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SR Replication Segment for Multi-point Service Delivery
draft-ietf-spring-sr-replication-segment-10

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (spring WG)
Authors Daniel Voyer , Clarence Filsfils , Rishabh Parekh , Hooman Bidgoli , Zhaohui (Jeffrey) Zhang
Last updated 2022-10-20
Replaces draft-voyer-spring-sr-replication-segment
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draft-ietf-spring-sr-replication-segment-10
Network Working Group                                      D. Voyer, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                               Bell Canada
Intended status: Standards Track                             C. Filsfils
Expires: 23 April 2023                                         R. Parekh
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                              H. Bidgoli
                                                                   Nokia
                                                                Z. Zhang
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                         20 October 2022

        SR Replication Segment for Multi-point Service Delivery
              draft-ietf-spring-sr-replication-segment-10

Abstract

   This document describes the SR Replication segment for Multi-point
   service delivery.  A SR Replication segment allows a packet to be
   replicated from a Replication Node to Downstream nodes.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 23 April 2023.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Replication Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  SR-MPLS data plane  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  SRv6 data plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Cisco implmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Nokia implementation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Appendix A.  Illustration of a Replication Segment  . . . . . . .  11
     A.1.  SR-MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     A.2.  SRv6  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   We define a new type of segment for Segment Routing [RFC8402], called
   Replication segment, which allows a node (henceforth called as
   Replication Node) to replicate packets to a set of other nodes
   (called Downstream Nodes) in a Segment Routing Domain.  Replication
   segments provide building blocks for Point-to-Multipoint Service
   delivery via SR Point-to-Multipoint (SR P2MP) policy.  A Replication
   segment can replicate packet to directly connected nodes or to
   downstream nodes (without need for state on the transit routers).
   This document focuses on the Replication segment building block.  The
   use of one or more stitched Replication segments constructed for SR
   P2MP Policy tree is specified in [I-D.ietf-pim-sr-p2mp-policy].

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2.  Replication Segment

   In a Segment Routing Domain, a Replication segment is a logical
   construct which connects a Replication Node to a set of Downstream
   Nodes.  A Replication segment is a local segment instantiated at a
   Replication node.  It can be either provisioned locally on a node or
   programmed by a PCE.  Replication segments apply equally to both SR-
   MPLS and SRv6 instantiations of Segment Routing.

   A Replication segment is identified by the tuple <Replication-ID,
   Node-ID>, where:

   *  Replication-ID: An identifier for a Replication segment that is
      unique in context of the Replication Node.

   *  Node-ID: The address of the Replication Node that the Replication
      segment is for.  Note that the root of a multi-point service is
      also a Replication Node.

   In simplest case, Replication-ID can be a 32-bit number, but it can
   be extended or modified as required based on specific use of a
   Replication segment.  When the PCE signals a Replication segment to
   its node, the <Replication-ID, Node-ID> tuple identifies the segment.
   Examples of such signaling and extension are described in
   [I-D.ietf-pim-sr-p2mp-policy].

   A Replication segment includes the following elements:

   *  Replication SID: The Segment Identifier of a Replication segment.
      This is a SR-MPLS label or a SRv6 SID [RFC8402].

   *  Downstream Nodes: Set of nodes in Segment Routing domain to which
      a packet is replicated by the Replication segment.

   *  Replication State: See below.

   The Downstream Nodes and Replication State of a Replication segment
   can change over time, depending on the network state and leaf nodes
   of a multi-point service that the segment is part of.

   Replication SID identifies the Replication segment in the forwarding
   plane.  At a Replication node, the Replication SID is the equivalent
   of Binding SID [RFC9256] of a Segment Routing Policy.

   Replication State is a list of replication branches to the Downstream
   Nodes.  In this document, each branch is abstracted to a <Downstream
   Node, Downstream Replication SID> tuple.

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   In a branch tuple, <Downstream Node> represents the reachability from
   the Replication Node to the Downstream Node.  In its simplest form,
   this MAY be specified as an interface or nexthop if downstream node
   is adjacent to the Replication Node.  The reachability may be
   specified in terms of Flex-Algo path (including the default algo)
   [I-D.ietf-lsr-flex-algo], or specified by an SR explicit path
   represented either by a SID-list (of one or more SIDs) or by a
   Segment Routing Policy [RFC9256].

