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A Mechanism for Encoding Differences in Paired Certificates
draft-bonnell-lamps-chameleon-certs-04

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Corey Bonnell , John Gray , D. Hook , Tomofumi Okubo , Mike Ounsworth
Last updated 2024-07-02
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draft-bonnell-lamps-chameleon-certs-04
Network Working Group                                         C. Bonnell
Internet-Draft                                                  DigiCert
Intended status: Standards Track                                 J. Gray
Expires: 3 January 2025                                          Entrust
                                                                 D. Hook
                                                               KeyFactor
                                                                T. Okubo
                                                                DigiCert
                                                            M. Ounsworth
                                                                 Entrust
                                                             2 July 2024

      A Mechanism for Encoding Differences in Paired Certificates
                 draft-bonnell-lamps-chameleon-certs-04

Abstract

   This document specifies a method to efficiently convey the
   differences between two certificates in an X.509 version 3 extension.
   This method allows a relying party to extract information sufficient
   to construct the paired certificate and perform certification path
   validation using the constructed certificate.  In particular, this
   method is especially useful as part of a key or signature algorithm
   migration, where subjects may be issued multiple certificates
   containing different public keys or signed with different CA private
   keys or signature algorithms.  This method does not require any
   changes to the certification path validation algorithm as described
   in RFC 5280.  Additionally, this method does not violate the
   constraints of serial number uniqueness for certificates issued by a
   single certification authority.

About This Document

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   The latest revision of this draft can be found at
   https://CBonnell.github.io/chameleon-certs/draft-bonnell-lamps-
   chameleon-certs.html.  Status information for this document may be
   found at https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-bonnell-lamps-
   chameleon-certs/.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the Limited Additional
   Mechanisms for PKIX and SMIME (lamps) Working Group mailing list
   (mailto:spasm@ietf.org), which is archived at
   https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/browse/spasm/.  Subscribe at
   https://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/spasm/.

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   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/CBonnell/chameleon-certs.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 3 January 2025.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Relationship between Base Certificates and Delta
           Certificates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Delta certificate descriptor extension  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Delta certificate descriptor content  . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Issuing a Base Certificate  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Reconstructing a Delta Certificate from a Base
           Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Delta certificate request content and semantics . . . . . . .  10

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     5.1.  Creating a Certificate Signing Request for Paired
           Certificates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.2.  Verifying a Certificate Signing Request for Paired
           Certificates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix A.  ASN.1 Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Appendix B.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     B.1.  Root certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       B.1.1.  EC P-521 root certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       B.1.2.  Dilithium root certificate  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     B.2.  Algorithm migration example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
       B.2.1.  Dilithium signing end-entity certificate  . . . . . .  29
       B.2.2.  EC signing end-entity certificate with encoded Delta
               Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     B.3.  Dual use example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       B.3.1.  EC signing end-entity certificate . . . . . . . . . .  42
       B.3.2.  EC dual use end-entity certificate with encoded Delta
               Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50

1.  Introduction

   In certain public key infrastructures, it is common to issue multiple
   certificates to a single subject.  In particular, as part of an
   algorithm migration, multiple certificates may be issued to a single
   subject which convey public keys of different types or are signed
   with different signature algorithms.  In cases where relying party
   systems cannot be immediately updated to support new algorithms, it
   is useful to issue certificates to subjects that convey public keys
   whose algorithm is being phased out to maintain interoperability.
   However, multiple certificates adds complexity to certificate
   management for relying parties and exposes limitations in
   applications and protocols that support a single certificate chain.
   For this reason, it is useful to efficiently convey information
   concerning the elements of two certificates within a single
   certificate.  This information can then be used to construct the
   paired certificate as needed by relying parties.

   This document specifies an X.509 v3 certificate extension that
   includes sufficient information for a relying party to construct both
   paired certificates with a single certificate.  This method does not
   require any changes to the certification path validation algorithm as
   described in [RFC5280].  Additionally, this method does not violate
   the constraints of serial number uniqueness for certificates issued
   by a single certification authority.

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   In addition to the certificate extension, this document specifies two
   PKCS #10 Certificate Signing Request attributes that can be used by
   applicants to request Paired Certificates using a single PKCS #10
   Certificate Signing Request.

2.  Conventions and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.1.  Definitions

   For conciseness, this document defines several terms that are
   frequently used throughout.

   Base Certificate: A X.509 v3 certificate which contains a delta
   certificate descriptor extension.

   DCD: An acronym meaning "Delta Certificate descriptor", which is a
   reference to the X.509 v3 certificate extension defined in this
   document.

   Delta Certificate: A X.509 v3 certificate which can be reconstructed
   by incorporating the fields and extensions contained in a Base
   Certificate.

   Paired Certificates: A Base Certificate and the corresponding Delta
   Certificate whose information is encoded in the Base Certificate's
   DCD extension.

3.  Relationship between Base Certificates and Delta Certificates

   In some public key infrastructures, it may be common to issue
   multiple certificates to the same subject.  For example, these
   certificates generally contain the same (or substantially similar)
   identity information and generally have identical validity periods.
   The differences in certificate content generally stem from the
   certification of different keys, where the named subject may have
   multiple keys of different algorithms certified by separate
   certificates.  The use of different keys allows for the subject to
   use the key that is most appropriate for a given operation and
   intended recipient.  For example, as part of an ongoing algorithm
   migration, it is useful to use stronger algorithms when both of the
   systems utilized by the subscriber/sender and recipient have been
   upgraded.  However, in the case where systems have not yet been

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   updated, the use of a legacy key algorithm may be required.
   Additionally, multiple certificates may be issued to the same subject
   that certify keys for different purposes, such as one key for signing
   and another key for encryption.

   The management of multiple certificates may be complex, and there may
   be limitations in protocols regarding the handling of multiple
   certificate chains.  To account for these concerns, this document
   proposes a method to efficiently encode the differences between two
   certificates with sufficient information such that a relying party
   can derive the complete certificate from another.  For the purposes
   of this document, the "Base Certificate" contains its own fields and
   extensions and additionally includes an extension that conveys all
   differences contained within the paired certificate.  The certificate
   whose elements which differ from the Base Certificate and are
   captured in the Delta Certificate descriptor extension of the Base
   Certificate is known as the "Delta Certificate".

   Delta Certificates are reconstructed from the Base Certificate either
   on the sender's side or the recipient's side depending on the
   protocol and application(s) in use.  The sender may elect to send the
   Base Certificate or the Delta Certificate based on information that
   it has about what the recipient can process.  Similarly, the client
   may send either the Base Certificate or the Delta Certificate based
   on what the server can process.  This assures backwards compatibility
   as the certificate sent to the peer (server or client) is chosen
   based on what it can process.  The negotiation on which certificate
   to use is out-of-scope of this document and is deferred to each
   protocol and application.

   In the absence of information concerning the capabilities of the
   peer, it is unknown whether it understands the DCD extension in the
   Base Certificate.  When the recipient does not understand the DCD
   extension, it only processes the information within the Base
   Certificate and ignores the information found in a non-critical DCD
   extension.  If the recipient receives a Base Certificate and is
   capable of processing the DCD extension, then it may reconstruct the
   Delta Certificate to be used for processing.

   In a protocol, the sender may perform a cryptographic operation with
   the key conveyed within the Base Certificate.  If it understands the
   DCD extension, then it may reconstruct the Delta Certificate and
   choose to perform the same operation with the key conveyed within the
   DCD extension.  Alternatively, if the sender understands the DCD
   extension and knows that the receiver will only process the Delta
   Certificate, the sender can reconstruct and send only the Delta
   Certificate.  This behavior is deferred to the software in use.

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4.  Delta certificate descriptor extension

   The Delta Certificate descriptor ("DCD") extension is used to
   reconstruct the Delta Certificate by incorporating both the fields
   and extensions present in the Base Certificate as well as the
   information contained within the extension itself.

   Certification authorities SHOULD NOT mark this extension as critical
   so that applications that do not understand the extension will still
   be able to process the Base Certificate.

   The inclusion of the DCD extension within a Base Certificate is not a
   statement from the issuing Certification Authority of the Base
   Certificate that the contents of the Delta Certificate have been
   verified.  Conversely, the DCD extension is merely a mechanism to
   encode the differences between two Paired Certificates.  Given this,
   it is possible for the Base Certificate to expire prior to the Delta
   Certificate, and vice versa.  However, the policies governing a
   public key infrastructure may add additional requirements for the
   content of the DCD extension or alignment of validity periods for
   Base Certificates and Delta Certificates.  For example, a policy may
   require that the validity periods of the Base Certificate and Delta
   Certificate be identical, or that if the Delta Certificate is
   revoked, the Base Certificate must also be revoked.

4.1.  Delta certificate descriptor content

   The DCD extension is identified with the following object identifier:

   (TODO: replace this temporary OID)

   id-ce-deltaCertificateDescriptor OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
      joint-iso-itu-t(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1)
      entrust(114027) 80 6 1
   }

   The ASN.1 syntax of the extension is as follows:

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   DeltaCertificateDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE {
     serialNumber          CertificateSerialNumber,
     signature             [0] IMPLICIT AlgorithmIdentifier
          {SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM, {...}} OPTIONAL,
     issuer                [1] IMPLICIT Name OPTIONAL,
     validity              [2] IMPLICIT Validity OPTIONAL,
     subject               [3] IMPLICIT Name OPTIONAL,
     subjectPublicKeyInfo  SubjectPublicKeyInfo,
     extensions            [4] IMPLICIT Extensions{CertExtensions}
          OPTIONAL,
     signatureValue        BIT STRING
   }

   The serialNumber field MUST be present and contain the serial number
   of the Delta Certificate.

