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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05                                             
     Energy Management Working Group                          E. Tychon
     Internet Draft                                  Cisco Systems Inc.
     Intended status: Informational                        B. Schoening
     Expires: April 14, 2012                     Independent Consultant
                                                     Mouli Chandramouli
                                                     Cisco Systems Inc.
                                                          Bruce Nordman
                                  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
                                                       October 15, 2011
     
     
     
     
                Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement
                  draft-tychon-eman-applicability-statement-04
     
     
     Status of this Memo
     
        This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance
        with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
     
        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet
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        This Internet-Draft will expire on April 14, 2012.
     
     
     Copyright Notice
     
        Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
        document authors. All rights reserved.
     
     
     
     
     
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        This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
        Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
        publication of this document.  Please review these documents
        carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
        respect to this document.  Code Components extracted from this
        document must include Simplified BSD License text as described
        in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided
        without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.
     
     
     Abstract
     
        The objective of Energy Management (EMAN) is to provide an
        energy management framework for networked devices. This document
        presents the applicability of the EMAN framework for a variety
        of scenarios.  This document lists use cases and target devices
        that can potentially implement the EMAN framework and associated
        SNMP MIB modules.  These use cases are useful for identifying
        monitoring requirements that need to be considered. Further, we
        describe the relationship of the EMAN framework to relevant
        other energy monitoring standards and architectures.
     
     
     Table of Contents
     
      1. Introduction  .............................................3
        1.1. Energy Management Overview ............................4
        1.2. Energy Measurement ....................................5
        1.3. Energy Management .....................................5
        1.4. EMAN Framework Application ............................6
        1.5. EMAN WG Document Overview .............................6
      2. Scenarios and Target Devices ..............................7
        2.1. Network Infrastructure Devices ........................7
        2.2. Devices Powered and Connected to a Network Device .....8
        2.3. Devices Connected to a Network ........................9
        2.4. Power Meters ..........................................9
        2.5. Mid-level Managers ...................................10
        2.6. Gateways to Building Systems .........................11
        2.7. Home Energy Gateways .................................12
        2.8. Data Center Devices ..................................13
        2.9. Energy Storage Devices ...............................14
        2.10. Ganged Outlets on a PDU Multiple Power Sources.......15
        2.11. Industrial Automation Networks ......................15
        2.12. Printers ............................................16
        2.13. Off Grid Devices ....................................17
     
     
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        2.14. Demand/Response .....................................18
      3. Use Case Patterns ........................................18
        3.1. Metering .............................................18
        3.2. Metering and Control .................................18
        3.3. Power Supply, Metering and Control....................19
        3.4. Multiple power sources ...............................19
      4. Relationship of EMAN to other Standards ..................19
        4.1. Data Model and Reporting .............................19
         4.1.1. IEC   CIM..........................................19
         4.1.2. DMTF...............................................20
         4.1.3. ODVA...............................................21
         4.1.4. Ecma SDC...........................................22
         4.1.5. Printers: IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG) ...22
         4.1.6. ASHRAE FACILITY SMART GRID INFORMATION MODEL.......23
         4.1.7. ZigBee.............................................23
        4.2. Measurement ..........................................24
         4.2.1. ANSI C12...........................................24
         4.2.2. IEC62301...........................................24
        4.3. Other ................................................25
         4.3.1. ISO................................................25
         4.3.2. Energy Star........................................25
         4.3.3. Smart Grid.........................................26
      5. Limitations ..............................................27
      6. Security Considerations ..................................27
      7. IANA Considerations ......................................27
      8. Acknowledgements .........................................27
      9. Open Issues ..............................................27
      10. References ..............................................28
        10.1. Normative References ................................28
        10.2. Informative References ..............................28
     
     
     
     1. Introduction
     
        The focus of the Energy Management (EMAN) framework is energy
        monitoring and management of devices.  The scope of devices
        considered are network equipment and its components, and
        devices connected directly or indirectly to the network.  The
        EMAN framework enables monitoring i.e.; heterogeneous devices
        to report their energy consumption, and secondly, if
        permissible, enables control policies for energy savings.
        There are multiple scenarios where this is desirable,
        particularly considering the increased importance of limiting
        consumption of finite energy resources and reducing
        operational expenses.
     
     
     
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        The EMAN framework describes how energy information can be
        retrieved from IP-enabled devices using Simple Network
        Management Protocol (SNMP), specifically, Management Information
        Base (MIBs) for SNMP.
     
        This document describes typical applications of the EMAN
        framework, as well as its opportunities and limitations.  Other
        standards that are similar to EMAN but address different domains
        are described.  This document contains references to those other
        standards and describes how they relate to the EMAN framework.
     
     1.1. Energy Management Overview
     
        First, a brief introduction to the definitions of Energy and
        Power are presented.  A draft on terminology has been submitted
        so that to reach a consensus on the definitions of commonly used
        terms in the EMAN WG. While energy is available in many forms,
        EMAN addresses only the electrical energy consumed by devices
        connected to a network.
     
        Energy is the capacity to perform work.  Electrical energy is
        typically expressed in kilowatt-hour units (kWh) or other
        multiples of watt-hours (Wh).  One kilowatt-hour is the
        electrical energy used by a 1 kilowatt device for one hour.
        Power is the rate of electrical energy flow.  In other words,
        power = energy / time.  Power is often measured in watts.
        Billing is based on electrical energy (measured in kWh) supplied
        by the utility.
     
        Towards the goal of increasing the energy efficiency in networks
        and buildings, a first step is to enable devices to report their
        energy usage over time.  The EMAN framework addresses this
        problem with an information model for an energy-using device:
        identity, context, power measurement and power measurement
        attributes.
     
        The EMAN WG framework defines SNMP MIB modules based on the
        information model.  By implementing the SNMP MIB modules, any IP
        network device can report its energy consumption according to
        the information model.  In that context, it is important to
        distinguish devices that can report their own energy usage from
        devices that can also collect and aggregate energy usage of
        subtended devices.
     
