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Security Management Automation of Cloud-Based Security Services in I2NSF Framework
draft-jeong-i2nsf-security-management-automation-04

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Jaehoon Paul Jeong , Patrick Lingga , Park Jung-Soo , Diego Lopez , Susan Hares
Last updated 2022-07-25
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draft-jeong-i2nsf-security-management-automation-04
I2NSF Working Group                                        J. Jeong, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                 P. Lingga
Intended status: Informational                   Sungkyunkwan University
Expires: 26 January 2023                                         J. Park
                                                                    ETRI
                                                                D. Lopez
                                                          Telefonica I+D
                                                                S. Hares
                                                                  Huawei
                                                            25 July 2022

Security Management Automation of Cloud-Based Security Services in I2NSF
                               Framework
          draft-jeong-i2nsf-security-management-automation-04

Abstract

   This document describes Security Management Automation (SMA) of
   cloud-based security services in the framework of Interface to
   Network Security Functions (I2NSF).  The security management
   automation in this document deals with closed-loop security control,
   security policy translation, and security audit.  To support these
   three features in SMA, this document specifies an augmented
   architecture of the I2NSF framework with new system components and
   new interfaces.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 26 January 2023.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Security Management Automation in I2NSF Framework . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Components with I2NSF Framework for Security Management
           Automation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Interfaces with SMA-Based I2NSF Framework . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Security Policy Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Security Audit System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix B.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix C.  Changes from
           draft-jeong-i2nsf-security-management-automation-03 . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) defines a framework
   and interfaces for interacting with Network Security Functions (NSFs)
   [RFC8192][RFC8329].  Note that an NSF is defined as software that
   provides a set of security-related services, such as (i) detecting
   unwanted activity, (ii) blocking or mitigating the effect of such
   unwanted activity in order to fulfill service requirements, and (iii)
   supporting communication stream integrity and confidentiality
   [RFC8329].  The NSF can be implemented as a Virtual Network Function
   (VNF) in a Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) environment
   [ETSI-NFV][I-D.ietf-i2nsf-applicability].

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   This document describes Security Management Automation (SMA) of
   cloud-based security services in the I2NSF framework.  The security
   management automation includes closed-loop security control, security
   policy translation, and security audit.  This document specifies an
   augmented architecture of the I2NSF framework for the SMA services
   with new system components and new interfaces.

   For reliable management for networked security services, this
   document proposes a network management and verification facility
   using a secuirty audit system (e.g., remote attestation and
   blockchain [Bitcoin]).  This security audit system can facilitate the
   non-repudiation of configuration commands and monitoring data
   generated in the I2NSF framework.

   Therefore, with the security service automation, this document
   facilitates the foundation of Intent-Based Networking (IBN) for
   autonomous security services
   [I-D.irtf-nmrg-ibn-concepts-definitions].

2.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminology described in [RFC8329] and
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-applicability].  In addition, the following terms are
   defined below:

   *  Security Management Automation (SMA): It means that a high-level
      security policy from a user (or administrator) is well-enforced in
      a target I2NSF system.  The high-level security policy can be
      translated into the corresponding low-level security policy by a
      security policy translator and dispatched to appropriate NSFs.
      Through the monitoring of the NSFs, the activity and performace of
      the NSFs is monitored and analyzed.  If needed, the security rules
      of the low-level security policy are augmented or new security
      rules are generated and configured to appropriate NSFs.

   *  Security Policy Translation (SPT): It means that a high-level
      security policy is translated to a low-level security policy that
      can be understood and configured by an NSF for a specific security
      service, such as firewall, web filter, deep packet inspection,
      DDoS-attack mitigation, and anti-virus.

   *  Feedback-Based Security Management (FSM): It means that a security
      service is evolved by updating a security policy (having security
      rules) and adding new security rules for detected security attacks
      by processing and analzing the monitoring data of NSFs.