   The signature field specifies the signature algorithm used by the
   issuing certification authority to sign the Delta Certificate.  If
   the DER encoding of the value of the signature field of the Base
   Certificate and Delta Certificate is the same, then this field MUST
   be absent.  Otherwise, it MUST contain the DER encoding of the value
   of the signature field of the Delta Certificate.

   The issuer field specifies the distinguished name of the issuing
   certification authority which signed the Delta Certificate.  If the
   DER encoding of the value of the issuer field of the Base Certificate
   and Delta Certificate is the same, then this field MUST be absent.
   Otherwise, it MUST contain the DER encoding of the value of the
   issuer field of the Delta Certificate.

   The validity field specifies the validity period of the Delta
   Certificate.  If the DER encoding of the value of the validity field
   of the Base Certificate and Delta Certificate is the same, then this
   field MUST be absent.  Otherwise, it MUST contain the DER encoding of
   the value of the validity field of the Delta Certificate.

   The subject field specifies the distinguished name of the named
   subject as encoded in the Delta Certificate.  If the DER encoding of
   the value of the subject field of the Base Certificate and Delta
   Certificate is the same, then this field MUST be absent.  Otherwise,
   it MUST contain the DER encoding of the value of the subject field of
   the Delta Certificate.

   The subjectPublicKeyInfo field contains the public key certified in
   the Delta Certificate.  The value of this field MUST differ from the
   value of the subjectPublicKeyInfo field of the Base Certificate.  In
   other words, the Base Certificate and Delta Certificate MUST certify
   different keys.

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   The extensions field contains the extensions whose criticality and/or
   DER-encoded value are different in the Delta Certificate compared to
   the Base Certificate with the exception of the DCD extension itself.
   If the extensions field is absent, then all extensions in the Delta
   Certificate MUST have the same criticality and DER-encoded value as
   the Base Certificate (except for the DCD extension, which MUST be
   absent from the Delta Certificate).  This field MUST NOT contain any
   extension:

   *  which has the same criticality and DER-encoded value as encoded in
      the Base Certificate,

   *  whose type does not appear in the Base Certificate, or

   *  which is of the DCD extension type (recursive Delta Certificates
      are not permitted).

   Additionally, the Base Certificate SHALL NOT include any extensions
   which are not included in the Delta Certificate, with the exception
   of the DCD extension itself.  Likewise, there is no mechanism to
   remove extensions from the Delta Certificate that are present in the
   Base Certificate.  Therefore, it is not possible to add or remove
   extensions using the DCD extension.  The ordering of extensions in
   this field MUST be relative to the ordering of the extensions as they
   are encoded in the Delta Certificate.  Maintaining this relative
   ordering ensures that the Delta Certificate's extensions can be
   constructed with a single pass.

   The signatureValue field contains the value of the signature field of
   the Delta Certificate.  It MUST be present.

4.2.  Issuing a Base Certificate

   The signature of the Delta Certificate must be known so that its
   value can be included in the signatureValue field of the delta
   certificate descriptor extension.  Given this, Delta Certificate will
   necessarily need to be issued prior to the issuance of the Base
   Certificate.  To simplify reconstruction of the Delta Certificate,
   the signatures for Base and Delta Certificates MUST be calculated
   over the DER encoding of the TBSCertificate structure.

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   After the Delta Certificate is issued, the certification authority
   compares the signature, issuer, validity, subject,
   subjectPublicKeyInfo, and extensions fields of the Delta Certificate
   and the to-be-signed certificate which will contain the DCD
   extension.  The certification authority then populates the DCD
   extension with the values of the fields which differ from the Base
   Certificate.  The CA MUST encode extensions in the Base Certificate
   in the same order used for the Delta Certificate, with the exception
   of the DCD extension itself.

   The certification authority then adds the computed DCD extension to
   the to-be-signed Base Certificate and signs the Base Certificate.

4.3.  Reconstructing a Delta Certificate from a Base Certificate

   The following procedure describes how to reconstruct a Delta
   Certificate from a Base Certificate:

   1.  Create an initial Delta Certificate template by copying the Base
       Certificate excluding the DCD extension.

   2.  Replace the value of the serialNumber field of the Delta
       Certificate template with the value of the DCD extension's
       serialNumber field.

   3.  If the DCD extension contains a value for the signature field,
       then replace the value of the signature field and the
       signatureAlgorithm field of the Delta Certificate template with
       the value of the DCD extension's signature field.

   4.  If the DCD extension contains a value for the issuer field, then
       replace the value of the issuer field of the Delta Certificate
       template with the value of the DCD extension's issuer field.

   5.  If the DCD extension contains a value for the validity field,
       then replace the value of the validity field of the Delta
       Certificate template with the value of the DCD extension's
       validity field.

   6.  Replace the value of the subjectPublicKeyInfo field of the Delta
       Certificate template with the value of the DCD extension's
       subjectPublicKeyInfo field.

   7.  If the DCD extension contains a value for the subject field, then
       replace the value of the subject field of the Delta Certificate
       template with the value of the DCD extension's subject field.

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   8.  If the DCD extension contains a value for the extensions field,
       then iterate over the DCD extension's "extensions" field,
       replacing the criticality and/or extension value of each
       identified extension in the Delta Certificate template.  If any
       extension is present in the field that does not appear in the
       Delta Certificate template, then this reconstruction process MUST
       fail.

   9.  Replace the value of the signature field of the Delta Certificate
       template with the value of the DCD extension's signatureValue
       field.

   As part of testing implementations of this specification,
   implementers are encouraged to verify the signature of the
   reconstructed Delta Certificate using the issuing Certification
   Authority's public key to ensure that the Delta Certificate was
   reconstructed correctly.

5.  Delta certificate request content and semantics

   Using the two attributes that are defined below, it is possible to
   create Certificate Signing Requests for both Base and Delta
   Certificates within a single PKCS #10 Certificate Signing Request.
   The mechanism presented in this section need not be used exclusively
   by requestors for the issuance of Paired Certificates; other
   mechanisms (such as the submission of two Certificate Signing
   Requests, etc.) are also acceptable.  Additionally, this document
   does not place any restriction on the amount of time that may elapse
   between the issuance of a Delta Certificate and the request of a Base
   Certificate; such restrictions should be defined by the policy of a
   particular public key infrastructure.

   The delta certificate request attribute is used to convey the
   requested differences between the request for issuance of the Base
   Certificate and the requested Delta Certificate.  Similar to the
   semantics of Certificate Signing Requests in general, the
   Certification Authority MAY add, modify, or selectively ignore
   information conveyed in the attribute when issuing the corresponding
   Delta Certificate.

   The attribute is identified with the following object identifier:

   (TODO: replace this temporary OID)

   id-at-deltaCertificateRequest OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
      joint-iso-itu-t(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1)
      entrust(114027) 80 6 2
   }

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   The ASN.1 syntax of the attribute is as follows:

   DeltaCertificateRequestValue ::= SEQUENCE {
     subject               [0] IMPLICIT Name OPTIONAL,
     subjectPKInfo         SubjectPublicKeyInfo,
     extensions            [1] IMPLICIT Extensions{CertExtensions}
          OPTIONAL,
     signatureAlgorithm    [2] IMPLICIT AlgorithmIdentifier
          {SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM, {...}} OPTIONAL
   }

   DeltaCertificateRequest ::= ATTRIBUTE {
      WITH SYNTAX DeltaCertificateRequestValue
      SINGLE VALUE TRUE
      ID id-at-deltaCertificateRequest
   }

   The delta certificate request signature attribute is used to convey
   the signature that is calculated over the CertificationRequestInfo
   using the signature algorithm and key that is specified in the delta
   certificate request attribute.  Section 5.1 describes in detail how
   to determine the value of this attribute.

   This attribute is identified with the following object identifier:

   (TODO: replace this temporary OID)

   id-at-deltaCertificateRequestSignature OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
      joint-iso-itu-t(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1)
      entrust(114027) 80 6 3
   }

   The ASN.1 syntax of the attribute is as follows:

   DeltaCertificateRequestSignatureValue ::= BIT STRING

   deltaCertificateRequestSignature ATTRIBUTE ::= {
      WITH SYNTAX DeltaCertificateRequestSignatureValue
      SINGLE VALUE TRUE
      ID id-at-deltaCertificateRequestSignature
   }

5.1.  Creating a Certificate Signing Request for Paired Certificates

   The following procedure is used by a certificate requestor to create
   a combined Certificate Signing Request for Paired Certificates.

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   1.  Create a CertificationRequestInfo containing the subject,
       subjectPKInfo, and attributes for the Base Certificate.

   2.  Create a delta certificate request attribute that specifies the
       requested differences between the to-be-issued Base Certificate
       and Delta Certificate requests.

   3.  Add the delta certificate request attribute that was created by
       step 2 to the list of attributes in the CertificationRequestInfo.

   4.  Sign the CertificationRequestInfo using the private key of the
       delta certificate request subject.

   5.  Create a delta certificate request signature attribute that
       contains the signature value calculated by step 4.

   6.  Add the delta certificate request signature attribute that was
       created by step 5 to the list of attributes.

   7.  Sign the CertificationRequestInfo using the private key of the
       base certificate request subject.

5.2.  Verifying a Certificate Signing Request for Paired Certificates

   The following procedure is used by a Certification Authority to
   verify a Certificate Signing Request for Paired Certificates that was
   created using the process outlined in Section 5.1.

   1.  Create a CertificationRequest template by copying the
       CertificationRequest submitted by the certificate requestor.

   2.  Verify the signature of the base certificate request using the
       public key associated with the base certificate request subject
       and the signature algorithm specified in the signatureAlgorithm
       field of the CertificationRequest template.  If signature
       verification fails, then the Certification Authority MUST treat
       the Certificate Signing Request as invalid.

