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JSContact: A JSON representation of contact data
draft-ietf-calext-jscontact-16

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (calext WG)
Authors Robert Stepanek , Mario Loffredo
Last updated 2024-02-14 (Latest revision 2023-11-08)
Replaces draft-ietf-jmap-jscontact, draft-stepanek-jscontact
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Document shepherd Daniel Migault
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2023-01-10
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Send notices to mglt.ietf@gmail.com
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Details
draft-ietf-calext-jscontact-16
Calendaring Extensions                                       R. Stepanek
Internet-Draft                                                  Fastmail
Intended status: Standards Track                             M. Loffredo
Expires: 12 May 2024                                             IIT-CNR
                                                         9 November 2023

            JSContact: A JSON representation of contact data
                     draft-ietf-calext-jscontact-16

Abstract

   This specification defines a data model and JSON representation of
   contact card information that can be used for data storage and
   exchange in address book or directory applications.  It aims to be an
   alternative to the vCard data format and to be unambiguous,
   extendable and simple to process.  In contrast to the JSON-based
   jCard format, it is not a direct mapping from the vCard data model
   and expands semantics where appropriate.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 12 May 2024.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Motivation and Relation to vCard, jCard and xCard . . . .   5
     1.2.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.3.  Data Type Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       1.3.1.  Objects and Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       1.3.2.  Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       1.3.3.  Property Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       1.3.4.  The @type Property  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     1.4.  Common Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       1.4.1.  Id  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       1.4.2.  Int and UnsignedInt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       1.4.3.  PatchObject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       1.4.4.  Resource  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       1.4.5.  UTCDateTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     1.5.  Common Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       1.5.1.  contexts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       1.5.2.  extra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       1.5.3.  label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       1.5.4.  pref  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       1.5.5.  phonetic  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     1.6.  Internationalization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       1.6.1.  Free-form text  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       1.6.2.  URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     1.7.  Validating JSContact  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       1.7.1.  Case-Sensitivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       1.7.2.  IANA-registered Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       1.7.3.  Unknown Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       1.7.4.  Enumerated Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     1.8.  Vendor-Specific Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       1.8.1.  Vendor-specific Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       1.8.2.  Vendor-specific Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     1.9.  Versioning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       1.9.1.  Version Format and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       1.9.2.  Current Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   2.  Card  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     2.1.  Metadata Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.1.1.  @type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

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       2.1.2.  version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.1.3.  created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.1.4.  kind  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.1.5.  language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.1.6.  members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.1.7.  prodId  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       2.1.8.  relatedTo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       2.1.9.  uid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       2.1.10. updated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     2.2.  Name and Organization Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       2.2.1.  name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       2.2.2.  organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       2.2.3.  speakToAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       2.2.4.  titles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     2.3.  Contact Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       2.3.1.  emails  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       2.3.2.  onlineServices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       2.3.3.  phones  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       2.3.4.  preferredLanguages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     2.4.  Calendaring and Scheduling Properties . . . . . . . . . .  38
       2.4.1.  calendars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
       2.4.2.  schedulingAddresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     2.5.  Address and Location Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
       2.5.1.  addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     2.6.  Resource Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       2.6.1.  cryptoKeys  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
       2.6.2.  directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
       2.6.3.  links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       2.6.4.  media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     2.7.  Multilingual Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
       2.7.1.  localizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
     2.8.  Additional Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
       2.8.1.  anniversaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
       2.8.2.  keywords  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       2.8.3.  notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       2.8.4.  personalInfo  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   3.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     3.1.  Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     3.2.  Creation of the "JSContact" Registry Group  . . . . . . .  56
     3.3.  Registry Policy and Change Procedures . . . . . . . . . .  56
       3.3.1.  Preliminary Community Review  . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
       3.3.2.  Submit Request to IANA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
       3.3.3.  Designated Expert Review  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
       3.3.4.  Change Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
     3.4.  Creation of the "JSContact Version" Registry  . . . . . .  58
       3.4.1.  "JSContact Version" Registry Template . . . . . . . .  58
       3.4.2.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Version"
               Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59

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     3.5.  Creation of the "JSContact Properties" Registry . . . . .  59
       3.5.1.  "JSContact Properties" Registry Template  . . . . . .  59
       3.5.2.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Properties"
               Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
     3.6.  Creation of the "JSContact Types" Registry  . . . . . . .  69
       3.6.1.  "JSContact Types" Registry Template . . . . . . . . .  69
       3.6.2.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Types"
               Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     3.7.  Creation of the "JSContact Enum Values" Registry  . . . .  72
       3.7.1.  "JSContact Enum Values" Registry Property Template  .  72
       3.7.2.  "JSContact Enum Values" Registry Value Template . . .  73
       3.7.3.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Enum Values"
               Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
     4.1.  JSON Parsing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
     4.2.  URI Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
   5.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
     5.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
     5.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87

1.  Introduction

   This document defines a data model for contact card data normally
   used in address book or directory applications and services.  It aims
   to be an alternative to the vCard data format [RFC6350].

   The key design considerations for this data model are as follows:

   *  The data model and set of attributes should mostly be compatible
      with the one defined for the vCard data format [RFC6350] and
      extensions ([RFC6473], [RFC6474], [RFC6715], [RFC6869],
      [RFC8605]).  The specification should add new attributes or value
      types where appropriate.  Not all existing vCard definitions need
      an equivalent in JSContact, especially if the vCard definition is
      considered to be obsolete or otherwise inappropriate.  Conversion
      between the data formats need not fully preserve semantic meaning.

   *  The attributes of the card data represented must be described as
      simple key-value pairs, reducing complexity of their
      representation.

   *  The data model should avoid all ambiguities and make it difficult
      to make mistakes during implementation.

   *  Extensions, such as new properties and components, MUST NOT lead
      to requiring an update to this document.

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   The representation of this data model is defined in the I-JSON format
   [RFC7493], which is a strict subset of the JavaScript Object Notation
   (JSON) Data Interchange Format [RFC8259].  Using JSON is mostly a
   pragmatic choice: its widespread use makes JSContact easier to adopt,
   and the availability of production-ready JSON implementations
   eliminates a whole category of parser-related interoperability
   issues.

1.1.  Motivation and Relation to vCard, jCard and xCard

   The vCard data format [RFC6350] is an interchange format for contacts
   data between address book service providers and vendors.  However,
   this format has gone through multiple specifications iterations with
   only a subset of its deprecated version 3 [RFC2426] being widely in
   use.  Consequently, products and services internally use a richer
   contact data model than they expose when serializing that information
   to vCard.  In addition, service providers often use a proprietary
   JSON representation of contact data in their APIs.

   JSContact provides a standard JSON-based data model and
   representation of contact data as an alternative to proprietary
   formats.

   While writing this document, several features missing in vCard were
   brought to the attention of the authors, such as social media
   contacts, gender pronouns and others.  This highlights how vCard is
   not perceived as an evolving format and consequently hasn't been
   updated since close to ten years.  JSContact addresses these unmet
   demands and defines new vCard properties and parameters to allow
   interchanging them in both formats.

   The xCard [RFC6351] and jCard [RFC7095] specifications define
   alternative representations for vCard data, in XML and JSON format
   respectively.  Both explicitly aim to not change the underlying data
   model.  Accordingly, they are regarded as equal to vCard in the
   context of this document.

1.2.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

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   The ABNF definitions in this document use the notations of [RFC5234].
   ABNF rules not defined in this document either are defined in
   [RFC5234] (such as the ABNF for CRLF, WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and
   DIGIT) or [RFC6350].

1.3.  Data Type Notations

   This section introduces the notations and terminology used to define
   data types in JSContact.

   The underlying format for JSContact is JSON and so also its data
   types build on JSON values.  The terms "object" and "array" as well
   as the four primitive types ("strings", "numbers", "booleans", and
   "null") are to be interpreted as described in Section 1 of [RFC8259].
   All JSContact data MUST be valid according to the constraints given
   in I-JSON [RFC7493].  Unless otherwise noted, all member names in
   JSON objects and all string values are case-sensitive.  Within
   context of JSON objects, the term "key" is synonymous with "member
   name" as defined in Section 1 of [RFC8259].

1.3.1.  Objects and Properties

   JSContact defines data types for contact information such as
   addresses or names.  This information typically consists of multiple
   related elements, for example a personal name and surname together
   form a name.  These related elements are organized in JSContact
   objects.  A JSContact object is a JSON object which:

   1.  Has a unique type name registered in the IANA JSContact Types
       Registry (Section 3.6).

   2.  Has one or more object members for which the name and allowed
       value types are specified.  Such members are called "properties".

   3.  Has one property named @type with a string value that matches the
       type name of this JSContact object.  In general, this property
       does not need to be set explicitly as outlined in Section 1.3.4.

   The following sections specify how to define JSContact object types.
   Section 1.7 and Section 1.8 then define the exact requirements for
   property names.

   The next paragraph illustrates how a JSContact object is defined:

   |  A Foo object has the following properties:
   |  

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   |  *  qux: Number (mandatory).  Defines the qux-ishness of this
   |     contact.  The value MUST be an integer greater than 0 and less
   |     than 10.

   Here, a JSContact object type named Foo is defined.  In addition to
   its @type property it has a property named qux for which values MUST
   be valid according to the definition of the Number type.  The
   property has one attribute, mandatory, which specifies that the
   property MUST be present for an instance of this JSContact object to
   be valid.  Finally, a free-text description describes the semantics
   and further restrictions.

1.3.2.  Type Signatures

   Type signatures are given for all JSON values and JSContact
   definitions in this document.  The following conventions are used:

   *  String - The JSON string type.

   *  Number - The JSON number type.

   *  Boolean - The JSON boolean type.

   *  A[B] - A JSON object where the keys are all of the type A, and the
      values are all of the type B.

   *  A[] - A JSON array of values of type A.

   *  A|B - The value is either of type A or of type B.

   *  * - The type is undefined (the value could be any type, although
      permitted values may be constrained by the context of this value).

   Section 1.4 defines common data types, including signed or unsigned
   integers and dates.

1.3.3.  Property Attributes

   Object properties may also have a set of attributes defined along
   with the type signature.  These have the following meanings:

   *  mandatory: The property MUST be set for an instance of this object
      to be valid.

   *  optional: The property can but not need be set for an instance of
      this object to be valid.

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   *  default: This is followed by a JSON value.  That value will be
      used for this property if it is omitted.

   *  defaultType: This is followed by the name of a JSContact object
      type.  A property value of JSContact object type is expected to be
      of this named type, in case it omits the @type property.

1.3.4.  The @type Property

   This property is defined as:

   *  @type: String.  Specifies the type of this object.  This MUST
      match the type name of the JSContact object of which this JSON
      object is an instance of.

   The purpose of this property is to help implementations identify
   which JSContact object type a given JSON object represents.
   Implementations MUST validate that JSON objects with this property
   conform to the specification of the JSContact object type of that
   name.

   In many cases the @type property value is implied by where its object
   occurs in JSContact data.  Assuming that both A and B are JSContact
   object types:

   *  An object that is set as the value for a property with type
      signature A MAY have the @type property set.  If the @type
      property is not set then its value is implied to be A by the
      property definition.

   *  An object that is set as the value for a property with type
      signature A|B (defaultType: A) MAY have the @type property set if
      it is an instance of A.  It MUST have the @type property set if it
      is an instance of B.  If instead the defaultType attribute is not
      defined then the @type property MUST also be set for A.

   *  An object that is not the value of a property, such as the root of
      JSON data (directly or as member of an array), MUST have the @type
      property set.

1.4.  Common Data Types

   In addition to the standard JSON data types, a couple of additional
   data types are common to the definitions of JSContact objects and
   properties.

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1.4.1.  Id

   Where Id is given as a data type, it means a String of at least 1 and
   a maximum of 255 octets in size, and it MUST only contain characters
   from the URL and Filename Safe base64url alphabet, as defined in
   Section 5 of [RFC4648], excluding the pad character (=).  This means
   the allowed characters are the ASCII alphanumeric characters (A-Za-
   z0-9), hyphen (-), and underscore (_).

   In many places in JSContact a JSON map is used where the map keys are
   of type Id and the map values are all the same type of object.  This
   construction represents an unordered set of objects, with the added
   advantage that each entry has a name (the corresponding map key).
   This allows for more concise patching of objects, and, when
   applicable, for the objects in question to be referenced from other
   objects within the JSContact object.  The map keys MUST be preserved
   across multiple versions of the JSContact object.

   Unless otherwise specified for a particular property, there are no
   uniqueness constraints on an Id value (other than, of course, the
   requirement that you cannot have two values with the same key within
   a single JSON map).  For example, two Card (Section 2) objects might
   use the same Ids in their respective photos properties.  Or within
   the same Card the same Id could appear in the emails and phones
   properties.  These situations do not imply any semantic connections
   among the objects.

1.4.2.  Int and UnsignedInt

   Where Int is given as a data type, it means an integer in the range
   -2^53+1 <= value <= 2^53-1, the safe range for integers stored in a
   floating-point double, represented as a JSON Number.

   Where UnsignedInt is given as a data type, it means an integer in the
   range 0 <= value <= 2^53-1, represented as a JSON Number.