   A packet is steered into a Replication segment at a Replication Node
   in two ways:

   *  When the Active Segment [RFC8402] is a locally instantiated
      Replication SID

   *  By the root of a multi-point service based on local configuration
      outside the scope of this document.

   In either case, the packet is replicated to each Downstream node in
   the associated Replication state.

   If a Downstream Node is an egress (aka leaf) of the multi-point
   service, i.e. no further replication is needed, then that leaf node's
   Replication segment will not have any Replication State and the
   operation is NEXT.  At an egress node, the Replication SID MAY be
   used to identify that portion of the multi-point service.  Notice
   that the segment on the leaf node is still referred to as a
   Replication segment for the purpose of generalization.

   A node can be a bud node, i.e. it is a Replication Node and a leaf
   node of a multi-point service at the same time
   [I-D.ietf-pim-sr-p2mp-policy].

2.1.  SR-MPLS data plane

   When the Active Segment is a Replication SID, the processing results
   in a POP operation and lookup of the associated Replication state.
   For each replication in the Replication state, the operation is a
   PUSH of the downstream Replication SID and an optional segment list
   on to the packet which is forwarded to the Downstream node.  For leaf
   nodes the inner packet is forwarded as per local configuration.

   When the root of a multi-point service steers a packet to a
   Replication segment, it results in a replication to each Downstream
   node in the associated replication state.  The operation is a PUSH of
   the replication SID and an optional segment list on to the packet
   which is forwarded to the downstream node.

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   There MAY be SIDs preceding the SR-MPLS Replication SID in order to
   guide a packet from a non-adjacent SR node to a Replication Node.  A
   Replication Node MAY replicate a packet to a non-adjacent Downstream
   Node using SIDs it inserts in the copy preceding the downstream
   Replication SID.  The Downstream Node may be leaf node of the
   Replication Segment, or another Replication Node, or both in case of
   bud node.  An Anycast SID or BGP PeerSID MUST NOT appear in segment
   list preceding a Replication SID.  There MAY be SIDs after the
   Replication SID in the segment list of a packet.  These SIDs are used
   to provide additional context for processing a packet locally at the
   node where the Replication SID is the Active Segment.  The processing
   of SIDs following the Replication SID MUST NOT forward the SR-MPLS
   packet to another node.

2.2.  SRv6 data plane

   In SRv6 [RFC8986], the "Endpoint with replication" behavior
   (End.Replicate for short) replicates a packet and forwards the packet
   according to a Replication state.

   When processing a packet destined to a local Replication-SID, the
   packet is replicated to Downstream nodes and/or locally delivered off
   tree (when this is a bud/leaf node) according to the associated
   replication state.  For replication, the outer header is re-used, and
   the Downstream Replication SID is written into the outer IPv6 header
   destination address.  If required, an optional segment list may be
   used on some branches using H.Encaps.Red (while some other branches
   may not need that).  Note that this H.Encaps.Red is independent from
   the replication segment - it is just used to steer the replicated
   traffic on a traffic engineered path to a Downstream node.  If SRv6
   SID compression is possible [I-D.ietf-spring-srv6-srh-compression],
   the Replication node SHOULD use a CSID container with Downstream
   Replication SID as the Last uSID in the container instead of
   H.Encaps.Red.

   The above also applies when the Replication segment is for the Root
   node, whose upstream node has placed the Replication-SID in the
   header.  A local application (e.g.  MVPN/EVPN) may also apply
   H.Encaps.Red and then steer the resulting traffic into the segment.
   Again note that the H.Encaps.Red is independent of the Replication
   segment - it is the action of the application (e.g.  MVPN/EVPN
   service).  If the service is on a Root node, the two H.Encaps
   mentioned, one for the service and other in the previous paragraph
   for replication to Downstream node SHOULD be combined for
   optimization (to avoid extra IPv6 encapsulation).

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   For the local delivery on a bud/leaf node, the action associated with
   Replication-SID is "look at next SID in SRH".  The next SID could be
   a SID with End.DTMC4/6 or End.DT2M local behavior (equivalent of
   MVPN/EVPN PMSI label in case of tunnel sharing across multiple VPNs).
   There may also not be a next SID (e.g.  MVPN/EVPN with one tunnel per
   VPN), in which case the Replication-SID is then equivalent to
   End.DTM4/6 or End.DT2M.  Note that decapsulation is not an inherent
   action of a Replication segment even on a bud/leaf node.