   3.  Remove the delta certificate request signature attribute from the
       CertificationRequest template.

   4.  Replace the value of the signature field of the
       CertificationRequest template with the value of the delta
       certificate request attribute that was removed in step 3.

   5.  Verify the signature of the delta certificate request using the
       public key associated with the delta certificate request subject.
       If the signatureAlgorithm field of the delta certificate request

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       attribute is present, then the Certification Authority MUST
       perform signature verification using the algorithm specified in
       this field.  Otherwise, the Certification Authority MUST perform
       signature verification using the algorithm specified in the
       signatureAlgorithm field of the CertificationRequest template.
       If signature verification fails, then the Certification Authority
       MUST treat the Certificate Signing Request as invalid.

6.  Security Considerations

   The validation of Base Certificates and Delta Certificates follows
   the certification path validation algorithm defined in [RFC5280].  In
   particular, the certification path validation algorithm defined in
   [RFC5280] MUST be performed prior to using a Base or Delta
   Certificate; it is not sufficient to reconstruct a Delta Certificate
   and use it for any purpose without performing certification path
   validation.  If a use case requires it, a Delta Certificate can be
   reconstructed specifically for the purposes of validation to ensure
   that the Delta Certificate is valid for its intended purpose on final
   reconstruction.  That being said, some form of validation such as
   revocation checking, and signature verification MUST always be
   assured at the point the certificate is used.

   There are some additional considerations for the software to handle
   the Base Certificate and Delta Certificate.  The Base Certificate and
   Delta Certificate may have different security properties such as
   different signing algorithms, different key types or the same key
   types with different key sizes or signing algorithms.  The preference
   on which certificate to be used or using both when available is
   deferred to the server or client software.

   The software is expected to make choices depending on the
   certificate's security properties or a policy set for the particular
   PKI.  One example of handling two certificates is "fallback" where if
   the validation of the first certificate fails, it attempts to
   validate the second certificate.  Another example to handle two
   certificate is "upgrade", where the validation of the first
   certificate succeeds but still attempts the validation of the second
   certificate.  While this document provides a vehicle to convey
   information of two certificates in one, it does not address the rules
   that are expected to be set by the policy of a PKI on how to issue
   Paired Certificates and how to handle them.

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   The algorithms that are used for the Base Certificate and Delta
   Certificate respectively should be carefully set by the policy of
   each PKI reflecting the best current practices in usage of
   cryptography.  The behavior of the server or client software is
   expected to be well-defined in accordance with the policy in order to
   avoid downgrade attacks or substitution attacks.

7.  IANA Considerations

   For the Delta Certificate descriptor extension as defined in
   Section 4.1, IANA is requested to assign an object identifier (OID)
   for the certificate extension.  The OID for the certificate extension
   should be allocated in the "SMI Security for PKIX Certificate
   Extension" registry (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.1).

   For the Delta Certificate Request and Delta Certificate Request
   Signature attributes as defined in Section 5, IANA is requested to
   create a new registry under SMI Security Codes and assign two object
   identifiers (OID).

   For the ASN.1 Module for the extension and attributes defined in
   Appendix A, IANA is requested to assign an object identifier (OID).
   The OID for the module should be allocated in the "SMI Security for
   PKIX Module Identifier" registry (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.0).

8.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5280>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

   [X.680]    ITU-T, "Information technology - Abstract Syntax Notation
              One (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation", ISO/
              IEC 8824-1:2015, November 2015.

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Appendix A.  ASN.1 Module

   The following ASN.1 [X.680] module provides the complete definition
   of the extensions, attributes, and associated identifiers specified
   in this document.

   DeltaCertificateDescriptor { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
     internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
     id-mod-deltaCertificateDescriptor(TBD) }

   DEFINITIONS EXPLICIT TAGS ::=

   BEGIN

   EXPORTS ALL;

   IMPORTS
     AlgorithmIdentifier{}, SIGNATURE-ALGORITHM
     FROM AlgorithmInformation-2009  -- RFC 5912
     { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) security(5)
       mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
       id-mod-algorithmInformation-02(58) }

     EXTENSION, ATTRIBUTE, Extensions{}
     FROM PKIX-CommonTypes-2009  -- RFC 5912
     { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
       security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
       id-mod-pkixCommon-02(57) }

     CertificateSerialNumber, Name, Validity, SubjectPublicKeyInfo,
     CertExtensions FROM PKIX1Explicit-2009  -- RFC 5912
     { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) security(5)
       mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-pkix1-explicit-02(51) };

   -- Temporary OID arc --

   id-temporaryArc OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
     joint-iso-itu-t(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1)
     entrust(114027) 80 6
   }

   -- Extension --

   id-ce-deltaCertificateDescriptor OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
          id-temporaryArc 1 }

   DeltaCertificateDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE {
     serialNumber          CertificateSerialNumber,

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     signature             [0] IMPLICIT AlgorithmIdentifier
          {SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM, {...}} OPTIONAL,
     issuer                [1] IMPLICIT Name OPTIONAL,
     validity              [2] IMPLICIT Validity OPTIONAL,
     subject               [3] IMPLICIT Name OPTIONAL,
     subjectPublicKeyInfo  SubjectPublicKeyInfo,
     extensions            [4] IMPLICIT Extensions{CertExtensions}
          OPTIONAL,
     signatureValue        BIT STRING
   }

   ext-deltaCertificateDescriptor EXTENSION ::= {
     SYNTAX DeltaCertificateDescriptor
     IDENTIFIED BY id-ce-deltaCertificateDescriptor
     CRITICALITY { FALSE }
   }

   -- Request Attributes --

   id-at-deltaCertificateRequest OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
          id-temporaryArc 2 }

   DeltaCertificateRequestValue ::= SEQUENCE {
     subject               [0] IMPLICIT Name OPTIONAL,
     subjectPKInfo         SubjectPublicKeyInfo,
     extensions            [1] IMPLICIT Extensions{CertExtensions}
          OPTIONAL,
     signatureAlgorithm    [2] IMPLICIT AlgorithmIdentifier
          {SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM, {...}} OPTIONAL
   }

   DeltaCertificateRequest ::= ATTRIBUTE {
      WITH SYNTAX DeltaCertificateRequestValue
      SINGLE VALUE TRUE
      ID id-at-deltaCertificateRequest
   }

   id-at-deltaCertificateRequestSignature OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
          id-temporaryArc 3 }

   DeltaCertificateRequestSignatureValue ::= BIT STRING

   DeltaCertificateRequestSignature ::= ATTRIBUTE {
      WITH SYNTAX DeltaCertificateRequestSignatureValue
      SINGLE VALUE TRUE
      ID id-at-deltaCertificateRequestSignature
   }

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   END

Appendix B.  Examples

   This appendix includes some example certificates which demonstrate
   the use of the mechanism specified in this document.  Two use cases
   of this mechanism are demonstrated: algorithm migration and dual use.
   The PEM text and dumpasn1 output for each certificate is provided.

B.1.  Root certificates

   The two certificates in this section represent the two root
   Certification Authorities which issue the end-entity certificates in
   the following section.

B.1.1.  EC P-521 root certificate

   This is the EC root certificate.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDBTCCAmagAwIBAgIUDCQO4j68JeS6tggSujZ2W/+5RMAwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwQw
   gYsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlhYMTUwMwYDVQQKDCxSb3lhbCBJbnN0aXR1dGUgb2YgUHVi
   bGljIEtleSBJbmZyYXN0cnVjdHVyZTErMCkGA1UECwwiUG9zdC1IZWZmYWx1bXAg
   UmVzZWFyY2ggRGVwYXJ0bWVudDEYMBYGA1UEAwwPRUNEU0EgUm9vdCAtIEcxMB4X
   DTIzMDkxMjEyMTg0MVoXDTMzMDkwOTEyMTg0MVowgYsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlhYMTUw
   MwYDVQQKDCxSb3lhbCBJbnN0aXR1dGUgb2YgUHVibGljIEtleSBJbmZyYXN0cnVj
   dHVyZTErMCkGA1UECwwiUG9zdC1IZWZmYWx1bXAgUmVzZWFyY2ggRGVwYXJ0bWVu
   dDEYMBYGA1UEAwwPRUNEU0EgUm9vdCAtIEcxMIGbMBAGByqGSM49AgEGBSuBBAAj
   A4GGAAQAh+tYFO6c0kKrJ1Pu7Y6bApCvxk+urofls4ehqxKxMPDt5TGEGrTJo4RH
   CaYClX7NUjrBbxWLlLH3TD+BOmDYAAMAvwrv/eTEr/bW4clFDvJMDRv+OLOeSjAm
   nmbn+WVnlgxZZHz0S08BoXyY4MrAqRepmTPeW60gW9PaOAFRC8WqRJOjYzBhMA8G
   A1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgEGMB0GA1UdDgQWBBR/FeuKivAa
   Oj8kbsg6J0m5Pic4XTAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBR/FeuKivAaOj8kbsg6J0m5Pic4XTAK
   BggqhkjOPQQDBAOBjAAwgYgCQgDZrj2eo+LhmH8egdsT/uxO8wmOJ6SxOymzxAwf
   TnbH0JsZmQOgrAtDNZ0sgMPi+GQP0BEHaIT5jeuBZvFHcZVTOwJCAN4urAjamN3N
   KBObDovxaF3XWGW5AeIifkZrF6eJEH9k3vqLL+Wp8fEvm1X+o5NwTq9WetCLL5YS
   vP9ln6snUlWC
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

  0 773: SEQUENCE {
  4 614:   SEQUENCE {
  8   3:     [0] {
 10   1:       INTEGER 2
       :       }
 13  20:     INTEGER 0C 24 0E E2 3E BC 25 E4 BA B6 08 12 BA 36 76 5B FF B9 44 C0
 35  10:     SEQUENCE {
 37   8:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
       :       }