        The list of target devices and scenarios considered for Energy
        Management are presented in Section 2 with detailed examples.
     
     
     
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     1.2. Energy Measurement
     
        More and more devices are able to measure and report their own
        energy consumption.  Smart power strips and some Power over
        Ethernet switches can meter consumption of connected devices.
        However, when managed and reported through proprietary means,
        this information is minimally useful at the enterprise level.
     
        The primary goal of the EMAN MIBs is to enable reporting and
        management within a standard framework that is applicable to a
        wide variety of end devices, meters, and proxies.  This enables
        a management system to know who's consuming what, when, and how
        at any time by leveraging existing networks, across various
        equipment, in a unified and consistent manner.
     
        Given that a device can consume energy and/or provide energy to
        other devices, there are three types of meters for energy
        measurement: energy input to a device, energy supplied to other
        devices, and net (resultant) energy consumed (the difference
        between energy input and provided).
     
     1.3. Energy Management
     
        Beyond energy monitoring, the EMAN framework provides mechanisms
        for control.
     
        There are many cases where reducing energy consumption of
        devices is desirable, such as when the device utilization is low
        or when the electricity is expensive or in short supply.
     
        In some cases, control requires considering the context.  For
        instance, in a building: all phones would not usually be turned
        off to keep some still available in case of emergency; office
        cooling is usually not turned off totally during non-work hours,
        but the comfort level is reduced; and so on.
     
        Power control requires flexibility and support for different
        polices and mechanisms: from centralized management with a
        network management station, to autonomous management by
        individual devices, and alignment with dynamic demand-response
        mechanisms.
     
        The EMAN framework can be used as a tool for the demand/response
        scenario where in response to time-of-day fluctuation of energy
        costs or possible energy shortages, it is possible to respond
        and reduce the energy consumption for the network devices.
     
     
     
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     1.4. EMAN Framework Application
     
     
        A Network Management System (NMS) is the entity that requests
        information from compatible devices using SNMP protocol.  It may
        be a system which also implements other network management
        functions, e.g. security management, identity management and so
        on), or one that only deals exclusively with energy in which
        case it is called EMS Energy Management System.  It may be
        limited to monitoring energy use, or it may also implement
        control functions.  In a typical application of the EMAN
        framework, management software collects energy information for
        devices in the network.
     
        Energy Management can be implemented by extending existing SNMP
        support to the EMAN specific MIBs. SNMP provides an industry
        proven and well-known mechanism to discover, secure, measure,
        and control SNMP-enabled end devices.  The EMAN framework
        provides an information and data model to unify access to a
        large range of devices.  The scope of the target devices and the
        network scenarios considered for energy management are listed in
        Section 2.
     
     1.5. EMAN WG Document Overview
     
        The EMAN working group charter calls for producing a series of
        Internet standard drafts in the area of energy management.  The
        following drafts are currently under discussion in the working
        group.
     
          Applicability Statement [EMAN-AS] This draft presents the
          use cases and scenarios for energy monitoring.  In addition,
          other relevant energy standards and architectures are listed.
     
          Requirements [EMAN-REQ] This draft presents the requirements
          of Energy Monitoring and the scope of the devices considered.
     
          Framework [EMAN-FRAMEWORK] This draft defines the
          terminology and explains the different concepts associated
          with energy monitoring; these are used in the MIB modules.
     
          Energy-Aware MIB [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] This draft proposes a MIB
          module that characterizes a device's identity and context.
     
          Monitoring MIB [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB] This draft defines a
          MIB module for monitoring the power and energy consumption of
     
     
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          a device.  In addition, the MIB module contains an optional
          module for power quality metrics.
     
          Battery MIB [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] This draft contains a MIB
          module for monitoring characteristics of an internal battery.
     
     2. Scenarios and Target Devices
     
        In this section a selection of scenarios for energy management
        are presented.  The fundamental objective of the use cases is to
        list important network scenarios that the EMAN framework should
        solve.  These use cases then drive the requirements for the EMAN
        framework.
     
        Each scenario lists target devices for which the energy
        management framework can be applied, as well as how the
        reported-on devices are powered, and how the reporting is
        accomplished.    While there may be some overlap between some of
        the use cases, the use cases serve as illustrative network
        scenarios EMAN framework should solve.
     
     2.1. Network Infrastructure Devices
     
        This scenario covers network devices and their components.
        Power management of network devices is considered as a
        fundamental requirement of energy management of networks.
     
        It can be important to monitor the power state and energy
        consumption of these devices at a granularity level finer than
        just the entire device.  For these devices, the chassis draws
        power from one or more sources and feeds all its internal
        components. It is highly desirable to have monitoring available
        for individual components, such as line cards, processors, and
        hard drives as well as peripherals like USB devices.
     
        As an illustrative example, consider a switch with the following
        grouping of sub-entities for which energy monitoring could be
        useful.
     
          .  physical view: chassis (or stack), line cards, service
             modules of the switch
          .  component view: CPU, ASICs, fans, power supply, ports
             (single port and port groups), storage and memory
          .  logical view: system, data-plane, control-plane, etc.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
     
     
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          . Target devices: Network devices such as routers, switches
             and their components.
          . How powered: Typically by a PDU on a rack or from a wall
             outlet.  The components of a device are powered by the
             device chassis.
          . Reporting:  Direct power measurement can be performed at a
             device level.  Components can report their power
             consumption directly or the chassis/device that can report
             on behalf of some components.
     
     2.2. Devices Powered and Connected to a Network Device
     
     
        This scenario covers Power over Ethernet (PoE) devices. A PoE
        Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) device (e.g. a PoE switch)
        provides power to a Powered Device (PD) (e.g. a desktop phone).
        For each port, the PSE can control the power supply (switching
        it on and off) and monitor actual power provided.  PoE devices
        obtain network connectivity as well as the power supply for the
        device over a single connection so the PSE can determine which
        device to allocate each port's power to.
     
