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Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)

The information below is for an old version of the document that is already published as an RFC.
Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 3490.
Authors Patrik Fältström , Paul E. Hoffman
Last updated 2020-01-21 (Latest revision 2002-10-07)
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Proposed Standard
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state WG Document
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IESG IESG state Became RFC 3490 (Proposed Standard)
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Consensus boilerplate Unknown
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD Erik Nordmark
IESG note
Send notices to <>, <>
Internet Draft                                     Patrik Faltstrom
draft-ietf-idn-idna-13.txt                                    Cisco
October 4, 2002                                        Paul Hoffman
Expires in six months                                    IMC & VPNC
                                                   Adam M. Costello
                                                        UC Berkeley

       Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)

Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups
may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at


Until now, there has been no standard method for domain names to use
characters outside the ASCII repertoire. This document defines
internationalized domain names (IDNs) and a mechanism called IDNA for
handling them in a standard fashion. IDNs use characters drawn from a
large repertoire (Unicode), but IDNA allows the non-ASCII characters to
be represented using only the ASCII characters already allowed in
so-called host names today.  This backward-compatible representation is
required in existing protocols like DNS, so that IDNs can be introduced
with no changes to the existing infrastructure. IDNA is only meant for
processing domain names, not free text.

1. Introduction

IDNA works by allowing applications to use certain ASCII name labels
(beginning with a special prefix) to represent non-ASCII name labels.
Lower-layer protocols need not be aware of this; therefore IDNA does not
depend on changes to any infrastructure. In particular, IDNA does not
depend on any changes to DNS servers, resolvers, or protocol elements,
because the ASCII name service provided by the existing DNS is entirely
sufficient for IDNA.

This document does not require any applications to conform to IDNA, but
applications can elect to use IDNA in order to support IDN while
maintaining interoperability with existing infrastructure. If an
application wants to use non-ASCII characters in domain names, IDNA is
the only currently-defined option. Adding IDNA support to an existing
application entails changes to the application only, and leaves room for
flexibility in the user interface.

A great deal of the discussion of IDN solutions has focused on
transition issues and how IDN will work in a world where not all of the
components have been updated. Proposals that were not chosen by the IDN
Working Group would depend on user applications, resolvers, and DNS
servers being updated in order for a user to use an internationalized
domain name. Rather than rely on widespread updating of all components,
IDNA depends on updates to user applications only; no changes are needed
to the DNS protocol or any DNS servers or the resolvers on user's

1.1 Brief overview for application developers

Applications can use IDNA to support internationalized domain names
anywhere that ASCII domain names are already supported, including DNS
master files and resolver interfaces. (Applications can also define
protocols and interfaces that support IDNs directly using non-ASCII
representations. IDNA does not prescribe any particular representation
for new protocols, but it still defines which names are valid and how
they are compared.)

The IDNA protocol is contained completely within applications. It is not
a client-server or peer-to-peer protocol: everything is done inside the
application itself. When used with a DNS resolver library, IDNA is
inserted as a "shim" between the application and the resolver library.
When used for writing names into a DNS zone, IDNA is used just before
the name is committed to the zone.

There are two operations described in section 4 of this document:

- The ToASCII operation is used before sending an IDN to something that
expects ASCII names (such as a resolver) or writing an IDN into a place
that expects ASCII names (such as a DNS master file).

- The ToUnicode operation is used when displaying names to users, for
example names obtained from a DNS zone.

It is important to note that the ToASCII operation can fail. If it fails
when processing a domain name, that domain name cannot be used as an
internationalized domain name and the application has to have some
method of dealing with this failure.

IDNA requires that implementations process input strings with Nameprep
[NAMEPREP], which is a profile of Stringprep [STRINGPREP], and then with
Punycode [PUNYCODE]. Implementations of IDNA MUST fully implement
Nameprep and Punycode; neither Nameprep nor Punycode are optional.

