Network Working Group                                        M. Phillips
Internet-Draft                                                       IBM
Intended status: Informational                                 P. Easton
Expires: January 1, 2010                                        Progress
                                                              D. Rokicki
                                                             Software AG
                                                              E. Johnson
                                                           June 30, 2009

              URI Scheme for Java(tm) Message Service 1.0

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.  This document may contain material
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Copyright Notice

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   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.


   This document defines the format of Uniform Resource Identifiers
   (URI) as defined in [RFC3986], for designating connections and
   destination addresses used in the Java(tm) Messaging Service (JMS)
   [REF-JMS].  It was originally designed for particular uses, but
   should have general applicability wherever a JMS URI is needed to
   describe the connection to a JMS provider, and access to a JMS
   destination.  The syntax of this 'jms' URI is not compatible with any
   known current vendor implementation, but the expressivity of the
   format should permit all vendors to use it.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  URI Scheme Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Syntax of a jms URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  URI scheme semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1.  Shared Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  JNDI Variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.3.  Vendor Destination Names - Variants "queue" And "topic"  . 11
     4.4.  Custom parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  Encoding considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Applications/protocols that use the JMS URI scheme name  . . . 13
   7.  Interoperability considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     8.1.  Reliability and Consistency  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     8.2.  Malicious Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     8.3.  Back-end Transcoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     8.4.  Semantic Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     8.5.  Other Security Concerns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   10. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

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1.  Introduction

   The "jms" URI scheme is used to designate a javax.jms.Destination
   object and an associated javax.jms.ConnectionFactory object, and
   optionally provide additional information concerning the way that the
   Destination object is to be used.  Probably the most common, and
   certainly the most compatible way in Java to retrieve such
   destinations, is via Java Naming and Directory Information (JNDI)
   [REF-JNDI] methods.  So as to extend compatibility to existing vendor
   mechanisms beyond JNDI lookup, the "jms" URI syntax allows variants
   on the core syntax.  The variant exists as an explicit part of the
   syntax so that tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with the variant
   can recognize the presence of a URI with an alternate interpretation.

   In its simplest and most interoperable form, this URI scheme starts
   with "jms:jndi:" plus a JNDI name for a Destination.  Since
   interaction with some resources may require JNDI contextual
   information or JMS header fields and properties to be specified as
   well, the "jndi" variant of the "jms" URI scheme includes support for
   supplying this additional JNDI information as query parameters.

   While the "jndi" variant provides compatibility, vendors may define
   additional variants.  This specification defines three variants,
   "jndi", "queue", and "topic".

   As a consequence of building upon an API, rather than a protocol, the
   utility of a "jms" URI depends on the context in which it is used.
   Critical details affecting utility include agreement on the same JMS
   provider or underlying protocol, agreement on the context for looking
   up endpoints, and when using serialized Java object messages,
   sufficiently similiar Java Class environments that the object can be
   appropriately read and written.  Uses of this scheme must establish
   the necessary shared context - a context which can span the globe, or
   merely a small local network.  With that shared context, this URI
   scheme enables endpoint identification in a uniform way, and the
   means to connect to those endpoints.

1.1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   All syntax descriptions use the ABNF specified by [RFC5234],
   Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF.

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2.  URI Scheme Name

   The name of the URI scheme is 'jms'.

3.  Syntax of a jms URI

   The following ABNF describes the jms scheme URI syntax:

    jms-uri = "jms:" jms-variant ":" jms-dest
        [ "?" param *( "&" param ) ]

    jms-variant = segment-nz-nc

    jms-dest = path-rootless ; specific meaning per variant

    param = param-name "=" param-value

    param-name = 1*(unreserved / pct-encoded)

    param-value = *(unreserved / pct-encoded)

    segment-nz-nc = <as defined in RFC 3986>

    path-rootless = <as defined in RFC 3986>

    unreserved = <as defined in RFC 3986>

    pct-encoded = <as defined in RFC 3986>

   The URIs are percent-encoded UTF-8.  Please see Section 5 for
   encoding considerations.