        PoE ports on a switch are commonly connected to IP phones,
        wireless access points, and IP cameras.  The switch powers
        itself, as well as supplies power to downstream PoE ports.
        Monitoring the power consumption of the switch and the power
        consumption of the PoE end-points is a simple use case of this
        scenario.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
          . Target devices: Power over Ethernet devices such as IP
             Phones, Wireless Access Points, and IP cameras.
          . How powered: PoE devices are connected to the switch port
             which supplies power to those devices.
          . Reporting:  PoE device power consumption is often measured
             and reported at the switch (PSE) port which supplies power
             for the PoE device.
     
        In this case, the PoE devices do not need to directly support
        the EMAN framework, only the Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE)
        does.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     2.3. Devices Connected to a Network
     
        The use case covers devices that receive power from a source but
        have an independent network connection from another network
        device.  In contrast to the PoE devices, the class of devices
        have a network connection from a device, but the power supply is
        from another source. There are several examples.
     
        In continuation to the previous example is a switch port that
        has both a PoE connection powering an IP Phone, and a PC has a
        daisy-chain connection to the IP Phone for network connectivity.
        The PC has a network connection from the switch, but draws power
        from the wall outlet, in contrast to the IP phone draws power
        from the switch.
     
        It is also possible to consider a simple example of PC which has
        a network connection but draws power from the wall outlet or
        PDU.
     
        The PC in this case, is an non-PoE device, can report power
        usage by itself, for instance through the EMAN framework.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
          . Target devices:  A broad set of devices that have a network
             connection, but receive power supply from the wall outlet.
          . How powered:  These devices receive power supply from the
             wall outlet or a PDU.
          . Reporting:  There are two models: devices that can measure
             and report the power consumption directly via the EMAN
             framework, and those that communicate it to the network
             device (switch) and the switch can report the device's
             power consumption via the EMAN framework.
     
     2.4. Power Meters
     
        This use case covers devices that can measure or report the
        power consumption of devices externally. Examples are PDUs and
        smart meters.
     
        Some devices are not equipped with instrumentation to measure
        their own power and accumulated energy consumption.  External
        meters can be used to measure the power consumption of such
        devices.
     
        Three types of external metering are relevant to EMAN: PDUs,
        standalone meters, and utility meters.  External meters can
     
     
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        measure these properties for a single device or for a set of
        devices.
     
        Power Distribution Unit (PDUs) in a rack have inbuilt meters for
        each socket and the PDUs can measure the power supplied to each
        device in an equipment rack.  The PDUs have remote management
        functionality which can be used to measure and possibly control
        the power supply of each outlet.
     
        Standalone meters can be placed anywhere in a power distribution
        tree, and can measure the power consumption.
        Utility meters monitor and report accumulated power consumption
        of the entire building. There can be sub-meters to measure the
        power consumption of a portion of the building.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
        . Target devices:  PDUs and Smart Meters.
     
        . How powered:  From traditional mains power but as passed
          through a PDU or meter.
     
        . Reporting:  The PDUs reports power consumption of downstream
          devices.  There is commonly only one device downstream of each
          outlet, but there could be many.  There can be external meters
          in between the power supply and device and the meters can
          report the power consumption of the device.
     
     2.5. Mid-level Managers
     
        This use case covers aggregation of energy management data at
        "mid-level managers" that can provide energy management
        functions for themselves as well as associated devices.
     
        A switch can provide energy management functions for all devices
        connected to its ports, whether or not these devices are powered
        by the switch or whether the switch provides immediate network
        connectivity to the devices; such a switch is a mid-level
        manager, offering aggregation of power consumption data for
        devices it does not supply power to them.  Devices report their
        EMAN data to the switch and the switch aggregates the data for
        these data.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are summarized as
        follows:
     
     
     
     
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          . Target devices: network devices which can perform
             aggregation; commonly a switch or a proxy
          . How powered:  Mid-level managers can be are commonly
             powered by a PDU or from a wall outlet but there is no
             limitation.
          . Reporting:  The middle-manager aggregates the energy data
             and reports that data to a NMS or higher mid-level manager.
     
     2.6. Gateways to Building Systems
     
        This use case describes energy management of buildings.
        Building Management Systems (BMS) have been in place for many
        years using legacy protocols not based on IP.  In these
        buildings, a gateway can provide an interface between IP and
        legacy building automation protocols.  The gateway can provide
        an interface between the EMAN framework and relevant building
        management protocols.
     
        Due to the potential energy savings, energy management of
        buildings has received significant attention. There are gateway
        network elements to manage the multiple components of a building
        energy management system such as Heating, Ventilation, and Air
        Conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical, fire and emergency
        systems, elevators, etc. The gateway device uses legacy building
        protocols to communicate with those devices, collects their
        energy usage, and reports the results.
     
        The gateway performs protocol conversion between many facility
        management devices. The gateway communicates via RS-232/RS-485
        interfaces, Ethernet interfaces, and protocols specific to
        building management such as BACNET, MODBUS, or Zigbee.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are summarized as
        follows:
     
        Due to the potential energy savings, energy management of
        buildings has received significant attention.  There are gateway
        network elements to manage the multiple components of a building
        energy management system such as Heating, Ventilation, and Air
        Conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical, fire and other
        emergency systems, and elevators.  The gateway uses legacy
        building protocols to communicate with those devices, collects
        their energy data, and reports it via the EMAN framework.
     
        The gateway performs protocol conversion for many facility
        management devices, often communicating via RS-232/RS-485,
     
     
     
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        Ethernet, and protocols specific to building management such as
        BACNET, MODBUS, and/or Zigbee.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are :
     
          . Target devices: Building energy management devices - HVAC
             systems, lighting, electrical, fire and emergency systems.
             There are meters for each of the sub-systems and the energy
             data is communicated to the proxy using legacy protocols.
     
          . How powered: Any method, including directly from mains
             power or via a UPS.
          . Reporting:  The gateway collects energy consumption of non-
             IP systems and communicates the data via the EMAN
             framework.
     