2 Terminology

The key words "MUST", "SHALL", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED", and
"MAY" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119

A code point is an integral value associated with a character in a coded
character set.

Unicode [UNICODE] is a coded character set containing tens of thousands
of characters. A single Unicode code point is denoted by "U+" followed
by four to six hexadecimal digits, while a range of Unicode code points
is denoted by two hexadecimal numbers separated by "..", with no

ASCII means US-ASCII [USASCII], a coded character set containing 128
characters associated with code points in the range 0..7F. Unicode is an
extension of ASCII: it includes all the ASCII characters and associates
them with the same code points.

The term "LDH code points" is defined in this document to mean the code
points associated with ASCII letters, digits, and the hyphen-minus; that
is, U+002D, 30..39, 41..5A, and 61..7A. "LDH" is an abbreviation for
"letters, digits, hyphen".

[STD13] talks about "domain names" and "host names", but many people use
the terms interchangeably. Further, because [STD13] was not terribly
clear, many people who are sure they know the exact definitions of each
of these terms disagree on the definitions. In this document the term
"domain name" is used in general. This document explicitly cites [STD3]
whenever referring to the host name syntax restrictions defined therein.

A label is an individual part of a domain name. Labels are usually shown
separated by dots; for example, the domain name "" is
composed of three labels: "www", "example", and "com". (The zero-length
root label described in [STD13], which can be explicit as in
"" or implicit as in "", is not
considered a label in this specification.) IDNA extends the set of
usable characters in labels that are text. For the rest of this
document, the term "label" is shorthand for "text label", and "every
label" means "every text label".

An "internationalized label" is a label to which the ToASCII operation
(see section 4) can be applied without failing. This implies that every
ASCII label that satisfies the [STD13] length restriction is an
internationalized label. Therefore the term "internationalized label" is
a generalization, embracing both old ASCII labels and new non-ASCII
labels. Although most Unicode characters can appear in internationalized
labels, ToASCII will fail for some input strings, and such strings are
not valid internationalized labels.

An "internationalized domain name" (IDN) is a domain name in which every
label is an internationalized label. This implies that every ASCII
domain name is an IDN. This document does not attempt to define an
"internationalized host name". Just as has been the case with ASCII
names, some DNS zone administrators may impose restrictions, beyond
those imposed by DNS or IDNA, on the characters or strings that may be
registered as labels in their zones. Such restrictions have no impact on
the syntax or semantics of DNS protocol messages; a query for a name
that matches no records will yield the same response regardless of the
reason why it is not in the zone. Clients issuing queries or
interpreting responses cannot be assumed to have any knowledge of
zone-specific restrictions or conventions.

In IDNA, equivalence of labels is defined in terms of the ToASCII
operation, which constructs an ASCII form for a given label, whether or
not the label was already an ASCII label. Labels are defined to be
equivalent if and only if their ASCII forms produced by ToASCII match
using a case-insensitive ASCII comparison. ASCII labels already have a
notion of equivalence: upper case and lower case are considered
equivalent. The IDNA notion of equivalence is an extension of that older
notion. Equivalent labels in IDNA are treated as alternate forms of the
same label, just as "foo" and "Foo" are treated as alternate forms of
the same label.

To allow internationalized labels to be handled by existing
applications, IDNA uses an "ACE label" (ACE stands for ASCII Compatible
Encoding). An ACE label is an internationalized label that can be
rendered in ASCII and is equivalent to an internationalized label that
cannot be rendered in ASCII. Given any internationalized label that
cannot be rendered in ASCII, the ToASCII operation will convert it to an
equivalent ACE label (whereas an ASCII label will be left unaltered by
ToASCII). ACE labels are unsuitable for display to users.  The ToUnicode
operation will convert any label to an equivalent non-ACE label. In
fact, an ACE label is formally defined to be any label that the
ToUnicode operation would alter (whereas non-ACE labels are left
unaltered by ToUnicode). Every ACE label begins with the ACE prefix
specified in section 5. The ToASCII and ToUnicode operations are
specified in section 4.

