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Goals for Internet Messaging to Support Diverse Service Environments

The information below is for an old version of the document that is already published as an RFC.
Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 4416.
Author Jin Kue Wong
Last updated 2018-12-20 (Latest revision 2004-12-19)
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Informational
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state (None)
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IESG IESG state Became RFC 4416 (Informational)
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Responsible AD Ted Hardie
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Lemonade Working Group                                      J. Wong, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                           Nortel Networks
Expires: June 17, 2005                                 December 17, 2004

  Goals for Internet Messaging to Support Diverse Service Environments

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of section 3 of RFC 3667.  By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
   author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of
   which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of
   which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 17, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).


   This document is a history capturing the background, motivation and
   thinking during the LEMONADE definition and design process.

   The LEMONADE Working Group -- Internet Messaging to support diverse
   service environments -- is chartered to provide enhancements to
   Internet mail to facilitate its use by more diverse clients.  In
   particular, by clients on hosts not only operating in environments
   with high latency/bandwidth-limited unreliable links but also

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   constrained to limited resources.  The enhanced mail must be
   backwards compatible with existing Internet mail.

   The primary motivation for this effort is -- by making Internet mail
   protocols richer and more adaptable to varied media and environments
   -- to allow mobile handheld devices tetherless access to Internet
   mail using only IETF mail protocols.

   The requirements for these devices drive a discussion of the possible
   protocol enhancements needed to support multimedia messaging on
   limited capability hosts in diverse service environments.  A list of
   general principles to guide the design of the enhanced messaging
   protocols is documented.  Finally, some issues around providing
   seamless service between enhanced Internet mail and the existing
   separate mobile messaging infrastructure are briefly listed.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Messaging Terminology and Simple Model (Client to Server
       aspect only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.1   Messaging Transaction Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.2   Mobile Messaging Transactions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.2.1   Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.2.2   Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.2.3   Retrieval  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.1   Existing Profiles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.1.1   Voice Messaging (VPIMv2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.1.2   iFax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.1.3   Internet Voice Mail (IVM)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.2   Putative Client Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.2.1   TUI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.2.2   Multi-modal clients  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.2.3   WUI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   5.  General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.1   Protocol Conservation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.1.1   Reuse Existing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.1.2   Maintain Existing Protocol Integrity . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.2   Sensible Reception/Sending Context . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.2.1   Reception Context  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.2.2   Sending Context  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.3   Internet Infrastructure Preservation . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.4   Voice Requirements (Near real-time delivery) . . . . . . . 17
     5.5   Fax Requirements (guaranteed delivery) . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.6   Video Requirements (scalable message size) . . . . . . . . 17
   6.  Issues and Requirements: TUI subset of WUI . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.1   Requirements on the Message Retrieval protocol . . . . . . 18
       6.1.1   Performance Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       6.1.2   Functional Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.2   Requirements on the Message Submission Protocol  . . . . . 21
       6.2.1   Forward without Download Support . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       6.2.2   Quota by Context Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       6.2.3   Future Delivery Support with Cancel  . . . . . . . . . 22
       6.2.4   Support for Committed Message Delivery . . . . . . . . 23
     6.3   Requirements on Message Notification . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.3.1   Additional Requirements on Message Notification  . . . 24
   7.  Issues and Requirements: WUI Mobility Aspects  . . . . . . . . 25
     7.1   Wireless Considerations on Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       7.1.1   Transport Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       7.1.2   Handset-Resident Client Limitations  . . . . . . . . . 25
       7.1.3   Wireless Bandwidth and Network Utilization
               Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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       7.1.4   Content Display Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     7.2   Requirements to Enable Wireless Device Support . . . . . . 27
       7.2.1   Transport Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       7.2.2   Enhanced Mobile Email Functionality  . . . . . . . . . 28
       7.2.3   Client Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       7.2.4   Bandwidth Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       7.2.5   Media Handling Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   8.  Interoperation with Existing Mobile Messaging  . . . . . . . . 31
     8.1   Addressing of mobile devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     8.2   Push model of Message Retrieval  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     8.3   Message Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     8.4   Operator Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       8.4.1   Support for end-to-end delivery reports and
               message-read reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       8.4.2   Support for Selective Downloading  . . . . . . . . . . 31
       8.4.3   Transactions and Operator Charging Units . . . . . . . 31
       8.4.4   Network Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     8.5   LEMONADE and MMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   10.   IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   11.   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   11.1  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   11.2  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
       Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   A.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   B.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   C.  IAB Note: Unified Notification Protocol Considerations . . . . 47
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 51

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1.  Introduction

   Historically, a number of separate electronic messaging systems
   originated and evolved independently supporting different messaging
   modes.  E.g.
   o  Internet mail systems evolved to support networked computers with
      messages consisting of rich text plus attachments.
   o  Voice mail systems utilized a client with a telephone-based or an
      answering machine style of user interface.  The telephone network
      was used for transport of recorded voice messages.
   o  Fax store-and-forward users interface with a fax machine using a
      modified telephone based interface.  Fax machines use the
      telephone network for transport of fax data via modems.
   o  SMS (Short Message Service)[64] enabled users to send short text
      messages between their cellular phones using the SS7 call control
      infrastructure for transport.

   In the recent past, IETF mail standards have evolved to support
   additional/merged functionality:
   o  With MIME([8] to [12]), Internet mail transport was enhanced to
      carry any kind of digital data
   o  Internet mail protocols were extended and profiled by VPIM ([18]
      to [21]) and iFAX ([22] to [27], [29]) so that enabled voice mail
      systems and fax machines could use the common email infrastructure
      to carry their messages over the Internet as an alternative to the
      telephone network.  These enhancements were such that the user's
      experience of reliability, security and responsiveness were not
      diminished by transport over the Internet.

   These successes -- making Internet mail transport the common
   infrastructure supporting what were separate messaging universes --
   have encouraged a new vision: to provide, over the Internet, a single
   infrastructure, mailbox, and set of protocols for a user to get,
   respond to, and manipulate all of his or her messages from a
   collection of clients with varying capabilities, operating in diverse
   environments ([52],[53]).

   The LEMONADE effort -- Internet Messaging to support diverse service
   environments -- realizes this vision further by enabling Internet
   mail support for mobile devices and facilitating its interoperability
   with the existing mobile messaging universe.

   In the recent past, the evolution of messaging standards for resource
   limited mobile devices has been rapid:
   o  In the cellular space, SMS was enhanced to EMS (Extended Message
      Service)[65] allowing longer text messages, images and graphics.
      With an even richer feature set, MMS (Multimedia Messaging
      Service)[49] was developed as a lightweight access mechanism for

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      the transmission of pictures, audio, and motion pictures.  MMS
      protocols are based in part on Internet standards (both messaging
      and web) as well as SMS.  The cellular messaging universe is a
      separate infrastructure adapted to deliver appropriate
      functionality in a timely and effective manner to a special
   o  As well, the number of different mobile clients that need to be
      supported keeps proliferating.  (e.g.  besides cellular phones
      there are wireless enabled PDAs, tablet computers, etc.)

   These resource-limited mobile devices are less powerful both in
   processing speed and display capabilities than conventional
   computers.  They are also connected to the network by wireless links
   whose bandwidth and reliability are lower, latency is longer, and
   costs are higher than traditional wire-line links hence the stress on
   the need to support adaptation to a whole different service

   This document collects together a number the issues impeding Internet
   mail protocols from directly supporting the mobile service
   environment.  Considerations arising from these issues are documented
   and in some cases possible approaches to solutions are suggested.  It
   turns out that the enhancements to support mobile clients also offer
   benefits for some terminals in other environments.  In particular the
   enhancements address the needs of the following diverse clients:
   o  A wireless handheld device with an email client -- a Wireless User
      Interface (WUI) mode of user interaction is dictated by the
      constraints of the mobile wireless handheld operating environment
   o  Telephone-based voice client -- a Telephone User Interface (TUI),
      this is the user mode offered by a POTS set
      *  This is a subset of the WUI and is useful in other contexts
   o  A Multi-modal messaging client providing a coordinated messaging
      session using display and audio modes simultaneously.  (e.g.  a
      system consisting of a PC with a phone or a wireless phone with
      both a voice circuit and data channel requiring coordination).
      *  This is also a subset of the WUI and is useful in other

   The rest of this document is structured as follows:
   o  A brief survey of messaging profiles - both existing and proposed
   o  A list of principles to be used to guide the design of Internet
      Messaging for diverse service environments
   o  Detailed discussion on enhancements to Internet mail protocols to
      support WUIs.
   o  Some issues relating to the interoperation of enhanced Internet
      mail and the existing mobile messaging services

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2.  Conventions used in this document

   This document refers generically to the sender of a message in the
   masculine (he/him/his) and the recipient of the message in the
   feminine (she/her/hers).  This convention is purely for convenience
   and makes no assumption about the gender of a message sender or


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [4].