4.  URI scheme semantics

   JMS URI schemes are used to locate JMS Destination resources and do
   not specify actions to be taken on those resources.  Operations
   available on JMS destinations are fully and normatively defined by
   the JMS specification and as such, are out of scope for this URI

   The required particles in the JMS URI are the scheme name ("jms"),
   the variant identifier, and the <jms-dest> portions.  The three
   recognized variants (<jms-variant> above) are "jndi", "queue", and
   "topic".  The <jms-dest> portion identifies the JMS destination

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   object in a way that is determined by the particular variant.

   Each variant may have query parameters specific to that variation.
   All such parameters that cannot be shared across schemes should use
   the name of the variant as the prefix to the parameters.  Parameters
   that apply across multiple variants, perhaps because they are
   generally applicable, such as JMS settings, should not have any
   particular prefix, and should not begin with any known prefix.  This
   latter convention enables tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with a
   particular variant to recognize that a particular URI includes
   parameters specific to that variant.

   Examples of the URI scheme include:



4.1.  Shared Parameters

   In addition to the required particles, the jms URI scheme supports
   the following "shared" parameters, which may be included as
   parameters in any order (following the '?' parameter-start indicator,
   and separated by '&').  This pattern is consistent with other non-
   hierarchical URI specifications.

4.1.1.  deliveryMode

   Indicates whether the request message is persistent or not.  This
   property corresponds to the JMS message header field
   "JMSDeliveryMode" defined in section 3.4.2. of the JMS 1.1
   specification.  This may be "PERSISTENT" or "NON_PERSISTENT".  If
   this parameter is not specified then the JMS default SHOULD be used.

4.1.2.  timeToLive

   The lifetime, in milliseconds, of the request message.  This property
   corresponds to the JMS Time-To-Live value defined in section 4.8 of
   the JMS 1.1 specification.  If this parameter is not specified then
   the JMS default SHOULD be used.

4.1.3.  priority

   The JMS priority associated with the request message.  As per section
   3.4.10 of the JMS 1.1 specification this must be a number between 0
   and 9, inclusive, and corresponds to the JMS message header field
   "JMSPriority".  If this parameter is not specified then the JMS

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   default SHOULD be used.

4.1.4.  replyToName

   This property corresponds to the JMS message header field
   "JMSReplyTo" defined in section 3.4.6 of the JMS 1.1 specification.
   Specifies the JMS destination object to which a response message
   should be sent in a way that is determined by the particular variant.

4.2.  JNDI Variant

   The "jndi" variant implies the use of JNDI for discovering the
   Destination object.  When this is specified as the variant, the <jms-
   dest> portion of the syntax is the name for JNDI lookup purposes.
   Additional JNDI specific parameters may be specified.  The JNDI
   specific parameters SHOULD only be processed when the URI variant is

4.2.1.  JNDI Parameters  jndiConnectionFactoryName

   Specifies the JNDI name of the Java class providing the connection
   factory.  jndiInitialContextFactory

   Specifies the fully qualified Java class name of the
   "InitialContextFactory" implementation class to use.  jndiURL

   Specifies the JNDI provider URL, in a form consistent with
   javax.naming.spi.NamingManager.getURLContext(String scheme, Hashtable
   environment) as defined in the JNDI specification.  Additional JNDI Parameters

   It is possible that connecting to a JNDI provider requires additional
   parameters.  These parameters can be passed in as custom parameters
   (see Section 4.4).  To identify a custom parameter as JNDI specific,
   the parameter name must start with the prefix "jndi-".