The "ACE prefix" is defined in this document to be a string of ASCII
characters that appears at the beginning of every ACE label. It is
specified in section 5.

A "domain name slot" is defined in this document to be a protocol
element or a function argument or a return value (and so on) explicitly
designated for carrying a domain name. Examples of domain name slots
include: the QNAME field of a DNS query; the name argument of the
gethostbyname() library function; the part of an email address following
the at-sign (@) in the From: field of an email message header; and the
host portion of the URI in the src attribute of an HTML <IMG> tag.
General text that just happens to contain a domain name is not a domain
name slot; for example, a domain name appearing in the plain text body
of an email message is not occupying a domain name slot.

An "IDN-aware domain name slot" is defined in this document to be a
domain name slot explicitly designated for carrying an internationalized
domain name as defined in this document. The designation may be static
(for example, in the specification of the protocol or interface) or
dynamic (for example, as a result of negotiation in an interactive

An "IDN-unaware domain name slot" is defined in this document to be any
domain name slot that is not an IDN-aware domain name slot. Obviously,
this includes any domain name slot whose specification predates IDNA.

3. Requirements and applicability

3.1 Requirements

IDNA conformance means adherence to the following four requirements:

1) Whenever dots are used as label separators, the following characters
MUST be recognized as dots: U+002E (full stop), U+3002 (ideographic full
stop), U+FF0E (fullwidth full stop), U+FF61 (halfwidth ideographic full

2) Whenever a domain name is put into an IDN-unaware domain name slot
(see section 2), it MUST contain only ASCII characters.
Given an internationalized domain name (IDN), an equivalent domain name
satisfying this requirement can be obtained by applying the ToASCII
operation (see section 4) to each label and, if dots are
used as label separators, changing all the label separators to U+002E.

3) ACE labels obtained from domain name slots SHOULD be hidden from
users when it is known that the environment can handle the non-ACE form,
except when the ACE form is explicitly requested. When it is not known
whether or not the environment can handle the non-ACE form, the
application MAY use the non-ACE form (which might fail, such as by not
being displayed properly), or it MAY use the ACE form (which will look
unintelligle to the user). Given an internationalized domain name, an
equivalent domain name containing no ACE labels can be obtained by
applying the ToUnicode operation (see section 4) to each label.  When
requirements 2 and 3 both apply, requirement 2 takes precedence.

4) Whenever two labels are compared, they MUST be considered to match if
and only if they are equivalent, that is, their ASCII forms (obtained by
applying ToASCII) match using a case-insensitive ASCII comparison.
Whenever two names are compared, they MUST be considered to match if and
only if their corresponding labels match, regardless of whether the
names use the same forms of label separators.

3.2 Applicability

IDNA is applicable to all domain names in all domain name slots except
where it is explicitly excluded.

This implies that IDNA is applicable to many protocols that predate
IDNA.  Note that IDNs occupying domain name slots in those protocols
MUST be in ASCII form (see section 3.1, requirement 2).

3.2.1. DNS resource records

IDNA does not apply to domain names in the NAME and RDATA fields of DNS
resource records whose CLASS is not IN.  This exclusion applies to every
non-IN class, present and future, except where future standards override
this exclusion by explicitly inviting the use of IDNA.

There are currently no other exclusions on the applicability of IDNA to
DNS resource records; it depends entirely on the CLASS, and not on the
TYPE.  This will remain true, even as new types are defined, unless
there is a compelling reason for a new type to complicate matters by
imposing type-specific rules.