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 47 139:     SEQUENCE {
 50  11:       SET {
 52   9:         SEQUENCE {
 54   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
 59   2:           PrintableString 'XX'
       :           }
       :         }
 63  53:       SET {
 65  51:         SEQUENCE {
 67   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
 72  44:           UTF8String
       :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
       :           }
       :         }
118  43:       SET {
120  41:         SEQUENCE {
122   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
127  34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
       :           }
       :         }
163  24:       SET {
165  22:         SEQUENCE {
167   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
172  15:           UTF8String 'ECDSA Root - G1'
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
189  30:     SEQUENCE {
191  13:       UTCTime 12/09/2023 12:18:41 GMT
206  13:       UTCTime 09/09/2033 12:18:41 GMT
       :       }
221 139:     SEQUENCE {
224  11:       SET {
226   9:         SEQUENCE {
228   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
233   2:           PrintableString 'XX'
       :           }
       :         }
237  53:       SET {
239  51:         SEQUENCE {
241   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
246  44:           UTF8String
       :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
       :           }
       :         }
292  43:       SET {
294  41:         SEQUENCE {
296   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)

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301  34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
       :           }
       :         }
337  24:       SET {
339  22:         SEQUENCE {
341   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
346  15:           UTF8String 'ECDSA Root - G1'
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
363 155:     SEQUENCE {
366  16:       SEQUENCE {
368   7:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecPublicKey (1 2 840 10045 2 1)
377   5:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER secp521r1 (1 3 132 0 35)
       :         }
384 134:       BIT STRING
       :         04 00 87 EB 58 14 EE 9C D2 42 AB 27 53 EE ED 8E
       :         9B 02 90 AF C6 4F AE AE 87 E5 B3 87 A1 AB 12 B1
       :         30 F0 ED E5 31 84 1A B4 C9 A3 84 47 09 A6 02 95
       :         7E CD 52 3A C1 6F 15 8B 94 B1 F7 4C 3F 81 3A 60
       :         D8 00 03 00 BF 0A EF FD E4 C4 AF F6 D6 E1 C9 45
       :         0E F2 4C 0D 1B FE 38 B3 9E 4A 30 26 9E 66 E7 F9
       :         65 67 96 0C 59 64 7C F4 4B 4F 01 A1 7C 98 E0 CA
       :         C0 A9 17 A9 99 33 DE 5B AD 20 5B D3 DA 38 01 51
       :         0B C5 AA 44 93
       :       }
521  99:     [3] {
523  97:       SEQUENCE {
525  15:         SEQUENCE {
527   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
532   1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
535   5:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
537   3:             SEQUENCE {
539   1:               BOOLEAN TRUE
       :               }
       :             }
       :           }
542  14:         SEQUENCE {
544   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
549   1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
552   4:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
554   2:             BIT STRING 1 unused bit
       :               '1100000'B
       :             }
       :           }
558  29:         SEQUENCE {
560   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
565  22:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {

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567  20:             OCTET STRING
       :               7F 15 EB 8A 8A F0 1A 3A 3F 24 6E C8 3A 27 49 B9
       :               3E 27 38 5D
       :             }
       :           }
589  31:         SEQUENCE {
591   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
596  24:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
598  22:             SEQUENCE {
600  20:               [0]
       :                 7F 15 EB 8A 8A F0 1A 3A 3F 24 6E C8 3A 27 49 B9
       :                 3E 27 38 5D
       :               }
       :             }
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
       :     }
622  10:   SEQUENCE {
624   8:     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
       :     }
634 140:   BIT STRING, encapsulates {
638 136:     SEQUENCE {
641  66:       INTEGER
       :         00 D9 AE 3D 9E A3 E2 E1 98 7F 1E 81 DB 13 FE EC
       :         4E F3 09 8E 27 A4 B1 3B 29 B3 C4 0C 1F 4E 76 C7
       :         D0 9B 19 99 03 A0 AC 0B 43 35 9D 2C 80 C3 E2 F8
       :         64 0F D0 11 07 68 84 F9 8D EB 81 66 F1 47 71 95
       :         53 3B
709  66:       INTEGER
       :         00 DE 2E AC 08 DA 98 DD CD 28 13 9B 0E 8B F1 68
       :         5D D7 58 65 B9 01 E2 22 7E 46 6B 17 A7 89 10 7F
       :         64 DE FA 8B 2F E5 A9 F1 F1 2F 9B 55 FE A3 93 70
       :         4E AF 56 7A D0 8B 2F 96 12 BC FF 65 9F AB 27 52
       :         55 82
       :       }
       :     }
       :   }

B.1.2.  Dilithium root certificate

   This is the Dilithium root certificate.  It contains a Delta
   Certificate Descriptor extension which includes sufficient
   information to recreate the ECDSA P-521 root.

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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIZbzCCDGqgAwIBAgIUFWd6hCxGhDNL+S1OL3UY7w+psbQwDQYLKwYBBAECggsM
   BgUwgY8xCzAJBgNVBAYTAlhYMTUwMwYDVQQKDCxSb3lhbCBJbnN0aXR1dGUgb2Yg
   UHVibGljIEtleSBJbmZyYXN0cnVjdHVyZTErMCkGA1UECwwiUG9zdC1IZWZmYWx1
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   iWLTaCAl/7LVrNlRovaqZx0t4nqt8rkHSoPAFM288XyFJJbazs00lqxV1LneNYFc
   Ps45I2mjtveHRrAVNzZV1H+AN+YsYhQVJ/5wood0ymg+e1gavkh9U753baJHn6OC
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   Um95YWwgSW5zdGl0dXRlIG9mIFB1YmxpYyBLZXkgSW5mcmFzdHJ1Y3R1cmUxKzAp
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   BAMMD0VDRFNBIFJvb3QgLSBHMTCBmzAQBgcqhkjOPQIBBgUrgQQAIwOBhgAEAIfr
   WBTunNJCqydT7u2OmwKQr8ZPrq6H5bOHoasSsTDw7eUxhBq0yaOERwmmApV+zVI6
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   YY6PlbO94uRkgIKFmLu/NTZBgdTaAAAAAAAAAAAFDRoiKS8=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

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   0 6511: SEQUENCE {
   4 3178:   SEQUENCE {
   8    3:     [0] {
  10    1:       INTEGER 2
         :       }
  13   20:     INTEGER 15 67 7A 84 2C 46 84 33 4B F9 2D 4E 2F 75 18 EF 0F A9 B1 B4
  35   13:     SEQUENCE {
  37   11:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :       }
  50  143:     SEQUENCE {
  53   11:       SET {
  55    9:         SEQUENCE {
  57    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
  62    2:           PrintableString 'XX'
         :           }
         :         }
  66   53:       SET {
  68   51:         SEQUENCE {
  70    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
  75   44:           UTF8String
         :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
         :           }
         :         }
 121   43:       SET {
 123   41:         SEQUENCE {
 125    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
 130   34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
         :           }
         :         }
 166   28:       SET {
 168   26:         SEQUENCE {
 170    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 175   19:           UTF8String 'Dilithium Root - G1'
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
 196   30:     SEQUENCE {
 198   13:       UTCTime 12/09/2023 12:18:41 GMT
 213   13:       UTCTime 09/09/2033 12:18:41 GMT
         :       }
 228  143:     SEQUENCE {
 231   11:       SET {
 233    9:         SEQUENCE {
 235    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
 240    2:           PrintableString 'XX'
         :           }
         :         }
 244   53:       SET {

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 246   51:         SEQUENCE {
 248    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
 253   44:           UTF8String
         :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
         :           }
         :         }
 299   43:       SET {
 301   41:         SEQUENCE {
 303    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
 308   34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
         :           }
         :         }
 344   28:       SET {
 346   26:         SEQUENCE {
 348    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 353   19:           UTF8String 'Dilithium Root - G1'
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
 374 1972:     SEQUENCE {
 378   13:       SEQUENCE {
 380   11:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :         }
 393 1953:       BIT STRING
         :         BF A0 23 53 83 61 79 B0 73 F3 33 A9 4F E5 83 36
         :         C0 B4 4D 87 DF A6 8F 77 F0 6F C0 47 8F 03 BE 79
         :         7B F2 5B 49 53 0C 9B 88 5E B7 30 5D A3 40 FB F5
         :         E3 9B A5 92 31 98 18 4D EE B2 B0 8C 0B 4F 85 7A
         :         59 9A 9C D0 BD DB 38 EC 27 B9 D7 EF ED E2 B5 38
         :         2B C7 4A BF C9 31 18 51 40 5E E6 EB 93 DD 6C 28
         :         E8 1E BD 3F 9F 69 FF 44 AC 5E F0 17 E1 5E A0 9E
         :         47 55 FB 72 5A 2F 2D 2E 97 6A 6E B4 E2 AC 40 77
         :                 [ Another 1824 bytes skipped ]
         :       }
2350  832:     [3] {
2354  828:       SEQUENCE {
2358   15:         SEQUENCE {
2360    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
2365    1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
2368    5:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2370    3:             SEQUENCE {
2372    1:               BOOLEAN TRUE
         :               }
         :             }
         :           }
2375   14:         SEQUENCE {
2377    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
2382    1:           BOOLEAN TRUE