1.4.3.  PatchObject

   A PatchObject is of type String[*], and represents an unordered set
   of patches on a JSON object.  Each key is a path represented in a
   subset of JSON pointer format [RFC6901].  The paths have an implicit
   leading /, so each key is prefixed with / before applying the JSON
   pointer evaluation algorithm.

   A patch within a PatchObject is only valid if all the following
   conditions apply:

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   1.  The pointer MAY reference inside an array but if the last
       reference token in the pointer is an array index, then the patch
       value MUST NOT be null.  The pointer MUST NOT use "-" as an array
       index in any of its reference tokens (i.e., you MUST NOT insert/
       delete from an array, but you MAY replace the contents of its
       existing members.  To add or remove members, one needs to replace
       the complete array value).

   2.  All reference tokens prior to the last (i.e., the value after the
       final slash) MUST already exist as values in the object being
       patched.  If the last reference token is an array index, then a
       member at this index MUST already exist in the referenced array.

   3.  There MUST NOT be two patches in the PatchObject where the
       pointer of one is the prefix of the pointer of the other, e.g.,
       addresses/1/city and addresses.

   4.  The value for the patch MUST be valid for the property being set
       (of the correct type and obeying any other applicable
       restrictions), or if null the property MUST be optional.

   The value associated with each pointer determines how to apply that
   patch:

   *  If null, remove the property from the patched object.  If the key
      is not present in the parent, this is a no-op.

   *  If non-null, set the value given as the value for this property
      (this may be a replacement or addition to the object being
      patched).

   A PatchObject does not define its own @type (Section 1.3.4) property.
   Instead, a @type property in a patch MUST be handled as any other
   patched property value.

   Implementations MUST reject in its entirety a PatchObject if any of
   its patches are invalid.  Implementations MUST NOT apply partial
   patches.

1.4.4.  Resource

   This data type defines a resource associated with the entity
   represented by this Card, identified by a URI [RFC3986].  Several
   property definitions later in this document refer to the Resource
   data type as the basis for their property-specific value types.  The
   Resource data type defines the properties that are common to all of
   them.  Property definitions making use of Resource MAY define
   additional properties for their value types.

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   The @type property value MUST NOT be Resource, instead it MUST be the
   name of a concrete resource type (see Section 2.6).  A Resource
   object has the following properties.

   *  @type: String.  Specifies the type of this resource object.  The
      allowed value is defined in later sections of this document for
      each concrete resource type (Section 2.6).

   *  kind: String (optional).  The kind of the resource.  The allowed
      values are defined in the property definition that makes use of
      the Resource type.  Some property definitions may change this
      property from being optional to mandatory.

   *  uri: String (mandatory).  The resource value.  This MUST be a
      _URI_ as defined in Section 3 of [RFC3986].

   *  mediaType: String (optional).  Used for URI resource values.
      Provides the media type [RFC2046] of the resource identified by
      the URI.

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts in which to
      use this resource.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of this resource in
      relation to other resources.  Also see Section 1.5.4.

   *  label: String (optional).  A custom label for the value, see
      Section 1.5.3.

1.4.5.  UTCDateTime

   This is a string in [RFC3339] date-time format, with the further
   restrictions that any letters MUST be in uppercase, and the time
   offset MUST be the character Z.  Fractional second values MUST NOT be
   included unless non-zero and MUST NOT have trailing zeros, to ensure
   there is only a single representation for each date-time.

   For example, 2010-10-10T10:10:10.003Z is conformant, but
   2010-10-10T10:10:10.000Z is invalid and is correctly encoded as
   2010-10-10T10:10:10Z.

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1.5.  Common Properties

   Most of the properties in this document are specific to a single
   JSContact object type.  Such properties are defined along with the
   respective object type.  The properties in this section are common to
   multiple data types and are defined here to avoid repetition.  Note
   that these properties MUST only be set for a JSContact object if they
   are explicitly mentioned to be allowed for this object type.

1.5.1.  contexts

   Type: String[Boolean]

   This property associates contact information with one or more
   contexts in which it should be used.  For example, someone might have
   distinct phone numbers for work and private contexts, and may set the
   desired context on the respective phone number in the phones
   (Section 2.3.3) property.

   This section defines common contexts.  Additional contexts may be
   defined in the properties or data types that make use of this
   property.  The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) common context values are:

   *  private: the contact information may be used in a private context.

   *  work: the contact information may be used in a professional
      context.

1.5.2.  extra

   This is a reserved property name.  Implementations MUST NOT set this
   property in a JSContact object.  Any JSContact object including a
   property with this name MUST be considered invalid.

   The purpose of this reserved property name is to provide implementors
   with a name which is certain to never occur as a property name in a
   JSContact object.  Implementations might want to map unknown or
   vendor-specific properties to a variable with this name, but this is
   implementation-specific.

1.5.3.  label

   Type: String

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   This property allows associating contact data with user-defined
   labels.  Such labels may be set for phone numbers, email addresses
   and resources.  Typically, these labels are displayed along with
   their associated contact data in graphical user interfaces.  Such
   labels best be succinct to properly display on small graphical
   interfaces and screens.

1.5.4.  pref

   Type: UnsignedInt

   This property allows defining a preference order for contact
   information.  For example, a person may have two email addresses and
   prefer to be contacted with one of them.

   Its value MUST be in the range 1 and 100.  Lower values correspond to
   a higher level of preference, with 1 being most preferred.  If no
   preference is set, then the contact information MUST be interpreted
   as being least preferred.

   Note that the preference only is defined in relation to contact
   information of the same type.  For example, the preference orders
   within emails and phone numbers are independent of each other.

1.5.5.  phonetic

   This property defines how to pronounce a value in the language
   indicated in the Card language (Section 2.1.5) property or the
   language tag of its localizations (Section 2.7.1).  Exemplary uses
   are to define how to pronounce Japanese names, or for romanization of
   Mandarin or Cantonese name and address components.  The properties
   are defined as follows:

   *  phonetic: String.  Contains the phonetic representation of a
      value.  Any script language subtag in the Card language
      (Section 2.1.5) property MUST be ignored for use with the phonetic
      property.  If this property is set, then at least one of the
      phoneticScript or phoneticSystem properties that relate to this
      value MUST be set.

   *  phoneticScript: String.  The script used in the value of the
      related phonetic property.  This MUST be a valid script subtag as
      defined in Section 2.2.3 of [RFC5646].

   *  phoneticSystem: String.  The phonetic system used in the related
      value of the phonetic property.  The enumerated values
      (Section 1.7.4) are:

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      -  ipa: denotes the International Phonetic Alphabet [IPA].

      -  jyut: denotes the Cantonese romanization system "Jyutping".

      -  piny: denotes the Standard Mandarin romanization system "Hanyu
         Pinyin".

   The relation between the phoneticSystem, phoneticScript and phonetic
   properties is type-specific.  This specification defines this
   relation in the Name (Section 2.2.1) and Address (Section 2.5.1)
   object types, respectively.

   The following example illustrates the phonetic property for a name
   (Section 2.2.1):

   "name": {
     "components": [{
       "kind": "given",
       "value": "John",
       "phonetic": "/ˈdʒɑːn/"
     }, {
       "kind": "surname",
       "value": "Smith",
       "phonetic": "/smɪθ/"
     }],
     "phoneticSystem": "ipa"
   }

         Figure 1: Example of phonetic for the name "John Smith" as
                           pronounced in the USA.

1.6.  Internationalization

   JSContact aims to be used for international contacts and addressbook
   data.  Notably text values such as names and addresses are likely to
   cover a wide range of languages and cultures.  This section describes
   internationalization for free-form text values, as well as for
   Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs).

1.6.1.  Free-form text

   Properties having free-form text values MAY contain any valid
   sequence of Unicode characters encoded as a JSON string.  Such values
   can contain unidirectional left-to-right and right-to-left text, as
   well as bidirectional text using Unicode Directional Formatting
   Characters described in Section 2 of [UBiDi].  Implementations
   setting bidirectional text MUST make sure that each property value
   complies with the requirements of the Unicode Bidirectional

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   Algorithm.  Implementations MUST NOT assume that text values of
   adjacent properties are processed or displayed as a combined string,
   for example the values of a given name component and a surname
   component may or may not to be rendered together.

1.6.2.  URIs

   Several properties require their string value to be a URI as defined
   in [RFC3986].  Implementations MUST make sure to use proper percent-
   encoding for URIs that can not be represented using unreserved URI
   characters.  Section 3.1 of [RFC3987] defines how to convert
   Internationalized Resource Identifiers to URIs.  JSContact makes no
   recommendation how to display URIs, but section "4.8.3
   Internationalization and special characters" of the W3C URL Standard
   [W3C-URL] provides guidance for URLs found in context of a web
   browser.

1.7.  Validating JSContact

   This specification distinguishes between three kinds of properties
   regarding validation: IANA-registered properties and unknown
   properties are defined in this section, while vendor-specific
   properties are defined in Section 1.8.1.  A JSContact object is
   invalid if any of its properties are invalid.

   This document defines for each property if it is mandatory or
   optional.  A mandatory property MUST be present for a JSContact
   object to be valid.  An optional property does not need to be
   present.  The values of both required and optional properties MUST
   adhere to the data type and definition of that property.

1.7.1.  Case-Sensitivity

   All property names, object type names and enumerated values are case-
   sensitive, if not explicitly stated otherwise in their according
   definition.  Implementations MUST handle a JSContact object as
   invalid if a type name, property name or enumerated value only
   differs in case from one defined for any JSContact version known to
   that implementation.  This applies regardless of what JSContact
   version the Card object defines in its version (Section 2.1.2)
   property.  Section 1.7.3 defines how to handle unknown properties.

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1.7.2.  IANA-registered Properties

   An IANA-registered property is any property that has been registered
   according to the IANA property registry rules as outlined in
   Section 3.  All properties defined in this specification, including
   their object value types and enumerated values, are registered at
   IANA.

   Implementations MUST validate IANA-registered properties in JSContact
   data, unless they are unknown to the implementation (see
   Section 1.7.3).  They MUST reject invalid IANA-registered properties.
   A property is invalid if its name matches the name of an IANA-
   registered property but the value violates its definition according
   to the JSContact specification version defined in the Card version
   property (Section 2.1.2).

   IANA-registered property names MUST NOT contain US-ASCII control
   characters (U+0000 to U+001F, U+007F), the COLON (U+003A) or
   QUOTATION MARK (U+0022) characters.  They MUST only contain US-ASCII
   alphanumeric characters that match the ALPHA and DIGIT rules defined
   in Appendix B.1 of [RFC5234]) or the COMMERCIAL AT (U+0040)
   character.  IANA-registered property names MUST be notated in lower
   camel case.

1.7.3.  Unknown Properties

   Implementations may encounter JSContact data where a property name is
   unknown to that implementation, but the name adheres to the syntactic
   restrictions of IANA-registered property names.  Implementations MUST
   make sure that such a name does not violate the case-sensitivity
   rules defined in Section 1.7.1.  If the property name is valid, then
   implementations MUST NOT treat such properties as invalid.  Instead,
   they MUST preserve them in the JSContact object.

   Implementations that create or update JSContact data MUST only set
   IANA-registered properties or vendor-specific properties.  Preserving
   properties that are unknown to the implementation, is to allow
   applications and services to interoperate without data loss, even if
   not all of them implement the same set of JSContact extensions.

1.7.4.  Enumerated Values

   Several properties in this document restrict their allowed values to
   be from a list of String values.  These values are case-sensitive.
   If not noted otherwise for a specific property, the initial list of
   values for such properties is registered at IANA in the JSContact
   Enum Values Registry (Section 3.7).  Implementations MUST only set
   IANA-registered or vendor-specific (Section 1.8.2) values for such

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   properties.

1.8.  Vendor-Specific Extensions

   Vendors may extend properties and values for experimentation or to
   store contacts data that only is useful for a single service or
   application.  Such extensions are not meant for interoperation.  If
   instead interoperation is desired, vendors are strongly encouraged to
   define and register new properties, types and values at IANA.
   Section 3 defines how to register new properties, types or values at
   IANA.  Section 1.7.2 defines the naming conventions for IANA-
   registered elements.

1.8.1.  Vendor-specific Properties

   Vendor-specific property names MUST start with a vendor-specific
   prefix followed by a name, as produced by the v-extension ABNF below.
   The prefix and name together form the property name.  The vendor-
   specific prefix MUST be a domain name under control of the service or
   application that sets the property, but it need not resolve in the
   Domain Name System [RFC1034] and [RFC1035].  The prefix ietf.org and
   its subdomain names are reserved for IETF specifications.  The name
   MUST NOT contain the TILDE (U+007E) and SOLIDUS (U+002F) characters,
   as these require special-escaping when encoding a JSON Pointer
   [RFC6901] for that property.

   Vendor-specific properties MAY be set in any JSContact object.
   Implementations MUST preserve vendor-specific properties in JSContact
   data, irrespective if they know their use.  They MUST NOT reject the
   property value as invalid, unless they are in control of the vendor-
   specific property as outlined in the above paragraph.

   The ABNF rule v-extension formally defines valid vendor-specific
   property names.  Note that the vendor prefix allows for more values
   than are allowed as Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) [RFC8499].
   This is to allow JSContact implementations simply validate property
   names without implementing the full set of rules that apply to domain
   names.