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      +------------+
      | I2NSF User |
      +------------+
             ^
             | Consumer-Facing Interface
             v
   +-------------------+     Registration     +-----------------------+
   |Security Controller|<-------------------->|Developer's Mgmt System|
   +-------------------+      Interface       +-----------------------+
             ^      ^
             |      |
             |      |   Analytics Interface   +-----------------------+
             |      +------------------------>|    I2NSF Analyzer     |
             |                                +-----------------------+
             | NSF-Facing Interface              ^       ^       ^
             |                                   |       |       |
             |                                   |       |       |
             |    +------------------------------+       |       |
             |    |              +-----------------------+       |
             |    |              |   Monitoring Interface        |
             v    v              v                               v
      +----------------+ +---------------+   +-----------------------+
      |      NSF-1     |-|     NSF-2     |...|         NSF-n         |
      |   (Firewall)   | | (Web Filter)  |   |(DDoS-Attack Mitigator)|
      +----------------+ +---------------+   +-----------------------+

        Figure 1: Security Management Automation in I2NSF Framework

3.  Security Management Automation in I2NSF Framework

   This section summarizes the I2NSF framework as defined in [RFC8329].
   As shown in Figure 1, an I2NSF User can use security functions by
   delivering high-level security policies, which specify security
   requirements that the I2NSF user wants to enforce, to the Security
   Controller via the Consumer-Facing Interface (CFI)
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm].

3.1.  Components with I2NSF Framework for Security Management Automation

   The following are the system components for the SMA-based I2NSF
   framework.

   *  I2NSF User: An entity that delivers a high-level security policy
      to Security Controller.

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   *  Security Controller: An entity that controls and manages other
      system components in the I2NSF framework.  It translates a high-
      level security policy into the corresponding low-level security
      policy and selects appropriate NSFs to execute the security rules
      of the low-level security policy.

   *  Developer's Management System (DMS): An entity that provides an
      image of of a virtualized NSF for a security service to the I2NSF
      framework, and registers the capability and access information of
      an NSF with Security Controller.

   *  Network Security Function (NSF): An entity that is a Virtual
      Network Function (VNF) or Container Network Function (CNF), which
      is called Cloud-native Network Function, for a specific network
      security service such as firewall, web filter, deep packet
      inspection, DDoS-attack mitigation, and anti-virus.

   *  I2NSF Analyzer: An entity that collects monitoring data from NSFs
      and analyzes such data for checking the activity and performance
      of the NSFs using machine learning techniques (e.g., Deep Learning
      [Deep-Learning]).  If there is a suspicious attack activity for
      the target network or NSF, I2NSF Analyzer delivers a report of the
      augmentation or generation of security rules to Security
      Controller.

   For SMA-based security services with Feedback-Based Security
   Management (FSM), I2NSF Analyzer is required as a new I2NSF component
   for the legacy I2NSF framework [RFC8329] to collect monitoring data
   from NSFs and analyzing the monitoring data.  The actual
   implementation of the analysis of monitoring data is out of the scope
   of this document.

3.2.  Interfaces with SMA-Based I2NSF Framework

   The following are the interfaces for the SMA-based I2NSF framework.
   Note that the interfaces are modeled with YANG [RFC6020] and security
   policies are delivered through either RESTCONF [RFC8040] or NETCONF
   [RFC6241].

   *  Consumer-Facing Interface: An interface between I2NSF User and
      Security Controller for the delivery of a high-level security
      policy [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm].

   *  NSF-Facing Interface: An interface between Security Controller and
      an NSF for the delivery of a low-level security policy
      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].

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   *  Registration Interface: An interface between a DMS and Security
      Controller for the registration of an NSF's capability and access
      information with the Security Controller or the query of an NSF
      for a required low-level security policy
      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-registration-interface-dm].

   *  Monitoring Interface: An interface between an NSF and I2NSF
      Analyzer for collecting monitoring data from an NSF to check the
      activity and performance of an NSF for a possible malicious
      traffic [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model].

   *  Analytics Interface: An interface between I2NSF Analyzer and
      Security Controller for the delivery of an analytics report of the
      augmentation or generation of security rules to Security
      Controller, which lets Security Controller apply the report for
      security rules to its security policy management.

   For SMA-based security services with FSM, Analytics Interface is
   required as a new I2NSF interfacefor the legacy I2NSF framework
   [RFC8329] to deliver an analytics report of the augmentation or
   generation of security rules to Security Controller through the
   analysis of the monitoring data from NSFs.

4.  Security Policy Translation

   To facilitate Security Policy Translation (SPT), Security Controller
   needs to have a security policy translator that performs the
   translation of a high-level security policy into the corresponding
   low-level security policy.  For the automatic SPT services, the I2NSF
   framework needs to bridge a high-level YANG data model and a low-
   level YANG data model in an automatic manner [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-applicab
   ility][I-D.yang-i2nsf-security-policy-translation].  Note that a
   high-level YANG data model is for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm], and a low-level YANG
   data model is for the I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].