   There MAY be SIDs preceding the SRv6 Replication SID in order to
   guide a packet from a non-adjacent SR node to a Replication Node via
   an explicit path.  A Replication Node MAY steer a replicated packet
   on an explicit path to a non-adjacent Downstream Node using SIDs it
   inserts in the copy preceding the downstream Replication SID.  The
   Downstream Node may be leaf node of the Replication Segment, or
   another Replication Node, or both in case of bud node.  For SRv6, as
   described in above paragraphs, the insertion of SIDs prior to
   Replication SID entails a new IPv6 encapsulation with SRH, but this
   can be optimized on Root node or for compressed SRv6 SIDs.  Note that
   locator of Replication SID is sufficient to guide a packet on IGP
   shortest path, for default or Flex algo, between non-adjacent nodes.
   An Anycast SID or BGP PeerSID MUST NOT appear in segment list
   preceding a Replication SID.  There MAY be SIDs after the Replication
   SID in the SRH of a packet.  These SIDs are used to provide
   additional context for processing a packet locally at the node where
   the Replication SID is the Active Segment.  The processing of SIDs
   following the Replication SID MUST NOT forward the SRv6 packet to
   some other node.  The restrictions described in this paragraph apply
   to both un-compressed and compressed SRv6 encapsulation.

3.  Use Cases

   In the simplest use case, a single Replication segment includes the
   root node of a multi-point service and the egress/leaf nodes of the
   service as all the Downstream Nodes.  This achieves Ingress
   Replication [RFC7988] that has been widely used for MVPN [RFC6513]
   and EVPN [RFC7432] BUM (Broadcast, Unknown and Multicast) traffic.

   Replication segments can also be used as building blocks for
   replication trees when Replication segments on the root, intermediate
   Replication Nodes and leaf nodes are stitched together to achieve
   efficient replication.  That is specified in
   [I-D.ietf-pim-sr-p2mp-policy].

4.  Implementation Status

   Note to the RFC Editor: Please remove this section and reference to
   RFC 7942 before publication.

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   This section records the status of known implementations of the
   protocol defined by this specification at the time of posting of this
   Internet-Draft, and is based on a proposal described in RFC 7942
   [RFC7942].  The description of implementations in this section is
   intended to assist the IETF in its decision processes in progressing
   drafts to RFCs.  Please note that the listing of any individual
   implementation here does not imply endorsement by the IETF.
   Furthermore, no effort has been spent to verify the information
   presented here that was supplied by IETF contributors.  This is not
   intended as, and must not be construed to be, a catalog of available
   implementations or their features.  Readers are advised to note that
   other implementations may exist.  According to RFC 7942 [RFC7942],
   "this will allow reviewers and working groups to assign due
   consideration to documents that have the benefit of running code,
   which may serve as evidence of valuable experimentation and feedback
   that have made the implemented protocols more mature.  It is up to
   the individual working groups to use this information as they see
   fit".

   There are two known implementations of this draft by Cisco and Nokia.
   Interoperability reports for the implementations are not applicable
   since this draft does not specify any interoperable elements of
   Replication segments.

4.1.  Cisco implmentation

   Cisco Implementation uses Replication Segments defined in this draft
   as a basis for PCE to compute and establish P2MP trees in SR domain
   to provide multipoint services.  The implementation, based on latest
   version of this draft, is in production and supports all MUST and
   SHOULD clauses for SR-MPLS Replication segments.  The documentaion is
   available at Cisco documentation
   (https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/asr9000/software/
   asr9k-r7-3/segment-routing/configuration/guide/b-segment-routing-cg-
   asr9000-73x/b-segment-routing-cg-asr9000-71x_chapter_01001.html) and
   the point of contact is Rishabh Parekh (riparekh@cisco.com).

4.2.  Nokia implementation

   Nokia has implemented replication SID as defined in this draft to
   establish P2MP tree in segment routing domain.  The implementation
   supports SR-MPLS encap and has all the Must and SHOULD clause in this
   draft.  The implementation is at general availability maturity and is
   compliant with the latest version of the draft.  The documentation
   for implementation can be found at Nokia help
   (https://infocenter.nokia.com/public/7750SR207R1A/
   index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.sr.multicast%2Fhtml%2Ftreesid.html) and the
   point of contact is hooman.bidgoli@nokia.com.

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5.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests IANA to allocate the following codepoints in
   "SRv6 Endpoint Behaviors" sub-registry of "Segment Routing
   Parameters" top-level registry.