     2.7. Home Energy Gateways
     
        This use case describes the scenario of energy management of a
        home. The home energy gateway is another example of a proxy that
        interfaces to the electrical appliances and other devices in a
        home and also has an interface to the utility. This gateway can
        monitor and manage the appliances (refrigerator,
        heating/cooling, washing machine etc.) possibly using one of
        the many protocols (ZigBee Smart Energy,...) that are being
        developed for the home area network products and considered
        in standards organizations.
     
        In its simplest form, metering can be performed at home. Beyond
        the metering, it is also possible implement energy saving
        policies based on energy pricing from the utility grid. From an
        EMAN point of view, the information model that been investigated
        can be applied to the protocols under consideration for energy
        monitoring of a home.
     
     
     
        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
          . Target devices: Home energy gateway and Smart meters in a
             home.
          . How powered:  Any method.
          . Reporting:  Home energy gateway can collect power
             consumption of device in a home and possibly report the
             metering reading to the utility.
     
     
     
     
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        Beyond the canonical setting of a home drawing power from the
        utility, it is also possible to envision an energy neutral
        situation wherein the buildings/homes that can produce and
        consume energy without importing energy from the utility grid.
        There are many energy production technologies such as solar
        panels, wind turbines, or micro generators. This use case
        illustrates the concept of self-contained energy generation and
        consumption and possibly the aggregation of the energy use of
        homes.
     
     
       2.8. Data Center Devices
     
        This use case describes energy management of a Data Center
        network.
     
        Energy efficiency of data centers has become a fundamental
        challenge of data center operation, as datacenters are big
        energy consumers and their infrastructure is expensive.  The
        equipment generates heat, and heat needs to be evacuated though
        a HVAC system.
     
        A typical data center network consists of a hierarchy of network
        devices.  At the bottom are servers mounted on a rack; these are
        connected to the top-of-the-rack switches; these are connected
        to aggregation switches; those in turn connected to core
        switches.  Power consumption of all network elements and the
        servers in the Data center should be measured.  In addition,
        there are also network storage devices. Energy management can be
        implemented on different aggregation levels, such as network
        level, Power Distribution Unit (PDU) level, and server level.
     
        The Data center network contains UPS to provide back-up power
        for the network devices in the event in the event of power
        outages. Thus from a Data center energy management point of
        view, in addition, to monitoring the energy usage of network
        devices, it is also important to monitor the remaining capacity
        of the UPS.
     
        In addition to monitoring the power consumption, at a data
        center level, additional metrics such as power quality, power
        characteristics can be important metrics. The dynamic variations
        in the input power supply from the grid referred to as power
        quality is one metric. Secondly, how the devices use the power
        can be referred to as power characteristics and it is also
        useful to monitor these metrics.
     
     
     
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        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
          . Target devices: All network devices in a data center, such
             as network equipment, servers, and storage devices.
          . How powered: Any method but commonly by a PDUs in racks.
          . Reporting:  Devices may report on their own behalf, or for
             other connected devices as described in other use cases.
     
     2.9. Energy Storage Devices
     
        There are two types of devices with batteries: those whose
        primary function is to provide power to another device (e.g. a
        UPS), and those with a different primary function, but have a
        battery as a component as an alternate internal power source
        (e.g. a notebook).  EMAN covers both types of products in this
        use case.
     
        Some devices have an internal battery as a back-up or
        alternative source of power to mains power.  When the connection
        to the power supply of the device is disconnected, the device
        can run on the internal battery.  As batteries have a finite
        capacity and lifetime, means for reporting the actual charge,
        age, and state of a battery are required.
     
        The battery scenario can be generalized to energy storage
        device, UPS that can provide backup power for many devices
        contained in data centers for a finite period of time.  Energy
        monitoring of such energy storage devices is vital from a data
        center network operations point of view. The UPS MIB provides a
        framework for monitoring the remaining capacity of the UPS
     
        There are also battery systems for mobile towers particularly
        for use in remote locations.  It is important to monitor the
        remaining battery life and raise an alarm when the battery life
        is below a threshold.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
          . Target devices: Devices that have an internal battery such
             as notebook PC and other mobile devices.
          . How powered: From internal batteries or mains power.
          . Reporting:  The device reports on its internal battery.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     2.10. Ganged Outlets on a PDU Multiple Power Sources
     
        This use case describes the scenario of multiple power sources
        of a devices and logical groupings of devices in a PDU.
     
        Some PDUs allow physical entities like outlets to be "ganged"
        together as a logical entity to simplify management.
        This is particularly useful for servers with multiple power
        supplies, where each power supply is connected to a different
        physical outlet.  Other implementations allow "gangs" to be
        created based on common ownership of outlets, such as business
        units, load shed priority, or other non-physical relationships.
     
        Current implementations allow for an "M-to-N" mapping between
        outlet "gangs" and physical outlets, as with this example:
     
          . Outlet 1 - physical entity
          . Outlet 2 - physical entity
          . Outlet 3 - physical entity
          . Outlet 4 - physical entity
          . Outlet Gang A - virtual entity
          . Outlet Gang B - virtual entity
     
               o Gang A -> Outlets 1, 2 and 3
               o Gang B -> Outlets 3 and 4
     
        Note the allowed overlap on Outlet 3, which belongs to both
        "gangs."
     
        Each "Outlet Gang" entity reports the aggregated data from the
        individual outlet entities that comprise it and enables a single
        point of control for all the individual outlet entities.
     
     
     2.11. Industrial Automation Networks
     
        Energy consumption statistics in the industrial sector are
        staggering.  The industrial sector alone consumes about half of
        the world's total delivered energy, making it the largest end-
        use sector.  Thus, the need for optimization of energy usage in
        this sector is natural.
     
        Industrial facilities consume energy in process loads, and in
        non-process loads.
     
        The essential properties of this use case are:
     
     
     
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          . Target devices: Devices used in industrial automation
          . How powered: Any method.
          . Reporting: Currently, CIP protocol is currently used for
             reporting energy for these devices
     
     2.12. Printers
     
        This use case describes the scenario of energy monitoring and
        management of Printer devices.
     