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3.  Messaging Terminology and Simple Model (Client to Server aspect

   In the client-server model prevalent in existing messaging
   architectures, the client, also known as a "user agent", presents
   messages to and accepts messages from the user.  The server, also
   known as a "relay/server" or a "proxy-relay", provides storage and
   delivery of messages .

   For a definitive description of Internet mail architecture, see [48].

3.1  Messaging Transaction Models

   There are two basic transactional models.  In the "pull" model, the
   component rather than the data flow initiates the transaction.  E.g.,
   a client may initiate a connection to a server and issue requests to
   the server to deliver incoming messages.  Conventional email clients,
   web-mail clients, and WAP-based mobile clients use the "pull" model.

   The "push" model differs in that the component initiating the
   transaction does so because of some data flow affecting it.  E.g.,
   the arrival of a new message at the terminating server may cause a
   notification to be sent ("pushed") to a messaging client.

3.2  Mobile Messaging Transactions

   The most common functions are: "submission", "notification", and
   "retrieval".  There may be other functions, such as "delivery
   reports", "read-reply reports", "forwarding", "view mailbox", "store
   message", etc.  Each of these transactions can be implemented in
   either a pull or push model.  However, some transactions are more
   naturally suited to one model or another.

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   The following figure is a depiction of a simple client-server model
   (no server to server interactions shown):

      (1) Message submission
      (2) Message notification
      (3) & (4) Message retrieval

      +-------+                 +------+                       +-------+
      |Mail   |-------(1)------>|      |-----------(2)-------->|Mail   |
      |Client |   Submit msg    |      |     Notification     /|Client |
      +-------+                 |      |                     / +--+----+
                                |      |                    /     ^
                                |      |<----------(3)-----+     /
                                |Server|   Retrieval request    /
                                |      |                       /
                                |      |                      /
                                |      |-----------(4)-------+
                                |      |   Retrieval response
                                |      |

                        - Simple Messaging Model

3.2.1  Submission

   "Submission" is the transaction between a client and a server by
   which the user of the former sends a new message to another user.
   Submission is a push from client to server.

3.2.2  Notification

   "Notification" is the transaction by which the server notifies the
   client that it has received messages intended for that client.
   Notification is a push from server to client.

   All of the larger mobile messaging systems implement a push model for
   the notification because data can be presented to the user without
   the user having to experience network/transport latencies, and
   without tying up network resources for polling when there is no new

   Internet mail differs in that it has not seen the need so far for a
   standardized notification protocol.

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3.2.3  Retrieval

   "Retrieval" is the transaction between a client and a server by which
   the client can obtain one or more messages from the server.
   Retrieval can be push or pull.

   Implemented in some mobile systems as an option, the push model has
   the advantage of the user not necessarily being aware of transport or
   network latencies.

   The pull model, implemented in most systems, mobile or conventional,
   has the advantage that the user can control what data is actually
   sent to and stored by the client.

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4.  Profiles

   Internet messaging can be made to support a variety of client and
   server types other than traditional email.  The clients may be
   adapted for host restrictions such as limited processing power,
   message store, display window size, etc.  Alternatively clients may
   be adapted for different functionality (e.g.  voice mail, fax, etc.).
   Servers may support optional mail features that would allow better
   handling of different media (e.g.  voice mail, fax, video, etc.).  A
   number of Internet mail profiles supporting specific application
   niches have been defined or proposed.

4.1   Existing Profiles

   The following are examples of server-to-server profiles of SMTP and
   MIME.  They do not address client-to-server interactions except for

4.1.1  Voice Messaging (VPIMv2)

   These profiles RFC2421 [18] to RFC2424 [21] enable the transport of
   voice messages using the Internet mail system.  The main driver for
   this work was support of IP transport for voice mail systems.  As
   voice mail clients are accustomed to a higher degree of
   responsiveness and certainty as to message delivery, the
   functionality added by VPIMv2 includes Message Disposition
   Notification and Delivery Status Message as well as the addition of
   voice media to multi-part message bodies.

4.1.2  iFax

   This set of profiles RFC2301 [22] to RFC2306 [27] enables the
   transport of fax using Internet mail protocols.  This work defined
   the image/tiff MIME type.  Support for fax clients also required
   extensions to Message Delivery Notification.

4.1.3  Internet Voice Mail (IVM)

   This proposed mail enhancement (requirements described in RFC3773
   [36]) targets support for the interchange of voice messaging between
   the diverse components (clients as well as servers) in systems
   supporting voice mail.

4.2  Putative Client Profiles

4.2.1  TUI

   It is desirable to replace proprietary protocols between telephone

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   user interface clients and message stores with standards-based
   interfaces.  The proprietary protocols were created to provide
   media-aware capabilities as well as provide the low-latency required
   by some messaging applications.

   An example of a TUI client is a voice mail client.  Since a POTS
   phone lacks any intelligence, the voice mail client functionality has
   to be provided by a user agent networked to the mail server.  The
   main architectural difference between a conventional voice mail
   system and an Internet messaging system supporting a TUI is that the
   voice mail system uses a specialized message store and protocols.

   Architecture of current voice mail systems implementing VPIMv2:

              |-------|     RFC-822/MIME          |             |
              |   |   |---------------------------|     MTA     |
              |   |   |     mail submission ->    |             |(E)SMTP
   Telephone--|TUI|TUA|                           |------|      |-----to
              |   |   |   Proprietary Protocol    |      |      |another
              |   |   |---------------------------| MS   |      | email
              |-------|   < - mail retrieval      |      |      | server
              mail client                          email server

            |----------------voice messaging system -------------|

   Mail client consists of: TUI (Telephone User Interface) and
                            TUA (Telephone User Agent)
            Communication between TUI and TUA is proprietary
   Email server consists of: MS (Mail Store) and MTA (Message Transfer Agent)
            Communication between MS and MTA is proprietary

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   It is proposed that the Proprietary Protocol be replaced with an IETF
   standard protocol:

              |-------|     RFC-822/MIME          |             |
              |   |   |---------------------------|     MTA     |
              |   |   |   mail submission ->      |             |(E)SMTP
   Telephone--|TUI|TUA|                           |------|      |-----to
              |   |   |     IETF protocol         |      |      |another
              |   |   |---------------------------| MS   |      | mail
              |-------|    <- mail retrieval      |      |      | server
              mail client                          email server

         |- voice mail system-|                   |-mail server-|

   Mail client consists of: TUI (Telephone User Interface) and
                            TUA (Telephone User Agent)
            Communication between TUI and TUA is proprietary
   Email server consists of: MS (Mail Store) and MTA (Message Transfer Agent)
            Communication between MS and MTA is proprietary

4.2.2  Multi-modal clients

   Multi-modal clients offer the advantage of coordinated voice and data
   modes of user interaction.  Architecturally, the multi-modal client
   can be considered the union two user agent components -- one a TUI
   client, the other a simple GUI client.  See next figure.  The
   Graphical User Agent (GUA) helps maintain the text display while the
   Telephone User Agent (TUA) acts on behalf of the TUI functionality.

   This model is the norm with cellular devices supporting data access
   since these evolved historically from cell phones to which a data
   channel was added.  The presentation of multiple complementary modes
   of interaction gives end users their choice of the most convenient
   and natural working mode for a particular task.  There are other
   situations where a multi-modal model is appropriate.  (E.g., a
   telephone sales unit needs to provide a voice (telephone) mode and
   conventional desktop PC mode of interaction at the same time in an
   integrated manner.)

