 4, others can define additional variants,
   which provide the means to describe how to look up JMS Destination
   objects in a manner specific to some environment.  For any new
   variant, the shared parameters defined in Section 4.1 MUST have the
   same meaning in that variant as they do here.  That way, tools and
   people can safely copy these parameters between environments.
   Customers should be aware that use of variants not defined here may
   make it more difficult to switch to an alternate JMS provider.

8.  Security Considerations

   Section 7 of [RFC3986] identifies some of the security concerns that
   should be identified in this specification.

8.1.  Reliability and Consistency

   This specification identifies only the variant ("jms-variant") and
   variant specific details ("jms-dest") as an essential part of the
   URI.  For reliability and consistency purposes, these are the only
   part that can reasonably be expected to be stable.  Other optional
   JMS configuration and message properties, indicated as URI
   parameters, like the "timeToLive", may reasonably be determined by
   the sender of a message, without affecting the recipient.  Insofar as
   a recipient may wish to dictate certain parameters, such as the
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName", those parameters can be specified.

8.2.  Malicious Construction

8.2.1.  Recipient Concerns

   A malicious consumer of a service using a JMS URI could send, as part
   of a JMS message, a URI with a parameter such as "timeToLive" with a
   value specified in the URI that differs from the corresponding JMS
   message property ("JMSExpiration" header, in this example).  In the
   case of such messages with such URIs, recipients are strongly
   cautioned to avoid applying processing logic based on particular URI
   parameters.  Discrepancies in the message could be used to exploit
   differences in behavior between the selectors that a JMS-based

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   application might use to affect which messages it sees, and the
   processing of the rest of the application.  As defined in this
   document, the parameters of concern include:


   Message senders are strongly urged to remove from the URI extra
   parameters like the above in environments where the data will be
   redundant with information specified elsewhere in the JMS message.

   Any use of additional parameters, either as a part of a definition of
   a new variant, or for more general use, should also specify whether
   those parameters should be removed by a sender as specified here.  If
   a recipient is aware of the jms URI scheme, and it receives a message
   containing a JMS URI, it MUST ignore or discard parameters that it
   does not recognize.

8.2.2.  Sender Concerns

   A third party could intercept and replace a URI containing any of the
   JMS/JNDI configuration parameters, such as
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName", "jndiInitialContextFactory", "jndiURL".
   As these parameters may affect how an implementation establishes an
   initial connection, such parameters could be used as a means to
   subvert communications.  This could possibly result in re-routing
   communications to third-parties, who could then monitor sent
   messages.  Clients should use these URI parameters only when assured
   of their validity in trusted environments.

8.3.  Back-end Transcoding

   This specification, in using the URI specification, and building
   around the JMS specification, has no particular transcoding issues.
   Any such issues are problems with the underlying implementation of
   Java and Java Messaging Service being employed.

8.4.  Semantic Attacks

   A possible semantic attack on the "jndi" variant could be
   accomplished by replacing characters of the JMS URI from one language
   with equivalent looking characters from another language, known as an
   "IDN homograph attack" (IDN) [REF-Homograph].  This kind of attack
   could occur in a variety of ways.  For example, if an environment
   allows for the automatic registration of JNDI destination names, a
   malicious actor could register and then publicize an alternate of an
   existing destination name.  Such an environment ought to prevent the

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   use of homograph equivalents, perhaps by restricting allowed
   characters, so that clients do not accidentally send their requests
   to unintended destinations.

   The "context" variant likewise relies on an application or a human to
   associate an intended JMS destination with an actual destination,
   perhaps during a deployment process.  Particularly when a human is
   involved, concerns similar to the JNDI environment apply.

8.5.  Other Security Concerns

   This specification does not define or anticipate any use for IP
   addresses as part of the URI, so no issues around IP addresses, rare
   or otherwise, are raised by this specification.

   This specification does not define any characteristics of a jms
   scheme URI that contain sensitive information.

9.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA is asked to register the Java Message Service URI scheme
   described in this document, according to the following scheme
   registration request:

   o  URI scheme name: "jms" is requested
   o  Status: Permanent is requested
   o  URI scheme syntax: See Section 3
   o  URI scheme semantics: See Section 4
   o  Encoding considerations: See Section 5
   o  Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name: See
      Section 6
   o  Interoperability considerations: See Section 7
   o  Security considerations: See Section 8
   o  Contact: See Authors section
   o  References See References section

10.  Contributors

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of:
      Phil Adams - International Business Machines Corporation -
      Glen Daniels - WSO2 -
      Peter Easton - Progress Software -
      Tim Frank - Software AG. -

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      Lei Jin - BEA Systems, Inc. -
      Eric Johnson - TIBCO Software Inc. -
      Vinod Kumar - BEA Systems, Inc. -
      Amelia A. Lewis - TIBCO Software Inc. -
      Roland Merrick - International Business Machines Corporation -
      Mark Phillips - International Business Machines Corporation -
      Stephen Todd - International Business Machines Corporation -
      Dongbo Xiao - BEA Systems, Inc. -
      Prasad Yendluri - Software AG -

11.  Acknowledgements

   Java and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun
   Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.

   This document was produced using the xml2rfc tool [RFC2629].

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC3987]  Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, January 2005.

   [RFC4234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.

12.2.  Informative References

              Unknown, "IDN Homograph attack", any 2005-2006,

   [REF-JMS]  Hapner, M., Burridge, R., Sharma, R., Fialli, J., and K.
              Stout, "Java Message Service (JMS)", April 2002,

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              Sun Microsystems, Inc., "Java Naming and Directory
              Interface Application Programming Interface", July 1999,

              Daniels, G., Easton, P., Frank, T., Johnson, E., Lewis,
              A., Merrick, R., Phillips, M., and D. Xiao, "SOAP over
              JMS", October 2007,

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.


   [1]  <

Authors' Addresses

   Dongbo Xiao
   BEA Systems Inc.
   140 Allen Road
   New Jersey,   NJ 07938
   United States


   Roland Merrick
   International Business Machines Corporation
   PO Box 31, Birmingham Road
   Warwick,   CV34 5JL
   United Kingdom


   Peter Easton
   Progress Software Corporation
   14 Oak Park Drive
   Bedford,   MA 01730
   United States


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   Tim Frank
   Software AG.
   3877 Fairfax Ridge
   Fairfax  VA 22030
   United States


   Eric Johnson
   TIBCO Software Inc.
   3303 Hillview Avenue
   Palo Alto  CA 94304
   United States


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