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2385    4:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2387    2:             BIT STRING 1 unused bit
         :               '1100001'B
         :             }
         :           }
2391   29:         SEQUENCE {
2393    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
2398   22:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2400   20:             OCTET STRING
         :               A7 79 28 FB 59 27 25 71 16 02 63 48 CB 69 28 72
         :               32 41 A4 6F
         :             }
         :           }
2422   31:         SEQUENCE {
2424    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
2429   24:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2431   22:             SEQUENCE {
2433   20:               [0]
         :                 A7 79 28 FB 59 27 25 71 16 02 63 48 CB 69 28 72
         :                 32 41 A4 6F
         :               }
         :             }
         :           }
2455  727:         SEQUENCE {
2459   10:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :             deltaCertificateDescriptor (2 16 840 1 114027 80 6 1)
2471  711:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2475  707:             SEQUENCE {
2479   20:               INTEGER
         :                 0C 24 0E E2 3E BC 25 E4 BA B6 08 12 BA 36 76 5B
         :                 FF B9 44 C0
2501   10:               [0] {
2503    8:                 OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :                   ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
         :                 }
2513  142:               [1] {
2516  139:                 SEQUENCE {
2519   11:                   SET {
2521    9:                     SEQUENCE {
2523    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
2528    2:                       PrintableString 'XX'
         :                       }
         :                     }
2532   53:                   SET {
2534   51:                     SEQUENCE {
2536    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
2541   44:                       UTF8String
         :                   'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'

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         :                       }
         :                     }
2587   43:                   SET {
2589   41:                     SEQUENCE {
2591    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :                         organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
2596   34:                       UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
         :                       }
         :                     }
2632   24:                   SET {
2634   22:                     SEQUENCE {
2636    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
2641   15:                       UTF8String 'ECDSA Root - G1'
         :                       }
         :                     }
         :                   }
         :                 }
2658  142:               [3] {
2661  139:                 SEQUENCE {
2664   11:                   SET {
2666    9:                     SEQUENCE {
2668    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
2673    2:                       PrintableString 'XX'
         :                       }
         :                     }
2677   53:                   SET {
2679   51:                     SEQUENCE {
2681    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
2686   44:                       UTF8String
         :                   'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
         :                       }
         :                     }
2732   43:                   SET {
2734   41:                     SEQUENCE {
2736    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :                         organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
2741   34:                       UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
         :                       }
         :                     }
2777   24:                   SET {
2779   22:                     SEQUENCE {
2781    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
2786   15:                       UTF8String 'ECDSA Root - G1'
         :                       }
         :                     }
         :                   }
         :                 }
2803  155:               SEQUENCE {

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2806   16:                 SEQUENCE {
2808    7:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecPublicKey (1 2 840 10045 2 1)
2817    5:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER secp521r1 (1 3 132 0 35)
         :                   }
2824  134:                 BIT STRING
         :                   04 00 87 EB 58 14 EE 9C D2 42 AB 27 53 EE ED 8E
         :                   9B 02 90 AF C6 4F AE AE 87 E5 B3 87 A1 AB 12 B1
         :                   30 F0 ED E5 31 84 1A B4 C9 A3 84 47 09 A6 02 95
         :                   7E CD 52 3A C1 6F 15 8B 94 B1 F7 4C 3F 81 3A 60
         :                   D8 00 03 00 BF 0A EF FD E4 C4 AF F6 D6 E1 C9 45
         :                   0E F2 4C 0D 1B FE 38 B3 9E 4A 30 26 9E 66 E7 F9
         :                   65 67 96 0C 59 64 7C F4 4B 4F 01 A1 7C 98 E0 CA
         :                   C0 A9 17 A9 99 33 DE 5B AD 20 5B D3 DA 38 01 51
         :                   0B C5 AA 44 93
         :                 }
2961   80:               [4] {
2963   14:                 SEQUENCE {
2965    3:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
2970    1:                   BOOLEAN TRUE
2973    4:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2975    2:                     BIT STRING 1 unused bit
         :                       '1100000'B
         :                     }
         :                   }
2979   29:                 SEQUENCE {
2981    3:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
2986   22:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2988   20:                     OCTET STRING
         :                     7F 15 EB 8A 8A F0 1A 3A 3F 24 6E C8 3A 27 49 B9
         :                     3E 27 38 5D
         :                     }
         :                   }
3010   31:                 SEQUENCE {
3012    3:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :                     authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
3017   24:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
3019   22:                     SEQUENCE {
3021   20:                       [0]
         :                     7F 15 EB 8A 8A F0 1A 3A 3F 24 6E C8 3A 27 49 B9
         :                     3E 27 38 5D
         :                       }
         :                     }
         :                   }
         :                 }
3043  140:               BIT STRING, encapsulates {
3047  136:                 SEQUENCE {
3050   66:                   INTEGER
         :                     00 D9 AE 3D 9E A3 E2 E1 98 7F 1E 81 DB 13 FE EC

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         :                     4E F3 09 8E 27 A4 B1 3B 29 B3 C4 0C 1F 4E 76 C7
         :                     D0 9B 19 99 03 A0 AC 0B 43 35 9D 2C 80 C3 E2 F8
         :                     64 0F D0 11 07 68 84 F9 8D EB 81 66 F1 47 71 95
         :                     53 3B
3118   66:                   INTEGER
         :                     00 DE 2E AC 08 DA 98 DD CD 28 13 9B 0E 8B F1 68
         :                     5D D7 58 65 B9 01 E2 22 7E 46 6B 17 A7 89 10 7F
         :                     64 DE FA 8B 2F E5 A9 F1 F1 2F 9B 55 FE A3 93 70
         :                     4E AF 56 7A D0 8B 2F 96 12 BC FF 65 9F AB 27 52
         :                     55 82
         :                   }
         :                 }
         :               }
         :             }
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
         :     }
3186   13:   SEQUENCE {
3188   11:     OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :     }
3201 3310:   BIT STRING
         :     85 C2 9E 65 DC D3 24 B2 44 32 7C E9 CB FB 6C FD
         :     04 38 C1 98 FA 39 44 94 27 2A D0 FC 15 63 99 7F
         :     89 91 5D 56 20 12 E1 1C C4 09 D4 14 B8 E0 56 0A
         :     A1 B9 B7 6E F4 C8 8E B3 88 02 C7 EB 76 24 FA CD
         :     0D 73 46 C3 DA FE 05 90 CD FD 26 F3 9C 4D 47 FD
         :     7D A4 D7 55 56 4A A5 69 91 DC 1F 95 6E 93 3E 40
         :     09 07 34 EB E2 BA 42 29 29 47 96 E6 CB 49 06 C9
         :     CA A2 7D A9 93 23 3C 4D 8D 7E 16 5F FF 9D 5D E1
         :             [ Another 3181 bytes skipped ]
         :   }

B.2.  Algorithm migration example

B.2.1.  Dilithium signing end-entity certificate

   This is an end-entity signing certificate which certifies a Dilithium
   key.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIWLDCCCSegAwIBAgIUQZG8jQpzWDji9fN14AOMsoG89SIwDQYLKwYBBAECggsM
   BgUwgY8xCzAJBgNVBAYTAlhYMTUwMwYDVQQKDCxSb3lhbCBJbnN0aXR1dGUgb2Yg
   UHVibGljIEtleSBJbmZyYXN0cnVjdHVyZTErMCkGA1UECwwiUG9zdC1IZWZmYWx1
   bXAgUmVzZWFyY2ggRGVwYXJ0bWVudDEcMBoGA1UEAwwTRGlsaXRoaXVtIFJvb3Qg
   LSBHMTAeFw0yMzA5MTIxMjE4NDFaFw0zMzA5MDkxMjE4NDFaMC8xCzAJBgNVBAYT
   AlhYMQ8wDQYDVQQEDAZZYW1hZGExDzANBgNVBCoMBkhhbmFrbzCCB7QwDQYLKwYB
   BAECggsMBgUDggehAGciTkvYrra2rghjHQuBFbYgdVdKDF0pRu2BxotfWNFqUX2k

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   AAAAAAAAAAAAAAcTGiAjKA==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

   0 5676: SEQUENCE {
   4 2343:   SEQUENCE {
   8    3:     [0] {
  10    1:       INTEGER 2
         :       }
  13   20:     INTEGER 41 91 BC 8D 0A 73 58 38 E2 F5 F3 75 E0 03 8C B2 81 BC F5 22
  35   13:     SEQUENCE {
  37   11:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :       }
  50  143:     SEQUENCE {
  53   11:       SET {
  55    9:         SEQUENCE {
  57    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
  62    2:           PrintableString 'XX'
         :           }
         :         }
  66   53:       SET {
  68   51:         SEQUENCE {
  70    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
  75   44:           UTF8String
         :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
         :           }
         :         }
 121   43:       SET {
 123   41:         SEQUENCE {
 125    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
 130   34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
         :           }
         :         }
 166   28:       SET {

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 168   26:         SEQUENCE {
 170    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 175   19:           UTF8String 'Dilithium Root - G1'
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
 196   30:     SEQUENCE {
 198   13:       UTCTime 12/09/2023 12:18:41 GMT
 213   13:       UTCTime 09/09/2033 12:18:41 GMT
         :       }
 228   47:     SEQUENCE {
 230   11:       SET {
 232    9:         SEQUENCE {
 234    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
 239    2:           PrintableString 'XX'
         :           }
         :         }
 243   15:       SET {
 245   13:         SEQUENCE {
 247    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER surname (2 5 4 4)
 252    6:           UTF8String 'Yamada'
         :           }
         :         }
 260   15:       SET {
 262   13:         SEQUENCE {
 264    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER givenName (2 5 4 42)
 269    6:           UTF8String 'Hanako'
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
 277 1972:     SEQUENCE {
 281   13:       SEQUENCE {
 283   11:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :         }
 296 1953:       BIT STRING
         :         67 22 4E 4B D8 AE B6 B6 AE 08 63 1D 0B 81 15 B6
         :         20 75 57 4A 0C 5D 29 46 ED 81 C6 8B 5F 58 D1 6A
         :         51 7D A4 6F 71 72 6D 0F 9C 20 47 D9 1D 25 1E AE
         :         C3 14 05 62 86 9A CB 1F 3C 62 B7 8C A4 01 E1 EB
         :         85 BD 70 D8 AB 56 E5 BA B1 A2 99 F1 24 C6 64 00
         :         F0 7B 03 C0 45 12 21 EF 56 3E 5E E8 28 7E D5 32
         :         BC C5 45 D5 01 FF 45 07 8A 76 52 B0 A4 27 E6 4D
         :         EA E5 5C 7B 4B 52 5F 02 C3 EE 40 1D A2 68 AA 9E
         :                 [ Another 1824 bytes skipped ]
         :       }
2253   96:     [3] {
2255   94:       SEQUENCE {
2257   12:         SEQUENCE {