   For example, if the JNDI provider requires a parameter named
   com.sun.jndi.someParameter, you can supply the parameter in the URI
   as: jndi-com.sun.jndi.someParameter=someValue

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4.2.2.  Performing a JNDI Look-up

   To perform a look-up based on a JNDI variant URI an application must
   create a JNDI InitialContext object.  The InitialContext object can
   then be used to look up the JMS ConnectionFactory object (using the
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName" URI parameter); the target JMS
   Destination object (using the <jms-dest> portion of the JMS URI); and
   the "replyToName" JMS Destination object (if the "replyToName"
   parameter is specified on the URI).

   The application creates the InitialContext object by first setting up
   two properties: "Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY", with the value of
   the jndiInitialContextFactory JMS URI parameter; and
   "Context.PROVIDER_URL", with the value of the jndiURL URI parameter,
   and then passing the two properties to the InitialContext

   To locate a connection factory or destination object, the application
   passes the name of the object into the InitialContext.lookup()

   For example, the JMS URI...


   ...would be used by the following (non-normative) code sample to
   locate and retrieve a JMS ConnectionFactory called "CONNFACT", and
   JMS Destinations called "REQ_QUEUE" and "RESP_QUEUE", from a file
   system JNDI context called "c:/JMSAdmin".

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    * Preconditions on URI:
    * - portion <jms-dest> has been parsed into variable "jms_dest"
    * - parameters "jndiConnectionFactoryName",
    *   "jndiInitialContextFactory", "replyToName" and "jndiURL" have
    *   been parsed into variables of the same name
   Hashtable environment = new Hashtable();
   environment.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, jndiURL);
    *  Create File System Initial Context
   Context ctx = new InitialContext(environment);
    * Now get the JMS ConnectionFactory and Destination.  These will be
    * used later on in the application to create the JMS Connection and
    * send / receive messages
   ConnectionFactory jmsConnFact = (ConnectionFactory)
   Destination requestDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(jms_dest);
   Destination replyDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(replyToName);

   The ConnectionFactory is used to create a Connection, which itself is
   used to create a Session.  The session can then be used to create the
   MessageProducer - which sends messages to the target destination, and
   the MessageConsumer which receives messages from the replyToName
   destination (as shown in the following code extract)

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    * Create a producer to send a message to the request destination
    * that was specified in the URI, then create the message, setting
    * the replyToName destination in the message to the one specified
    * in the URI, and send it.
   MessageProducer producer = sess.createProducer(requestDest);
   BytesMessage reqMsg = sess.createBytesMessage();
    * Create a consumer to get a message from the replyToName
    * destination using a selector to get the specific response to this
    * request. The responder must set the correlation ID of the response
    * to the message ID of the request message
   MessageConsumer consumer = sess.createConsumer(replyDest,
           "JMSCorrelationID = '" + reqMsg.getJMSMessageID() + "'");
   Message respMsg = (Message) consumer.receive(300000);  Performing a JNDI Look-up with Custom Parameters

   Any custom parameters with a prefix of "jndi-" in the URI should be
   used when establishing a connection to the JNDI provider.  Before
   passing the custom parameter to the JNDI provider, remove the "jndi-"
   prefix as the prefix is for identifying the custom parameter in the
   URI only.

   For example, the JMS URI...


   ...instructs the consumer to use the following properties to connect
   to the JNDI provider:


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4.3.  Vendor Destination Names - Variants "queue" And "topic"

   The JMS Session object provides a means to directly access queues and
   topics.  Specifically, it has the methods Session.createQueue(String
   name), and Session.createTopic(String name).  These methods can be
   used to "create" the Java representation of an existing JMS Topic or

   Since the Session interface requires external knowledge about whether
   a given name relates to a queue or topic, rather than introducing one
   new variant, this section defines two variants.  A JMS URI can
   indicate which of these methods to use by specifying the appropriate
   variant - either "queue" or "topic".  For example:


   to identify a JMS queue Destination, and


   to identify a JMS topic Destination.