   A major issue in the design of multi-modal clients -- the need to
   synchronize the component user agents making up a client -- is only
   addressed by LEMONADE to a limited extent in Section 6.3.

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4.2.3  WUI

   The Wireless user interface is functionally equivalent to a
   conventional email client on a personal workstation, but is optimized
   for the limited memory, processing, latency, bandwidth, and
   relatively high bandwidth cost.  As already alluded to above, in many
   cases (e.g.  cellular devices), the mobile client is multi-modal.  So
   WUIs can be modeled as resource-and-link-limited multi-modal clients.

   These terminals require the use of protocols that minimize the number
   of over-the-air transactions and reduce the amount of data that need
   be transmitted over the air overall.  Such reduction in over-the-air
   transmission is a combination of more efficient protocol interaction
   and richer message presentation choices allowing a user to more
   intelligently select what should be downloaded and what should remain
   on the server.

   While not an explicit goal, it is desirable to provide equivalent or
   superior functionality to the wireless MMS service [49] as defined by
   3GPP, 3GPP2, and the OMA.

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   Wireless User Interface(WUI)/Multi-modal Clients


          |wireless GUI client|                     email server

                         (E)SMTP (client-server)  |-------------|
              |-------|     RFC-822/MIME          |             |
              |   |   |---------------------------|             |
              |   |   |   mail submission ->      |             |(E)SMTP
             -|GUI|GUA|                           |             |-----to
            | |   |   | IETF standard protocol    |------------ |another
            | |   |   |----------------------------to MS below| | mail
            | |-------|    <- mail retrieval      |------------ | server
            |       |                             |             |
   Handheld |       |                             |             |
   Device   WUI     |                             |    MTA      |
            |       |                             |             |
            |       |                             |             |
            | |-------|     RFC-822/MIME          |             |
            | |   |   |---------------------------|             |
            | |   |   |   mail submission ->      |             |
             -|TUI|TUA|                           |------|      |
              |   |   |  IETF standard protocol   |      |      |
              |   |   |---------------------------| MS   |      |
              |-------|    <- mail retrieval      |      |      |
              TUI client                          voice mail server

         |----------------voice messaging system ----------------|

         |------WUI-----|                      |---mail server---|

   Wireless GUI client consists of: GUI (Graphical User Interface)
                           And GUA (Graphical User Agent)
            Communication between UI and UA is proprietary
   TUI client consists of: TUI (Telephone User Interface) and
                            TUA (Telephone User Agent)
            Communication between TUI and TUA is proprietary
            Communication between GUA and TUA is proprietary

   Mail (email and voice mail) server consists of: MS (Mail Store)
                       and MTA (Message Transfer Agent)
            Communication between MS and MTA is proprietary

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5.  General Principles

   This is a list of principles to guide the design of extensions for
   Internet Messaging systems and protocols to support diverse

5.1  Protocol Conservation

5.1.1  Reuse Existing Protocols

   To the extent feasible, the enhanced messaging framework SHOULD use
   existing protocols whenever possible.

5.1.2  Maintain Existing Protocol Integrity

   In meeting requirement Reuse Existing Protocols (Section 5.1.1), the
   enhanced messaging framework MUST NOT redefine the semantics of an
   existing protocol.

   Extensions, based on capability declaration by the server, will be
   used to introduce new functionality where required.

   Said differently, we will not break existing protocols.

5.2  Sensible Reception/Sending Context

5.2.1  Reception Context

   When the user receives a message, that message SHOULD receive the
   treatment expected by the sender.  For example, if the sender
   believes he is sending a voice message, voice message semantics
   should prevail to the extent that the receiving client can support
   such treatment.

5.2.2  Sending Context

   When the user sends a message, he SHOULD be able to specify the
   message context.  That is, whether the network should treat the
   message as an text message, voice message, video message, etc.
   Again, this can only be complied with to the extent that the
   infrastructure and receiving client can provide such treatment.  In
   practice, this would imply that the message should be in the form
   desired by the sender up to delivery to the receiving client.

5.3  Internet Infrastructure Preservation

   The infrastructure SHOULD change only where required for new
   functionality.  Existing functionality MUST be preserved on the

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   existing infrastructure, that is, all extensions must be backward
   compatible so as to allow for the gradual introduction of the
   enhancements.  Messages created in an enhanced messaging context MUST
   NOT require changes to existing mail clients.  However, there may be
   a degradation in functionality in certain circumstances.

   The enhanced messaging framework MUST be able to handle messages
   created in a non-enhanced messaging context, for example, a simple,
   RFC822 [5] text message.

5.4  Voice Requirements (Near real-time delivery)

   On the retrieval side, there are significant real-time requirements
   for retrieving a message for voice playback.  More than any other
   media type, including video, voice is extremely sensitive to
   variations in playback latency.  The enhanced messaging framework
   MUST address the real-time needs of voice.

5.5  Fax Requirements (guaranteed delivery)

   Fax users have a particular expectation that is a challenge for
   enhanced Internet messaging.  When a person sends a fax, their
   expectation is the user has received the message upon successful
   transmission.  This clearly is not the case for Internet Mail.

   Addressing this need is not in the scope of LEMONADE.

5.6  Video Requirements (scalable message size)

   Video mail has one outstanding feature: Video messages are
   potentially large! The enhanced messaging framework MUST scale for
   very large messages.  Streaming from the server to the client, in
   both directions, MUST be supported.

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6.  Issues and Requirements: TUI subset of WUI

6.1  Requirements on the Message Retrieval protocol

   IMAP is the Internet protocol for rich message retrieval and
   manipulation.  The project MUST limit itself to extending IMAP where
   necessary and MUST not create a new protocol.

6.1.1  Performance Issues  Real-Time Playback

   The real-time playback of a voice message MUST be supported so that
   the user experience does not differ noticeably from that of a
   conventional voice messaging system.

   Possible solutions for this include making use of the existing
   incremental download capability of the IMAP protocol, or utilizing a
   companion streaming protocol.

   The IMAP protocol itself does not provide streaming by the strict
   definition of the term.  It does provide for the incremental download
   of content in blocks.  Most IMAP clients do not support this behavior
   and instead download the entire contents into a temporary file to be
   passed to the application.

   There are several approaches to achieve real-time playback.  The
   first approach is to implement an IMAP client that can pass data
   incrementally to the application as it is received from the network.
   The application can then read bytes from the network as needed to
   maintain a play buffer and not require the full download of contents.
   This approach may require server-side development to efficiently
   support partial download.  (i.e.  to avoid re-opening files and
   positioning to the requested location)

   Alternatively, the client can use the proposed IMAP channel extension
   [38] to request that the server make the selected content available
   via an alternate transport mechanism.  A client can then ask the
   server to make the voice data available to the client via a streaming
   media protocol such as RTSP.  This requires support on the client and
   server of a common streaming protocol.   Avoid Content-Transfer-Encoding Data Inflation

   Another important performance optimization is enabling the transport
   of data using more efficient native coding rather than text-like
   content-transfer-encodings such as "base 64" .

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   Standard IMAP4 uses a text-based data representation scheme where all
   data is represented in a form that looks like text, that is, voice
   data must be encoded using "base 64" into a transport encoding that
   adds 30% to the size of a message.  When downloading or appending
   messages to the server, substantial additional bandwidth is utilized.

   Possible Solutions:

   Where IMAP channel is appropriate, the external channel may be binary
   capable; that is, the external access may not require re-encoding.
   Such mechanisms as HTTP, FTP, or RTSP are available for this

   The IMAP binary extension standards proposal [37] extends the IMAP
   fetch command to retrieve data in the binary form.  This is
   especially useful for large attachments and other binary components.
   Binary in conjunction with a streaming client implementation may be
   an attractive alternative to the channel extension.

6.1.2  Functional Issues  Mailbox Summary Support

   The common TUI prompt, "you have two new voice messages, six unheard
   messages, and one new fax message" requires more information than is
   conveniently made available by current message retrieval protocols.