            +=======+========+===================+===========+
            | Value |  Hex   | Endpoint behavior | Reference |
            +=======+========+===================+===========+
            | 75    | 0x004B |   End.Replicate   | [This.ID] |
            +-------+--------+-------------------+-----------+

                 Table 1: IETF - SRv6 Endpoint Behaviors

6.  Security Considerations

   There are no additional security risks introduced by this design.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge Siva Sivabalan, Mike Koldychev,
   Vishnu Pavan Beeram, Alexander Vainshtein, Bruno Decraene, Thierry
   Couture and Joel Halpern for their valuable inputs.

8.  Contributors

   Clayton Hassen Bell Canada Vancouver Canada

   Email: clayton.hassen@bell.ca

   Kurtis Gillis Bell Canada Halifax Canada

   Email: kurtis.gillis@bell.ca

   Arvind Venkateswaran Cisco Systems, Inc.  San Jose US

   Email: arvvenka@cisco.com

   Zafar Ali Cisco Systems, Inc.  US

   Email: zali@cisco.com

   Swadesh Agrawal Cisco Systems, Inc.  San Jose US

   Email: swaagraw@cisco.com

   Jayant Kotalwar Nokia Mountain View US

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   Email: jayant.kotalwar@nokia.com

   Tanmoy Kundu Nokia Mountain View US

   Email: tanmoy.kundu@nokia.com

   Andrew Stone Nokia Ottawa Canada

   Email: andrew.stone@nokia.com

   Tarek Saad Cisco Systems Inc. Canada

   Email:tsaad@cisco.com

   Kamran Raza Cisco Systems, Inc.  Canada

   Email:skraza@cisco.com

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8402]  Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Ginsberg, L.,
              Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
              Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI 10.17487/RFC8402,
              July 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8402>.

   [RFC8986]  Filsfils, C., Ed., Camarillo, P., Ed., Leddy, J., Voyer,
              D., Matsushima, S., and Z. Li, "Segment Routing over IPv6
              (SRv6) Network Programming", RFC 8986,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8986, February 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8986>.

   [RFC9256]  Filsfils, C., Talaulikar, K., Ed., Voyer, D., Bogdanov,
              A., and P. Mattes, "Segment Routing Policy Architecture",
              RFC 9256, DOI 10.17487/RFC9256, July 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9256>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.filsfils-spring-srv6-net-pgm-illustration]
              Filsfils, C., Garvia, P. C., Li, Z., Matsushima, S.,
              Decraene, B., Steinberg, D., Lebrun, D., Raszuk, R., and

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              J. Leddy, "Illustrations for SRv6 Network Programming",
              Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-filsfils-spring-
              srv6-net-pgm-illustration-04, 30 March 2021,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-filsfils-spring-
              srv6-net-pgm-illustration-04.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-lsr-flex-algo]
              Psenak, P., Hegde, S., Filsfils, C., Talaulikar, K., and
              A. Gulko, "IGP Flexible Algorithm", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-lsr-flex-algo-25, 6 October
              2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-lsr-
              flex-algo-25.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-pim-sr-p2mp-policy]
              (editor), D. V., Filsfils, C., Parekh, R., Bidgoli, H.,
              and Z. Zhang, "Segment Routing Point-to-Multipoint
              Policy", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-pim-
              sr-p2mp-policy-05, 2 July 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-pim-sr-p2mp-
              policy-05.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-spring-srv6-srh-compression]
              Cheng, W., Filsfils, C., Li, Z., Decraene, B., Cai, D.,
              Voyer, D., Clad, F., Zadok, S., James Guichard, N., Aihua,
              L., Raszuk, R., and C. Li, "Compressed SRv6 Segment List
              Encoding in SRH", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-spring-srv6-srh-compression-02, 11 July 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-spring-srv6-
              srh-compression-02.txt>.

   [RFC6513]  Rosen, E., Ed. and R. Aggarwal, Ed., "Multicast in MPLS/
              BGP IP VPNs", RFC 6513, DOI 10.17487/RFC6513, February
              2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6513>.

   [RFC7432]  Sajassi, A., Ed., Aggarwal, R., Bitar, N., Isaac, A.,
              Uttaro, J., Drake, J., and W. Henderickx, "BGP MPLS-Based
              Ethernet VPN", RFC 7432, DOI 10.17487/RFC7432, February
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7432>.

   [RFC7942]  Sheffer, Y. and A. Farrel, "Improving Awareness of Running
              Code: The Implementation Status Section", BCP 205,
              RFC 7942, DOI 10.17487/RFC7942, July 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7942>.