        Printers in this use case stand in for all imaging equipment,
        also including multi-function devices (MFDs), copiers, scanners,
        fax machines, and mailing machines.  Energy use of printers has
        been an industry concern for several decades, and they usually
        have sophisticated power management with a variety of low-power
        modes, particularly for managing energy-intensive thermo-
        mechanical components. Printers also have long made extensive
        use of SNMP for end-user system interaction and for management
        generally, and cross-vendor management systems are available
        today to manage fleets of printers in enterprises.  Power
        consumption during active modes can vary widely, with high peak
        levels.
     
        Printers today can expose detailed power state information,
        distinct from operational state information, with some printers
        reporting transition states between stable long-term states.
        Many also support active setting of power states, and setting of
        policies such as delay times when no activity will cause
        automatic transition to a lower power mode.  Other features
        include reporting on components of imaging equipment, counters
        for state transitions, and typical power levels by state,
        scheduling, and events/alarms.
     
        Some large printers also have a "Digital Front End" which is a
        computer that performs functions on behalf of the physical
        imaging system.  These will typically have their own presence on
        the network and are sometimes separately powered.
     
        There are some unique characteristics of Printers from the point
        of view energy monitoring. While the printer is not use, there
        are timer based low power states (sleep, stand-by), which
        consume very little power. On the other hand, while the printer
        is printing or copying the cylinder needs to be heated so that
        power consumption is quite high but only for a short period of
        time (duration of the print job). Given this work load, periodic
        polling of energy consumption would not suffice.
     
     
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        Target Devices: All imaging equipment.
     
        How Powered: Typically via mains AC from a wall outlet
     
        Reporting: Devices report for themselves
     
     2.13. Off Grid Devices
     
        This use case concerns self-contained devices that use energy
        but are not connected to an infrastructure power delivery grid.
        These devices typically scavenge energy from environmental
        sources such as solar energy or wind power.  The device
        generally contains a closely coupled combination of
     
          . power scavenging or generation component(s)
          . power storage component(s) (e.g., battery)
          . power consuming component(s)
     
     
        With scavenged power, the energy input is often dependent on the
        random variations of the weather.  These devices therefore
        require energy management both for internal control and remote
        reporting of their state. In order to optimize the performance
        of these devices and minimize the costs of the generation and
        storage components, it is desirable to vary the activity level,
        and, hopefully, the energy requirements of the consuming
        components in order to make best use of the available stored and
        instantaneously generated energy.  With appropriate energy
        management, the overall device can be optimized to deliver an
        appropriate level of service without over provisioning the
        generation and storage components.
     
        In many cases these devices are expected to operate
        autonomously, as continuous communications for the purposes of
        remote control is either impossible or would result in excessive
        power consumption.  Non continuous polling requires the ability
        to store and access later the information collected while the
        communication was not possible.
     
        Target Devices:  Remote network devices (mobile network) that
        consume and produce energy
     
        How Powered: Can be battery powered or using natural energy
        sources
     
     
     
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        Reporting: Devices report their power usage but only
        occasionally.
     
     
     2.14. Demand/Response
     
        Demand/Response from the utility or grid is a common theme that
        spans across some of the use cases. In some situations, in
        response to time-of-day fluctuation of energy costs or sudden
        energy shortages due power outages, it may be important to
        respond and reduce the energy consumption of the network.
     
        From EMAN use case perspective, the demand/response scenario can
        apply to a Data Center or a Building or a residential home. As a
        first step, it may be important to monitor the energy
        consumption in real-time of a Data center or a building or home
        which is already discussed in the previous use cases. Then based
        on the potential energy shortfall, the Energy Management System
        (EMS) could formulate a suitable response, i.e., the EMS could
        shut down some selected devices that may be considered
        discretionary or uniformly reduce the power supplied to all
        devices. For multi-site data centers it may be possible to
        formulate policies such as follow-the-moon type of approach, by
        scheduling the mobility of VMs across Data centers in different
        geographical locations.
     
     
     3. Use Case Patterns
     
        The use cases presented above can be abstracted to the following
        broad patterns.
     
     3.1. Metering
     
        - entities which have capability for internal metering
        - entities which are metered by an external device
     
     
     3.2. Metering and Control
     
        - entities that do not supply power, but can perform only power
        metering for other devices
     
        - entities that do not supply power, can perform both metering
     and control for other devices
     
     
     
     
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     3.3. Power Supply, Metering and Control
     
        - entities that supply power for other devices but do not
        perform power metering for those devices
     
        - entities that supply power for other devices and also perform
        power metering
     
        - entities supply power for other devices and also perform power
        metering and control for other devices
     
     
     
     3.4. Multiple power sources
     
        - entities that have multiple power sources and metering and
        control is performed by one source
     
        - entities that have multiple power sources and metering is
        performed by one source and control another source
     
     
     
     4. Relationship of EMAN to other Standards
     
        EMAN as a framework is tied to other standards and efforts that
        deal with energy.  Existing standards are leveraged when
        possible.  EMAN helps enable adjacent technologies such as Smart
        Grid.
     
        The standards most relevant and applicable to EMAN are listed
        below with a brief description of their objectives, the current
        state and how that standard can be applied to EMAN.
     
     4.1. Data Model and Reporting
     
     4.1.1. IEC - CIM
     
        The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has
        developed a broad set of standards for power management.  Among
        these, the most applicable to EMAN is IEC 61850, a standard for
        the design of electric utility automation.  The abstract data
        model defined in 61850 is built upon and extends the Common
        Information Model (CIM).  The complete 61850 CIM model includes
        over a hundred object classes and is widely used by utilities
        worldwide.
     
     
     
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        This set of standards was originally conceived to automate
        control of a substation (facilities which transfer electricity
        from the transmission to the distribution system).  While the
        original domain of 61850 is substation automation, the extensive
        data model has been widely used in other domains, including
        Energy Management Systems (EMS).
     
        IEC TC57 WG19 is an ongoing working group to harmonize the CIM
        data model and 61850 standards.
     