   The existing IMAP protocol's mailbox status command does not include
   a count by message context.  A possible solution is have the mail
   server keep track of these current counters and provide a status
   command that returns an arbitrary mailbox summary.  The IMAP status
   command provides a count of new and total messages with standardized
   attributes extracted from the message headers.  This predetermined
   information does not currently include information about the message
   type.  Without additional conventions to the status command, a client
   would have to download the header for each message to determine its
   type, a prohibitive cost where latency or bandwidth constraints
   exist.  Sort by Message Context Support

   This functionality is required to present new voice messages first
   and then new fax messages within a single logical queue as voice
   mailboxes commonly do.  Again this is a question of convenience and
   performance.  Adequate performance may only be possible if the mail
   server provides a sort by context or maintains a set of virtual
   mailboxes (folders) corresponding to message types as for Mailbox
   Summary Support Section

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   IMAP does not support this directly.  A straightforward solution is
   to define an extensible sort mechanism for sorting on arbitrary
   header contents.  Status of Multiple Mailboxes Support

   Extension mailbox support requires the ability to efficiently status
   a mailbox other than the one currently logged into.  This facility is
   required to support sub-mailboxes, where a common feature is to check
   whether other sub-mailboxes in the same family group have new

   Current mechanisms are limited to logging into each of set of
   mailboxes, checking status, logging out, and repeating until all
   sub-mailboxes are processed.  Specialized Mailbox Support

   Applications that provide features such as check receipt, deleted
   message recovery, resave, and others require the ability to access
   messages in predetermined mailboxes with specific behaviors.  (E.g.
   Outbox, Sent Items, Delete Items, Expired items, Drafts)

   IMAP provides only a single standardized folder, the inbox.  This
   functionality does not require new protocol additions per-se, but
   standardized usage and naming conventions necessary for
   interoperability.  It required that the server provide the underlying
   logic to support these special folders including automatic insertion,
   scheduled copying, and periodic deletion.  CLID Restriction indication/preservation

   Many calling features are dependent upon collected caller-ID
   information.  Trusted clients such as the TUI, and other service
   supporting user agents such as WEB and WAP servers may have access to
   restricted caller-ID information for such purposes as callback.
   Untrusted clients must not receive this information.  A mechanism for
   communicating "trust" between the client and the server is required
   to deliver this information to the end-user when appropriate.

   Further, when sending messages between servers within a network, a
   means of communicating trust is needed such that the identity of the
   sender can be preserved for record-keeping and certain features while
   ensuring the identity is not disclosed to the recipient in an
   inappropriate way.

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   If the telephone answering application client uses IMAP4 for greeting
   access and message deposit, it is essential that the server provide
   support for simultaneous login.  It is common in voicemail for an
   incoming call to be serviced by the telephone answering application
   client at the same time the subscriber is logged into their mailbox.
   Further, new applications such as WEB and WAP access to voicemail may
   entail simultaneous login sessions, one from the TUI client and one
   from the visual client.

   The existing standard does not preclude multiple accesses to a
   mailbox, but it does not explicitly require support of the practice.
   The lack of explicit support requires the server and client to adhere
   to a common set of practices and behaviors to avoid undesirable and
   unpredictable behaviors.  RFC2180 [35] describes a candidate set of
   conventions necessary to support this multiple-access technique.  It
   or some other method MUST be standardized as part of LEMONADE.

6.2  Requirements on the Message Submission Protocol

6.2.1  Forward without Download Support

   It is common to forward messages or to reply to messages with a copy
   of their attached content.  Today such forwarding requires the sender
   to download a complete copy of the original message, attach it to the
   reply or forward message, and resubmit the result.  For large
   messages, this represents a substantial amount of bandwidth and
   processing.  For clients connected via long-thin pipes, alternatives
   are required.

   One approach is to define an extension to message submission to
   request the submission server to resolve embedded URL's within a
   message before relaying the message to the final destination.  This
   approach is refered to as the pull approach because the message
   submission server must pull data from the IMAP server.

   Another approach is to add a limited message assembly and submission
   capability to the IMAP server.  This approach muddies the distinction
   between the message submission protocol and the message store and
   retrieval one (IMAP) since now message submission may be a side
   effect of message store commands.  This approach is referred to as
   the push approach because in this case the IMAP server pushes data to
   the Message Submission Server.

   A detailed analysis of which of the two approaches is preferable as
   well as implementation details of both can be found in references
   [42] to [47].

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6.2.2  Quota by Context Enforcement

   It is common in a unified messaging system to offer separate quotas
   for each of several message contexts to avoid the condition where a
   flood of email fills the mailbox and prevents the subscriber from
   receiving voice messages via the telephone.  It is necessary to
   extend the protocols to support the reporting of the "mailbox full"
   status based on the context of the submitted message.

   Clear security issues are involved to prevent the misidentification
   of a message context for the purpose of intentionally filling a
   subscriber's mailbox.  It is envisioned that the message submission
   protocol will support authentication of trusted submission agents
   authorized to submit distinguished messages.

   Voice mail system mailboxes commonly contain voice and fax messages.
   Sometimes, such systems also support email messages (text, text with
   attachments, and multimedia messages) in addition to voice messages.
   Similarly to the requirement for sort by message context -- quota
   management is also required per message context.

   One possible use-case is the prevention of multiple (large) messages
   of one type (e.g.  email messages) from consuming all available quota
   so that messages of another type (e.g.  voice or fax messages) cannot
   be further deposited to the mailbox.

   One possible approach is to define a mechanism whereby a trusted
   client can declare the context of a message for the purpose of
   utilizing a protected quota.  This may be by extensions to the
   SMTP-submit or LMTP[41] protocols.

6.2.3  Future Delivery Support with Cancel

   Traditionally messages sent with "future delivery" are held in the
   recipients client "outbox" or equivalent until the appointed
   submission time.  Thin clients used with TUIs do not have such
   persistent storage or may be intermittently connected and must rely
   upon server-based outbox queues.

   Such support requires extensions to message submission protocols to
   identify a message as requiring queuing for future delivery.
   Extensions to IMAP4 or SMTP are required to view and manipulate the
   outbound queue, for such purposes as canceling a future message.
   Server support for managing such a queue is required such that
   messages are sent when they are intended.

   Some of the architectural issues here are the same as the ones for
   Forward without Download (Section 6.2.1).

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6.2.4  Support for Committed Message Delivery

   Voice messaging service has provided a high degree of reliability and
   performance for telephone answering messages.  The expectation is
   that once the caller has hung-up, the message is in the mailbox and
   available for review.  The traditional Internet mail architecture
   suggests these messages should be sent to the mailbox via SMTP.  This
   approach has two limitations.  The first and most manageable is that
   the message forwarding may take more time than is tolerable by the
   subscriber.  The second is that the message may fail to be delivered
   to the mailbox, and because there is no way to return notice to the
   caller that the message is "lost".

   The standards community is working on an alternative to SMTP called
   Local Message Transport Protocol(LMTP[41]).  This protocol addresses
   a number of limitations in SMTP when used to provide atomic delivery
   to a mailbox.  The failure modes in this proposal are carefully
   controlled, as are issues of per-message quota enforcement and
   message storage quota-override for designated administrative

   An alternative approach is to misuse the IMAP protocol and use an
   IMAP based submission mechanism to deposit a message directly into
   the recipient's inbox.  This append must be done by a special
   super-user with write permissions into the recipient mailbox.
   Further, the message store must be able to trigger notification
   events upon insertion of a message into the mailbox via the Append
   command.  The historic limitation on using IMAP4 for message sending
   involves the inability of IMAP to communicate a full SMTP envelope.
   For telephone answering, these limitations are not significant.
   However, the architectural issues raised by this approach are
   significant.  See Forward without Download (Section 6.2.1).

6.3  Requirements on Message Notification

   Clients keep local information about the IMAP store.  This
   information must be kept synchronized with the state of the store.

   E.g.  Voicemail systems traditionally notify subscribers of certain
   events happening in their mailbox.  It is common to send an SMS, or a
   pager notification for each message arrival event, message read
   event, mailbox full event, etc.

   When implemented over IMAP-based message stores, the voice mail
   client needs to be notified about these events.  Furthermore, when
   other applications access/manipulate the store, these events need to
   be communicated to the mail client.  In some cases, the client needs
   to notify the user immediately.  In most cases it is a question of

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   maintaining client/application consistency.  In the case of a
   multimodal client, it is especially important providing a means of
   coordinating the client's different modal views of the state of the

   E-mail systems have traditionally polled to update this information.
   There may be advantages to an event driven approach in some cases.