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   v-extension = v-prefix ":" v-name

   v-prefix = v-label *("." v-label)

   v-label = alnum-int / alnum-int *(alnum-int / "-") alnum-int

   alnum-int = ALPHA / DIGIT / NON-ASCII
     ; see RFC 6350 Section 3.3

   v-name = 1*(WSP / "!" / %x23-2e / %x30-7d / NON-ASCII)
     ; any characters except CTLs, DQUOTE, SOLIDUS and TILDE

          Figure 2: ABNF rules for vendor-specific property names

   The value of vendor-specific properties can be any valid JSON value,
   and naming restrictions do not apply to such values.  Specifically,
   if the property value is a JSON object then the keys of such objects
   need not be named as vendor-specific properties.  The example in
   Figure 3 illustrates this:

   "example.com:foo": "bar",
   "example.com:foo2": {
     "bar": "baz"
   }

              Figure 3: Examples of vendor-specific properties

1.8.2.  Vendor-specific Values

   Some JSContact IANA-registered properties allow their values to be
   vendor-specific.  One such example is the kind property
   Section 2.1.4, which enumerates its standard values but also allows
   for arbitrary vendor-specific values.  Such vendor-specific values
   MUST be valid v-extension values as defined in Section 1.8.1.  The
   example in Figure 4 illustrates this:

   "kind": "example.com:baz"

                Figure 4: Example of a vendor-specific value

   Vendors are strongly encouraged to specify a new standard value once
   a vendor-specific one turns out to be useful also for other systems.

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1.9.  Versioning

   Every instance of a JSContact Card (Section 2) indicates which
   JSContact version its IANA-registered properties and values are based
   on.  The version is indicated both in the version (Section 2.1.2)
   property within the Card and in the version (Section 3.1) parameter
   of the JSContact MIME content type.  All IANA-registered elements
   indicate the version at which they got introduced or obsoleted.

1.9.1.  Version Format and Requirements

   A JSContact version consists of a numeric major and minor version,
   separated by the FULL STOP character (U+002E).  Later versions are
   numerically higher than former versions, with the major version being
   more significant than the minor version.  A version value is produced
   by the ABNF

   jsversion = 1*DIGIT "." 1*DIGIT

   Differing major version values indicate substantial differences in
   JSContact semantics and format.  Implementations MUST be prepared
   that property definitions and other JSContact elements differ in a
   backwards-incompatible manner.

   Differing minor version values indicate additions that enrich
   JSContact data, but do not introduce backwards-incompatible changes.
   Typically, these are new property enum values or properties with
   narrow semantic scope.  A new minor version MUST NOT require
   implementations to change their processing of JSContact data.
   Changing the major version number resets the minor version number to
   zero.

1.9.2.  Current Version

   This specification registers JSContact version value 1.0 (Table 1).

2.  Card

   This section defines the JSContact object type Card.  A Card stores
   contact information, typically that of a person, organization or
   company.

   Its media type is defined in Section 3.1.

   Figure 5 basic Card for the person "John Doe".  As the object is the
   topmost object in the JSON data it has the @type property set
   according to the rules defined Section 1.3.4.

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   {
     "@type": "Card",
     "version": "1.0",
     "uid": "22B2C7DF-9120-4969-8460-05956FE6B065",
     "kind": "individual",
     "name": {
       "components": [
         { "kind": "given", "value": "John" },
         { "kind": "surname", "value": "Doe" }
       ],
       "isOrdered": true
     }
   }

                     Figure 5: Example of a basic Card

2.1.  Metadata Properties

   This section defines properties about this instance of a Card, such
   as its unique identifier, its creation date, how it relates to other
   Cards and other metadata information.

2.1.1.  @type

   Type: String (mandatory).

   This MUST be Card, if set.

2.1.2.  version

   Type: String (mandatory).

   Specifies the JSContact version used to define this Card.  The value
   MUST be one of the IANA-registered JSContact Enum Values for the
   version property.  Also see Section 1.9.2.

   "version": "1.0"

                         Figure 6: version example

2.1.3.  created

   Type: UTCDateTime (optional).

   The date and time when this Card was created.

   "created": "2022-09-30T14:35:10Z"

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                         Figure 7: created example

2.1.4.  kind

   Type: String (optional, default: individual).  The kind of the entity
   the Card represents.

   The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) values are:

   *  individual: a single person

   *  group: a group person of persons or entities

   *  org: an organization

   *  location: a named location

   *  device: a device, such as appliances, computers, or network
      elements

   *  application: a software application

   "kind": "individual"

                           Figure 8: kind example

2.1.5.  language

   Type: String (optional).

   This is the language tag, as defined in [RFC5646], that best
   describes the language used for text in the Card, optionally
   including additional information such as the script.  Note that
   values MAY be localized in the localizations property Section 2.7.1.

   "language": "de-AT"

                         Figure 9: language example

2.1.6.  members

   Type: String[Boolean] (optional).

   This identifies the set of Cards that are members of this group Card.
   Each key in the set is the uid property value of the member, each
   boolean value MUST be true.  If this property is set, then the value
   of the kind property MUST be group.

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   The opposite is not true.  A group Card will usually contain the
   members property to specify the members of the group, but it is not
   required to.  A group Card without the members property can be
   considered an abstract grouping, or one whose members are known
   empirically (e.g., "IETF Participants").

   "kind": "group",
   "name": {
     "full": "The Doe family"
   },
   "uid": "urn:uuid:ab4310aa-fa43-11e9-8f0b-362b9e155667",
   "members": {
     "urn:uuid:03a0e51f-d1aa-4385-8a53-e29025acd8af": true,
     "urn:uuid:b8767877-b4a1-4c70-9acc-505d3819e519": true
   }

                         Figure 10: members example

2.1.7.  prodId

   Type: String (optional).

   The identifier for the product that created the Card.  If set, the
   value MUST be at least one character long.

   "prodId": "ACME Contacts App version 1.23.5"

                         Figure 11: prodId example

2.1.8.  relatedTo

   Type: String[Relation] (optional).

   Relates the object to other Cards.  This is represented as a map,
   where each key is the uid of the related Card and the value defines
   the relation.  The Relation object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Relation, if set.

   *  relation: String[Boolean] (optional, default: empty Object)
      Describes how the linked object is related to the linking object.
      The relation is defined as a set of relation types.  The key in
      the set defines the relation type, the value for each key in the
      set MUST be true.  The relationship between the two objects is
      undefined if the set is empty.

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      The initial list of enumerated (Section 1.7.4) relation types
      matches the IANA-registered TYPE parameter [IANAvCard] values of
      the vCard RELATED property (Section 6.6.6 of [RFC6350]):

      -  acquaintance

      -  agent

      -  child

      -  colleague

      -  contact

      -  co-resident

      -  co-worker

      -  crush

      -  date

      -  emergency

      -  friend

      -  kin

      -  me

      -  met

      -  muse

      -  neighbor

      -  parent

      -  sibling

      -  spouse

      -  sweetheart

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   "relatedTo": {
     "urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6": {
       "relation": {
         "friend": true
       }
     },
     "8cacdfb7d1ffdb59@example.com": {
       "relation": {}
     }
   }

                        Figure 12: relatedTo example

2.1.9.  uid

   Type: String (mandatory).

   An identifier, used to associate the object as the same across
   different systems, address books and views.  The value SHOULD be a
   URN [RFC8141] but for compatibility with [RFC6350] it MAY also be a
   URI [RFC3986] or free-text value.  The value of the URN SHOULD be in
   the uuid namespace [RFC4122].  As of this writing, a revision
   [I-D.ietf-uuidrev-rfc4122bis] of the UUID standard document is being
   worked on and is likely to introduce new UUID versions and best
   practices to generate global unique identifiers.  Implementors SHOULD
   follow any recommendations described there.  Until then,
   implementations SHOULD generate identifiers using the random or
   pseudo-random UUID version described in Section 4.4 of [RFC4122].

   "uid": "urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6"

                           Figure 13: uid example

2.1.10.  updated

   Type: UTCDateTime (optional).

   The date and time when the data in this Card was last modified.

   "updated": "2021-10-31T22:27:10Z"

                         Figure 14: updated example

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2.2.  Name and Organization Properties

   This section defines properties that name the entity represented by
   this Card, its related organizations and roles, as well as how to
   refer the entity represented by this Card in spoken or written
   language.

2.2.1.  name

   Type: Name (optional).

   The name of the entity represented by this Card.  This can be any
   type of name, e.g., it can but need not be the legal name of a
   person.

2.2.1.1.  Name object

   A Name object has the following properties

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Name, if set.

   *  components: NameComponent[] (optional).  The components
      (Section 2.2.1.2) making up this name.  This property MUST be set
      if the full property is not set, otherwise it SHOULD be set.  The
      component list MUST have at least one entry having a different
      kind than separator.

      Name components SHOULD be ordered such that their values joined as
      a String produce a valid full name of this entity.  If so,
      implementations MUST set the isOrdered property value to true.

      If the name components are ordered, then the defaultSeparator
      property and name components of kind separator give guidance on
      what characters to insert between components, but implementations
      are free to choose any others.  In lack of a separator, inserting
      a single Space character in between name component values is a
      good choice.

      If instead the name components follow no particular order, then
      the isOrdered property value MUST be false, the components
      property MUST NOT contain a NameComponent of kind separator and
      the defaultSeparator property MUST NOT be set.

      Figure 15 is an example for the name "Vincent van Gogh".  Note how
      a single name component value may consist of multiple words.
      Figure 16 illustrates a name with a second surname, such as a
      Spanish name.  Additional examples are shown in Figure 18 and
      Figure 38.

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      "name": {
        "components": [
          { "kind": "given", "value": "Vincent" },
          { "kind": "surname", "value": "van Gogh" }
        ],
        "isOrdered": true
      }

               Figure 15: Example for a surname with two words

      "name": {
        "components": [
          { "kind": "given", "value": "Diego" },
          { "kind": "surname", "value": "Rivera" },
          { "kind": "surname2", "value": "Barrientos" }
        ],
        "isOrdered": true
      }

                   Figure 16: Example for a second surname

   *  isOrdered: Boolean (optional, default: false).  This indicates if
      the name component sequence in the components property is ordered.

   *  defaultSeparator: String (optional).  The default separator to
      insert between name component values when concatenating all name
      component values to a single String.  Also see the definition of
      the separator kind for the NameComponent object.  This property
      MUST NOT be set if the Name isOrdered property value is false or
      if the components property is not set.

   *  full: String (optional).  This is the full name representation of
      this Name.  This property MUST be set if the components property
      is not set.

      "full": "Mr. John Q. Public, Esq."

                           Figure 17: full example

   *  sortAs: String[String] (optional).

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      This defines how this name lexicographically sorts in relation to
      other names when compared by a name component type.  The key in
      the map defines the name component type.  The value for that key
      defines the verbatim string to compare when sorting by this name
      component type.  Absence of a key indicates that this name
      component type SHOULD NOT be considered during sort.  Sorting by
      that missing name component type or if the sortAs property is not
      set is implementation-specific.  This property MUST NOT be set if
      the components property is not set.

      Each key in the map MUST be a valid name component type value as
      defined for the kind property of the NameComponent object (see
      below).  For each key in the map there MUST exist at least one
      NameComponent object having that type in the components property
      of this name.

      Figure 18 illustrates the use of sortAs.  The property value
      indicates that the middle name followed by both surnames should be
      used when sorting this name by surname.  The absence of the middle
      indicates that the middle name on its own should be disregarded
      during sort.  Even though the name only contains one name
      component for the given name, the sortAs property still explicitly
      defines how to sort by given name as otherwise sorting by it would
      be undefined.

   *  phoneticScript: String (optional).  The script used in the value
      of the NameComponent phonetic property.  Also see Section 1.5.5.
      See Figure 19 for an example.

   *  phoneticSystem: String (optional).  The phonetic system used in
      the NameComponent phonetic property.  Also see Section 1.5.5.  See
      Figure 19 for an example.

   "name": {
     "components": [
       { "kind": "given", "value": "Robert" },
       { "kind": "given2", "value": "Pau" },
       { "kind": "surname", "value": "Shou Chang" }
     ],
     "sortAs": {
       "surname": "Pau Shou Chang",
       "given": "Robert"
     },
     "isOrdered": true
   }

                       Figure 18: Example for sortAs

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   {
     "@type": "Card",
     "language": "zh-Hant",
     "name": {
       "components": [
         { "kind": "surname", "value": "孫" },
         { "kind": "given", "value": "中山" },
         { "kind": "given2", "value": "文" },
         { "kind": "given2", "value": "逸仙" }
       ]
     },
     "localizations": {
       "yue": {
         "name/phoneticSystem": "jyut",
         "name/phoneticScript": "Latn",
         "name/components/0/phonetic": "syun1",
         "name/components/1/phonetic": "zung1saan1",
         "name/components/2/phonetic": "man4",
         "name/components/3/phonetic": "jat6sin1"
       }
     }
   }

             Figure 19: Example for phonetic and localizations

2.2.1.2.  NameComponent

   A NameComponent object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be NameComponent, if set.

   *  value: String (mandatory).  The value of this name component.
      This can be composed of one or multiple words, such as "Poe" or
      "van Gogh".