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2259    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
2264    1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
2267    2:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2269    0:             SEQUENCE {}
         :             }
         :           }
2271   14:         SEQUENCE {
2273    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
2278    1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
2281    4:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2283    2:             BIT STRING 7 unused bits
         :               '1'B (bit 0)
         :             }
         :           }
2287   29:         SEQUENCE {
2289    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
2294   22:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2296   20:             OCTET STRING
         :               45 47 41 95 AB AD C2 4E 3C 53 E1 65 91 94 8F 1C
         :               97 C8 63 AB
         :             }
         :           }
2318   31:         SEQUENCE {
2320    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
2325   24:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2327   22:             SEQUENCE {
2329   20:               [0]
         :                 A7 79 28 FB 59 27 25 71 16 02 63 48 CB 69 28 72
         :                 32 41 A4 6F
         :               }
         :             }
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
         :     }
2351   13:   SEQUENCE {
2353   11:     OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :     }
2366 3310:   BIT STRING
         :     55 2E 64 72 63 BC AC 70 A2 E3 ED C8 42 1E 44 40
         :     5C C2 1D 94 CC 76 0F 9E AB BD 16 41 CE ED AE 23
         :     78 2B 67 E7 45 0A 53 43 66 A9 B1 DC 74 89 29 9E
         :     D0 7E 20 94 FC 96 6D C3 0A 78 D1 6B EB F8 D6 54
         :     98 7B 59 AC 5E 4E BA 20 D5 EF 2E EA 91 99 2E EC
         :     B7 31 1B A4 E5 80 4A CB A4 13 86 75 68 F4 2B B8
         :     9E 97 E3 89 4C C3 B6 B2 67 62 D7 00 C8 E5 54 7B
         :     8D F6 3E 6D 7C A5 4B C4 5C AD 6D F8 38 72 A3 F2
         :             [ Another 3181 bytes skipped ]

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         :   }

B.2.2.  EC signing end-entity certificate with encoded Delta Certificate

   This is an end-entity signing certificate which certifies an EC key.
   It contains a Delta Certificate Descriptor extension which includes
   sufficient information to recreate the Dilithium signing end-entity
   certificate.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIYIzCCF4WgAwIBAgIUQFy9NSVq9ZXG6QZyo14DJ/bew58wCgYIKoZIzj0EAwQw
   gYsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlhYMTUwMwYDVQQKDCxSb3lhbCBJbnN0aXR1dGUgb2YgUHVi
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   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

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   0 6179: SEQUENCE {
   4 6021:   SEQUENCE {
   8    3:     [0] {
  10    1:       INTEGER 2
         :       }
  13   20:     INTEGER 40 5C BD 35 25 6A F5 95 C6 E9 06 72 A3 5E 03 27 F6 DE C3 9F
  35   10:     SEQUENCE {
  37    8:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
         :       }
  47  139:     SEQUENCE {
  50   11:       SET {
  52    9:         SEQUENCE {
  54    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
  59    2:           PrintableString 'XX'
         :           }
         :         }
  63   53:       SET {
  65   51:         SEQUENCE {
  67    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
  72   44:           UTF8String
         :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
         :           }
         :         }
 118   43:       SET {
 120   41:         SEQUENCE {
 122    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
 127   34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
         :           }
         :         }
 163   24:       SET {
 165   22:         SEQUENCE {
 167    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 172   15:           UTF8String 'ECDSA Root - G1'
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
 189   30:     SEQUENCE {
 191   13:       UTCTime 12/09/2023 12:18:41 GMT
 206   13:       UTCTime 09/09/2033 12:18:41 GMT
         :       }
 221   47:     SEQUENCE {
 223   11:       SET {
 225    9:         SEQUENCE {
 227    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
 232    2:           PrintableString 'XX'
         :           }
         :         }
 236   15:       SET {

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 238   13:         SEQUENCE {
 240    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER surname (2 5 4 4)
 245    6:           UTF8String 'Yamada'
         :           }
         :         }
 253   15:       SET {
 255   13:         SEQUENCE {
 257    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER givenName (2 5 4 42)
 262    6:           UTF8String 'Hanako'
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
 270   89:     SEQUENCE {
 272   19:       SEQUENCE {
 274    7:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecPublicKey (1 2 840 10045 2 1)
 283    8:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER prime256v1 (1 2 840 10045 3 1 7)
         :         }
 293   66:       BIT STRING
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         :         48 E5 05 01 4C DD EC 73 F9 86 75 0E 6C 1A 95 D2
         :         45 DC B8 EC 02 F7 D0 34 E0 1F 3B 59 0C 63 50 AA
         :         1A C0 AB 6F BB E2 CE 27 3D 73 EE 94 39 9D 44 B1
         :         C1
         :       }
 361 5664:     [3] {
 365 5660:       SEQUENCE {
 369   12:         SEQUENCE {
 371    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
 376    1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
 379    2:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
 381    0:             SEQUENCE {}
         :             }
         :           }
 383   14:         SEQUENCE {
 385    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
 390    1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
 393    4:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
 395    2:             BIT STRING 7 unused bits
         :               '1'B (bit 0)
         :             }
         :           }
 399   29:         SEQUENCE {
 401    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
 406   22:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
 408   20:             OCTET STRING
         :               16 EA CA F1 9E 15 35 4E AE B3 1C 88 6B 51 66 C3
         :               4D 7C 10 29
         :             }

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         :           }
 430   31:         SEQUENCE {
 432    3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
 437   24:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
 439   22:             SEQUENCE {
 441   20:               [0]
         :                 7F 15 EB 8A 8A F0 1A 3A 3F 24 6E C8 3A 27 49 B9
         :                 3E 27 38 5D
         :               }
         :             }
         :           }
 463 5562:         SEQUENCE {
 467   10:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :             deltaCertificateDescriptor (2 16 840 1 114027 80 6 1)
 479 5546:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
 483 5542:             SEQUENCE {
 487   20:               INTEGER
         :                 41 91 BC 8D 0A 73 58 38 E2 F5 F3 75 E0 03 8C B2
         :                 81 BC F5 22
 509   13:               [0] {
 511   11:                 OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :                 }
 524  146:               [1] {
 527  143:                 SEQUENCE {
 530   11:                   SET {
 532    9:                     SEQUENCE {
 534    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
 539    2:                       PrintableString 'XX'
         :                       }
         :                     }
 543   53:                   SET {
 545   51:                     SEQUENCE {
 547    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
 552   44:                       UTF8String
         :                   'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
         :                       }
         :                     }
 598   43:                   SET {
 600   41:                     SEQUENCE {
 602    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :                         organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
 607   34:                       UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
         :                       }
         :                     }
 643   28:                   SET {
 645   26:                     SEQUENCE {
 647    3:                       OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 652   19:                       UTF8String 'Dilithium Root - G1'

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         :                       }
         :                     }
         :                   }
         :                 }
 673 1972:               SEQUENCE {
 677   13:                 SEQUENCE {
 679   11:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER '1 3 6 1 4 1 2 267 12 6 5'
         :                   }
 692 1953:                 BIT STRING
         :                   67 22 4E 4B D8 AE B6 B6 AE 08 63 1D 0B 81 15 B6
         :                   20 75 57 4A 0C 5D 29 46 ED 81 C6 8B 5F 58 D1 6A
         :                   51 7D A4 6F 71 72 6D 0F 9C 20 47 D9 1D 25 1E AE
         :                   C3 14 05 62 86 9A CB 1F 3C 62 B7 8C A4 01 E1 EB
         :                   85 BD 70 D8 AB 56 E5 BA B1 A2 99 F1 24 C6 64 00
         :                   F0 7B 03 C0 45 12 21 EF 56 3E 5E E8 28 7E D5 32
         :                   BC C5 45 D5 01 FF 45 07 8A 76 52 B0 A4 27 E6 4D
         :                   EA E5 5C 7B 4B 52 5F 02 C3 EE 40 1D A2 68 AA 9E
         :                           [ Another 1824 bytes skipped ]
         :                 }
2649   64:               [4] {
2651   29:                 SEQUENCE {
2653    3:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
2658   22:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2660   20:                     OCTET STRING
         :                     45 47 41 95 AB AD C2 4E 3C 53 E1 65 91 94 8F 1C
         :                     97 C8 63 AB
         :                     }
         :                   }
2682   31:                 SEQUENCE {
2684    3:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
         :                     authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
2689   24:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
2691   22:                     SEQUENCE {
2693   20:                       [0]
         :                     A7 79 28 FB 59 27 25 71 16 02 63 48 CB 69 28 72
         :                     32 41 A4 6F
         :                       }
         :                     }
         :                   }
         :                 }
2715 3310:               BIT STRING
         :                 55 2E 64 72 63 BC AC 70 A2 E3 ED C8 42 1E 44 40
         :                 5C C2 1D 94 CC 76 0F 9E AB BD 16 41 CE ED AE 23
         :                 78 2B 67 E7 45 0A 53 43 66 A9 B1 DC 74 89 29 9E
         :                 D0 7E 20 94 FC 96 6D C3 0A 78 D1 6B EB F8 D6 54
         :                 98 7B 59 AC 5E 4E BA 20 D5 EF 2E EA 91 99 2E EC
         :                 B7 31 1B A4 E5 80 4A CB A4 13 86 75 68 F4 2B B8
         :                 9E 97 E3 89 4C C3 B6 B2 67 62 D7 00 C8 E5 54 7B