        Concepts from IEC Standards have been reused in the EMAN WG
        drafts.  In particular, AC Power Quality measurements have been
        reused from IEC 61850-7-4.  The concept of Accuracy Classes for
        measurement of power and energy has been reused IEC 62053-21 and
        IEC 62053-22.
     
     4.1.2. DMTF
     
        The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)[DMTF] has
        standardized management solutions for managing servers and PCs,
        including power-state configuration and management of elements
        in a heterogeneous environment.  These specifications provide
        physical, logical and virtual system management requirements for
        power-state control.
     
        The EMAN standard references the DMTF Power Profile and Power
        State Series.
     
     4.1.2.1. Common Information Model Profiles
     
        The DMTF uses CIM-based (Common Information Model) 'Profiles' to
        represent and manage power utilization and configuration of
        managed elements (note that this is not the 61850 CIM).  Key
        profiles for energy management are 'Power Supply' (DSP 1015),
        'Power State' (DSP 1027) and 'Power Utilization Management' (DSP
        1085).  These profiles define monitoring and configuration of a
        Power Managed Element's static and dynamic power saving modes,
        power allocation limits and power states, among other features.
     
        Reduced power modes can be established as static or dynamic.
        Static modes are fixed policies that limit power use or
        utilization.  Dynamic power saving modes rely upon internal
        feedback to control power consumption.
     
        Power states are eight named operational and non operational
        levels.  These are On, Sleep-Light, Sleep-Deep, Hibernate, Off-
        Soft, and Off-Hard.  Power change capabilities provide
     
     
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        immediate, timed interval, and graceful transitions between on,
        off, and reset power states.  Table 3 of the Power State Profile
        defines the correspondence between the ACPI and DMTF power state
        models, although it is not necessary for a managed element to
        support ACPI.  Optionally, a TransitingToPowerState property can
        represent power state transitions in progress.
     
     4.1.2.2. DASH
     
        DMTF DASH (DSP0232) (Desktop And Mobile Architecture for System
        Hardware) addresses managing heterogeneous desktop and mobile
        systems (including power) via in-band and out-of-band
        communications.  DASH provides management and control of managed
        elements like power, CPU, etc. using the DMTF's WS-Management
        web services and CIM data model.
     
        Both in service and out-of-service systems can be managed with
        the DASH specification in a fully secured remote environment.
        Full power lifecycle management is possible using out-of-band
        management.
     
     4.1.3. ODVA
     
        The Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA) is an association
        for industrial automation companies and defines the Common
        Industrial Protocol (CIP).  Within ODVA, there is a special
        interest group focused on energy.
     
        There are many similar concepts between the ODVA and EMAN
        frameworks towards monitoring and management of energy aware
        devices.  In particular, one of the concepts being considered
        different energy meters based on if the device consumes
        electricity or produces electricity or a passive device.
     
        The Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA) is developing an
        energy management framework for the industrial sector.  There
        are synergies between the ODVA and EMAN approaches to energy
        management.
     
        ODVA defines a three-part approach towards energy management:
        awareness of energy usage, consuming energy more efficiently,
        and exchanging energy with the utility or others.  Energy
        monitoring and management promote efficient consumption and
        enable automating actions that reduce energy consumption.
     
        The foundation of the approach is the information and
        communication model for entities.  An entity is a network-
     
     
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        connected, energy-aware device that has the ability to either
        measure or derive its energy usage based on its native
        consumption or generation of energy, or report a nominal or
        static energy value.
     
     
     
     4.1.4. Ecma SDC
     
        The Ecma International committee on Smart Data Centre (TC38-TG2
        SDC [Ecma-SDC]) is in the process of defining semantics for
        management of entities in a data center such as servers,
        storage, and network equipment.  It covers energy as one of many
        functional resources or attributes of systems for monitoring and
        control.  It only defines messages and properties, and does not
        reference any specific protocol.  Its goal is to enable
        interoperability of such protocols as SNMP, BACNET, and HTTP by
        ensuring a common semantic model across them.  Four power states
        are defined, Off, Sleep, Idle and Active. The standard does not
        include actual power measurements in kW or kWh.
     
        The 14th draft of SDC process was published in March 2011 and
        the development of the standard is still underway.  When used
        with EMAN, the SDC standard will provide a thin abstraction on
        top of the more detailed data model available in EMAN.
     
     4.1.5. Printers: IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG)
     
     
        The IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG) defines SNMP MIB
        modules for printer management and has recently defined a "PWG
        Power Management Model for Imaging Systems v1.0" [PWG5106.4] and
        a companion SNMP binding in the "PWG Imaging System Power MIB
        v1.0" [PWG5106.5].  This PWG model and MIB are harmonized with
        the DMTF CIM Infrastructure [DSP0004] and DMTF CIM Power State
        Management Profile [DSP1027] for power states and alerts.
     
     
        The PWG would like its MIBs to be harmonized as closely as
        possible with those from EMAN.  The PWG covers many topics in
        greater detail than EMAN, as well as some that are specific to
        imaging equipment.  The PWG also provides for vendor-specific
        extension states (i.e., beyond the standard DMTF CIM states.)
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     4.1.6. ASHRAE FACILITY SMART GRID INFORMATION MODEL
     
        In the U.S., there is an extensive effort to coordinate and
        develop standards related to the "Smart Grid".  The Smart Grid
        Interoperability Panel, coordinated by the government's National
        Institute of Standards and Technology, identified the need for a
        building side information model (as a counterpart to utility
        models) and specified this in Priority Action Plan (PAP) 17.
        This was designated to be a joint effort by American Society of
        Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
        and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), both
        ANSI approved SDO's.  The result is to be an information model,
        not a device level monitoring protocol.
     
        The ASHRAE effort addresses data used only within a building as
        well as data that may be shared with the grid, particularly as
        it relates to coordinating future demand levels with the needs
        of the grid.  The model is intended to be applied to any
        building type, both residential and commercial.  It is expected
        that existing protocols will be adapted to comply with the new
        information model, as would any new protocols.
     
        There are four basic types of entities in the model: generators,
        loads, meters, and energy managers.
     