   JMS only specifies one way to obtain the names used by these APIs.
   With a JMS Queue or Topic available, an implementation can call
   Queue.getQueueName(), or Topic.getTopicName(), respectively, both of
   which return a String object.  To create a correct corresponding URI,
   the resulting string must use standard URI escape mechanisms so that
   the resulting characters conform to <jms-dest>.

4.3.1.  Treatment of replyToName parameter

   When used with the "queue" and "topic" variants, the replyToName
   parameter, specified in section 4.1.4, always refers to a name of a
   JMS queue to look up via the Session.createQueue() method.  For
   either variant, if a JMS topic is instead required as a response
   destination, a JMS URI can employ the "topicReplyToName" parameter.
   This parameter defines a name to look up with the
   Session.createTopic() method.

   A JMS URI MUST NOT specify both a "topicReplyToName" and a
   "replyToName" paramter.

4.3.2.  Obtaining a Session via JNDI

   Using the Session.createQueue(), and Session.createTopic() methods
   assumes that a client program has already obtained a Session object.
   Where does that Session object come from - how does a client get it?

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   One way to get a Session object is to simply revert to using JNDI.
   That is, if a Session is not available to the client from some other
   context, the "queue" and "topic" variants MAY reuse the URL
   parameters specified in section 4.2.1, JNDI Parameters.  Via JNDI,
   those parameters will identify a ConnectionFactory, which can then be
   used to obtain a Session object.

   Combining the "queue" and "topic" variants with JNDI lookup for an
   implementation of ConnectionFactory raises an important consideration
   for JMS URI clients.  Once clients are using JNDI for one part of
   discovering a Destination, they almost certainly could use a vendor-
   neutral JNDI lookup for a Destination object, rather than a vendor-
   specific means.  As a result, clients should carefully consider
   alternatives to this approach.

4.3.3.  Limitations of "queue" and "topic"

   The JMS specification clearly identifies the two methods on the
   Session interface as returning vendor specific names for
   destinations.  Consequently, users of the JMS URI scheme should
   carefully consider when these two variants should be applied.  If
   users plan switching between JMS vendors, they should also plan on
   regenerating resources that contain URIs in this vendor specific

   A JMS vendor may provide alternate ways to obtain the names that can
   be passed to Session.createQueue(), and Session.createTopic().  When
   using those alternate means, users of this URI specification should
   verify that the obtained names work as expected in all circumstances.

4.4.  Custom parameters

   The set of parameters is extensible.  Any other vendor- or
   application-defined parameter may be supplied, in the URI, by passing
   it as <param-name>=<param-value> just like the set of well-known

   _Warning_: Vendors and applications MUST NOT include sensitive
   information (such as authorization tokens) in a URI.  Other means of
   authorization, authentication, and identification should be used.
   Also see the security discussion below about properties that may be
   duplicated as JMS message properties.

5.  Encoding considerations

   The jms URI scheme distinguishes between <unreserved> characters and
   <pct-encoded> characters, as defined in [RFC3986].  Apart from these

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   encoding considerations, the characters '?' and '&' MUST be encoded
   when they appear within the <jms-dest> particle (for example, a JNDI
   name) or in query parameters.  The character ':' SHOULD be escaped,
   when appearing in the <jms-dest> portion of the syntax.

   Conversions to and from IRIs should follow the rules of RFC 3987,
   sections 3.1 and 3.2.  As per sections 1.2c and 6.4 of [RFC3987], all
   parts of the jms URI MUST use the UTF-8 encoding when converting to
   and from IRI format.

6.  Applications/protocols that use the JMS URI scheme name

   A variety of vendors provide implementations of the JMS Service
   Provider Interface.  These products interoperate at the API level, in
   the Java programming language.

   Some vendors have provided additional products which interoperate
   with their own SPI implementations.  These extensions may also be
   able to make use of this URI scheme.