   *  kind: String (mandatory).  The kind of this name component.  The
      enumerated (Section 1.7.4) values are:

      -  title: an honorific title or prefix, e.g., "Mr", "Ms", "Dr".

      -  given: a given name, also known as "first name", "personal
         name".

      -  given2: a name that appears between the given and surname, such
         as a middle name or patronymic name.

      -  surname: a surname, also known as "last name", "family name".

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      -  surname2: a secondary surname (used in some cultures), also
         known as "maternal surname".

      -  credential: a credential, also known as "accreditation
         qualifier" or "honorific suffix", e.g., "B.A.", "Esq.".

      -  generation: a generation marker or qualifier, e.g., “Jr.” or
         “III”.

      -  separator: a formatting separator between two ordered name non-
         separator components.  The value property of the component
         includes the verbatim separator, for example a hyphen character
         or even an empty string.  This value has higher precedence than
         the defaultSeparator property of the Name.  Implementations
         MUST NOT insert two consecutive separator components, instead
         they SHOULD insert a single separator component with the
         combined value.  This component kind MUST NOT be set if the
         Name isOrdered property value is false.

   *  phonetic: String (optional).  This defines how to pronounce this
      name component.  If this property is set, then at least one of the
      Name object phoneticSystem or phoneticScript properties MUST be
      set.  Also see Section 1.5.5.

2.2.1.3.  nicknames

   Type: Id[Nickname] (optional).

   The nicknames of the entity represented by this Card.  A Nickname
   object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Nickname, if set.

   *  name: String (mandatory).  The nickname.

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional) The contexts in which to use
      this nickname.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of this nickname in
      relation to other nicknames.  Also see Section 1.5.4.

   "nicknames": {
     "k391": {
       "name": "Johnny"
     }
   }

                        Figure 20: nicknames example

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2.2.2.  organizations

   Type: Id[Organization] (optional).

   The companies or organizations names and units associated with this
   Card.  An Organization object has the following properties, of which
   at least one of the name and units properties MUST be set:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Organization, if set.

   *  name: String (optional).  The name of this organization.

   *  units: OrgUnit[] (optional).  A list of organizational units,
      ordered descending by hierarchy (e.g., a geographic or functional
      division sorts before a department within that division).  If set,
      the list MUST contain at least one entry.

   *  sortAs: String (optional).  This defines how this organization
      name lexicographically sorts in relation to other organizations
      when compared by name.  The value defines the verbatim string
      value to compare.  In absence of this property, the name property
      value MAY be used for comparison.

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts in which
      association with this organization apply.  For example, membership
      in a choir may only apply in a private context.  Also see
      Section 1.5.1.

   A OrgUnit object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be OrgUnit, if set.

   *  name: String (mandatory).  The name of this organizational unit.

   *  sortAs: String (optional).  This defines how this organization
      unit name lexicographically sorts in relation to other
      organizational units of the same level when compared by name.  The
      level is defined by the array index of this organizational unit in
      the units property of the Organization object.  The property value
      defines the verbatim string value to compare.  In absence of this
      property, the name property value MAY be used for comparison.

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   "organizations": {
     "o1": {
       "name": "ABC, Inc.",
       "units": [
         { "name": "North American Division" },
         { "name": "Marketing" }
       ],
       "sortAs": "ABC"
     }
   }

                      Figure 21: organizations example

2.2.3.  speakToAs

   Type: SpeakToAs (optional).

   Provides information how to address, speak to or refer to the entity
   that is represented by this Card.  A SpeakToAs object has the
   following properties, of which at least one of the grammaticalGender
   and pronouns properties MUST be set:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be SpeakToAs, if set.

   *  grammaticalGender: String (optional).  Defines which grammatical
      gender to use in salutations and other grammatical constructs.
      For example, the German language distinguishes by grammatical
      gender in salutations such as "Sehr geehrte" (feminine) and "Sehr
      geehrter" (masculine).  The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) values are:

      -  animate

      -  common

      -  feminine

      -  inanimate

      -  masculine

      -  neuter

      Note that the grammatical gender does not allow inferring the
      gender identities or assigned sex of the contact.

   *  pronouns: Id[Pronouns] (optional).  Defines the pronouns that the
      contact chooses to use for themselves.

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   A Pronouns object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Pronouns, if set.

   *  pronouns: String (mandatory).  Defines the pronouns.  Any value or
      form is allowed.  Examples in English include she/her and
      they/them/theirs.  The value MAY be overridden in the
      localizations property (Section 2.7.1).

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts in which to
      use these pronouns.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of these pronouns in
      relation to other pronouns in the same context.  Also see
      Section 1.5.4.

   "speakToAs": {
     "grammaticalGender": "neuter",
     "pronouns": {
       "k19": {
         "pronouns": "they/them",
         "pref": 2
       },
       "k32": {
         "pronouns": "xe/xir",
         "pref": 1
       }
     }
   }

                        Figure 22: speakToAs example

2.2.4.  titles

   Type : Id[Title] (optional).

   The job titles or functional positions of the entity represented by
   this Card.  A Title object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Title, if set.

   *  name: String (mandatory).  The title or role name of the entity
      represented by this Card.

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   *  kind: String (optional, default title).  Describes the
      organizational or situational kind of this title.  Some
      organizations and individuals distinguish between _titles_ as
      organizational positions and _roles_ as more temporary
      assignments, such as in project management.

      The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) values are:

      -  title

      -  role

   *  organizationId: Id (optional).  The identifier of the organization
      in which this title is held.

   "titles": {
     "le9": {
       "kind": "title",
       "name": "Research Scientist"
     },
     "k2": {
       "kind": "role",
       "name": "Project Leader",
       "organizationId": "o2"
     }
   },
   "organizations": {
     "o2": {
       "name": "ABC, Inc."
     }
   }

                         Figure 23: titles example

2.3.  Contact Properties

   This section defines properties how to contact the entity represented
   by this Card.

2.3.1.  emails

   Type: Id[EmailAddress] (optional).

   The email addresses to contact the entity represented by this Card.
   An EmailAddress object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be EmailAddress, if set.

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   *  address: String (mandatory).  The email address.  This MUST be an
      _addr-spec_ value as defined in Section 3.4.1 of [RFC5322].

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts in which to
      use this email address.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of this email
      address in relation to other email addresses.  Also see
      Section 1.5.4.

   *  label: String (optional).  A custom label for the value, see
      Section 1.5.3.

   "emails": {
     "e1": {
       "contexts": {
         "work": true
       },
       "address": "jqpublic@xyz.example.com"
     },
     "e2": {
       "address": "jane_doe@example.com",
       "pref": 1
     }
   }

                         Figure 24: emails example

2.3.2.  onlineServices

   Type: Id[OnlineService] (optional).

   The online services that are associated with the entity represented
   by this Card.  This can be messaging services, social media profiles,
   and other.  An OnlineService object has the following properties, of
   which at least the uri or user property MUST be set:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be OnlineService, if set.

   *  service: String (optional).  The name of the online service or
      protocol.  The name MAY be capitalized the same as on the
      service's website, app or publishing material, but names MUST be
      considered equal is they match case-insensitively.  Examples are
      GitHub, kakao, Mastodon.

   *  uri: String (optional).  This identifies the entity represented by
      this card at the online service.  This MUST be a _URI_ as defined
      in Section 3 of [RFC3986].

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   *  user: String (optional).  This names the entity represented by
      this Card at the online service.  Any free-text value is allowed.
      The service property SHOULD be set.

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts in which to
      use this service.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of this service in
      relation to other services.  Also see Section 1.5.4.

   *  label: String (optional).  A custom label for the value, see
      Section 1.5.3.

   "onlineServices": {
     "x1": {
       "uri": "xmpp:alice@example.com"
     },
     "x2": {
       "service": "Mastodon",
       "user": "@alice@example2.com",
       "uri": "https://example2.com/@alice"
     }
   }

                     Figure 25: onlineServices example

2.3.3.  phones

   Type: Id[Phone] (optional).

   The phone numbers to contact the entity represented by this Card.  A
   Phone object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Phone, if set.

   *  number: String (mandatory).  The phone number, as either a URI or
      free-text.  Typical URI schemes are the [RFC3966] tel or [RFC3261]
      sip schemes, but any URI scheme is allowed.

   *  features: String[Boolean] (optional).  The set of contact features
      that this phone number may be used for.  The set is represented as
      an object, with each key being a method type.  The boolean value
      MUST be true.  The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) method type values
      are:

      -  mobile: the number is for a mobile phone.

      -  voice: the number is for calling by voice.

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      -  text: the number supports text messages (SMS).

      -  video: the number supports video conferencing.

      -  main-number: this number is the main phone number, such as the
         number of the front-desk at a company, as opposed to a direct-
         dial number of an individual employee.

      -  textphone: the number is for a device for people with hearing
         or speech difficulties.

      -  fax: the number is for sending faxes.

      -  pager: the number is for a pager or beeper.

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts in which to
      use this number.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of this number in
      relation to other numbers.  Also see Section 1.5.4.

   *  label: String (optional).  A custom label for the value, see
      Section 1.5.3.

   "phones": {
     "tel0": {
       "contexts": {
         "private": true
       },
       "features": {
         "voice": true
       },
       "number": "tel:+1-555-555-5555;ext=5555",
       "pref": 1
     },
     "tel3": {
       "contexts": {
         "work": true
       },
       "number": "tel:+1-201-555-0123"
     }
   }

                         Figure 26: phones example

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2.3.4.  preferredLanguages

   Type : Id[LanguagePref] (optional).

   Defines the preferred languages for contacting the entity associated
   with this Card.

   A LanguagePref object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be LanguagePref, if set.

   *  language: String (mandatory).  The preferred language.  This MUST
      a language tag as defined in [RFC5646].

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  Defines the contexts in
      which to use this language.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  Defines the preference of this
      language in relation to other languages of the same contexts.
      Also see Section 1.5.4.

   "preferredLanguages": {
     "l1": {
       "language": "en",
       "contexts": {
         "work": true
       },
       "pref": 1
     },
     "l2": {
       "language": "fr",
       "contexts": {
         "work": true
       },
       "pref": 2
     },
     "l3": {
       "language": "fr",
       "contexts": {
         "private": true
       }
     }
   }

                   Figure 27: preferredLanguages example

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2.4.  Calendaring and Scheduling Properties

   This section defines properties how to schedule calendar events with
   the entity represented by this Card.

2.4.1.  calendars

   Type: Id[Calendar] (optional).

   These are resources for calendaring, such as calendars to lookup
   free-busy information for the entity represented by this Card.  A
   Calendar object has all properties of the Resource (Section 1.4.4)
   data type, with the following additional definitions:

   *  The @type property value MUST be Calendar, if set.

   *  The kind property is mandatory.  Its enumerated (Section 1.7.4)
      values are:

      -  calendar: the resource is a calendar that contains entries such
         as calendar events or tasks.

      -  freeBusy: the resource allows for free-busy lookups, for
         example to schedule group events.

   "calendars": {
     "calA": {
       "kind": "calendar",
       "uri": "webcal://calendar.example.com/calA.ics"
     },
     "project-a": {
       "kind": "freeBusy",
       "uri": "https://calendar.example.com/busy/project-a"
     }
   }

                        Figure 28: calendars example

2.4.2.  schedulingAddresses

   Type: Id[SchedulingAddress] (optional).

   The scheduling addresses by which the entity may receive calendar
   scheduling invitations.  A SchedulingAddress object has the following
   properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be SchedulingAddress, if set.

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   *  uri: String (mandatory).  The address to use for calendar
      scheduling with this contact.  This MUST be a URI as defined in
      Section 3 of [RFC3986].

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts in which to
      use this scheduling address.  Also see Section 1.5.1.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of this scheduling
      address in relation to other scheduling address.  Also see
      Section 1.5.4.

   *  label: String (optional).  A custom label for the scheduling
      address, see Section 1.5.3.

   "schedulingAddresses": {
     "sched1": {
       "uri": "mailto:janedoe@example.com"
     }
   }

                   Figure 29: schedulingAddresses example

2.5.  Address and Location Properties

   This section defines properties for postal addresses and geographical
   locations associated with the entity represented by this Card.

2.5.1.  addresses

   Type: Id[Address] (optional).

   A map of address identifiers to Address objects, containing physical
   locations.

2.5.1.1.  Address object

   An Address object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Address, if set.

   *  components: AddressComponent[] (optional).  The components
      (Section 2.5.1.2) making up this address.  This property MUST be
      set if the full property is not set, otherwise it SHOULD be set.
      The component list MUST have at least one entry having a different
      kind than separator.

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      Address components SHOULD be ordered such that their values joined
      as a String produce a valid full address.  If so, implementations
      MUST set the isOrdered property value to true.

      If the address components are ordered, then the defaultSeparator
      property and address components of kind separator give guidance
      what characters to insert between components, but implementations
      are free to choose any others.  In lack of a separator, inserting
      a single Space character in between address component values is a
      good choice.

      If instead the address components follow no particular order, then
      the isOrdered property value MUST be false, the components
      property MUST NOT contain a AddressComponent of kind separator and
      the defaultSeparator property MUST NOT be set.

   *  isOrdered: Boolean (optional, default: false).  This indicates if
      the address component sequence in the components property is
      ordered.