        The metering part of this model overlaps with the EMAN framework
        to a large degree, though there are features unique to each.
        The load part speaks to control capabilities well beyond what
        EMAN covers.  Details of generation and of the energy management
        function are outside of EMAN scope.
     
        A public review draft of the ASHRAE standard is expected soon,
        and at that point detailed comparison of the two models can be
        made.  There are no apparent major conflicts between the two
        approaches, but there are likely areas where some harmonization
        is possible, and regardless, a description of the
        correspondences would be helpful to create.
     
     
     4.1.7. ZigBee
     
        The Zigbee Smart Energy 2.0 effort [ZIGBEE] focuses on wireless
        communication to appliances and lighting.  It is intended to
        enable building energy management and enable direct load control
        by utilities.
     
     
     
     
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        ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications
        requiring low data rates and low power consumption.  ZigBee
        defines a general-purpose, inexpensive, self-organizing mesh
        network that can be used for industrial control, embedded
        sensing, medical data collection, smoke and intruder warning,
        building automation, home automation, etc.
     
        Zigbee is currently not an ANSI recognized SDO.
     
        The EMAN framework addresses the needs of IP-enabled networks
        through the usage of SNMP, while Zigbee looks for completely
        integrated and inexpensive mesh solution.
     
     4.2. Measurement
     
     
     4.2.1. ANSI C12
     
        The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has defined a
        collection of power meter standards under ANSI C12.  The primary
        standards include communication protocols (C12.18, 21 and 22),
        data and schema definitions (C12.19), and measurement accuracy
        (C12.20).  European equivalent standards are provided by IEC
        62053-22.ANSI C12.20 defines accuracy classes for watt-hour
        meters.
     
        All of these standards are oriented toward the meter itself, and
        are therefore very specific and used by electricity distributors
        and producers.
     
        The EMAN standard references ANSI C12 accuracy classes.
     
     4.2.2. IEC62301
     
        IEC 62301, "Household electrical appliances Measurement of
        standby power", specifies a power level measurement procedure.
        While nominally for appliances and low-power modes, many aspects
        of it apply to other device types and modes and it is commonly
        referenced in test procedures for energy using products.
     
        While the standard is intended for laboratory measurements of
        devices in controlled conditions, many aspects of it are
        informative to those implementing measurement in products that
        ultimately report via EMAN.
     
     
     
     
     
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     4.3. Other
     
     4.3.1. ISO
     
        The ISO [ISO] is developing an energy management standard, ISO
        50001, to complement ISO 9001 for quality management, and ISO
        14001 for environment management. The intent of the framework is
        to facilitate the creation of energy management programs for
        industrial, commercial and other entities.  The standard defines
        a process for energy management at an organization level.  It
        does not define the way in which devices report energy and
        consume energy.
     
        EMAN is complementary to ISO 9001.
     
        ISO 50001 is based on the common elements found in all of ISO's
        management system standards, assuring a high level of
        compatibility with ISO 9001 (quality management) and ISO 14001
        (environmental management).  ISO 50001 benefits includes:
     
       o Integrating energy efficiency into management practices and
          throughout the supply chain
       o Energy management best practices and good energy management
          behaviors
       o benchmarking, measuring, documenting, and reporting energy
          intensity improvements and their projected impact on
          reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
       o Evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-
          efficient technologies
     
        ISO 50001 has been developed by ISO project committee ISO/PC
        242, Energy management.
     
     4.3.2. Energy Star
     
        The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department
        of Energy (DOE) jointly sponsor the Energy Star program [ESTAR].
        The program promotes the development of energy efficient
        products and practices.
     
        To qualify as Energy Star, products must meet specific energy
        efficiency targets.  The Energy Star program also provides
        planning tools and technical documentation to encourage more
        energy efficient building design.  Energy Star is a program; it
        is not a protocol or standard.
     
     
     
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        For businesses and data centers, Energy Star offers technical
        support to help companies establish energy conservation
        practices.  Energy Star provides best practices for measuring
        current energy performance, goal setting, and tracking
        improvement.  The Energy Star tools offered include a rating
        system for building performance and comparative benchmarks.
     
        There is no immediate link between EMAN and Energy Star, one
        being a protocol and the other a set of recommendations to
        develop energy efficient products.  However, Energy Star could
        include EMAN standards in specifications for future products,
        either as required or rewarded with some benefit.
     
     4.3.3. Smart Grid
     
        The Smart Grid standards efforts underway in the United States
        are overseen by the US National Institute of Standards and
        Technology [NIST].  NIST is responsible for coordinating a
        public-private partnership with key energy and consumer
        stakeholders in order to facilitate the development of smart
        grid standards.  The NIST smart grid standards activities are
        monitored and facilitated by the SGIP (Smart Grid
        Interoperability Panel).  This group has working groups for
        specific topics including homes, commercial buildings, and
        industrial facilities as they relate to the grid.
     
        When a working group detects a standard or technology gap, the
        team seeks approval from the SGIP for the creation of a Priority
        Action Plan (PAP), a private-public partnership to close the
        gap.  There are currently 17 PAPs.  PAP 17 is discussed in
        section 4.1.6.
     
        PAP 10 addresses "Standard Energy Usage Information".
        Smart Grid standards will provide distributed intelligence in
        the network and allow enhanced load shedding.  For example,
        pricing signals will enable selective shutdown of non critical
        activities during peak-load pricing periods.  These actions can
        be effected through both centralized and distributed management
        controls.
     
        There is an obvious functional link between Smart Grid and EMAN
        in the form of demand response, even if the EMAN framework does
        not take any specific step toward Smart Grid communication.
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     5. Limitations
     
        EMAN Framework shall address the needs of energy monitoring in
        terms of measurement and, considers limited control capabilities
        of energy monitoring of networks.
     
        EMAN does not create a new protocol stack, but rather defines a
        data and information model useful for measuring and reporting
        energy and other metrics over SNMP.
     
        The EMAN framework does not address questions regarding
        SmartGrid, electricity producers, and distributors even if there
        is obvious link between them.
     