3.2.2. Non-domain-name data types stored in domain names

Although IDNA enables the representation of non-ASCII characters in
domain names, that does not imply that IDNA enables the representation
of non-ASCII characters in other data types that are stored in domain
names.  For example, an email address local part is sometimes stored in
a domain label ( would be represented as in the RDATA field of an SOA record). IDNA does
not update the existing email standards, which allow only ASCII
characters in local parts.  Therefore, unless the email standards are
revised to invite the use of IDNA for local parts, a domain label that
holds the local part of an email address SHOULD NOT begin with the ACE
prefix, and even if it does, it is to be interpreted literally as a
local part that happens to begin with the ACE prefix.

4. Conversion operations

An application converts a domain name put into an IDN-unaware slot or
displayed to a user. This section specifies the steps to perform in the
conversion, and the ToASCII and ToUnicode operations.

The input to ToASCII or ToUnicode is a single label that is a sequence
of Unicode code points (remember that all ASCII code points are also
Unicode code points). If a domain name is represented using a character
set other than Unicode or US-ASCII, it will first need to be transcoded
to Unicode.

Starting from a whole domain name, the steps that an application takes
to do the conversions are:

1) Decide whether the domain name is a "stored string" or a "query
string" as described in [STRINGPREP]. If this conversion follows the
"queries" rule from [STRINGPREP], set the flag called "AllowUnassigned".

2) Split the domain name into individual labels as described in section
3.1. The labels do not include the separator.

3) For each label, decide whether or not to enforce the restrictions on
ASCII characters in host names [STD3].  If the restrictions are to be
enforced, set the flag called "UseSTD3ASCIIRules" for that label.

4) Process each label with either the ToASCII or the ToUnicode
operation. Use the ToASCII operation if you are about to put
the name into an IDN-unaware slot. Use the ToUnicode operation if you
are displaying the name to a user.

5) If ToASCII was applied in step 4 and dots are used as label
separators, change all the label separators to U+002E (full stop).

The following two subsections define the ToASCII and ToUnicode
operations that are used in step 4.


The ToASCII operation takes a sequence of Unicode code points that make
up one label and transforms it into a sequence of code points in the
ASCII range (0..7F). If ToASCII succeeds, the original sequence and the
resulting sequence are equivalent labels.

It is important to note that the ToASCII operation can fail. ToASCII
fails if any step of it fails. If any step of the ToASCII operation
fails on any label in a domain name, that domain name MUST NOT be used
as an internationalized domain name. The application needs to have some
method of dealing with this failure.

The inputs to ToASCII are a sequence of code points, the AllowUnassigned
flag, and the UseSTD3ASCIIRules flag. The output of ToASCII is either a
sequence of ASCII code points or a failure condition.

ToASCII never alters a sequence of code points that are all in the ASCII
range to begin with (although it could fail). Applying the ToASCII
operation multiple times has exactly the same effect as applying it just

ToASCII consists of the following steps:

    1. If all code points in the sequence are in the ASCII range (0..7F)
       then skip to step 3.

    2. Perform the steps specified in [NAMEPREP] and fail if there is
       an error. The AllowUnassigned flag is used in [NAMEPREP].

    3. If the UseSTD3ASCIIRules flag is set, then perform these checks:

         (a) Verify the absence of non-LDH ASCII code points; that is, 
             the absence of 0..2C, 2E..2F, 3A..40, 5B..60, and 7B..7F.

         (b) Verify the absence of leading and trailing hyphen-minus;
             that is, the absence of U+002D at the beginning and end of
             the sequence.

    4. If all code points in the sequence are in the ASCII range
       (0..7F), then skip to step 8.

    5. Verify that the sequence does NOT begin with the ACE prefix.

    6. Encode the sequence using the encoding algorithm in [PUNYCODE]
       and fail if there is an error.

    7. Prepend the ACE prefix.

    8. Verify that the number of code points is in the range 1 to 63

4.2 ToUnicode

The ToUnicode operation takes a sequence of Unicode code points that
make up one label and returns a sequence of Unicode code points. If the
input sequence is a label in ACE form, then the result is an equivalent
internationalized label that is not in ACE form, otherwise the original
sequence is returned unaltered.