   *  countryCode: String (optional).  The Alpha-2 country code
      [ISO.3166-1.2006].

   *  coordinates: String (optional).  A [RFC5870] "geo:" URI for the
      address.

   *  timeZone: String (optional).  Identifies the time zone this
      address is located in.  This MUST be a time zone name registered
      in the IANA Time Zone Database [IANATZ].

   *  contexts: String[Boolean] (optional).  The contexts of the address
      information.  The boolean value MUST be true.  In addition to the
      common contexts (Section 1.5.1), allowed key values are:

      -  billing: an address to be used for billing.

      -  delivery: an address to be used for delivering physical items.

   *  full: String (optional).  This is the full address, including
      street, region or country.  The purpose of this property is to
      define an address, even if the individual address components are
      not known.  If the street property is set, the full property
      SHOULD NOT be set.

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   *  defaultSeparator: String (optional).  The default separator to
      insert between address component values when concatenating all
      address component values to a single String.  Also see the
      definition of the separator kind for the AddressComponent object.
      This property MUST NOT be set if the Address isOrdered property
      value is false or if the components property is not set.

   *  pref: UnsignedInt (optional).  The preference of this address in
      relation to other addresses.  Also see Section 1.5.4.

   *  phoneticScript: String (optional).  The script used in the value
      of the AddressComponent phonetic property.  Also see
      Section 1.5.5.

   *  phoneticSystem: String (optional).  The phonetic system used in
      the AddressComponent phonetic property.  Also see Section 1.5.5.

   The following example illustrates the use of the address property.
   Additional examples are in Section 2.5.1.3.

   "addresses": {
     "k23": {
       "contexts": {
         "work": true
       },
       "components": [
         { "kind": "number", "value": "54321" },
         { "kind": "separator", "value": " " },
         { "kind": "name", "value": "Oak St" },
         { "kind": "locality", "value": "Reston" },
         { "kind": "region", "value": "VA" },
         { "kind": "separator", "value": " " },
         { "kind": "postcode", "value": "20190" },
         { "kind": "country", "value": "USA" }
       ],
       "countryCode": "US",
       "defaultSeparator": ", ",
       "isOrdered": true
     }
   }

        Figure 30: Example of the address "54321 Oak St, Reston, VA
                                20190, USA"

2.5.1.2.  AddressComponent object

   An AddressComponent object has the following properties:

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   *  @type: String.  This MUST be AddressComponent, if set.

   *  value: String (mandatory).  The value of this address component.

   *  kind: String (mandatory).  The kind of this address component.
      The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) values are:

      -  room: the room or suite number or identifier.

      -  apartment: the extension designation, such as apartment number
         or unit or box number.

      -  floor: the floor or level this address is located on.

      -  building: the building, tower, or condominium this address is
         located in.

      -  number: the street number, e.g., "123".  This value is not
         restricted to numeric values, and can include any value such as
         number ranges ("112–10"), grid style ("39.2 RD"), alphanumerics
         ("N6W23001") or fractionals ("123 1/2").

      -  name: the street name.

      -  block: the block name or number.

      -  subdistrict: the subdistrict, ward or other subunit of a
         district.

      -  district: the district name.

      -  locality: the municipality, city, town, village, post-town, or
         another locality.

      -  region: the administrative area, such as province, state,
         prefecture, county, canton.

      -  postcode: the postal code, post code, ZIP code or other short
         code associated with the address by the relevant country's
         postal system.

      -  country: the country name.

      -  direction: the Cardinal direction or quadrant, e.g., "North".

      -  landmark: the publicly known prominent feature that can
         substitute the street name and number, e.g., White House, Taj
         Mahal.

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      -  postOfficeBox: the post office box number or identifier.

      -  separator: a formatting separator between two ordered address
         non-separator components.  The value property of the component
         includes the verbatim separator, for example a hyphen character
         or even an empty string.  This value has higher precedence than
         the defaultSeparator property of the Address.  Implementations
         MUST NOT insert two consecutive separator components, instead
         they SHOULD insert a single separator component with the
         combined value.  This component kind MUST NOT be set if the
         Address isOrdered property value is false.

   *  phonetic: String (optional).  This defines how to pronounce this
      name component.  If this property is set, then at least one of the
      Address object phoneticSystem or phoneticScript properties MUST be
      set.  Also see Section 1.5.5.

2.5.1.3.  Address examples

   The following are examples of addresses, in addition to Figure 30.

   "addresses": {
     "k25": {
       "components": [
         { "kind": "number", "value": "46" },
         { "kind": "name", "value": "1 Sukhumvit 51 Alley" },
         { "kind": "subdistrict", "value": "Khlong Tan Nuea" },
         { "kind": "district", "value": " Watthana" },
         { "kind": "locality", "value": "Bangkok" },
         { "kind": "country", "value": "Thailand" },
         { "kind": "postcode", "value": "10110" }
       ],
       "defaultSeparator": ", ",
       "isOrdered": true
     }
   }

        Figure 31: Example of the address "46, 1 Sukhumvit 51 Alley,
            Khlong Tan Nuea, Watthana, Bangkok 10110, Thailand"

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   "addresses": {
      "k26": {
        "components": [
          { "kind": "block", "value": "2-7" },
          { "kind": "separator", "value": "-" },
          { "kind": "number", "value": "2" },
          { "kind": "separator", "value": " " },
          { "kind": "district", "value": "Marunouchi" },
          { "kind": "locality", "value": "Chiyoda-ku" },
          { "kind": "region", "value": "Tokyo" },
          { "kind": "separator", "value": " " },
          { "kind": "postcode", "value": "100-8994" }
        ],
        "defaultSeparator": ", ",
        "full": "2-7-2 Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8994",
        "isOrdered": true
      }
   },
   "localizations": {
     "jp": {
       "addresses/k26": {
         "components": [
           { "kind": "region", "value": "東京都" },
           { "kind": "locality", "value": "千代田区" },
           { "kind": "district", "value": "丸ノ内" },
           { "kind": "block", "value": "2-7" },
           { "kind": "separator", "value": "-" },
           { "kind": "number", "value": "2" },
           { "kind": "postcode", "value": "〒100-8994" }
         ],
         "defaultSeparator": "",
         "full": "〒100-8994東京都千代田区丸ノ内2-7-2",
         "isOrdered": true
       }
     }
   }

       Figure 32: Example of an address in Tokyo and its localization
                         Section 2.7.1 in Japanese.

2.6.  Resource Properties

   This section defines properties for digital resources associated with
   the entity represented by this Card.

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2.6.1.  cryptoKeys

   Type: Id[CryptoKey] (optional).

   These are cryptographic resources such as public keys and
   certificates associated with the entity represented by this Card.  A
   CryptoKey object has all properties of the Resource (Section 1.4.4)
   data type, with the following additional definitions:

   *  The @type property value MUST be CryptoKey, if set.

   The following example shows how refer to an external cryptographic
   resource.

   "cryptoKeys": {
     "mykey1": {
       "uri": "https://www.example.com/keys/jdoe.cer"
     }
   }

              Figure 33: cryptoKeys example with external data

   The following example shows how to embed key data in the CryptoKey.
   The key data is depicted in multiple lines only for demonstration
   purposes.

   "cryptoKeys": {
     "mykey2": {
       "uri": "data:application/pgp-keys;base64,LS0tLS1CRUdJTiBSU0EgUFVCTElDIEtF
               WS0tLS0tCk1JSUJDZ0tDQVFFQSt4R1ovd2N6OXVnRnBQMDdOc3BvNlUxN2wwWWhGa
               UZweHhVNHBUazNMaWZ6OVIzenNJc3UKRVJ3dGE3K2ZXSWZ4T28yMDhldHQvamhza2
               lWb2RTRXQzUUJHaDRYQmlweVdvcEt3WjkzSEhhRFZaQUFMaS8yQQoreFRCdFdkRW8
               3WEdVdWpLRHZDMi9hWkt1a2ZqcE9pVUk4QWhMQWZqbWxjRC9VWjFRUGgwbUhzZ2xS
               TkNtcEN3Cm13U1hBOVZObWh6K1BpQitEbWw0V1duS1cvVkhvMnVqVFh4cTcrZWZNV
               TRIMmZueTNTZTNLWU9zRlBGR1oxVE4KUVNZbEZ1U2hXckhQdGlMbVVkUG9QNkNWMm
               1NTDF0aytsN0RJSXFYclFoTFVLREFDZU01cm9NeDBrTGhVV0I4UAorMHVqMUNObE5
               ONEpSWmxDN3hGZnFpTWJGUlU5WjRONll3SURBUUFCCi0tLS0tRU5EIFJTQSBQVUJM
               SUMgS0VZLS0tLS0K"
     }
   }

              Figure 34: cryptoKeys example with embedded data

2.6.2.  directories

   Type: Id[Directory] (optional).

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   These are directory service resources, such as entries in a directory
   or organizational directories for lookup.  A Directory object has all
   properties of the Resource (Section 1.4.4) data type, with the
   following additional definitions:

   *  The @type property value MUST be Directory, if set.

   *  The kind property is mandatory.  Its enumerated (Section 1.7.4)
      values are:

      -  directory: the resource is a directory service where the entity
         represented by this Card is part of.  This typically is an
         organizational directory that also contains associated
         entities, e.g., co-workers and management in a company
         directory.

      -  entry: the resource is a directory entry of the entity
         represented by this Card.  In contrast to the directory type,
         this is the specific URI for the entity _within_ a directory.

   In addition, the Directory object has the following property:

   *  listAs: UnsignedInt (optional).  This defines the position of this
      directory resource in the list of all Directory objects having the
      same kind in this Card.  If set, the listAs value MUST be higher
      than zero.  Multiple directory resources MAY have the same listAs
      property value, or none.  Sorting such entries is implementation-
      specific.

   "directories": {
     "dir1": {
       "kind": "entry",
       "uri": "https://dir.example.com/addrbook/jdoe/Jean%20Dupont.vcf"
     },
     "dir2": {
       "kind": "directory",
       "uri": "ldap://ldap.example/o=Example%20Tech,ou=Engineering",
       "pref": 1
     }

                       Figure 35: directories example

2.6.3.  links

   Type: Id[Link] (optional).

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   These are links to resources that do not fit any of the other use-
   case specific resource properties.  A Link object has all properties
   of the Resource (Section 1.4.4) data type, with the following
   additional definitions:

   *  The @type property value MUST be Link, if set.

   *  The kind property is optional.  Its enumerated (Section 1.7.4)
      values are:

      -  contact: the resource is a URI by which the entity represented
         by this Card may be contacted, including web forms or other
         media that require user interaction.

   "links": {
     "link3": {
       "kind": "contact",
       "uri": "mailto:contact@example.com",
       "pref": 1
     }
   }

                          Figure 36: links example

2.6.4.  media

   Type: Id[Media] (optional).

   These are media resources such as photographs, avatars, or sounds
   associated with the entity represented by this Card.  A Media object
   has all properties of the Resource (Section 1.4.4) data type, with
   the following additional definitions:

   *  The @type property value MUST be Media, if set.

   *  The kind property is mandatory.  Its enumerated (Section 1.7.4)
      values are:

      -  photo: the resource is a photograph or avatar.

      -  sound: the resource is audio media, e.g., to specify the proper
         pronunciation of the name property contents.

      -  logo: the resource is a graphic image or logo associated with
         the entity represented by this Card.

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   "media": {
     "res45": {
       "kind": "sound",
       "uri": "CID:JOHNQ.part8.19960229T080000.xyzMail@example.com"
     },
     "res47": {
       "kind": "logo",
       "uri": "https://www.example.com/pub/logos/abccorp.jpg"
     },
     "res1": {
       "kind": "photo",
       "uri": "data:image/jpeg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQAASABIAAD/4..."
     }
   }

                          Figure 37: media example

2.7.  Multilingual Properties

   This section defines properties how to localize the content of this
   Card in human languages.

2.7.1.  localizations

   Type: String[PatchObject] (optional).

   This localizes property values in this Card to languages other than
   the main language.  Localizations provide language-specific
   alternatives for existing property values and SHOULD NOT add new
   properties.

   The keys in the localizations property object are language tags
   [RFC5646].  The values are patch objects which localize the Card in
   the respective language tag.  The paths in the PatchObject are
   relative to the Card that includes the localizations property.  A
   patch MUST NOT target the localizations property.

   Conceptually, a Card is localized as follows:

   *  Determine the language tag in which this Card should be localized
      in.

   *  If the localizations property includes a key for that language,
      obtain the PatchObject value.  If there is no such key, stop.

   *  Create a copy of the Card, but do not copy the localizations
      property.

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   *  Apply all patches in the PatchObject to the copy of the Card.

   *  Optionally, set the language property in the copy of the Card.

   *  Use the patched copy of the Card as the localized variant of the
      original Card.

   A patch in the PatchObject may contain any value type.  Its value
   MUST be a valid value according to the definition of the patched
   property.

   Figure 38 localizes the name property by completely replacing its
   contents in Ukrainian language with Cyrillic script.

