OAuth Working Group                                     N. Sakimura, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                 Nomura Research Institute
Intended status: Standards Track                              J. Bradley
Expires: February 26, 2015                                   Independent
                                                         August 25, 2014

                  Request by JWS ver.1.0 for OAuth 2.0


   The authorization request in OAuth 2.0 utilizes query parameter
   serialization.  This specification defines the authorization request
   using JWT serialization.  The request is sent thorugh "request"
   parameter or by reference through "request_uri" parameter that points
   to the JWT, allowing the request to be optionally signed and

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 26, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 1]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Request Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Request Object URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Request Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Request Object URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Authorization Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Authorization Server Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  IANA  Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   The parameters "request" and "request_uri" are introduced as
   additional authorization request parameters for the OAuth 2.0
   [RFC6749] flows.  The "request" parameter is a JSON Web Token (JWT)
   [JWT] whose body holds the JSON encoded OAuth 2.0 authorization
   request parameters.  The [JWT] can be passed to the authorization
   endpoint by reference, in which case the parameter "request_uri" is
   used instead of the "request".

   Using [JWT] as the request encoding instead of query parameters has
   several advantages:

   1.  The request may be signed so that integrity check may be
       implemented.  If a suitable algorithm is used for the signing,
       then non-repudiation property may be obtained in addition.

   2.  The request may be encrypted so that end-to-end confidentiality
       may be obtained even if in the case TLS connection is terminated
       at a gateway or a similar device.

   There are a few cases that request by reference is useful such as:

   1.  When it is detected that the User Agent does not suport long
       URLs: It is entirely possible that some extensions may extend the

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 2]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

       URL.  For example, the client might want to send a public key
       with the request.

   2.  Static signature: The client may make a signed Request Object and
       put it on the client.  This may just be done by a client utility
       or other process, so that the private key does not have to reside
       on the client, simplifying programming.

   3.  When the server wants the requests to be cacheable: The
       request_uri may include a sha256 hash of the file, as defined in
       FIPS180-2 [FIPS180-2], the server knows if the file has changed
       without fetching it, so it does not have to re-fetch a same file,
       which is a win as well.

   4.  When the client wants to simplify the implementation without
       compromising the security.  If the request parameters go through
       the Browser, they may be tampered in the browser even if TLS was
       used.  This implies we need to have signature on the request as
       well.  However, if HTTPS "request_uri" was used, it is not going
       to be tampered, thus we now do not have to sign the request.
       This simplifies the implementation.

   This capability is in use by OpenID Connect.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Terminology

   For the purposes of this specification, the following terms and
   definitions apply.

2.1.  Request Object

   JWT [JWT] that holds OAuth 2.0 authorization requests as JSON object
   in its body

2.2.  Request Object URI

   absolute URI from which the Request Object (Section 2.1) can be

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 3]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

3.  Request Object

   A Request Object (Section 2.1) is used to provide authorization
   request parameters for OAuth 2.0 authorization request.  It contains
   OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749] authorization request parameters including
   extension parameters.  It is a JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] signed
   JWT [JWT] . The parameters are included as the top level members of
   JSON [RFC4627].  Parameter names and string values MUST be included
   as JSON strings.  Numerical values MUST be included as JSON numbers.
   It MAY include any extension parameters.  This JSON [RFC4627]
   constitues the body of the [JWT].

   The Request Object MAY be signed or unsigned (plaintext).  When it is
   plaintext, this is indicated by use of the "none" algorithm [JWA] in
   the JWS header.  If signed, the Authorization Request Object SHOULD
   contain the Claims "iss" (issuer) and "aud" (audience) as members,
   with their semantics being the same as defined in the JWT [JWT]

   The Request Object MAY also be encrypted using JWE [JWE] after
   signing, with nesting performed in the same manner as specified for
   JWTs [JWT].  The Authorization Request Object MAY alternatively be
   sent by reference using "request_uri" parameter.

   REQUIRED OAuth 2.0 Authorization Request parameters that are not
   included in the Request Object MUST be sent as a query parameter.  If
   a required parameter is not present in neither the query parameter or
   the Request Object, it forms a malformed request.

   If the parameter exists both in the query string and the
   Authorization Request Object, they MUST exactly match.

   Following is the example of the JSON which consitutes the body of the


   The following is a non-normative example of a [JWT] encoded
   authorization request object.  It includes extension variables such
   as "nonce", "userinfo", and "id_token".  Note that the line wraps
   within the values are for display purpose only:

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 4]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

JWT algorithm = HS256
HMAC HASH Key = 'aaa'

JSON Encoded Header = "{"alg":"HS256","typ":"JWT"}"
JSON Encoded Payload = "{"response_type":"code id_token",
    "scope":"openid profile",

JWT = eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJyZXNwb25zZV90eXBlIjoiY29kZ

4.  Request Object URI

   Instead of sending the Request Object in a OAuth 2.0 authorization
   request directly, this specification allows it to be obtained from
   the Request Object URI.  Using this method has an advantage of
   reducing the request size, enabling the caching of the Request
   Object, and generally not requiring integrity protection through a
   cryptographic operation on the Request Object if the channel itself
   is protected.

   The Request Object URI is sent as a part of the OAuth Authorization
   Request as the value for the parameter called "request_uri".  How the
   Request Object is registered at Request Object URI is out of scope of
   this specification, but it MUST be done in a protected channel.

   NOTE: the Request Object MAY be registered at the Authorization
   Server at the client registration time.