   The vendors working on this URI scheme are also working on a
   specification for carrying SOAP messages over their respective
   implementations of JMS [REF-SOAPJMS].  In addition, the Service
   Component Architecture Bindings TC [1] at OASIS will employ the jms
   URI scheme to identify JMS Destinations in appropriate circumstances.

7.  Interoperability considerations

   This jms URI scheme focuses on identifying a JMS Destination object,
   and some characteristics of communication using that Destination, and
   specifically excludes any notion of describing how JMS itself is
   implemented and how it delivers messages.  As a consequence of this
   focus, interoperability concerns are limited to how implementations
   obtain and use a Destination object.

   This scheme definition describes three variants for obtaining a
   Destination.  These variants achieve their aims with the use of JNDI
   and JMS APIs, with no new APIs or protocols defined here.  As a
   consequence, interoperability concerns may arise as a result of
   implementations that do not conform to the specifications for those
   APIs.  Further, the use of Java, and JNDI in particular, means that
   the configuration of the execution environment, and the use of Java
   ClassLoaders may affect the interpretation of any given URI.
   Consumers of these URIs are urged to consider the scope and
   consistency of the environment across which these URIs will be

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   As described in Section 4, others can define additional variants,
   which provide the means to describe how to look up JMS Destination
   objects in a manner specific to some environment.  For any new
   variant, the shared parameters defined in Section 4.1 MUST have the
   same meaning in that variant as they do here.  That way, tools and
   people can safely copy these parameters between environments.  Users
   should be aware that employing variants not defined here may make it
   more difficult to switch to an alternate JMS provider.

8.  Security Considerations

   Section 7 of [RFC3986] identifies some of the security concerns that
   should be identified in this specification.

8.1.  Reliability and Consistency

   This specification identifies only the variant (<jms-variant>) and
   variant specific details (<jms-dest>) as an essential part of the
   URI.  For reliability and consistency purposes, these are the only
   part that can reasonably be expected to be stable.  Other optional
   JMS configuration and message properties, indicated as URI
   parameters, like the "timeToLive", may reasonably be determined by
   the sender of a message, without affecting the recipient.  Insofar as
   a recipient may wish to dictate certain parameters, such as the
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName", those parameters can be specified.

8.2.  Malicious Construction

8.2.1.  Recipient Concerns

   A malicious consumer of a service using a JMS URI could send, as part
   of a JMS message, a URI with a parameter such as "timeToLive" with a
   value specified in the URI that differs from the corresponding JMS
   message property ("JMSExpiration" header field, in this example).  In
   the case of such messages with such URIs, recipients are strongly
   cautioned to avoid applying processing logic based on particular URI
   parameters.  Discrepancies in the message could be used to exploit
   differences in behavior between the selectors that a JMS-based
   application might use to affect which messages it sees, and the
   processing of the rest of the application.  As defined in this
   document, the parameters of concern include:


   Message senders are strongly urged to remove from the URI extra

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   parameters like the above in environments where the data will be
   redundant with information specified elsewhere in the JMS message.

   Any use of additional parameters, either as a part of a definition of
   a new variant, or for more general use, should also specify whether
   those parameters should be removed by a sender as specified here.  If
   a recipient is aware of the jms URI scheme, and it receives a message
   containing a JMS URI, it MUST ignore or discard parameters that it
   does not recognize.

8.2.2.  Sender Concerns

   A third party could intercept and replace a URI containing any of the
   JMS/JNDI configuration parameters, such as
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName", "jndiInitialContextFactory", "jndiURL".
   As these parameters may affect how an implementation establishes an
   initial connection, such parameters could be used as a means to
   subvert communications.  This could possibly result in re-routing
   communications to third-parties, who could then monitor sent
   messages.  Clients should use these URI parameters only when assured
   of their validity in trusted environments.

8.3.  Back-end Transcoding

   This specification, in using the URI specification, and building
   around the JMS specification, has no particular transcoding issues.
   Any such issues are problems with the underlying implementation of
   Java and Java Messaging Service being employed.