   The standards community is working on a standard for bulk
   server-to-client status notification.  An example of such work is the
   Simple Notification and Alarm Protocol (SNAP)[51] that defines the
   expected behavior of the message store for various events, much of
   them triggered by IMAP commands.

6.3.1  Additional Requirements on Message Notification

   A format for message notification for servers reporting status
   information to other servers (e.g.  IMAP4  server to SMS or pager
   server) MUST be defined.  The method for delivery of these
   notifications MUST also be specified.

   The design for this MUST take into account the IAB note: Unified
   Notification Protocol Considerations (Appendix C).

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7.  Issues and Requirements: WUI Mobility Aspects

7.1  Wireless Considerations on Email

7.1.1  Transport Considerations

   Compared to a LAN/WAN configuration or even to a wire-line dial-up
   connection, the probability of an interruption to a wireless
   connection is very high.

   Interruptions can be due to hand-off, signal fading, or stepping
   beyond cell coverage.

   In addition, since the mobile handset is also used for other types of
   communications, there is relatively high probability that the data
   session will be interrupted either by incoming voice calls or by
   "pushed" messages from services such as SMS, MMS and WAP.

   It is also common in these environments that the device's IP address
   change within a session.

7.1.2  Handset-Resident Client Limitations

   Although the capabilities of wireless handsets are rapidly improving,
   the wireless handset remains limited in its capability to host email
   clients.  Currently, email access is restricted to only high-end
   wireless handsets.

   These limitations include:
   o  Client size
      *  Handset-resident clients are limited in size because either the
         handset has limited storage space or the handset vendor/network
         operator has set a limit on the size of client application that
         can reside on the handset.
   o  Runtime memory
      *  Wireless handsets have limited runtime memory for the use of
         the mobile email client.
   o  CPU Speed
      *  Wireless handsets have CPUs that are inferior to those in
         conventional systems (PCs) that run email clients.
   o  User Interface
      *  Handsets have very limited input and output capabilities.  Most
         of them have only a rudimentary keyboard (a keypad) and a
         rudimentary pointing device (a text cursor).

7.1.3  Wireless Bandwidth and Network Utilization Considerations

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   2G mobile networks enabled wireless data communications but only at
   very low bandwidths using circuit-switched data.  2.5G and 3G
   networks improve on this.  However, existing email clients require
   very large (up to several MBs) files -- encountered in multi-media
   attachments such as presentations, images, voice and video -- to be
   downloaded even though mobiles can not exploit most of the data
   (because of color depth and screen size limitations).  Transferring
   such large files over the air is of questionable value even when
   higher wireless bandwidth is available.  Price Sensitivity

   In many cases, users of mobile data services are charged by the
   amount of data (e.g.  kilobytes) downloaded to the handset.  Most
   users currently experience a higher per-kilobyte data charge with a
   wireless service than over a wire-line service.  Users are sensitive
   to the premium for wireless service.  This results in an
   unwillingness to download large amounts of unnecessary data to the
   handset and the desire to be able to download only selected content.  File Size Limitations

   In some cases, the size of file -- that can be transmitted over the
   air to the handset -- is limited.  This is a consequence of handset
   limitations (Section 7.1.2), wireless media and bandwidth issues
   (Section 7.1.1,Section and price sensitivity (Section

7.1.4  Content Display Considerations  Display Size and capabilities

   Wireless terminals are currently limited in their display size, color
   depth, and ability to present multimedia elements (i.e.  if multiple
   pictures are sent, the mobile can usually present only one
   reduced-sized picture element at a time rather than the several
   picture elements at once in the same display that a conventional PC
   email client would be able to show).  Therefore many email
   attachments destined for a mobile may require changes in size, color
   depth and presentation method to be suitably displayed.  Supported Media Formats

   Wireless handsets can only display a limited set of media format
   types.  While PC clients support a large variety of document types
   (and allow on-demand "codec"/player download), mobiles have very

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   limited support.  (e.g., most only support WAV audio and cannot play
   other formats such as AU, MP3 and AIFF.) Furthermore, although almost
   all new handsets sold today can display images and sound in some
   advanced format, support for displaying other media or
   application-specific formats, such as MS-Office (TM) is not expected
   to be widespread in the near future.  Handset Type Variety

   As mentioned above, there are many handset types available in the
   market and each has different display capabilities, screen
   characteristics and processing capabilities.  The mobile email
   service should be able to support as many handset types as possible.  Specific Attachment Display Scenarios

   Handsets are unsuited for perusing entire lengthy documents or
   presentations.  A mobile user is more likely to look at several pages
   of a document or several slides of a presentation and then take
   action accordingly (e.g., forward the email message to another
   recipient, print it, or leave the document for later retrieval from
   another device) rather than go through the whole document.

   Therefore, there is a need to enable users to download not the entire
   attachment but rather just a selected part of it.  For example, users
   should be able to download the "Table of Contents" of a document; to
   search within a document; to download the first slide of a
   presentation; the next slide of this presentation; a range of slides,

7.2  Requirements to Enable Wireless Device Support

   The following requirements are derived from the considerations
   mentioned above.

7.2.1  Transport Requirements

   The mobile email protocol must anticipate transient losses of
   connectivity and allow clients to quickly and easily recover (restore
   state) from interrupted connections.

   IMAP4 Context

   An IMAP4 connection requires the communication socket to remain up
   continuously during an email session.  In case of transient loss of
   communications, the connection must be reestablished.  It is up to
   the client to reconnect to the server and return to an equivalent
   state in the session.  This overhead of restoring connections is very

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   costly in response time and additional data transmission.

7.2.2  Enhanced Mobile Email Functionality  Forward Without Fetch

   To minimize the downloading of data over the air, the user MUST be
   able to forward a message without initially downloading it entirely
   or at all to the handset.

   The mobile email protocol MUST support the ability to forward a
   message without retrieving it.

   This requirement is identical to the TUI requirement that is
   described in Forward Without Download (Section 6.2.1).  Media Streaming

   The mobile email protocol MUST provide a solution that will enable
   media streaming to the wireless handset.

   This requirement is similar to the TUI requirement that is described
   in Real-Time Playback (Section

7.2.3  Client Requirements

   IMAP4 clients are large because IMAP4 already consists of a complex
   set of functions (e.g., parsing of a broad variety of MIME formats).

   The mobile email client should be:
   o  Small in size
   o  Efficient in CPU consumption
   o  Efficient in runtime memory consumption

   To enable such extremely thin clients, in developing the mobile email
   protocol we should consider simplifying the IMAP functionality that
   handsets need support.  However, any such simplification MUST NOT
   limit interoperability with full IMAP servers.

7.2.4  Bandwidth Requirements

   The mobile email solution should minimize the amount of data
   transmitted over the air.  There are several ways of pursuing this
   goal which can be used in conjunction.

   One way is the use of content transcoding and media adaptation by the
   server before message retrieval in order to optimize it for the
   capabilities of the receiving handset.

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   Another possible optimization is to make the mobile email protocol
   itself simple containing as little overhead as possible.

   A third approach is to minimize the bandwidth usage as described in
   Avoid Content-Transfer-Encoding Data Inflation (Section

7.2.5  Media Handling Requirements

   As described above, wireless devices have limited ability to handle
   media.  Therefore, the server may be have to perform media
   manipulation activities to enable the terminal to display the data
   usefully.  Device Capabilities Negotiation

   In order to correctly support the different characteristics and
   capabilities of the various handset types available in the market,
   the mobile email protocol must include provision for email content
   adaptation.  For example, the choice of supported file formats, color
   depth and screen size.  Work on ESMTP transcoding (CONNEG[39]) may
   address this issue.  Adjusting Message Attachments for Handset Abilities

   To support wireless handsets, the server could transcode the message
   attachments into a representation that is more suitable for that
   device.  This behavior should be based on the device capabilities
   negotiation as described in Device Capabilities Negotiation (Section  For example, a device that cannot display GIF format but
   only WBMP should get a WBMP image.  Devices that cannot display a PDF
   file should get a text version of the file.