ToUnicode never fails. If any step fails, then the original input
sequence is returned immediately in that step.

The inputs to ToUnicode are a sequence of code points, the
AllowUnassigned flag, and the UseSTD3ASCIIRules flag. The output of
ToUnicode is always a sequence of Unicode code points.

    1. If all code points in the sequence are in the ASCII range (0..7F)
       then skip to step 3.

    2. Perform the steps specified in [NAMEPREP] and fail if there is an
       error. (If step 3 of ToASCII is also performed here, it will not
       affect the overall behavior of ToUnicode, but it is not
       necessary.) The AllowUnassigned flag is used in [NAMEPREP].

    3. Verify that the sequence begins with the ACE prefix, and save a
       copy of the sequence.

    4. Remove the ACE prefix.

    5. Decode the sequence using the decoding algorithm in [PUNYCODE]
       and fail if there is an error. Save a copy of the result of
       this step.

    6. Apply ToASCII.

    7. Verify that the result of step 6 matches the saved copy from
       step 3, using a case-insensitive ASCII comparison.

    8. Return the saved copy from step 5.

5. ACE prefix

[[ Note to the IESG and Internet Draft readers: The two uses of the
string "IESG--" below are to be changed at time of publication to a
prefix which fulfills the requirements in the first paragraph. IANA will
assign this value. ]]

The ACE prefix, used in the conversion operations (section 4), is two
alphanumeric ASCII characters followed by two hyphen-minuses. It cannot
be any of the prefixes already used in earlier documents, which includes
the following: "bl--", "bq--", "dq--", "lq--", "mq--", "ra--", "wq--"
and "zq--". The ToASCII and ToUnicode operations MUST recognize the ACE
prefix in a case-insensitive manner.

The ACE prefix for IDNA is "IESG--".

This means that an ACE label might be "IESG--de-jg4avhby1noc0d", where
"de-jg4avhby1noc0d" is the part of the ACE label that is generated by
the encoding steps in [PUNYCODE].

While all ACE labels begin with the ACE prefix, not all labels beginning
with the ACE prefix are necessarily ACE labels.  Non-ACE labels that
begin with the ACE prefix will confuse users and SHOULD NOT be allowed
in DNS zones.

6. Implications for typical applications using DNS

In IDNA, applications perform the processing needed to input
internationalized domain names from users, display internationalized
domain names to users, and process the inputs and outputs from DNS and
other protocols that carry domain names.

The components and interfaces between them can be represented
pictorially as:

                     | User |
                        | Input and display: local interface methods
                        | (pen, keyboard, glowing phosphorus, ...)
    |                   v                               |
    |          +-----------------------------+          |
    |          |        Application          |          |
    |          |   (ToASCII and ToUnicode    |          |
    |          |      operations may be      |          |
    |          |        called here)         |          |
    |          +-----------------------------+          |
    |                   ^        ^                      | End system
    |                   |        |                      |
    | Call to resolver: |        | Application-specific |
    |              ACE  |        | protocol:            |
    |                   v        | ACE unless the       |
    |           +----------+     | protocol is updated  |
    |           | Resolver |     | to handle other      |
    |           +----------+     | encodings            |
    |                 ^          |                      |
        DNS protocol: |          |
                  ACE |          |
                      v          v
           +-------------+    +---------------------+
           | DNS servers |    | Application servers |
           +-------------+    +---------------------+

The box labeled "Application" is where the application splits a domain
name into labels, sets the appropriate flags, and performs the ToASCII
and ToUnicode operations. This is described in section 4.

6.1 Entry and display in applications

Applications can accept domain names using any character set or sets
desired by the application developer, and can display domain names in
any charset. That is, the IDNA protocol does not affect the interface
between users and applications.