   [RFC7988]  Rosen, E., Ed., Subramanian, K., and Z. Zhang, "Ingress
              Replication Tunnels in Multicast VPN", RFC 7988,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7988, October 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7988>.

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Appendix A.  Illustration of a Replication Segment

   This section illustrates an example of a single Replication segment.
   Examples showing Replication segment stitched together to form P2MP
   tree (based on SR P2MP policy) are in [I-D.ietf-pim-sr-p2mp-policy].

   Consider the following topology:

                                  R3------R6
                                 /         \
                         R1----R2----R5-----R7
                                 \         /
                                  +--R4---+

                             Figure 1: Figure 1

A.1.  SR-MPLS

   In this example, the Node-SID of a node Rn is N-SIDn and Adjacency-
   SID from node Rm to node Rn is A-SIDmn.  Interface between Rm and Rn
   is Lmn.

   Assume a Replication segment identified with R-ID at Replication Node
   R1 and downstream Nodes R2, R6 and R7.  The Replication SID at node n
   is R-SIDn.  A packet replicated from R1 to R7 has to traverse R4.

   The Replication segment state at nodes R1, R2, R6 and R7 is shown
   below.  Note nodes R3, R4 and R5 do not have state for the
   Replication segment.

   Replication segment at R1:

   Replication segment <R-ID,R1>:
    Replication SID: R-SID1
    Replication State:
      R2: <R-SID2->L12>
      R6: <N-SID6, R-SID6>
      R7: <N-SID4, A-SID47, R-SID7>

   Replication to R2 steers packet directly to R2 on interface L12.
   Replication to R6, using N-SID6, steers packet via IGP shortest path
   to that node.  Replication to R7 is steered via R4, using N-SID4 and
   then adjacency SID A-sID47 to R7.

   Replication segment at R2:

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   Replication segment <R-ID,R2>:
    Replication SID: R-SID2
    Replication State:
      R2: <Leaf>

   Replication segment at R6:

   Replication segment <R-ID,R6>:
    Replication SID: R-SID6
    Replication State:
      R6: <Leaf>

   Replication segment at R7:

   Replication segment <R-ID,R7>:
    Replication SID: R-SID7
    Replication State:
      R7: <Leaf>

   When a packet is steered into the Replication segment at R1:

   *  Since R1 is directly connected to R2, R1 performs PUSH operation
      with just <R-SID2> label for the replicated copy and sends it to
      R2 on interface L12.  R2, as Leaf, performs NEXT operation, pops
      R-SID2 label and delivers the payload.

   *  R1 performs PUSH operation with <N-SID6, R-SID6> label stack for
      the replicated copy to R6 and sends it to R2, the nexthop on IGP
      shortest path to R6.  R2 performs CONTINUE operation on N-SID6 and
      forwards it to R3.  R3 is the penultimate hop for N-SID6; it
      performs penultimate hop popping, which corresponds to the NEXT
      operation and the packet is then sent to R6 with <R-SID6> in the
      label stack.  R6, as Leaf, performs NEXT operation, pops R-SID6
      label and delivers the payload.

   *  R1 performs PUSH operation with <N-SID4, A-SID47, R-SID7> label
      stack for the replicated copy to R7 and sends it to R2, the
      nexthop on IGP shortest path to R4.  R2 is the penultimate hop for
      N-SID4; it performs penultimate hop popping, which corresponds to
      the NEXT operation and the packet is then sent to R4 with
      <A-SID47, R-SID1> in the label stack.  R4 performs NEXT operation,
      pops A-SID47, and delivers packet to R7 with <R-SID7> in the label
      stack.  R7, as Leaf, performs NEXT operation, pops R-SID7 label
      and delivers the payload.