   The handset should control what or any transcoding is desired.  It
   should be able to retrieve the original attachment without any
   changes.  In addition, the device should be able to choose between
   "flavors" of the transcoding ("Present the content as thumbnail
   image" is an example of such a specific media manipulation.)

   Again work on ESMTP transcoding (CONNEG[39]) may address this issue.  Handling Attachment Parts

   A desirable feature to have (but out of scope for the current
   LEMONADE charter) is to enable users the choice of retrieving parts
   of an attachment file not just the entire attachment.  The mobile
   email protocol should include the ability for the retrieving client
   to specify selected elements of an attachment for download.  Such
   elements can be, for example, specific pages of a document, the

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   "table of contents" of a document or specific slides of a

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8.  Interoperation with Existing Mobile Messaging

   LEMONADE's charter includes the specification of how enhanced
   Internet Mail will interoperate with existing mobile messaging
   services (e.g.  MMS) to deliver messages to mobile clients.

8.1  Addressing of mobile devices

   E.164 addressing is prevalent in mobile messaging services to address
   recipient mobiles.  Consideration should be given to supporting E.164
   addressing for mobile devices in addition to RFC822 addressing.

8.2  Push model of Message Retrieval

   MMS provides a "push" option for message retrieval.  The option hides
   network latencies and reduces the need for user-handheld interaction.
   If a level of support for mobiles comparable MMS is desired, this
   mode of operation should be considered.

8.3  Message Notification

   Message notification was alluded to in Requirements on Message
   Notification (Section 6.3).  Internet mail has not so far
   standardized a server-to-client notification protocol although most
   existing wireless mail systems use notification to avoid needless
   polling.  Client-to-server notification is not within the LEMONADE

8.4  Operator Issues

8.4.1  Support for end-to-end delivery reports and message-read reports

   Support for committed delivery is described in Section 6.2.4 but this
   is different.

8.4.2  Support for Selective Downloading

   Especially important, if a push model of message retrieval is
   supported, is the need for selective downloading and SPAM control.

8.4.3  Transactions and Operator Charging Units

   Mobile network providers often operate on a "pay for use" service
   model.  This brings in requirements for clearly delineated service
   transactions that can be reported to billing systems, and for
   positive end-to-end acknowledgement of delivery or non-delivery of
   messages already mentioned Section 8.4.1.  Note that billing is
   specifically outside the scope of the IETF.

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8.4.4  Network Authentication

   Some mobile networks require network authentication as well as
   application authentication.


   The 3GPP MMS Reference Architecture [54] defines seven interfaces
   labelled MM1 to MM7 as below:

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                   3GPP MMS Reference Architecture (subset)

            |---------|                          |------------|
   wireless ||-------||                          |            |
    device  || MMS   ||                          |            |<- MM2 ->
            || USER  |---------------------------|            |---------
            || AGENT |<-         MM1           ->|            | to
            ||-------||                          |            | another
            |---------|                          |            | MMS
                                                 |            | relay/
             |--------|                          |            | server
      e.g.   |        |                          |            |
      E-mail,|EXTERNAL|                          |            |
      Fax, or| SERVER |--------------------------|            |
      UMS    |        |<-        MM3           ->|            |
             |--------|                          |            |
                                                 |            |
             |---------|                         |            |
             |"FOREIGN"|                         |            |
             | MMS     |-------------------------|            |
             | relay/  |<-       MM4           ->|            |
             | server  |                         |            |
             |---------|                         |            |
                                                 |    MMS     |
             |-------|                           |relay/server|
             |       |                           |            |
             |  HLR  |---------------------------|            |
             |       |<-         MM5           ->|            |
             |-------|                           |            |
                                                 |            |
             |-------|                           |            |
             |  MMS  |                           |            |
             |  USER |---------------------------|            |
             |  DBs  |<-         MM6           ->|            |
             |-------|                           |            |
                                                 |            |
             |-------|                           |            |
             |  MMS  |                           |            |
             |  VAS  |---------------------------|            |
             |  APPs |<-         MM7           ->|            |
             |-------|                           |------------|

       MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service
       UMS - Unified Messaging Service
       HLR - Home Location Register
       DB  - Data Base
       VAS - Value Added Service
       APP - Application

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   The LEMONADE profile provides an enhanced IMAP mail retrieval
   protocol suitable for use at interfaces MM1 and MM3.

   In addition, if the wireless device uses a LEMONADE-enhanced IMAP
   user agent, the enhanced IMAP protocol can be used to directly access
   Internet mail as below.

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                   3GPP MMS Reference Architecture (subset)

            |---------|                          |------------|
   wireless ||-------||                          |            |
    device  || IMAP  ||                          |            |<- MM2 ->
            || USER  ||                          |            |---------
            || AGENT ||                          |            | to
            ||---^---||                          |            | another
            |----|---||                          |            | MMS
                 | LEMONADE Enhanced IMAP and    |            | relay/
             |---V----|          SMTP            |            | server
      e.g.   |        |                          |            |
      E-mail,|EXTERNAL|                          |            |
      Fax, or| SERVER |--------------------------|            |
      UMS    |        |<-        MM3           ->|            |
             |--------|                          |            |
                                                 |            |
             |---------|                         |            |
             |"FOREIGN"|                         |            |
             | MMS     |-------------------------|            |
             | relay/  |<-       MM4           ->|            |
             | server  |                         |            |
             |---------|                         |            |
                                                 |    MMS     |
             |-------|                           |relay/server|
             |       |                           |            |
             |  HLR  |---------------------------|            |
             |       |<-         MM5           ->|            |
             |-------|                           |            |
                                                 |            |
             |-------|                           |            |
             |  MMS  |                           |            |
             |  USER |---------------------------|            |
             |  DBs  |<-         MM6           ->|            |
             |-------|                           |            |
                                                 |            |
             |-------|                           |            |
             |  MMS  |                           |            |
             |  VAS  |---------------------------|            |
             |  APPs |<-         MM7           ->|            |
             |-------|                           |------------|

       MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service
       UMS - Unified Messaging Service
       HLR - Home Location Register
       DB  - Data Base
       VAS - Value Added Service
       APP - Application

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9.  Security Considerations

   Security will be a very important part of enhanced messaging.  The
   goal, wherever possible, is to preserve the semantics of existing
   messaging systems and meet the (existing) expectations of users with
   respect to security and reliability.

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10.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

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11.  References

11.1  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "IETF Rights in Contributions", RFC 3667, BCP 78,
        February 2004.

   [2]  Bradner, S., "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF Technology",
        RFC 3668, BCP 79, February 2004.

   [3]  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", RFC
        2026, BCP 9, October 1996.

   [4]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

11.2  Informative References

   [5]   Crocker, D., "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text
         messages", RFC 822 (obsolete), August 1982.

   [6]   Moore, K., "SMTP Service Extension for Delivery Status
         Notifications", RFC 1891, January 1996.

   [7]   Myers, J. and M. Rose, "Post Office Protocol - Version 3", RFC
         1939, STD 53, May 1997.

   [8]   Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
         Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies",
         RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [9]   Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
         Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046, November

   [10]  Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part
         Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047,
         BCP 14, November 1996.

   [11]  Freed, N., Klensin, J. and J. Postel, "Multipurpose Internet
         Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration Procedures", RFC
         2048, November 1996.

   [12]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
         Extensions (MIME) Part Five: Conformance Criteria and
         Examples", RFC 2049, November 1996.

   [13]  Crispin, M., "Internet Message Access Protocol - Version

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         4rev1", RFC 2060, December 1996.

   [14]  Myers, J., "IMAP4 ACL extension", RFC 2086, Status PROPOSED
         STANDARD, January 1997.

   [15]  Myers, J., "IMAP4 QUOTA extension", RFC 2087, Status PROPOSED
         STANDARD, January 1997.

   [16]  Gahrns, M., "IMAP4 Login Referrals", RFC 2221, Status PROPOSED
         STANDARD, October 1997.

   [17]  Fajman, R., "An Extensible Message Format for Message
         Disposition Notifications", RFC 2298, March 1998.

   [18]  Vaudreuil, G. and G. Parsons, "Voice Profile for Internet Mail
         - version 2", RFC 2421, September 1998.