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         :                 8D F6 3E 6D 7C A5 4B C4 5C AD 6D F8 38 72 A3 F2
         :                         [ Another 3181 bytes skipped ]
         :               }
         :             }
         :           }
         :         }
         :       }
         :     }
6029   10:   SEQUENCE {
6031    8:     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
         :     }
6041  139:   BIT STRING, encapsulates {
6045  135:     SEQUENCE {
6048   66:       INTEGER
         :         01 F7 8F DF D7 53 46 C3 FF 5B D8 75 76 DC A1 EE
         :         EE AB 09 65 D2 0E 52 24 7B C2 44 7E B7 ED FB 7E
         :         6E F9 71 BB 7B C9 09 3E 13 75 6F CB E0 47 AB D2
         :         01 81 37 EE 67 6F 83 BB 43 C4 66 3E 40 47 CE 7B
         :         B7 79
6116   65:       INTEGER
         :         4D CF B9 90 12 96 55 45 DE 0E 80 A7 FA 17 E6 ED
         :         AF 98 0E 98 C7 6B 57 6F 7B 3C 2F C9 5D 08 6D A0
         :         48 15 5B DA 9D 2F 48 18 B5 BF 70 0B 9B 84 E3 35
         :         BD 25 F8 FE F0 1B 00 72 71 0A A6 24 21 D5 8A 7C
         :         49
         :       }
         :     }
         :   }

B.3.  Dual use example

B.3.1.  EC signing end-entity certificate

   This is an end-entity signing certificate which certifies an EC key.

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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICYTCCAcOgAwIBAgIUVcVNficoipRs4c6JBiF731VtDLAwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwQw
   gYsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlhYMTUwMwYDVQQKDCxSb3lhbCBJbnN0aXR1dGUgb2YgUHVi
   bGljIEtleSBJbmZyYXN0cnVjdHVyZTErMCkGA1UECwwiUG9zdC1IZWZmYWx1bXAg
   UmVzZWFyY2ggRGVwYXJ0bWVudDEYMBYGA1UEAwwPRUNEU0EgUm9vdCAtIEcxMB4X
   DTIzMDUyNjEzMDYzMVoXDTI2MDUyMjEzMDYzMVowLzELMAkGA1UEBhMCWFgxDzAN
   BgNVBAQMBllhbWFkYTEPMA0GA1UEKgwGSGFuYWtvMFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZI
   zj0DAQcDQgAEQiVI+I+3gv+17KN0RFLHKh5Vj71vc75eSOkyMsxFxbFsTNEMTLjV
   uKFxOelIgsiZJXKZNCX0FBmrfpCkKklCcqNgMF4wDAYDVR0TAQH/BAIwADAOBgNV
   HQ8BAf8EBAMCB4AwHQYDVR0OBBYEFFtwp5gX95/2N9L349xEbCEJ17vUMB8GA1Ud
   IwQYMBaAFI7CFAlgduqQOOk5rhttUsQXfZ++MAoGCCqGSM49BAMEA4GLADCBhwJC
   ATB+4mSAPRhLdoM3WSPx4l7PoZeuiYObCVZF7vV61bqmPhFskmZ+1aXSMIABfaNE
   L5Tc+fiSFOXuZs4JSfWxyTlaAkFiK9X4q5kvyHWy97YbxkMOODeEq0ImwaMabmNO
   Es40EGEHbEPLIHzW347BR8iZquPCA9wspc6y8edyXcBv/g2Yhw==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

  0 609: SEQUENCE {
  4 451:   SEQUENCE {
  8   3:     [0] {
 10   1:       INTEGER 2
       :       }
 13  20:     INTEGER 55 C5 4D 7E 27 28 8A 94 6C E1 CE 89 06 21 7B DF 55 6D 0C B0
 35  10:     SEQUENCE {
 37   8:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
       :       }
 47 139:     SEQUENCE {
 50  11:       SET {
 52   9:         SEQUENCE {
 54   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
 59   2:           PrintableString 'XX'
       :           }
       :         }
 63  53:       SET {
 65  51:         SEQUENCE {
 67   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
 72  44:           UTF8String
       :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
       :           }
       :         }
118  43:       SET {
120  41:         SEQUENCE {
122   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
127  34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
       :           }
       :         }
163  24:       SET {
165  22:         SEQUENCE {
167   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)

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172  15:           UTF8String 'ECDSA Root - G1'
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
189  30:     SEQUENCE {
191  13:       UTCTime 26/05/2023 13:06:31 GMT
206  13:       UTCTime 22/05/2026 13:06:31 GMT
       :       }
221  47:     SEQUENCE {
223  11:       SET {
225   9:         SEQUENCE {
227   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
232   2:           PrintableString 'XX'
       :           }
       :         }
236  15:       SET {
238  13:         SEQUENCE {
240   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER surname (2 5 4 4)
245   6:           UTF8String 'Yamada'
       :           }
       :         }
253  15:       SET {
255  13:         SEQUENCE {
257   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER givenName (2 5 4 42)
262   6:           UTF8String 'Hanako'
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
270  89:     SEQUENCE {
272  19:       SEQUENCE {
274   7:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecPublicKey (1 2 840 10045 2 1)
283   8:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER prime256v1 (1 2 840 10045 3 1 7)
       :         }
293  66:       BIT STRING
       :         04 42 25 48 F8 8F B7 82 FF B5 EC A3 74 44 52 C7
       :         2A 1E 55 8F BD 6F 73 BE 5E 48 E9 32 32 CC 45 C5
       :         B1 6C 4C D1 0C 4C B8 D5 B8 A1 71 39 E9 48 82 C8
       :         99 25 72 99 34 25 F4 14 19 AB 7E 90 A4 2A 49 42
       :         72
       :       }
361  96:     [3] {
363  94:       SEQUENCE {
365  12:         SEQUENCE {
367   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
372   1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
375   2:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
377   0:             SEQUENCE {}
       :             }

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       :           }
379  14:         SEQUENCE {
381   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
386   1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
389   4:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
391   2:             BIT STRING 7 unused bits
       :               '1'B (bit 0)
       :             }
       :           }
395  29:         SEQUENCE {
397   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
402  22:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
404  20:             OCTET STRING
       :               5B 70 A7 98 17 F7 9F F6 37 D2 F7 E3 DC 44 6C 21
       :               09 D7 BB D4
       :             }
       :           }
426  31:         SEQUENCE {
428   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
433  24:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
435  22:             SEQUENCE {
437  20:               [0]
       :                 8E C2 14 09 60 76 EA 90 38 E9 39 AE 1B 6D 52 C4
       :                 17 7D 9F BE
       :               }
       :             }
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
       :     }
459  10:   SEQUENCE {
461   8:     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
       :     }
471 139:   BIT STRING, encapsulates {
475 135:     SEQUENCE {
478  66:       INTEGER
       :         01 30 7E E2 64 80 3D 18 4B 76 83 37 59 23 F1 E2
       :         5E CF A1 97 AE 89 83 9B 09 56 45 EE F5 7A D5 BA
       :         A6 3E 11 6C 92 66 7E D5 A5 D2 30 80 01 7D A3 44
       :         2F 94 DC F9 F8 92 14 E5 EE 66 CE 09 49 F5 B1 C9
       :         39 5A
546  65:       INTEGER
       :         62 2B D5 F8 AB 99 2F C8 75 B2 F7 B6 1B C6 43 0E
       :         38 37 84 AB 42 26 C1 A3 1A 6E 63 4E 12 CE 34 10
       :         61 07 6C 43 CB 20 7C D6 DF 8E C1 47 C8 99 AA E3
       :         C2 03 DC 2C A5 CE B2 F1 E7 72 5D C0 6F FE 0D 98
       :         87
       :       }

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       :     }
       :   }

B.3.2.  EC dual use end-entity certificate with encoded Delta
        Certificate