     6. Security Considerations
     
        EMAN shall use SNMP protocol for energy monitoring and thus has
        the functionality of SNMP's security capabilities. SNMPv3
        [RFC3411] provides important security features such as
        confidentiality, integrity, and authentication.
     
     7. IANA Considerations
     
        This memo includes no request to IANA.
     
     8. Acknowledgements
     
        The authors would like to thank Jeff Wheeler, Benoit Claise,
        Juergen Quittek, Chris Verges, John Parello, and Matt Laherty,
        for their valuable contributions.
     
        The authors would like to thank Georgios Karagiannis for use
        case involving energy neutral homes, Elwyn Davies for off-grid
        electricity systems, and Kerry Lynn for the comment on the
        Demand/Response scenario.
     
     9. Open Issues
     
     
        OPEN ISSUE 1: Relevant IEC standards for application for EMAN
          Applicability Statement document can provide guidance on the
          issue of what is appropriate standard used by EMAN
     
          IEC 61850-7-4 has been extensively used in EMAN WG documents.
          The other IEC documents referred for possible use are IEC
          61000-4-30, IEC 62053-21 and IEC 62301.
     
     
     
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          There is feedback that IEC 61850-7-4 applies only to sub-
          stations ?
     
     
     
        OPEN ISSUE 2: Should review ASHRAE SPC 201P standard when it is
        released for public review
     
          . Need to review ASHRAE information model and the use cases
             and how it relates to EMAN
     
     
     
        OPEN ISSUE 3: Review ALL requirements to ensure that they can be
        traced to a use case
          . Missing is an use case for power quality
     
        OPEN ISSUE 4: Question for the WG: Should we have unique use
        cases that introduce specific requirements ? or can there be
        some overlap between some use cases ?
     
        Any use cases out of scope scenarios ?
     
     
     
     10. References
     
     10.1. Normative References
     
        [RFC3411] An Architecture for Describing Simple Network
                Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks, RFC
                3411, December 2002.
     
     
     10.2. Informative References
     
     
        [DASH] "Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware",
                http://www.dmtf.org/standards/mgmt/dash/
     
        [NIST]  http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/
     
        [Ecma-SDC] Ecma TC38 / SDC Task Group, "Smart Data Centre
                Resource Monitoring and Control (DRAFT)", March 2011.
     
        [ENERGY] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilowatt_hour
     
     
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        [EMAN-AS] Tychon, E., B. Schoening , MouliChandramouli, Bruce
                Nordman, "Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability
                Statement", draft-tychon-eman-applicability-statement-
                04.txt, work in progress, October 2011.
     
        [EMAN-REQ] Quittek, J., Winter, R., Dietz, T., Claise, B., and
                M. Chandramouli, "Requirements for Energy Management ",
                draft-ietf-eman-requirements-04 (work in progress),July
                2011.
     
        [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB] M. Chandramouli, Schoening, B., Dietz, T.,
                Quittek, J. and B. Claise  "Energy and Power Monitoring
                MIB ", draft-ietf-eman-monitoring-mib-00,August 2011.
     
        [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] J. Parello, and B. Claise, "draft-ietf-eman-
                energy-aware-mib-02", work in progress, July 2011.
     
        [EMAN-FRAMEWORK] Claise, B., Parello, J., Schoening, B., and J.
                Quittek, "Energy Management Framework", draft-ietf-
                eman-framework-02 ,July 2011.
     
        [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] Quittek, J., Winter, R., and T. Dietz,
                "Definition of Managed Objects for Battery Monitoring"
                draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-02.txt, July 2011.
     
        [DMTF] "Power State Management ProfileDMTFDSP1027  Version 2.0"
                December2009.
                http://www.dmtf.org/sites/default/files/standards/docum
                ents/DSP1027_2.0.0.pdf
     
        [ESTAR]  http://www.energystar.gov/
     
        [ISO]    http://www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm?refid=Ref1434
     
        [SGRID]  http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
                sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/SGIPWorkingGroupsAndCommittee
                s
     
     
        [ASHRAE] http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
                sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP17Information
     
        [PAP17] http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
                sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP17FacilitySmartGridInforma
                tionStandard
     
     
     
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        [ZIGBEE] http://www.zigbee.org/
     
        [ISO]  http://www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm?refid=Ref1337
     
        [DSP0004] DMTF Common Information Model (CIM) Infrastructure,
                DSP0004, May 2009.
                http://www.dmtf.org/standards/published_documents/DSP00
                04_2.5.0.pdf
     
        [DSP1027] DMTF Power State Management Profile, DSP1027, December
                2009.
                http://www.dmtf.org/standards/published_documents/DSP10
                27_2.0.0.pdf
     
        [PWG5106.4] IEEE-ISTO PWG Power Management Model for Imaging
                Systems v1.0, PWG Candidate Standard 5106.4-2011,
                February 2011. ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/candidates/cs-
                wimspower10-20110214-5106.4.mib
     
        [PWG5106.5] IEEE-ISTO PWG Imaging System Power MIB v1.0, PWG
                Candidate Standard 5106.5-2011, February 2011.
     
        [IEC62301] International Electrotechnical Commission, "IEC 62301
                Household electrical appliances Measurement of
                standby power", Edition 2.0, 2011.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Authors' Addresses
     
        Emmanuel Tychon
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        De Keleetlaan, 6A
        B1831 Diegem
        Belgium
        Email: etychon@cisco.com
     
     
        Brad Schoening
        44 Rivers Edge Drive
        Little Silver, NJ 07739
        USA
        Email: brad@bradschoening.com
     
     
        Mouli Chandramouli
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        Sarjapur Outer Ring Road
        Bangalore,
        India
        Phone: +91 80 4426 3947
        Email: moulchan@cisco.com
     
     
        Bruce Nordman
        Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
        1 Cyclotron Road, 90-4000
        Berkeley  94720-8136
        USA
     
        Phone: +1 510 486 7089
        Email: bnordman@lbl.gov
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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