   {
     "name": {
       "components": [
         { "kind": "title", "value": "Mr." },
         { "kind": "given", "value": "Ivan" },
         { "kind": "given2", "value": "Petrovich" },
         { "kind": "surname", "value": "Vasiliev" }
       ]
     },
     "localizations": {
       "uk-Cyrl": {
         "name": {
           "components": [
             { "kind": "title", "value": "г-н" },
             { "kind": "given", "value": "Иван" },
             { "kind": "given2", "value": "Петрович" },
             { "kind": "surname", "value": "Васильев" }
           ]
         }
       }
     }
   }

           Figure 38: Example for localizing a top-level property

   Figure 39 localizes the title name by patching _inside_ the titles
   property.  All properties but the name property in the Title object
   are left as-is.

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   "name": {
     "full": "Gabriel García Márquez"
   },
   "titles": {
     "t1": {
       "kind": "title",
       "name": "novelist"
     }
   },
   "localizations": {
     "es": {
       "titles/t1/name": "autor"
     }
   }

            Figure 39: Example for localizing a nested property

2.8.  Additional Properties

   This section defines properties for which none of the previous
   sections are appropriate.

2.8.1.  anniversaries

   Type : Id[Anniversary] (optional).

   These are memorable dates and events for the entity represented by
   this Card.  An Anniversary object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Anniversary, if set.

   *  kind: String (mandatory).  Specifies the kind of the anniversary.
      The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) values are:

      -  birth: a birthday anniversary

      -  death: a deathday anniversary

      -  wedding: a wedding day anniversary

   *  date: PartialDate|Timestamp (mandatory, defaultType: PartialDate).

      The date of this anniversary in the Gregorian calendar.  This MUST
      either be a whole or partial calendar date or a complete UTC
      timestamp (see the definition of the Timestamp and PartialDate
      object types below).

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   *  place: Address (optional).  An address associated with this
      anniversary, e.g., the place of birth or death.

   A PartialDate object represents a complete or partial calendar date
   in the Gregorian calendar.  It represents either a complete date, or
   a year, or a month in a year, or a day in a month.  It has the
   following properties, of which at least year or month and day MUST be
   set:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be PartialDate, if set.

   *  year: UnsignedInt (optional).  This is the calendar year.

   *  month: UnsignedInt (optional).  This is the calendar month,
      represented as the integers 1 <= month <= 12.  If this property is
      set then either year or day MUST be set.

   *  day: UnsignedInt (optional).  This is the calendar month day,
      represented as the integers 1 <= day <= 31, depending on the
      validity within the month and year.  If this property is set then
      month MUST be set.

   *  calendarScale: String (optional).  This is the calendar system in
      which this date occurs, in lowercase.  This MUST be either a CLDR-
      registered calendar system name [RFC7529] or a vendor-specific
      value.  The year, month and day still MUST be represented in the
      Gregorian calendar.  Note that the year property might be required
      to convert the date between the Gregorian calendar and the
      respective calendar system.

   A Timestamp object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Timestamp, if set.

   *  utc: UTCDateTime (mandatory).  Specifies the point in time in UTC
      time.

   Figure 40 illustrates anniversaries with partial dates and timestamp.
   Note how the @type property is set for the Timestamp object value
   according to the rules defined Section 1.3.4.

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   "anniversaries": {
     "k8": {
       "kind": "birth",
       "date": {
         "year": 1953,
         "month": 4,
         "day": 15
       }
     },
     "k9": {
       "kind": "death",
       "date": {
         "@type": "Timestamp",
         "utc": "2019-10-15T23:10:00Z"
       },
       "place": {
         "full": "4445 Tree Street\nNew England, ND 58647\nUSA"
       }
     }
   }

                      Figure 40: anniversaries example

2.8.2.  keywords

   Type: String[Boolean] (optional).  A set of free-text keywords, also
   known as _tags_.  The set is represented as an object, with each key
   being a keyword.  The boolean value MUST be true.

   "keywords": {
     "internet": true,
     "IETF": true
   }

                        Figure 41: keywords example

2.8.3.  notes

   Type: Id[Note] (optional).

   Free-text notes associated with this Card.  A Note object has the
   following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Note, if set.

   *  note: String (mandatory).  The free text value of this note.

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   *  created: UTCDateTime (optional).  The date and time when this note
      was created.

   *  author: Author (optional).  The author of this note.

   An Author object has the following properties, of which at least one
   other than @type MUST be set:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be Author, if set.

   *  name: String (optional).  The name of this author.

   *  uri: String (optional).  A URI value that identifies the author.

   "notes": {
     "n1": {
       "note": "Open office hours are 1600 to 1715 EST, Mon-Fri",
       "created": "2022-11-23T15:01:32Z",
       "author": {
         "name": "John"
       }
     }
   }

                          Figure 42: notes example

2.8.4.  personalInfo

   Type: Id[PersonalInfo] (optional).

   Defines personal information about the entity represented by this
   Card.  A PersonalInfo object has the following properties:

   *  @type: String.  This MUST be PersonalInfo, if set.

   *  kind: String (mandatory).  Specifies the kind of this personal
      information.  The enumerated (Section 1.7.4) values are:

      -  expertise: a field of expertise or credential

      -  hobby: a hobby

      -  interest: an interest

   *  value: String (mandatory).  The actual information.

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   *  level: String (optional).  Indicates the level of expertise, or
      engagement in hobby or interest.  The enumerated (Section 1.7.4)
      values are:

      -  high

      -  medium

      -  low

   *  listAs: UnsignedInt (optional).  This defines the position of this
      personal information in the list of all PersonalInfo objects
      having the same kind in this Card.  If set, the listAs value MUST
      be higher than zero.  Multiple personal information entries MAY
      have the same listAs property value, or none.  Sorting such
      entries is implementation-specific.

   *  label: String (optional).  A custom label.  See Section 1.5.3.

   "personalInfo": {
     "pi2": {
       "kind": "expertise",
       "value": "chemistry",
       "level": "high"
     },
     "pi1": {
       "kind": "hobby",
       "value": "reading",
       "level": "high"
     },
     "pi6": {
       "kind": "interest",
       "value": "r&b music",
       "level": "medium"
     }
   }

                      Figure 43: personalInfo example

3.  IANA Considerations

3.1.  Media Type Registration

   [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact] defines a media type for use with
   JSContact data formatted in JSON.

   Type name:
      application

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   Subtype name:
      jscontact+json

   Required parameters:
      None

   Optional parameters:
      version  This parameter conveys the version of the JSContact data
         in the body part.  It MUST NOT occur more than once.  If this
         parameter is set, then the values of all JSContact version
         (Table 2) properties in the body part MUST match the parameter
         value.

   Encoding considerations:
      This is the same as the encoding considerations of application/
      json, as specified in Section 11 of [RFC8259].

   Security considerations:
      See Section 4 of [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact].

   Interoperability considerations:
      While JSContact is designed to avoid ambiguities as much as
      possible, when converting objects from other contact formats to/
      from JSContact, it is possible that differing representations for
      the same logical data or ambiguities in interpretation might
      arise.  The semantic equivalence of two JSContact objects may be
      determined differently by different applications, for example,
      where URL values differ in case between the two objects.

   Published specification:
      TBD

   Applications that use this media type:
      Applications that currently make use of the text/vcard media type
      can use this as an alternative.

   Fragment identifier considerations:
      A JSON Pointer fragment identifier may be used, as defined in
      [RFC6901], Section 6.

   Additional information:
      Magic number(s):  N/A

      File extensions(s):  N/A

      Macintosh file type code(s):  N/A

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   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      calsify@ietf.org

   Intended usage:
      COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:
      N/A

   Author:
      See the "Author's Address" section of [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact].

   Change controller:
      IETF

3.2.  Creation of the "JSContact" Registry Group

   IANA is asked to create the "JSContact" registry group.  The new
   registry definitions in the following sections all belong to that
   group.

3.3.  Registry Policy and Change Procedures

   Registry assignments that introduce backwards-incompatible
   (Section 1.9) changes require the JSContact major version to change,
   other changes only require to change the minor version.  The registry
   policy for assignments that require the JSContact major version to
   change is Standards Action ([RFC8126], Section 4.9).  The registry
   policy for other assignments is Specification Required ([RFC8126],
   Section 4.6).

   The Designated Expert decides if a major or minor version change is
   required and assigns the new version to the Version Registry
   (Section 3.4).  Version numbers increment by one, and a major version
   change resets the minor version to zero.  An assignment may apply
   multiple changes and to more than one registry at once, in which case
   a single version change is sufficient.  If the registry policy is
   Specification Required, then the Designated Expert may decide that it
   is enough to document the new assignment in the Description item of
   the respective registry.

   A registration MUST have an intended usage of common, reserved, or
   obsolete.

   *  A common usage denotes an item with shared semantics and syntax
      across systems.  Up-to-date systems MUST expect such items to
      occur in JSContact data.

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   *  A reserved usage reserves an item in the registry without
      assigning semantics to avoid name collisions with future
      extensions or protocol use.

   *  An obsolete usage denotes an item that is no longer expected to be
      added by up-to-date systems.  A new assignment has probably been
      defined covering the obsolete item's semantics.

   The registration procedure is not a formal standards process but
   rather an administrative procedure intended to allow community
   comment and check whether it is coherent without excessive time
   delay.  It is designed to encourage vendors to document and register
   new items they add for use cases not covered by the original
   specification, leading to increased interoperability.

3.3.1.  Preliminary Community Review

   Notice of a potential new registration MUST be sent to the Calext
   mailing list <calsify@ietf.org> for review.  This mailing list is
   appropriate to solicit community feedback on a proposed registry
   assignment.

   The intent of the public posting to this list is to solicit comments
   and feedback on the choice of the item name or value, the unambiguity
   of its description, and a review of any interoperability or security
   considerations.  The submitter may submit a revised registration
   proposal or abandon the registration completely at any time.

3.3.2.  Submit Request to IANA

   Registration requests can be sent to <iana@iana.org>.

3.3.3.  Designated Expert Review

   The primary concern of the designated expert (DE) is preventing name
   collisions and encouraging the submitter to document security and
   privacy considerations.

   A new type name, property name or enumerated value MUST NOT differ
   only in case from an already registered name or value.

   For a common-use registration, the DE is expected to confirm that
   suitable documentation is available to ensure interoperability.  The
   DE should also verify that the new assignment does not conflict with
   work that is active or already published within the IETF.

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   The DE will either approve or deny the registration request and
   publish a notice of the decision to the Calext WG mailing list or its
   successor, as well as inform IANA.  A denial notice must be justified
   by an explanation, and, in the cases where it is possible, concrete
   suggestions on how the request can be modified to become acceptable
   should be provided.

3.3.4.  Change Procedures

   Once a JSContact registry group item has been published by IANA, the
   change controller may request a change to its definition.  The same
   procedure that would be appropriate for the original registration
   request is used to process a change request.

   JSContact registrations dot not get deleted; instead, items that are
   no longer believed appropriate for use are declared obsolete by a
   change to their "intended usage" field; such items will be clearly
   marked in the IANA registry.

   Significant changes to a JSContact registry item's definition should
   be requested only when there are serious omissions or errors in the
   published specification, as such changes may cause interoperability
   issues.  When review is required, a change request may be denied if
   it renders entities that were valid under the previous definition
   invalid under the new definition.

3.4.  Creation of the "JSContact Version" Registry

   IANA is asked to create the "JSContact Version" registry.  The
   purpose of this new registry is to define the allowed value range of
   JSContact major and minor version numbers.

   The registry entries sort numerically ascending by the "Major
   Version" column.

   The registry process is outlined in Section 3.3.

3.4.1.  "JSContact Version" Registry Template

   Major Version:  This is the numeric value of a JSContact major
      version number.  It MUST be a positive integer.

   Highest Minor Version:  This is the maximum numeric value of a
      JSContact minor version for the given major version.  It MUST be
      zero or a positive integer.  All numbers less than or equal this
      value are valid minor version values for the given major version.

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3.4.2.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Version" Registry

   The following table lists the initial valid major and minor version
   number ranges.

                 +===============+=======================+
                 | Major Version | Highest Minor Version |
                 +===============+=======================+
                 | 1             | 0                     |
                 +---------------+-----------------------+

                        Table 1: JSContact Versions

3.5.  Creation of the "JSContact Properties" Registry

   IANA is asked to create the "JSContact Properties" registry.  The
   purpose of this new registry is to allow interoperability of
   extensions to JSContact objects

   The registry entries sort alphabetically ascending by the "Property
   Name" column first, "Property Context" second, "Since Version" third.
   Equal entries sort in any order.

   The registry process for a new property is outlined in Section 3.3.

3.5.1.  "JSContact Properties" Registry Template

   Property Name:  This is the name of the property.  The property name
      MUST NOT already be registered for any of the object types listed
      in the "Property Context" field of this registration.  Other
      object types MAY already have registered a different property with
      the same name; however, the same name MUST only be used when the
      semantics are analogous.

   Property Type:  This is the type of this property, using type
      signatures, as specified in Section 1.3.2.  The property type MUST
      be registered in the "JSContact Types" registry.

   Property Context:  This is a comma-separated list of JSContact object
      types (Section 3.6.2) that contain this property.

   Reference or Description:  This is a brief description or RFC number
      and section reference where the property is specified (omitted for
      "reserved" property names).  This must include references to all
      RFC documents where this property is introduced or updated.

   Intended Usage:  This may be "common", "reserved", or "obsolete".