An IDNA-aware application can accept and display internationalized
domain names in two formats: the internationalized character set(s)
supported by the application, and as an ACE label. ACE labels that are
displayed or input MUST always include the ACE prefix. Applications MAY
allow input and display of ACE labels, but are not encouraged to do so
except as an interface for special purposes, possibly for debugging, or
to cope with display limitations as described in section 6.4.. ACE
encoding is opaque and ugly, and should thus only be exposed to users
who absolutely need it. Because name labels encoded as ACE name labels
can be rendered either as the encoded ASCII characters or the proper
decoded characters, the application MAY have an option for the user to
select the preferred method of display; if it does, rendering the ACE
SHOULD NOT be the default.

Domain names are often stored and transported in many places. For
example, they are part of documents such as mail messages and web pages.
They are transported in many parts of many protocols, such as both the
control commands and the RFC 2822 body parts of SMTP, and the headers
and the body content in HTTP. It is important to remember that domain
names appear both in domain name slots and in the content that is passed
over protocols.

In protocols and document formats that define how to handle
specification or negotiation of charsets, labels can be encoded in any
charset allowed by the protocol or document format. If a protocol or
document format only allows one charset, the labels MUST be given in
that charset.

In any place where a protocol or document format allows transmission of
the characters in internationalized labels, internationalized labels
SHOULD be transmitted using whatever character encoding and escape
mechanism that the protocol or document format uses at that place.

All protocols that use domain name slots already have the capacity for
handling domain names in the ASCII charset. Thus, ACE labels
(internationalized labels that have been processed with the ToASCII
operation) can inherently be handled by those protocols.

6.2 Applications and resolver libraries

Applications normally use functions in the operating system when they
resolve DNS queries. Those functions in the operating system are often
called "the resolver library", and the applications communicate with the
resolver libraries through a programming interface (API).

Because these resolver libraries today expect only domain names in
ASCII, applications MUST prepare labels that are passed to the resolver
library using the ToASCII operation. Labels received from the resolver
library contain only ASCII characters; internationalized labels that
cannot be represented directly in ASCII use the ACE form. ACE labels
always include the ACE prefix.

An operating system might have a set of libraries for performing the
ToASCII operation. The input to such a library might be in one or more
charsets that are used in applications (UTF-8 and UTF-16 are likely
candidates for almost any operating system, and script-specific charsets
are likely for localized operating systems).

IDNA-aware applications MUST be able to work with both
non-internationalized labels (those that conform to [STD13] and [STD3])
and internationalized labels.

It is expected that new versions of the resolver libraries in the future
will be able to accept domain names in other formats than ASCII, and
application developers might one day pass not only domain names in
Unicode, but also in local script to a new API for the resolver
libraries in the operating system. Thus the ToASCII and ToUnicode
operations might be performed inside these new versions of the resolver

Domain names passed to resolvers or put into the question
section of DNS requests follow the rules for "queries" from

6.3 DNS servers

Domain names stored in zones follow the rules for "stored strings" from

For internationalized labels that cannot be represented directly in
ASCII, DNS servers MUST use the ACE form produced by the ToASCII
operation. All IDNs served by DNS servers MUST contain only ASCII

If a signaling system which makes negotiation possible between old and
new DNS clients and servers is standardized in the future, the encoding
of the query in the DNS protocol itself can be changed from ACE to
something else, such as UTF-8. The question whether or not this should
be used is, however, a separate problem and is not discussed in this

6.4 Avoiding exposing users to the raw ACE encoding

Any application that might show the user a domain name obtained from a
domain name slot, such as from gethostbyaddr or part of a mail header,
will need to be updated if it is to prevent users from seeing the ACE.

If an application decodes an ACE name using ToUnicode but cannot show
all of the characters in the decoded name, such as if the name contains
characters that the output system cannot display, the application SHOULD
show the name in ACE format (which always includes the ACE prefix)
instead of displaying the name with the replacement character (U+FFFD).
This is to make it easier for the user to transfer the name correctly to
other programs. Programs that by default show the ACE form when they
cannot show all the characters in a name label SHOULD also have a
mechanism to show the name that is produced by the ToUnicode operation
with as many characters as possible and replacement characters in the
positions where characters cannot be displayed.