   This is an end-entity key exchange certificate which certifies an EC
   key.  It contains a Delta Certificate Descriptor extension which
   includes sufficient information to the recreate the EC signing end-
   entity certificate.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDyjCCAyygAwIBAgIUczxcVsNa7M9uSs598vuGatGLDuIwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwQw
   gYsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlhYMTUwMwYDVQQKDCxSb3lhbCBJbnN0aXR1dGUgb2YgUHVi
   bGljIEtleSBJbmZyYXN0cnVjdHVyZTErMCkGA1UECwwiUG9zdC1IZWZmYWx1bXAg
   UmVzZWFyY2ggRGVwYXJ0bWVudDEYMBYGA1UEAwwPRUNEU0EgUm9vdCAtIEcxMB4X
   DTIzMDUyNjEzMDYzMVoXDTI2MDUyMjEzMDYzMVowLzELMAkGA1UEBhMCWFgxDzAN
   BgNVBAQMBllhbWFkYTEPMA0GA1UEKgwGSGFuYWtvMHYwEAYHKoZIzj0CAQYFK4EE
   ACIDYgAEWwkBuIUjKW65GdUP+hqcs3S8TUCVhigr/soRsdla27VHNK9XC/grcijP
   ImvPTCXdvP47GjrTlDDv92Ph1o0uFR2Rcgt3lbWNprNGOWE6j7m1qNpIxnRxF/mR
   noQk837Io4IBqjCCAaYwDAYDVR0TAQH/BAIwADAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAwgwHQYD
   VR0OBBYEFArjoP6d1CV2mLXrcuvKDOe/PfXxMB8GA1UdIwQYMBaAFI7CFAlgduqQ
   OOk5rhttUsQXfZ++MIIBRAYKYIZIAYb6a1AGAQSCATQwggEwAhRVxU1+JyiKlGzh
   zokGIXvfVW0MsDBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEHA0IABEIlSPiPt4L/teyj
   dERSxyoeVY+9b3O+XkjpMjLMRcWxbEzRDEy41bihcTnpSILImSVymTQl9BQZq36Q
   pCpJQnKkLzAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCB4AwHQYDVR0OBBYEFFtwp5gX95/2N9L349xE
   bCEJ17vUA4GLADCBhwJCATB+4mSAPRhLdoM3WSPx4l7PoZeuiYObCVZF7vV61bqm
   PhFskmZ+1aXSMIABfaNEL5Tc+fiSFOXuZs4JSfWxyTlaAkFiK9X4q5kvyHWy97Yb
   xkMOODeEq0ImwaMabmNOEs40EGEHbEPLIHzW347BR8iZquPCA9wspc6y8edyXcBv
   /g2YhzAKBggqhkjOPQQDBAOBiwAwgYcCQXY+Rtd1hMrl4tW7Is3cNjiwHNYs5L12
   J5Rv+O78opL/a6UfbGpceiB1OIeBkjj/RyVCTTSQit67FWc/gmDkkyiMAkIB+YuM
   wRXlfQVO3ivNdTluEOAI44SjpmXo63QjwqXLViTE66mOWZHBoXL6IilEtFajrkO/
   HAuJrywI2E3RoOHS+lY=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

  0 970: SEQUENCE {
  4 812:   SEQUENCE {
  8   3:     [0] {
 10   1:       INTEGER 2
       :       }
 13  20:     INTEGER 73 3C 5C 56 C3 5A EC CF 6E 4A CE 7D F2 FB 86 6A D1 8B 0E E2
 35  10:     SEQUENCE {
 37   8:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
       :       }
 47 139:     SEQUENCE {
 50  11:       SET {
 52   9:         SEQUENCE {
 54   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)

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 59   2:           PrintableString 'XX'
       :           }
       :         }
 63  53:       SET {
 65  51:         SEQUENCE {
 67   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
 72  44:           UTF8String
       :             'Royal Institute of Public Key Infrastructure'
       :           }
       :         }
118  43:       SET {
120  41:         SEQUENCE {
122   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
127  34:           UTF8String 'Post-Heffalump Research Department'
       :           }
       :         }
163  24:       SET {
165  22:         SEQUENCE {
167   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
172  15:           UTF8String 'ECDSA Root - G1'
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
189  30:     SEQUENCE {
191  13:       UTCTime 26/05/2023 13:06:31 GMT
206  13:       UTCTime 22/05/2026 13:06:31 GMT
       :       }
221  47:     SEQUENCE {
223  11:       SET {
225   9:         SEQUENCE {
227   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
232   2:           PrintableString 'XX'
       :           }
       :         }
236  15:       SET {
238  13:         SEQUENCE {
240   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER surname (2 5 4 4)
245   6:           UTF8String 'Yamada'
       :           }
       :         }
253  15:       SET {
255  13:         SEQUENCE {
257   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER givenName (2 5 4 42)
262   6:           UTF8String 'Hanako'
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
270 118:     SEQUENCE {

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272  16:       SEQUENCE {
274   7:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecPublicKey (1 2 840 10045 2 1)
283   5:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER secp384r1 (1 3 132 0 34)
       :         }
290  98:       BIT STRING
       :         04 5B 09 01 B8 85 23 29 6E B9 19 D5 0F FA 1A 9C
       :         B3 74 BC 4D 40 95 86 28 2B FE CA 11 B1 D9 5A DB
       :         B5 47 34 AF 57 0B F8 2B 72 28 CF 22 6B CF 4C 25
       :         DD BC FE 3B 1A 3A D3 94 30 EF F7 63 E1 D6 8D 2E
       :         15 1D 91 72 0B 77 95 B5 8D A6 B3 46 39 61 3A 8F
       :         B9 B5 A8 DA 48 C6 74 71 17 F9 91 9E 84 24 F3 7E
       :         C8
       :       }
390 426:     [3] {
394 422:       SEQUENCE {
398  12:         SEQUENCE {
400   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
405   1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
408   2:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
410   0:             SEQUENCE {}
       :             }
       :           }
412  14:         SEQUENCE {
414   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
419   1:           BOOLEAN TRUE
422   4:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
424   2:             BIT STRING 3 unused bits
       :               '10000'B (bit 4)
       :             }
       :           }
428  29:         SEQUENCE {
430   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
435  22:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
437  20:             OCTET STRING
       :               0A E3 A0 FE 9D D4 25 76 98 B5 EB 72 EB CA 0C E7
       :               BF 3D F5 F1
       :             }
       :           }
459  31:         SEQUENCE {
461   3:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
466  24:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
468  22:             SEQUENCE {
470  20:               [0]
       :                 8E C2 14 09 60 76 EA 90 38 E9 39 AE 1B 6D 52 C4
       :                 17 7D 9F BE
       :               }
       :             }
       :           }

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492 324:         SEQUENCE {
496  10:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :             deltaCertificateDescriptor (2 16 840 1 114027 80 6 1)
508 308:           OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
512 304:             SEQUENCE {
516  20:               INTEGER
       :                 55 C5 4D 7E 27 28 8A 94 6C E1 CE 89 06 21 7B DF
       :                 55 6D 0C B0
538  89:               SEQUENCE {
540  19:                 SEQUENCE {
542   7:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecPublicKey (1 2 840 10045 2 1)
551   8:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER prime256v1 (1 2 840 10045 3 1 7)
       :                   }
561  66:                 BIT STRING
       :                   04 42 25 48 F8 8F B7 82 FF B5 EC A3 74 44 52 C7
       :                   2A 1E 55 8F BD 6F 73 BE 5E 48 E9 32 32 CC 45 C5
       :                   B1 6C 4C D1 0C 4C B8 D5 B8 A1 71 39 E9 48 82 C8
       :                   99 25 72 99 34 25 F4 14 19 AB 7E 90 A4 2A 49 42
       :                   72
       :                 }
629  47:               [4] {
631  14:                 SEQUENCE {
633   3:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
638   1:                   BOOLEAN TRUE
641   4:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
643   2:                     BIT STRING 7 unused bits
       :                       '1'B (bit 0)
       :                     }
       :                   }
647  29:                 SEQUENCE {
649   3:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
654  22:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
656  20:                     OCTET STRING
       :                       5B 70 A7 98 17 F7 9F F6 37 D2 F7 E3 DC 44 6C 21
       :                       09 D7 BB D4
       :                     }
       :                   }
       :                 }
678 139:               BIT STRING, encapsulates {
682 135:                 SEQUENCE {
685  66:                   INTEGER
       :                     01 30 7E E2 64 80 3D 18 4B 76 83 37 59 23 F1 E2
       :                     5E CF A1 97 AE 89 83 9B 09 56 45 EE F5 7A D5 BA
       :                     A6 3E 11 6C 92 66 7E D5 A5 D2 30 80 01 7D A3 44
       :                     2F 94 DC F9 F8 92 14 E5 EE 66 CE 09 49 F5 B1 C9
       :                     39 5A
753  65:                   INTEGER
       :                     62 2B D5 F8 AB 99 2F C8 75 B2 F7 B6 1B C6 43 0E

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       :                     38 37 84 AB 42 26 C1 A3 1A 6E 63 4E 12 CE 34 10
       :                     61 07 6C 43 CB 20 7C D6 DF 8E C1 47 C8 99 AA E3
       :                     C2 03 DC 2C A5 CE B2 F1 E7 72 5D C0 6F FE 0D 98
       :                     87
       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
       :             }
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
       :     }
820  10:   SEQUENCE {
822   8:     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ecdsaWithSHA512 (1 2 840 10045 4 3 4)
       :     }
832 139:   BIT STRING, encapsulates {
836 135:     SEQUENCE {
839  65:       INTEGER
       :         76 3E 46 D7 75 84 CA E5 E2 D5 BB 22 CD DC 36 38
       :         B0 1C D6 2C E4 BD 76 27 94 6F F8 EE FC A2 92 FF
       :         6B A5 1F 6C 6A 5C 7A 20 75 38 87 81 92 38 FF 47
       :         25 42 4D 34 90 8A DE BB 15 67 3F 82 60 E4 93 28
       :         8C
906  66:       INTEGER
       :         01 F9 8B 8C C1 15 E5 7D 05 4E DE 2B CD 75 39 6E
       :         10 E0 08 E3 84 A3 A6 65 E8 EB 74 23 C2 A5 CB 56
       :         24 C4 EB A9 8E 59 91 C1 A1 72 FA 22 29 44 B4 56
       :         A3 AE 43 BF 1C 0B 89 AF 2C 08 D8 4D D1 A0 E1 D2
       :         FA 56
       :       }
       :     }
       :   }

Acknowledgments

   TODO acknowledge.

Authors' Addresses

   C. Bonnell
   DigiCert
   Email: corey.bonnell@digicert.com

   J. Gray
   Entrust
   Email: john.gray@entrust.com

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   D. Hook
   KeyFactor
   Email: david.hook@keyfactor.com

   T. Okubo
   DigiCert
   Email: tomofumi.okubo@digicert.com

   M. Ounsworth
   Entrust
   Email: mike.ounsworth@entrust.com

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