8.4.  Semantic Attacks

   A possible semantic attack on the "jndi" variant could be
   accomplished by replacing characters of the JMS URI from one language
   with equivalent looking characters from another language, known as an
   "IDN homograph attack" (IDN) [REF-Homograph].  This kind of attack
   could occur in a variety of ways.  For example, if an environment
   allows for the automatic registration of JNDI destination names, a
   malicious actor could register and then publicize an alternate of an
   existing destination name.  Such an environment ought to prevent the
   use of homograph equivalents, perhaps by restricting allowed
   characters, so that clients do not accidentally send their requests
   to unintended destinations.

   The "queue" and "topic" variants are subject to the same concerns as
   the JNDI variant.  In addition, because the destination names are
   vendor defined, URIs employing these two variants may employ special
   characters that significantly change the meaning of the URI.  It is
   possible that the introduction of a single character - difficult for

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   a human to notice - might dramatically change the intended meaning of
   a URI.  In situations where this might be an issue, users of this URI
   should strongly consider the "jndi" variant instead.

8.5.  Other Security Concerns

   This specification does not define or anticipate any use for IP
   addresses as part of the URI, so no issues around IP addresses, rare
   or otherwise, are raised by this specification.

   This specification does not define any characteristics of a jms
   scheme URI that contain sensitive information.

9.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA is asked to register the Java Message Service URI scheme
   described in this document, according to the following scheme
   registration request, using the template from [RFC4395]:

   o  URI scheme name: jms
   o  Status: Permanent
   o  URI scheme syntax: See Section 3
   o  URI scheme semantics: See Section 4
   o  Encoding considerations: See Section 5
   o  Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name: See
      Section 6
   o  Interoperability considerations: See Section 7
   o  Security considerations: See Section 8
   o  Contact: See Authors section
   o  References: See References section

10.  Contributors

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of:
      Phil Adams - International Business Machines Corporation -
      Glen Daniels - WSO2 -
      Peter Easton - Progress Software -
      Tim Frank - Software AG. -
      Lei Jin - BEA Systems, Inc. until March 2007
      Eric Johnson - TIBCO Software Inc. -
      Vinod Kumar - BEA Systems, Inc. until May 2007
      Amelia A. Lewis - TIBCO Software Inc. -
      Roland Merrick - International Business Machines Corporation until
      June 2009

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      Mark Phillips - International Business Machines Corporation -
      Derek Rokicki - Software AG. -
      Stephen Todd - International Business Machines Corporation until
      April 2007
      Dongbo Xiao - Oracle Corp. -
      Prasad Yendluri - Software AG -

11.  Acknowledgements

   Java and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun
   Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC3987]  Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, January 2005.

   [RFC4395]  Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
              Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", BCP 35,
              RFC 4395, February 2006.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

12.2.  Informative References

              Unknown, "IDN Homograph attack", any 2005-2006,

   [REF-JMS]  Hapner, M., Burridge, R., Sharma, R., Fialli, J., and K.
              Stout, "Java Message Service (JMS)", April 2002,

              Sun Microsystems, Inc., "Java Naming and Directory

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              Interface Application Programming Interface", July 1999,

              Daniels, G., Easton, P., Frank, T., Johnson, E., Lewis,
              A., Merrick, R., Phillips, M., and D. Xiao, "SOAP over
              JMS", October 2007,


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Authors' Addresses

   Mark Phillips
   International Business Machines Corporation
   Hursley House, Hursley Park
   Winchester, Hampshire  SO21 2JN
   United Kingdom


   Peter Easton
   Progress Software Corporation
   14 Oak Park Drive
   Bedford,   MA 01730
   United States


   Derek Rokicki
   Software AG.
   11700 Plaza America Drive
   Reston  VA 20190
   United States


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   Eric Johnson
   TIBCO Software Inc.
   3303 Hillview Avenue
   Palo Alto  CA 94304
   United States


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