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   Since Version:  This defines the JSContact version on which this
      property definition is based on.  The version MUST be one of the
      allowed values of the version property in the JSContact Enum Value
      registry (see Table 1).

   Until Version:  This defines the JSContact version after which this
      property got obsoleted and MUST NOT be used in later versions.
      The Until Version value either MUST NOT be set, or be one of the
      allowed values of the version property in the JSContact Enum Value
      registry (see Table 1).

   Change Controller:  This is who may request a change to this entry's
      definition (IETF for RFCs from the IETF stream).

3.5.2.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Properties" Registry

   The following table lists the initial common usage entries of the
   "JSContact Properties" registry.  The Since Version for all
   properties is 1.0.  The Until Version for all properties is not set.
   All RFC section references are for [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact].  The
   change controller for all these properties is IETF.

   +===================+=====================+=========================+============+
   |Property Name      |Property Type        |Property Context         |Reference or|
   |                   |                     |                         |Description |
   +===================+=====================+=========================+============+
   |@type              |String               |Address,                 |Section     |
   |                   |                     |AddressComponent,        |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |Anniversary, Author,     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Card, Calendar,          |2.8.1,      |
   |                   |                     |CryptoKey, Directory,    |Section     |
   |                   |                     |EmailAddress,            |2.1.1,      |
   |                   |                     |LanguagePref, Link,      |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Media, Name,             |2.4.1,      |
   |                   |                     |NameComponent, Nickname, |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Note, OnlineService,     |2.6.1,      |
   |                   |                     |Organization, OrgUnit,   |Section     |
   |                   |                     |PartialDate,PersonalInfo,|2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |Phone, Pronouns,         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Relation,                |2.3.1,      |
   |                   |                     |SchedulingAddress,       |Section     |
   |                   |                     |SpeakToAs, Timestamp,    |2.3.4,      |
   |                   |                     |Title                    |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1,      |

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   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1.3,    |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.8,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |version            |String               |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |address            |String               |EmailAddress             |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |addresses          |Id[Address]          |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |anniversaries      |Id[Anniversary]      |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |author             |Author               |Note                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |calendars          |Id[Calendar]         |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |calendarScale      |String               |PartialDate              |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |components         |AddressComponent[]   |Address                  |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |components         |NameComponent[]      |Name                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+

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   |contexts           |String[Boolean]      |Address, Calendar,       |Section     |
   |                   |                     |CryptoKey, Directory,    |1.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |EmailAddress,            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |LanguagePref, Link,      |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |Media, Nickname,         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |OnlineService,           |2.4.1,      |
   |                   |                     |Organization, Phone,     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Pronouns,                |2.6.1,      |
   |                   |                     |SchedulingAddress        |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1.3,    |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.2Section|
   |                   |                     |                         |1.4.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |coordinates        |String               |Address                  |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |countryCode        |String               |Address                  |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |created            |UTCDateTime          |Card, Note               |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |date               |PartialDate|Timestamp|Anniversary              |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |day                |UnsignedInt          |PartialDate              |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |

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   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |defaultSeparator   |String               |Address, Name            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |directories        |Id[Directory]        |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |emails             |Id[EmailAddress]     |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |features           |String[Boolean]      |Phone                    |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |full               |String               |Address, Name            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |grammaticalGender  |String               |SpeakToAs                |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |isOrdered          |Boolean              |Address, Name            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |keywords           |String[Boolean]      |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |kind               |String               |AddressComponent,        |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Anniversary, Calendar,   |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |Card, CryptoKey,         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Directory, Link, Media,  |2.8.1,      |
   |                   |                     |NameComponent,           |Section     |
   |                   |                     |PersonalInfo, Title      |2.4.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |

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   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |label              |String               |Calendar, CryptoKey,     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Directory, EmailAddress, |1.5.3,      |
   |                   |                     |Link, Media,             |Section     |
   |                   |                     |OnlineService,           |2.4.1,      |
   |                   |                     |PersonalInfo, Phone,     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |SchedulingAddress        |2.6.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |1.4.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |language           |String               |Card, LanguagePref       |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.5,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |level              |String               |PersonalInfo             |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |links              |Id[Link]             |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |listAs             |UnsignedInt          |Directory, PersonalInfo  |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |localizations      |String[PatchObject]  |Card                     |Section     |

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   |                   |                     |                         |2.7.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |media              |Id[Media]            |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |mediaType          |String               |Calendar, CryptoKey,     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Directory, Link, Media   |1.4.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |members            |String[Boolean]      |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.6       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |month              |UnsignedInt          |PartialDate              |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |name               |Name                 |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |name               |String               |Author, Nickname,        |Section     |
   |                   |                     |Organization, OrgUnit,   |2.8.3,      |
   |                   |                     |Title                    |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1.3,    |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |nicknames          |Id[Nickname]         |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1.3     |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |note               |String               |Note                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |notes              |Id[Note]             |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |number             |String               |Phone                    |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+

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   |onlineServices     |Id[OnlineService]    |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |organizationId     |String               |Title                    |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |organizations      |Id[Organization]     |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |personalInfo       |Id[PersonalInfo]     |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |phones             |Id[Phone]            |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |phonetic           |String               |AddressComponent,        |Section     |
   |                   |                     |NameComponent            |2.5.1.2,    |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1.2     |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |phoneticScript     |String               |Address, Name            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |phoneticSystem     |String               |Address, Name            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |place              |Address              |Anniversary              |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |pref               |UnsignedInt          |Address, Calendar,       |Section     |
   |                   |                     |CryptoKey, Directory,    |1.5.4,      |
   |                   |                     |EmailAddress,            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |LanguagePref, Link,      |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |Media, Nickname,         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |OnlineService, Phone,    |2.4.1,      |
   |                   |                     |Pronouns,                |Section     |
   |                   |                     |SchedulingAddress        |2.6.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |

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   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1.3,    |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |1.4.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |preferredLanguages |String[LanguagePref] |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |prodId             |String               |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.7       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |pronouns           |Id[Pronouns]         |SpeakToAs                |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |relatedTo          |String[Relation]     |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.8       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |relation           |String[Boolean]      |Relation                 |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.8       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |schedulingAddresses|Id[SchedulingAddress]|Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |service            |String               |OnlineService            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |sortAs             |String[String]       |Name                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |sortAs             |String               |Organization, OrgUnit    |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |speakToAs          |SpeakToAs            |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.3       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |timeZone           |String               |Address                  |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.5.1       |

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   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |titles             |Id[Title]            |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |uid                |String               |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.9       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |units              |OrgUnit[]            |Organization             |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |updated            |UTCDateTime          |Card                     |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.1.10      |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |uri                |String               |Author, Calendar,        |Section     |
   |                   |                     |CryptoKey, Directory,    |2.8.3,      |
   |                   |                     |Link, Media,             |Section     |
   |                   |                     |OnlineService,           |1.4.4,      |
   |                   |                     |SchedulingAddress        |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.3,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.6.4,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.4.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |user               |String               |OnlineService            |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.3.2       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |utc                |UTCDateTime          |Timestamp                |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |value              |String               |AddressComponent,        |Section     |
   |                   |                     |NameComponent,           |2.5.1,      |
   |                   |                     |PersonalInfo             |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.2.1,      |
   |                   |                     |                         |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.4       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+
   |year               |UnsignedInt          |PartialDate              |Section     |
   |                   |                     |                         |2.8.1       |
   +-------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+------------+

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             Table 2: JSContact Properties with "common" usage

   The following table lists the initial reserved usage entries of the
   "JSContact Properties" registry.  All RFC section references are for
   [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact].  The change controller for all these
   properties is IETF.

   +===============+============+============+==============+==========+
   | Property      | Property   | Property   | Reference or | Intended |
   | Name          | Type       | Context    | Description  | Usage    |
   +===============+============+============+==============+==========+
   | extra         | not        | not        | Section      | reserved |
   |               | applicable | applicable | 1.5.2        |          |
   +---------------+------------+------------+--------------+----------+

            Table 3: JSContact Properties with "reserved" usage

3.6.  Creation of the "JSContact Types" Registry

   IANA is asked to create the "JSContact Types" registry.  The purpose
   of this new registry is to avoid name collisions for JSContact type
   names and provide a complete reference for all data types used for
   JSContact property values.

   The registry entries sort alphabetically ascending by the "Type Name"
   column.  Equal entries sort in any order.

   The registry process for a new type is outlined in Section 3.3.

3.6.1.  "JSContact Types" Registry Template

   Type Name:  the name of the type

   Reference or Description:  a brief description or RFC number and
      section reference where the Type is specified (may be omitted for
      "reserved" type names)

   Intended Usage:  common, reserved, or obsolete

   Since Version:  This defines the JSContact version on which this type
      definition is based on.  The version MUST be one of the allowed
      values of the version property in the JSContact Enum Value
      registry (see Table 1).

   Until Version:  This defines the JSContact version after which this

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      type definition got obsoleted and MUST NOT be used in later
      versions.  The Until Version value either MUST be not set, or one
      of the allowed values of the version property in the JSContact
      Enum Value registry (see Table 1).

   Change Controller:  This is who may request a change to this entry's
      definition (IETF for RFCs from the IETF stream).

3.6.2.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Types" Registry

   The following table lists the initial common usage entries of the
   JSContact Types registry.  The Since Version for all types is 1.0.
   The Until Version for all types is not set.  All RFC section
   references are for [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact].  The change
   controller for all these properties is IETF.

   +===================+==========================+
   | Type Name         | Reference or Description |
   +===================+==========================+
   | Address           | Section 2.5.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | AddressComponent  | Section 2.5.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Anniversary       | Section 2.8.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Author            | Section 2.8.3            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Boolean           | Section 1.3.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Calendar          | Section 2.4.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Card              | Section 2                |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | CryptoKey         | Section 2.6.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Directory         | Section 2.6.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | EmailAddress      | Section 2.3.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Id                | Section 1.4.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Int               | Section 1.4.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | LanguagePref      | Section 2.3.4            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Link              | Section 2.6.3            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Media             | Section 2.6.4            |

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   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Name              | Section 2.2.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | NameComponent     | Section 2.2.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Nickname          | Section 2.2.1.3          |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Note              | Section 2.8.3            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Number            | Section 1.3.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | OnlineService     | Section 2.3.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Organization      | Section 2.2.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | OrgUnit           | Section 2.2.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | PartialDate       | Section 2.8.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | PatchObject       | Section 1.4.3            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | PersonalInfo      | Section 2.8.4            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Phone             | Section 2.3.3            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Pronouns          | Section 2.2.3            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Relation          | Section 2.1.8            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | SchedulingAddress | Section 2.4.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | SpeakToAs         | Section 2.2.3            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | String            | Section 1.3.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Timestamp         | Section 2.8.1            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | Title             | Section 2.2.4            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | UnsignedInt       | Section 1.4.2            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+
   | UTCDateTime       | Section 1.4.5            |
   +-------------------+--------------------------+

     Table 4: JSContact Types with "common" usage

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   The following table lists the initial reserved usage entries of the
   JSContact Types registry.  All types are for version 1.0.  All RFC
   section references are for [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact].  The change
   controller for all these properties is IETF.

   +===========+==========================+
   | Type Name | Reference or Description |
   +===========+==========================+
   | Resource  | Section 1.4.4            |
   +-----------+--------------------------+

        Table 5: JSContact Types with
               "reserved" usage

3.7.  Creation of the "JSContact Enum Values" Registry

   IANA is asked to create the "JSContact Enum Values" registry.  The
   purpose of the new registry is to allow interoperable extension of
   semantics for JSContact properties with enumerable values.  Each such
   property will have a subregistry of allowed values.

   The registry entries sort alphabetically ascending by the "Property
   Name" column first, "Property Context" second, "Since Version" third.
   The enum values sort alphabetically ascending.  Equal entries sort in
   any order.

   The registry process for a new enum value or adding a new enumerable
   property is outlined in Section 3.3.

3.7.1.  "JSContact Enum Values" Registry Property Template

   This template is for adding a subregistry for a new enumerable
   property to the "JSContact Enum" registry.

   Property Name:  These are the name(s) of the property or properties
      where these values may be used.  This MUST be registered in the
      "JSContact Properties" registry.

   Context:  This is the list of allowed object types where the property
      or properties may appear, as registered in the "JSContact
      Properties" registry.  This disambiguates where there may be two
      distinct properties with the same name in different contexts.

   Since Version:  This defines the JSContact version on which this enum
      value definition is based on.  The version MUST be one of the
      allowed values of the version property in the JSContact Enum Value
      registry (see Table 1).

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   Until Version:  This defines the JSContact version after which this
      enum value definition got obsoleted and MUST NOT be used in later
      versions.  The Until Version value either MUST be not set, or one
      of the allowed values of the version property in the JSContact
      Enum Value registry (see Table 1).

   Change Controller:  This is who may request a change to this entry's
      definition (IETF for RFCs from the IETF stream).

   Initial Contents:  This is the initial list of defined values for
      this enum, using the template defined in Section 3.7.2.  A
      subregistry will be created with these values for this property
      name/context tuple.

3.7.2.  "JSContact Enum Values" Registry Value Template

   This template is for adding a new enum value to a subregistry in the
   JSContact Enum registry.

   Enum Value:  The verbatim value of the enum.