The ToUnicode operation does not alter labels that are not valid ACE
labels, even if they begin with the ACE prefix. After ToUnicode has been
applied, if a label still begins with the ACE prefix, then it is not a
valid ACE label, and is not equivalent to any of the intermediate
Unicode strings constructed by ToUnicode.

6.5  DNSSEC authentication of IDN domain names

DNS Security [DNSSEC] is a method for supplying cryptographic
verification information along with DNS messages. Public Key
Cryptography is used in conjunction with digital signatures to provide a
means for a requester of domain information to authenticate the source
of the data. This ensures that it can be traced back to a trusted
source, either directly, or via a chain of trust linking the source of
the information to the top of the DNS hierarchy.

IDNA specifies that all internationalized domain names served by DNS
servers that cannot be represented directly in ASCII must use the ACE
form produced by the ToASCII operation. This operation must be performed
prior to a zone being signed by the private key for that zone. Because
of this ordering, it is important to recognize that DNSSEC authenticates
the ASCII domain name, not the Unicode form or the mapping between the
Unicode form and the ASCII form. In the presence of DNSSEC, this is the
name that MUST be signed in the zone and MUST be validated against.

One consequence of this for sites deploying IDNA in the presence of
DNSSEC is that any special purpose proxies or forwarders used to
transform user input into IDNs must be earlier in the resolution flow
than DNSSEC authenticating nameservers for DNSSEC to work.

6.6 Limitations of IDNA

The IDNA protocol does not solve all linguistic issues with users
inputting names in different scripts. Many important language-based and
script-based mappings are not covered in IDNA and must be handled
outside the protocol. For example, names that are entered in a mix of
traditional and simplified Chinese characters will not be mapped to a
single canonical name. Another example is Scandinavian names that are
entered with U+00F6 (LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS) will not be

7. Name server considerations

Existing DNS servers do not know the IDNA rules for handling non-ASCII
forms of IDNs, and therefore need to be shielded from them.  All
existing channels through which names can enter a DNS server database
(for example, master files [STD13] and DNS update messages [RFC2136])
are IDN-unaware because they predate IDNA, and therefore requirement 2
of section 3.1 of this document provides the needed shielding, by ensuring
that internationalized domain names entering DNS server databases
through such channels have already been converted to their equivalent
ASCII forms.

It is imperative that there be only one ASCII encoding for a particular
domain name. Because of the design of the ToASCII and ToUnicode
operations, there are no ACE labels that decode to ASCII labels, and
therefore name servers cannot contain multiple ASCII encodings of the
same domain name.

[RFC2181] explicitly allows domain labels to contain octets beyond the
ASCII range (0..7F), and this document does not change that. Note,
however, that there is no defined interpretation of octets 80..FF as
characters. If labels containing these octets are returned to
applications, unpredictable behavior could result. The ASCII form
defined by ToASCII is the only standard representation for
internationalized labels in the current DNS protocol.

8. Root server considerations

IDNs are likely to be somewhat longer than current domain names, so the
bandwidth needed by the root servers is likely to go up by a small amount.
Also, queries and responses for IDNs will probably be somewhat longer
than typical queries today, so more queries and responses may be forced
to go to TCP instead of UDP.

9. References

9.1 Normative references

[PUNYCODE] Adam Costello, "Punycode: An encoding of Unicode for use with
IDNA", draft-ietf-idn-punycode.

[NAMEPREP] Paul Hoffman and Marc Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep
Profile for Internationalized Domain Names", draft-ietf-idn-nameprep.

[STD3] Bob Braden, "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication
Layers" (RFC 1122) and "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application
and Support" (RFC 1123), STD 3, October 1989.