   When the Authorization Server obtains the Request Object from Request
   Object URI, it MUST do so over a protected channel.  If it is
   obtained from a remote server, it SHOULD use either HTTP over TLS 1.2
   as defined in RFC5246 [RFC5246] AND/OR [JWS] with the algorithm
   considered appropriate at the time.

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 5]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

   When sending the request by "request_uri", the client MAY provide the
   sha256 hash as defined in FIPS180-2 [FIPS180-2]of the Request Object
   as the fragment to it to assist the cache utilization decision of the
   Authorization Server.

5.  Authorization Request

   The client constructs the authorization request URI by adding the
   following parameters to the query component of the authorization
   endpoint URI using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format:

   request  REQUIRED unless "request_uri" is specified.  The Request
      Object (Section 3) that holds authorization request parameters
      stated in the section 4 of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749].

   request_uri  REQUIRED unless "request" is specified.  The absolute
      URL that points to the Request Object (Section 3) that holds
      authorization request parameters stated in the section 4 of OAuth
      2.0 [RFC6749].

   state  RECOMMENDED.  OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749] state.

   The client directs the resource owner to the constructed URI using an
   HTTP redirection response, or by other means available to it via the

   For example, the client directs the end-user's user-agent to make the
   following HTTPS request (line breaks are for display purposes only):

GET /authorize?request_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com

   The autorization request object MAY be signed AND/OR encrypted.

   Upon receipt of "request_uri" in the request, the authorization
   server MUST send a GET request to the "request_uri" to retrieve the
   authorization request object unless it is already cached at the
   Authorization Server.

   If the response was signed AND/OR encrypted, it has to be decoded
   accordingly before being processed.

   Then, the Authorization Server MUST reconstruct the complete client
   request from the original HTTP request and the content of the request
   object.  Then, the process continues as described in Section 3 of
   OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749] .

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 6]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

6.  Authorization Server Response

   Authorization Server Response is created and sent to the client as in
   Section 4 of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749] .

   In addition, this document defines additional 'error' values as

   invalid_request_uri  The provided request_uri was not available.

   invalid_request_format  The Request Object format was invalid.

   invalid_request_params  The parameter set provided in the Request
      Object was invalid.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers following error strings to the OAuth Error

   invalid_request_uri  The provided request_uri was not available.

   invalid_request_format  The Request Object format was invalid.

   invalid_request_params  The parameter set provided in the Request
      Object was invalid.

8.  Security Considerations

   In addition to the all the security considerations discussed in OAuth
   2.0 [RFC6819], the following security considerations SHOULD be taken
   into account.

   When sending the authorization request object through "request"
   parameter, it SHOULD be signed with then considered appropriate
   algorithm using[JWS].  The "alg=none" SHOULD NOT be used in such a

   If the request object contains personally identifiable or sensitive
   information, the "request_uri" MUST be of one-time use and MUST have
   large enough entropy deemed necessary with applicable security
   policy.  For higher security requirement, using [JWE] is strongly

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 7]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

9.  Acknowledgements

   Following people contributed to creating this document through the
   OpenID Connect 1.0 [openid_ab] .

   Breno de Medeiros (Google), Hideki Nara (TACT), John Bradley (
   Independent) <author>, Nat Sakimura (NRI) <author/editor>, Ryo Itou
   (Yahoo!  Japan), George Fletcher (AOL), Justin Richer (MITRE), Edmund
   Jay (Illumila), (add yourself).

   In addition following people contributed to this and previous
   versions through The OAuth Working Group.

   David Recordon (Facebook), Luke Shepard (Facebook), James H.  Manger
   (Telstra), Marius Scurtescu (Google), John Panzer (Google), Dirk
   Balfanz (Google), (add yourself).

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

              U.S. Department of Commerce and National Institute of
              Standards and Technology, "Secure Hash Signature
              Standard", FIPS 180-2, August 2002.

              Defines Secure Hash Algorithm 256 (SHA256)

   [JWA]      Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", draft-ietf-jose-
              json-web-algorithms (work in progress), July 2014.

   [JWE]      Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
              draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption (work in progress),
              July 2014.

   [JWS]      Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
              Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work
              in progress), July 2014.

   [JWT]      Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
              (JWT)", draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token (work in
              progress), July 2014.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4627]  Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
              JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 8]

Internet-Draft                oauth-jws-req                  August 2014

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC6749]  Hardt, D., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework", RFC
              6749, October 2012.

   [RFC6819]  Lodderstedt, T., McGloin, M., and P. Hunt, "OAuth 2.0
              Threat Model and Security Considerations", RFC 6819,
              January 2013.

10.2.  Informative References

              Sakimura, N., Bradley, J., Jones, M., de Medeiros, B., and
              C. Mortimore, "OpenID Connect Core 1.0", February 2014.

Authors' Addresses

   Nat Sakimura (editor)
   Nomura Research Institute
   1-6-5 Marunouchi, Marunouchi Kitaguchi Bldg.
   Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo  100-0005

   Phone: +81-3-5533-2111
   Email: n-sakimura@nri.co.jp
   URI:   http://nat.sakimura.org/

   John Bradley
   Casilla 177, Sucursal Talagante
   Talagante, RM

   Phone: +44 20 8133 3718
   Email: ve7jtb@ve7jtb.com
   URI:   http://www.thread-safe.com/

Sakimura & Bradley      Expires February 26, 2015               [Page 9]