   [19]  Vaudreuil, G. and G. Parsons, "Toll Quality Voice - 32 kbit/s
         ADPCM MIME Sub-type Registration", RFC 2422, September 1998.

   [20]  Vaudreuil, G. and G. Parsons, "VPIM Voice Message MIME Sub-type
         Registration", RFC 2423, September 1998.

   [21]  Vaudreuil, G. and G. Parsons, "Content Duration MIME Header
         Definition", RFC 2424, September 1998.

   [22]  McIntyre, L., Zilles, S., Buckley, R., Venable, D., Parsons, G.
         and J. Rafferty, "File Format for Internet Fax", RFC 2301,
         March 1998.

   [23]  Parsons, G., Rafferty, J. and S. Zilles, "Tag Image File Format
         (TIFF) - image/tiff MIME Sub-type Registration", RFC 2302,
         March 1998.

   [24]  Allocchio, C., "Minimal PSTN address format in Internet Mail",
         RFC 2303, March 1998.

   [25]  Allocchio, C., "Minimal FAX address format in Internet Mail",
         RFC 2304, March 1998.

   [26]  Toyodar, K., Ohno, H., Murai, J. and D. Wing, "A Simple Mode of
         Facsimile Using Internet Mail", RFC 2305, March 1998.

   [27]  Parsons, G. and J. Rafferty, "Tag Image File Format (TIFF) - F
         Profile for Facsimile", RFC 2306, March 1998.

   [28]  Gellens, R. and J.  Klensin, "Message Submission", RFC 2476,
         Status PROPOSED STANDARD, December 1998.

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   [29]  Masinter, L. and D.  Wing, "Extended Facsimile Using Internet
         Mail", RFC 2532, March 1999.

   [30]  Fielding, Gettys, Berners-Lee and others, "Hypertext Transfer
         Protocol - HTTP 1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [31]  Klensin, J., Ed., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 2821,
         April 2001.

   [32]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822, April

   [33]  Burger, E., Candell, E., Eliot, C. and G. Klyne, "Message
         Context for Internet Mail", RFC 3458, January 2003.

   [34]  Burger, E., "Critical Content Multi-purpose Internet Mail
         Extensions (MIME) Parameter", RFC 3459, January 2003.

   [35]  Gahrns, M., "IMAP4 Multi-Accessed Mailbox Practice", RFC 2180,
         July 1997.

   [36]  Candell, E., "High-Level Requirements for Internet Voice Mail",
         RFC 3773, June 2004.

   [37]  Nerenberg, "IMAP4 Binary Content Extension", Internet Draft
         work in progress, January 2002,

   [38]  Nerenberg, "IMAP4 Channel Transport Mechanism", Internet Draft
         work in progress, November 2001,

   [39]  Toyoda, K. and D. Crocker, "SMTP Service Extensions for Fax
         Content Negotiation", Internet Draft work in progress, February
         2003, <draft-fax-esmtp-conneg-06.txt>.

   [40]  McRae, S., "Internet Voice Messaging", Internet Draft work in
         progress, <draft-ietf-vpim-ivm-04.txt>.

   [41]  Murchison, K. and L. Greenfield, "LMTP Service Extension for
         Ignoring Recipient Quotas", Internet Draft work in progress,
         June 2002, <draft-murchison-lmtp-ignorequota-02.txt>.

   [42]  Crispin, M., "Message Submission", Internet Draft work in
         progress, February 2004, <draft-crispin-lemonade-pull-01.txt>.

   [43]  Newman, C., "Message Submission with Composition", Internet
         Draft work in progress, February 2004,

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   [44]  Gellens, R., "IMAP Message Submission", Internet Draft work in
         progress, December 2003, <draft-gellens-lemonade-push-01.txt>.

   [45]  Resnick, P., "Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) CATENATE
         Extension", Internet Draft work in progress, December 2003,

   [46]  Crispin, M. and C. Newman, "Internet Message Access (IMAP) -
         URLAUTH Extension", Internet Draft work in progress, July 2004,

   [47]  Newman, D., "Message Submission BURL Extension", Internet Draft
         work in progress, July 2004,

   [48]  Crocker, D., "Internet Mail Architecture", Internet Draft work
         in progress, July 2004, <draft-crocker-email-arch-01.txt>.

   [49]  Leuca, I., "Multimedia Messaging Service", Presentation to the
         VPIM WG, IETF53 Proceedings , April 2002.

   [50]  Mahy, R., "A Message Summary and Message Waiting Indication
         Event Package for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
         Internet Draft work in progress,

   [51]  Shapira, N. and E. Aloni, "Simple Notification and Alarm
         Protocol (SNAP)", Internet Draft work in progress, December
         2001, <draft-shapira-snap-02.txt>.

   [52]  Vaudreuil, G., "Messaging profile for telephone-based Messaging
         clients", Internet Draft work in progress, February 2002,

   [53]  Burger, E., "Internet Unified Messaging Requirements", Internet
         Draft work in progress, February 2002,

   [54]  OMA, "Multimedia Messaging Service Architecture Overview
         Version 1.1", Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
         OMA-WAP-MMS-ARCH-v1_1-20021101-C, November 2002.

   [55]  OMA, "Push Architectural Overview", Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
         WAP-250-PushArchOverview-20010703-a, July 2001.

   [56]  OMA, "Push Access Protocol Specification", Open Mobile Alliance

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         (OMA) WAP-247-PAP-20010429-a, April 2001.

   [57]  OMA, "Push Proxy Gateway Service Specification", Open Mobile
         Alliance (OMA) WAP-249-PPGService-20010713a, July 2001.

   [58]  OMA, "Multimedia Messaging Service; Client Transactions Version
         1.1", Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
         OMA-WAP-MMS-CTR-v1_1-20021031-C, October 2002.

   [59]  OMA, "Multimedia Messaging Service; Encapsulation Protocol
         Version 1.1", Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
         OMA-MMS-ENC-v1_1-20021030-C, October 2002.

   [60]  OMA, "User Agent Profile, Version 1.1", Open Mobile Alliance
         (OMA) OMA-UAProf-v1_1-20021212-C, December 2002.

   [61]  OMA, "Email Notification Version 1.0", Open Mobile Alliance
         (OMA) OMA-EMN-v1_0-20021031-C, October 2002.

   [62]  3GPP, "Third Generation Partnership Project; Technical
         Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Service
         aspects; Functional description; Stage 1 Multimedia Messaging
         Service", 3GPP TS 22.140, 2001.

   [63]  3GPP, "Third Generation Partnership Project; Technical
         Specification Group Terminals; Multimedia Messaging Service
         (MMS); Functional description; Stage 2", 3GPP TS 23.140, 2001.

   [64]  3GPP2, "Short Message Service (SMS)", 3GPP2 TSG C.S0015-0,
         December 1999.

   [65]  3GPP2, "Enhanced Message Service (EMS) Stage 1 Description",
         3GPP2 TSG S.R0051-0 v1.0,  July 2001.

   [66]  CCITT, "Recommendations Q.700-Q.716: Specifications of
         Signalling System No. 7", CCITT White Book, Volume VI, Fascicle

   [67]  CCITT, "Recommendations Q.721-Q.766: Specifications of
         Signalling System No.7", CCITT White Book, Volume VI, Fascicle

   [68]  ITU, "E.164: The international public telecommunication
         numbering plan", ITU-T Recommendations Series E, May 1997.

   [69]  ITU, "Specifications of Signalling System Number 7",  ITU White
         Book,  ITU-T Recommendation Q.763.

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   [70]  ITU, "Interface between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data
         Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) for terminals operating in
         the packet mode and connected to public data networks by
         dedicated circuit",  ITU-T Recommendation X.25, October 1996.

   [71]  BELLCORE, "Specifications of Signalling System Number 7",
         GR-246-CORE Issue 1, December 1994.