[STD13] Paul Mockapetris, "Domain names - concepts and facilities" (RFC
1034) and "Domain names - implementation and specification" (RFC 1035),
STD 13, November 1987.

[STRINGPREP] Paul Hoffman and Marc Blanchet, "Preparation of
Internationalized Strings ("stringprep")", draft-hoffman-stringprep,
work in progress

9.2 Informative references

[DNSSEC] Don Eastlake, "Domain Name System Security Extensions", RFC
2535, March 1999.

[RFC2119] Scott Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", March 1997, RFC 2119.

[RFC2181] Robert Elz and Randy Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS
Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997.

[UAX9] Unicode Standard Annex #9, The Bidirectional Algorithm,

[UNICODE] The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 3.2.0 is
defined by The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0 (Reading, MA,
Addison-Wesley, 2000. ISBN 0-201-61633-5), as amended by the Unicode
Standard Annex #27: Unicode 3.1 (
and by the Unicode Standard Annex #28: Unicode 3.2

[USASCII] Vint Cerf, "ASCII format for Network Interchange", October
1969, RFC 20.

10. Security considerations

Security on the Internet partly relies on the DNS. Thus, any change to
the characteristics of the DNS can change the security of much of the

This memo describes an algorithm which encodes characters that are not
valid according to STD3 and STD13 into octet values that are valid. No
security issues such as string length increases or new allowed values
are introduced by the encoding process or the use of these encoded
values, apart from those introduced by the ACE encoding itself.

Domain names are used by users to identify and connect to Internet
servers.  The security of the Internet is compromised if a user entering
a single internationalized name is connected to different servers based
on different interpretations of the internationalized domain name.

When systems use local character sets other than ASCII and Unicode, this
specification leaves the the problem of transcoding between the local
character set and Unicode up to the application. If different
applications (or different versions of one application) implement
different transcoding rules, they could interpret the same name
differently and contact different servers. This problem is not solved by
security protocols like TLS that do not take local character sets into

Because this document normatively refers to [NAMEPREP], [PUNYCODE], and
[STRINGPREP], it includes the security considerations from those
documents as well.

If or when this specification is updated to use a more recent Unicode
normalization table, the new normalization table will need to be
compared with the old to spot backwards incompatible changes.  If there
are such changes, they will need to be handled somehow, or there will be
security as well as operational implications.  Methods to handle the
conflicts could include keeping the old normalization, or taking care of
the conflicting characters by operational means, or some other method.

Implementations MUST NOT use more recent normalization tables than the
one referenced from this document, even though more recent tables may be
provided by operating systems.  If an application is unsure of which
version of the normalization tables are in the operating system, the
application needs to include the normalization tables itself.  Using
normalization tables other than the one referenced from this
specification could have security and operational implications.

To help prevent confusion between characters that are visually similar,
it is suggested that implementations provide visual indications where a
domain name contains multiple scripts. Such mechanisms can also be used
to show when a name contains a mixture of simplified and traditional
Chinese characters, or to distinguish zero and one from O and l.

Domain names (or portions of them) are sometimes compared against a set
of privileged or anti-privileged domains. In such situations it is
especially important that the comparisons be done properly, as specified
in section 3.1 requirement 4. For labels already in ASCII form, the
proper comparison reduces to the same case-insensitive ASCII comparison
that has always been used for ASCII labels.

11. IANA considerations

IANA will assign the ACE prefix in consultation with the IESG.

12. Authors' addresses

Patrik Faltstrom
Cisco Systems
Arstaangsvagen 31 J
S-117 43 Stockholm  Sweden

Paul Hoffman
Internet Mail Consortium and VPN Consortium
127 Segre Place
Santa Cruz, CA  95060  USA

Adam M. Costello
University of California, Berkeley
idna-spec.amc @ 

A. Changes from -12 to -13

[[ To be removed when published as an RFC ]]

In section 2, in the definition of "internationalized domain name",
changed "does not exist" to "matches no records".