   Reference or Description:  A brief description or RFC number and
      section reference for the semantics of this value.

   Since Version:  The JSContact version on which the enum value
      definition is based on.  The version MUST be one of the allowed
      values of the version property in the JSContact Enum Value
      registry (see Table 1).

   Until Version:  The JSContact version after which this enum value got
      obsoleted and MUST NOT be used in later versions.  The Until
      Version value either MUST be not set, or one of the allowed values
      of the version property in the JSContact Enum Value registry (see
      Table 1).

3.7.3.  Initial Contents for the "JSContact Enum Values" Registry

   For each subregistry created in this section, all RFC section
   references are for [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact].  For all entries, the
   Since Version is 1.0, the Until Version is not set, the Change
   Controller is IETF.

   Property Name:      contexts
   Context:            Address
   Initial Contents: 

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                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | billing    | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | delivery   | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | private    | Section 1.5.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | work       | Section 1.5.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                           Table 6: JSContact Enum Values for
                              contexts (Context: Address)

   Property Name:      contexts
   Context:            Calendar, CryptoKey, Directory, EmailAddress,
                       LanguagePref, Link, Media, Nickname,
                       OnlineService, Organization, Phone, Pronouns,
                       SchedulingAddress
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | private    | Section 1.5.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | work       | Section 1.5.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                           Table 7: JSContact Enum Values for
                              contexts (Context: Calendar,
                          CryptoKey, Directory, EmailAddress,
                          LanguagePref, Link, Media, Nickname,
                          OnlineService, Organization, Phone,
                              Pronouns, SchedulingAddress)

   Property Name:      features
   Context:            Phone
   Initial Contents: 

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                       +=============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value  | Reference or Description |
                       +=============+==========================+
                       | fax         | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | main-number | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | mobile      | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | pager       | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | text        | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | textphone   | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | video       | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | voice       | Section 2.3.3            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+

                           Table 8: JSContact Enum Values for
                               features (Context: Phone)

   Property Name:      grammaticalGender
   Context:            SpeakToAs
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | animate    | Section 2.2.3            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | common     | Section 2.2.3            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | feminine   | Section 2.2.3            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | inanimate  | Section 2.2.3            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | masculine  | Section 2.2.3            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | neuter     | Section 2.2.3            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                           Table 9: JSContact Enum Values for
                               kind (Context: SpeakToAs)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            AddressComponent
   Initial Contents: 

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                       +===============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value    | Reference or Description |
                       +===============+==========================+
                       | apartment     | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | block         | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | building      | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | country       | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | direction     | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | district      | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | floor         | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | landmark      | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | locality      | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | name          | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | number        | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | postcode      | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | postOfficeBox | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | region        | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | room          | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | separator     | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+
                       | subdistrict   | Section 2.5.1            |
                       +---------------+--------------------------+

                         Table 10: JSContact Enum Values for kind
                               (Context: AddressComponent)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            Anniversary
   Initial Contents: 

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                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | birth      | Section 2.8.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | death      | Section 2.8.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | wedding    | Section 2.8.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 11: JSContact Enum Values for
                              kind (Context: Anniversary)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            Calendar
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | calendar   | Section 2.4.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | freeBusy   | Section 2.4.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 12: JSContact Enum Values for
                                kind (Context: Calendar)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            Card
   Initial Contents: 
                       +=============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value  | Reference or Description |
                       +=============+==========================+
                       | application | Section 2.1.4            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | device      | Section 2.1.4            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | group       | Section 2.1.4            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | individual  | Section 2.1.4            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | location    | Section 2.1.4            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+
                       | org         | Section 2.1.4            |
                       +-------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 13: JSContact Enum Values for
                                  kind (Context: Card)

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   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            Directory
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | directory  | Section 2.6.2            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | entry      | Section 2.6.2            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 14: JSContact Enum Values for
                               kind (Context: Directory)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            Link
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | contact    | Section 2.6.3            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 15: JSContact Enum Values for
                                  kind (Context: Link)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            Media
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | logo       | Section 2.6.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | photo      | Section 2.6.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | sound      | Section 2.6.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 16: JSContact Enum Values for
                                 kind (Context: Media)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            NameComponent
   Initial Contents: 

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                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | credential | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | generation | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | given      | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | given2     | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | separator  | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | surname    | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | surname2   | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | title      | Section 2.2.1            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 17: JSContact Enum Values for
                             kind (Context: NameComponent)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            PersonalInfo
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | expertise  | Section 2.8.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | hobby      | Section 2.8.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | interest   | Section 2.8.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 18: JSContact Enum Values for
                              kind (Context: PersonalInfo)

   Property Name:      kind
   Context:            Title
   Initial Contents: 

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                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | role       | Section 2.2.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | title      | Section 2.2.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 19: JSContact Enum Values for
                                 kind (Context: Title)

   Property Name:      level
   Context:            PersonalInfo
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | high       | Section 2.8.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | low        | Section 2.8.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | medium     | Section 2.8.4            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 20: JSContact Enum Values for
                             level (Context: PersonalInfo)

   Property Name:      relation
   Context:            Relation
   Initial Contents: 

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                       +==============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value   | Reference or Description |
                       +==============+==========================+
                       | acquaintance | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | agent        | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | child        | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | colleague    | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | contact      | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | co-resident  | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | co-worker    | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | crush        | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | date         | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | emergency    | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | friend       | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | kin          | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | me           | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | met          | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | muse         | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | neighbor     | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | parent       | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | sibling      | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | spouse       | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+
                       | sweetheart   | Section 2.1.8            |
                       +--------------+--------------------------+

                           Table 21: JSContact Enum Values for
                               relation (Context: Relation)

   Property Name:      phoneticSystem

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   Context:            Address, Name
   Initial Contents: 
                       +============+==========================+
                       | Enum Value | Reference or Description |
                       +============+==========================+
                       | ipa        | Section 1.5.5            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | jyut       | Section 1.5.5            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+
                       | piny       | Section 1.5.5            |
                       +------------+--------------------------+

                          Table 22: JSContact Enum Values for
                           phoneticSystem (Context: Address,
                                         Name)

4.  Security Considerations

   Contact information is very privacy-sensitive.  It can reveal the
   identity, location and credentials information, employment status,
   interests and hobbies, and social network of a user.  Its
   transmission and storage must be done carefully to protect it from
   possible threats, such as eavesdropping, replay, message insertion,
   deletion, modification, and on-path attacks.

   The data being stored and transmitted may be used in systems with
   real-world consequences.  For example, a malicious actor might
   provide JSContact data that uses the name of another person but
   insert their contact details to impersonate the unknown victim.  Such
   systems must be careful to authenticate all data they receive to
   prevent them from being subverted and ensure the change comes from an
   authorized entity.

   This document only defines the data format; such considerations are
   primarily the concern of the API or method of storage and
   transmission of such files.

4.1.  JSON Parsing

   The security considerations of [RFC8259] apply to the use of JSON as
   the data interchange format.

   As for any serialization format, parsers need to thoroughly check the
   syntax of the supplied data.  JSON uses opening and closing brackets
   for several types and structures, and it is possible that the end of
   the supplied data will be reached when scanning for a matching
   closing bracket; this is an error condition, and implementations need
   to stop scanning at the end of the supplied data.

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   JSON also uses a string encoding with some escape sequences to encode
   special characters within a string.  Care is needed when processing
   these escape sequences to ensure that they are fully formed before
   the special processing is triggered, with special care taken when the
   escape sequences appear adjacent to other (non-escaped) special
   characters or adjacent to the end of data (as in the previous
   paragraph).

   If parsing JSON into a non-textual structured data format,
   implementations may need to allocate storage to hold JSON string
   elements.  Since JSON does not use explicit string lengths, the risk
   of denial of service due to resource exhaustion is small, but
   implementations may still wish to place limits on the size of
   allocations they are willing to make in any given context, to avoid
   untrusted data causing excessive memory allocation.

4.2.  URI Values

   Several JSContact properties contain URIs as values, and processing
   these properties requires extra care.  Section 7 of [RFC3986]
   discusses security risks related to URIs.

   Fetching remote resources carries inherent risks.  Connections must
   only be allowed on well-known ports, using allowed protocols
   (generally, just HTTP/HTTPS on their default ports).  The URL must be
   resolved externally and not allowed to access internal resources.
   Connecting to an external source reveals IP (and therefore often
   location) information.

   A maliciously constructed JSContact object may contain a very large
   number of URIs.  In the case of published address books with a large
   number of subscribers, such objects could be widely distributed.
   Implementations should be careful to limit the automatic fetching of
   linked resources to reduce the risk of this being an amplification
   vector for a denial-of-service attack.

5.  References

5.1.  Normative References

   [IANATZ]   "IANA Time Zone Database",
              <https://www.iana.org/time-zones>.

   [IANAvCard]
              "IANA vCard Elements", <https://www.iana.org/assignments/
              vcard-elements/vcard-elements.xhtml>.

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   [ISO.3166-1.2006]
              International Organization for Standardization, "Codes for
              the representation of names of countries, 3rd edition",
              ISO Standard 3166-1, 2006.

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1034>.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2046, November 1996,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2046>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2426]  Dawson, F. and T. Howes, "vCard MIME Directory Profile",
              RFC 2426, DOI 10.17487/RFC2426, September 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2426>.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet:
              Timestamps", RFC 3339, DOI 10.17487/RFC3339, July 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3339>.

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4122, July 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4122>.

   [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
              Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>.

   [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5322, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5322>.

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   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A., Ed. and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646,
              September 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.

   [RFC5870]  Mayrhofer, A. and C. Spanring, "A Uniform Resource
              Identifier for Geographic Locations ('geo' URI)",
              RFC 5870, DOI 10.17487/RFC5870, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5870>.

   [RFC6350]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6350, August 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6350>.

   [RFC6901]  Bryan, P., Ed., Zyp, K., and M. Nottingham, Ed.,
              "JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer", RFC 6901,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6901, April 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6901>.

   [RFC7493]  Bray, T., Ed., "The I-JSON Message Format", RFC 7493,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7493, March 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7493>.

   [RFC7529]  Daboo, C. and G. Yakushev, "Non-Gregorian Recurrence Rules
              in the Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object
              Specification (iCalendar)", RFC 7529,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7529, May 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7529>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8141]  Saint-Andre, P. and J. Klensin, "Uniform Resource Names
              (URNs)", RFC 8141, DOI 10.17487/RFC8141, April 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8141>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8259]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>.

5.2.  Informative References

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   [I-D.ietf-calext-jscontact]
              Stepanek, R. and M. Loffredo, "JSContact: A JSON
              representation of contact data", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-calext-jscontact-15, 18
              September 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-ietf-calext-jscontact-15>.

   [I-D.ietf-uuidrev-rfc4122bis]
              Davis, K. R., Peabody, B., and P. Leach, "Universally
              Unique IDentifiers (UUID)", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-uuidrev-rfc4122bis-14, 6 November 2023,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-uuidrev-
              rfc4122bis-14>.

   [IPA]      "International Phonetic Alphabet",
              <https://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/>.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>.

   [RFC3966]  Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers",
              RFC 3966, DOI 10.17487/RFC3966, December 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3966>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC3987]  Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, DOI 10.17487/RFC3987,
              January 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3987>.

   [RFC6351]  Perreault, S., "xCard: vCard XML Representation",
              RFC 6351, DOI 10.17487/RFC6351, August 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6351>.

   [RFC6473]  Saint-Andre, P., "vCard KIND:application", RFC 6473,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6473, December 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6473>.

   [RFC6474]  Li, K. and B. Leiba, "vCard Format Extensions: Place of
              Birth, Place and Date of Death", RFC 6474,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6474, December 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6474>.

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   [RFC6715]  Cauchie, D., Leiba, B., and K. Li, "vCard Format
              Extensions: Representing vCard Extensions Defined by the
              Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Converged Address Book (CAB)
              Group", RFC 6715, DOI 10.17487/RFC6715, August 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6715>.

   [RFC6869]  Salgueiro, G., Clarke, J., and P. Saint-Andre, "vCard
              KIND:device", RFC 6869, DOI 10.17487/RFC6869, February
              2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6869>.

   [RFC7095]  Kewisch, P., "jCard: The JSON Format for vCard", RFC 7095,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7095, January 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7095>.

   [RFC8499]  Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS
              Terminology", BCP 219, RFC 8499, DOI 10.17487/RFC8499,
              January 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8499>.

   [RFC8605]  Hollenbeck, S. and R. Carney, "vCard Format Extensions:
              ICANN Extensions for the Registration Data Access Protocol
              (RDAP)", RFC 8605, DOI 10.17487/RFC8605, May 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8605>.

   [UBiDi]    "Unicode® Standard Annex #9: Unicode Bidirectional
              Algorithm", <https://www.unicode.org/reports/tr9/>.

   [W3C-URL]  "W3C WG URL - Living Standard — Last Updated 21 August
              2023", <https://url.spec.whatwg.org>.

Authors' Addresses

   Robert Stepanek
   Fastmail
   PO Box 234, Collins St West
   Melbourne  VIC 8007
   Australia
   Email: rsto@fastmailteam.com

   Mario Loffredo
   IIT-CNR
   Via Moruzzi,1
   56124 Pisa
   Italy
   Email: mario.loffredo@iit.cnr.it

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