Author's Address

   Jin Kue Wong (editor)
   Nortel Networks
   P.O. Box 3511 Station C
   Ottawa, ON  K1Y 4H7

   Phone: +1 613 763-2515

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Appendix A.  Contributors

         Eric Burger
         Brooktrout Technology, Inc.
         18 Keewaydin Dr.
         Salem, MA  03079

         Phone: +1 978 367-8400

         Yair Grosu
         29 Habarzel St.
         Tel-Aviv  69710


         Glenn Parsons
         Nortel Networks
         P.O.  Box 3511 Station C
         Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7

         Phone: +1 613 763-7582

         Milt Roselinsky
         Openwave Systems, Inc.
         530 E.  Montecito St.
         Santa Barbara, CA  93103

         Phone: +1 805 884-6207

         Dan Shoshani
         29 Habarzel St.
         Tel-Aviv 69710

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         Alan K.  Stebbens
         Openwave Systems, Inc.
         530 E.  Montecito St.
         Santa Barbara, CA 93103

         Phone: +1 805 884-3162

         Gregory M.  Vaudreuil
         Lucent Technologies
         7291 Williamson Rd.
         Dallas, TX 75214

         Phone: +1 214 823-9325

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Appendix B.  Acknowledgements

   Ari Erev and Noam Shapira (both from Comverse) contributed
   substantial requirements for IMAP to support a telephone-based (TUI)
   messaging client.  Meir Mendelovich (Comverse) helped in merging the
   wireless requirements section.  Benjamin Ellsworth (Openwave)
   contributed to mobile messaging architectures and requirements.
   Yaacov(Jerry) Weingarten (Comverse) and Stephane Maes (Oracle)
   provided detailed comments on the final draft.

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Appendix C.  IAB Note: Unified Notification Protocol Considerations

   Note: dated July 10, 2003

   This note was formulated in response to an informal IESG request to
   look at the architectural issues surrounding a unified notification
   protocol.  The following materials were used as reference:
      * draft-dusseault-s2s-event-reqs-00.txt (notification
      * meeting notes for the LEMONADE WG from IETF 56.
      * draft-shapira-snap-05.txt (protocol design for SNAP which has
      some aspects of a generic notification protocol)
      * the LEMONADE WG charter
      * Recent email on the Lemonade list
      * A few presentations from the 1998 UCI workshop on Internet-wide
      * The Web pages for KnowHow, a company founded by Rohit Khare
      which has a proprietary Internet-wide notification system.

         Thanks to Lisa Dusseault for providing these references.

   Note that this opinion does not represent IAB concensus, it is just
   the opinion of the author after having reviewed the references.

   After the reviewing the material, it seemed that the same kinds of
   functionality are being asked from a generic notification protocol as
   are asked of desktop application integration mechanisms, like
   OLAY/COM on Windows or like Tooltalk was on Solaris, but at the level
   of messaging across the Internet.  The desire is that various
   distributed applications with different application specific
   mechanisms should be able to interoperate without having an n x n
   problem of having each application interact with each other
   application.  The cannonical example, which is in a presentation by
   Lisa Dusseault to LEMONADE from IETF 56, is sending a notification
   from one application, like XMPP Instant Messaging, and having it
   delivered on whatever device the recipient happened to be using at
   the time, like SMS on a cell phone.

   The usual problem with application intergration mechanisms on the
   desktop is how to get the various applications to actually use the
   mechanism.  For Windows, this is relatively easy, since most
   application developers see major value-added in their applications
   being able to play nicely with Microsoft Office.  For Tooltalk,
   unfortunatly, Solaris developers didn't see the 10x improvement, and
   so it was not used outside of Sun's internally maintained
   applications and a few flagship applications like Framemaker.  If the

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   generic notification mechanism requires application developers and
   other notification protocol designers to make a major effort to
   utilize it, including modifying their applications or protocols in
   some way, the protocol could become "just another notification
   mechanism" rather than a unifying device, because most application
   developers and other protocol designers could ignore it.

   So the first architectural consideration is how do clients of a
   particular protocol (and the word "client" is used here here to mean
   "any entity using the protocol", they may peers or they may be
   client/server) actually utilize the generic notification protocol? Is
   there some code change required in the client or can a legacy client
   interoperate without change?

   If you look at Fig.  1 in draft-shapira-snap-05.txt, the answer seems
   to be that the notifying client uses the generic protocol, SNAP in
   this case, to a functional entity (server? module on the receiving
   client?) called the "Notification Service" that processes the generic
   notification into an application specific notification and sends that
   notification to the client.  From this figure it looks as if the
   notifying client would require modification but the receiving client

   Another characteristic of application integration mechansims is that
   they typically focus on very simple operations, the semantics of
   which are shared between different applications.  Examples are
   "here's a rectangle, display yourself in it" or "put this styled text
   object into the clipboard", and applications agree on what styled
   text means.  More complicated semantics are hard to share because
   each application has its own particular twist on the meaning of a
   particular sequence of operations on a collection of objects.  The
   result is a "least common denominator" collection of integration
   mechanisms, primarily focussed on display integration and, to a
   lesser extent, cut and paste integration.

   In the context of a generic notification protocol, this raises
   several possible issues.  One is addressing, which is identified
   draft-dusseault- s2s-event-reqs-00.txt, but in a sense this is the
   easiest to resolve, by using existing and perhaps newly defined URIs.
   A more complex problem is matching the semantics of what
   preconditions constitute the trigger for an event across different
   application notification mechanisms.  This is of course necessary for
   translating notifications between the different event notification
   mechanisms and the generic mechanism, but, more problematically, it
   is also required for a subscription service whereby subscriptions can
   be made to filter events using the generic notification mechanism and
   the subscriptions can be translated to different application specific
   mechanisms.  Any language for expressing generic subscriptions is

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   unlikely to support expressing the fine points in the different
   application notification semantics.  Note that SNAP does not seem to
   support a subscription service so perhaps this isn't an issue for

   Another architectural issue, which was discussed earlier this year on
   the LEMONADE list w.r.t.  some other topics, is gatewaying.  The
   cannonical example above (message sent using XMPP and arriving via
   SMS on a cell phone) is actually a gateway example, because it would
   require translation between an IP-based messaging mechanism (XMPP) to
   a PSTN based mechanism (SMS).  The problem with using a unified
   notification mechanism for this purpose is that if there are other
   functions common between the two, it is likely that a gateway will be
   built anyway.  In fact, one of the work items for LEMONADE is to
   investigate such gateways.  The value of a generic notification
   mechanism therefore needs to be assessed in the light of this.

   These are the primary architectural issues, but there are a few
   others that need consideration in any major system development
   effort.  End to end security is one,
   draft-dusseault-s2s-event-reqs-00.txt talks about this quite
   extensively, so it won't be repeated here.  The major issue is how to
   ensure that the end to end security properties are maintained in the
   face of movement of the notification through the generic intermediary
   protocol.  Another issue is scalability.  Peer to peer v.s.  server
   based mechanisms have implications for how scalable the notification
   mechanism would be, and this needs consideration.  Extensibility
   needs careful consideration.  What is required to integrate a new
   application? Ideally, with time, application developers will stop
   "rolling their own" notification service and simply use the generic
   service, but this ideal may be extremely hard to achieve, and may
   depend to a large extent on market acceptance.

   Finally, there are some considerations that aren't architectural but
   may impact the ultimate success of a generic notification protocol,
   in the sense that the protocol becomes widely deployed and used.  The
   author's experience is that IETF has not had particular success in
   introducing mechanisms that unify or supplant existing proprietary
   mechanisms unless strong vendor and service provider by-in is there.
   Two examples are instant messaging and service discovery.  With
   instant messaging, it seems that a standarized, unified instant
   messaging protocol has been delayed by the lack of committment from
   major service providers.  With service discovery, weak commitment
   from vendors has resulted in the continued introduction of vendor
   specific service discovery solutions even after an IETF standard is
   in place.  The situation with service discovery (with which the
   author is most familiar) resulted from a lack of major vendor
   committment during the end phases of the standarization process.

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   Applying these lessions to a generic notification protocol, having
   important players with proprietary notification protocols on board
   and committed until the conclusion of the design process will be
   crucial.  Major committment is needed from various application
   notification protocols before a generic mechanism could succeed.
   Given the amount of time and effort required in any IETF
   standardization work, assessing these with an objective eye is
   critical, otherwise, regardless of how technically well designed the
   protocol is, deployment success may be lacking.  Having an elegently
   design solution that nobody deploys is an outcome that might be wise
   to avoid.

   James Kempf
   July 2003

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Intellectual Property Statement

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Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  This document is subject
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   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
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