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A.2.  SRv6

   For SRv6 , we use SID allocation scheme, reproduced below, from
   Illustrations for SRv6 Network Programming
   [I-D.filsfils-spring-srv6-net-pgm-illustration]

   *  2001:db8::/32 is an IPv6 block allocated by a RIR to the operator

   *  2001:db8:0::/48 is dedicated to the internal address space

   *  2001:db8:cccc::/48 is dedicated to the internal SRv6 SID space

   *  We assume a location expressed in 64 bits and a function expressed
      in 16 bits

   *  Node k has a classic IPv6 loopback address 2001:db8::k/128 which
      is advertised in the IGP

   *  Node k has 2001:db8:cccc:k::/64 for its local SID space.  Its SIDs
      will be explicitly assigned from that block

   *  Node k advertises 2001:db8:cccc:k::/64 in its IGP

   *  Function :1:: (function 1, for short) represents the End function
      with PSP support

   *  Function :Cn:: (function Cn, for short) represents the End.X
      function from to Node n

   Each node k has:

   *  An explicit SID instantiation 2001:db8:cccc:k:1::/128 bound to an
      End function with additional support for PSP

   *  An explicit SID instantiation 2001:db8:cccc:k:Cj::/128 bound to an
      End.X function to neighbor J with additional support for PSP

   *  An explicit SID instantiation 2001:db8:cccc:k:Fk::/128 bound to an
      End.Replcate function

   Assume a Replication segment identified with R-ID at Replication Node
   R1 and downstream Nodes R2, R6 and R7.  The Replication SID at node
   k, bound to an End.Replcate function, is 2001:db8:cccc:k:Fk::/128.  A
   packet replicated from R1 to R7 has to traverse R4.

   The Replication segment state at nodes R1, R2, R6 and R7 is shown
   below.  Note nodes R3, R4 and R5 do not have state for the
   Replication segment.

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   Replication segment at R1:

   Replication segment <R-ID,R1>:
    Replication SID: 2001:db8:cccc:1:F1::0
    Replication State:
      R2: <2001:db8:cccc:2:F2::0->L12>
      R6: <2001:db8:cccc:6:F6::0>
      R7: <2001:db8:cccc:4:C7::0, 2001:db8:cccc:7:F7::0>

   Replication to R2 steers packet directly to R2 on interface L12.
   Replication to R6, using 2001:db8:cccc:6:F6::0, steers packet via IGP
   shortest path to that node.  Replication to R7 is steered via R4,
   using End.X SID 2001:db8:cccc:4:C7::0 at R4 to R7.

   Replication segment at R2:

   Replication segment <R-ID,R2>:
    Replication SID: 2001:db8:cccc:2:F2::0
    Replication State:
      R2: <Leaf>

   Replication segment at R6:

   Replication segment <R-ID,R6>:
    Replication SID: 2001:db8:cccc:6:F6::0
    Replication State:
      R6: <Leaf>

   Replication segment at R7:

   Replication segment <R-ID,R7>:
    Replication SID: 2001:db8:cccc:7:F7::0
    Replication State:
      R7: <Leaf>

   When a packet, (A,B2), is steered into the Replication segment at R1:

   *  Since R1 is directly connected to R2, R1 creates encapsulated
      replicated copy (2001:db8::1, 2001:db8:cccc:2:F2::0) (A, B2), and
      sends it to R2 on interface L12.  R2, as Leaf, removes outer IPv6
      header and delivers the payload.

   *  R1 creates encapsulated replicated copy (2001:db8::1,
      2001:db8:cccc:6:F6::0) (A, B2) then forwards the resulting packet
      on the shortest path to 2001:db8:cccc:6::/64.  R2 and R3 forward
      the packet using 2001:db8:cccc:6::/64.  R6, as Leaf, removes outer
      IPv6 header and delivers the payload.

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   *  R1 creates encapsulated replicated copy (2001:db8::1,
      2001:db8:cccc:4:C7::0) (2001:db8:cccc:7:F7::0; SL=1) (A, B2) and
      sends it to R2, the nexthop on IGP shortest path to
      2001:db8:cccc:4::/64.  R2 forwards packet to R4 using
      2001:db8:cccc:4::/64.  R4 executes End.X function on
      2001:db8:cccc:4:C7::0, performs PSP action, removes SRH and sends
      resulting packet (2001:db8::1, 2001:db8:cccc:7:F7::0) (A, B2) to
      R7.  R7, as Leaf, removes outer IPv6 header and delivers the
      payload.

Authors' Addresses

   Daniel Voyer (editor)
   Bell Canada
   Montreal
   Canada
   Email: daniel.voyer@bell.ca

   Clarence Filsfils
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Brussels
   Belgium
   Email: cfilsfil@cisco.com

   Rishabh Parekh
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   San Jose,
   United States of America
   Email: riparekh@cisco.com

   Hooman Bidgoli
   Nokia
   Ottawa
   Canada
   Email: hooman.bidgoli@nokia.com

   Zhaohui Zhang
   Juniper Networks
   Email: zzhang@juniper.net

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