   Figure 2 shows automatic mapping of high-level and low-level data
   models.  Automatic Data Model Mapper takes a high-level YANG data
   module for the Consumer-Facing Inteface and a low-level YANG data
   module for the NSF-Facing Interface.  It then constructs a mapping
   table associating the data attributes (or variables) of the high-
   level YANG data module with the corresponding data attributes (or
   variables) of the low-level YANG data module.  Also, it generates a
   set of production rules of the grammar for the construction of an XML
   file of low-level security policy rules.

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   Figure 3 shows high-to-low security policy translation.  A security
   policy translator is a component of Security Controller.  The
   translator consists of three components such as Policy Data Model
   Mapper, Policy Data Extractor, Policy Data Converter, and Policy
   Generator.

          High-level YANG Data Module   Low-level YANG Data Model
                      |                              |
                      V                              V
            +---------+------------------------------+---------+
            |             Policy Data Model Mapper             |
            +------------------------+-------------------------+
                                     |
                                     V
                          Data Model Mapping Table

    Figure 2: Automatic Mapping of High-level and Low-level Data Models

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            +-------------------------------------------------+
            |                                                 |
            |                    I2NSF User                   |
            |                                                 |
            +------------------------+------------------------+
                                     | Consumer-Facing Interface
                                     |
                         High-level Security Policy
            Security                 |
            Controller               V
            +------------------------+------------------------+
            |  Security Policy       |                        |
            |  Translator            V                        |
            |  +---------------------+---------------------+  |
            |  |                                           |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |        | Policy Data Model Mapper|        |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |                                           |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |        |  Policy Data Extractor  |        |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |                                           |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |        |  Policy Data Converter  |        |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |                                           |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |        |     Policy Generator    |        |  |
            |  |        +-------------------------+        |  |
            |  |                                           |  |
            |  +---------------------+---------------------+  |
            |                        |                        |
            |                        V                        |
            +------------------------+------------------------+
                                     |  NSF-Facing Interface
                                     |
                          Low-level Security Policy
                                     |
                                     V
            +------------------------+-------------------------+
            |                                                  |
            |                      NSF(s)                      |
            |                                                  |
            +--------------------------------------------------+

             Figure 3: High-to-Low Security Policy Translation

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   Policy Data Model Mapper maps the attributes and their values of a
   high-level security policy to the corresponding attributes and their
   values of a low-level security policy.  Note that the values of a
   high-level security policy may involve a human language and must be
   converted to an appropriate value for a low-level security policy
   (e.g., employees -> 192.0.1.0/24).

   Policy Data Extractor extracts the values of the attributes related
   to a security policy from a high-level security policy that was
   delivered by an I2NSF User to a Security Controller through the
   Consumer-Facing Interface
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm].

   Policy Data Converter converts the values of the high-level policy's
   attributes into the values of the corresponding low-level policy's
   attributes to generate the low-level security policy
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].

   Policy Generator generates the corresponding low-level security
   policy that is delivered by the Security Controller to an appropriate
   NSF through NSF-Facing Interface
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].

5.  Security Audit System

   The I2NSF framework is weak to both an insider attack and a supply
   chain attack since it trusts in NSFs provided by Developer's
   Management System (DMS) and assumes that NSFs work for their security
   services appropriately.  [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-applicability].

   To detect the malicious activity of either an insider attack by a
   malicious DMS or a supply chain attack by a compromised DMS, a
   security audit system is required by the I2NSF framework.  This
   security audit system can facilitate the non-repudiation of
   configuration commands and monitoring data generated in the I2NSF
   framework.

   A security audit system has the following four main objectives:

   *  To check the existence of a security policy, a management system,
      and its procedures;

   *  To identify and understand the existing vulnerabilities and risks
      of either an insider attack or a supply chain attack;

   *  To review existing security controls on operational and
      administrative issues;

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   *  To provide recommendations and corrective actions to Security
      Controller for further security improvement.

   +-----------------------------+                   +----------------+
   |         I2NSF User          |                   |Developer's Mgmt|
   |                             +------------+      |     System     |
   +--------------+--------------+            |      +--------+-------+
                  | Consumer-Facing Interface |               |
                  |                           |  Remote       |
      High-level Security Policy              |  Attestation  |
                  |                           |  Interface    |
                  |                           |               |
                  V                           |               V
   +--------------+--------------+            |     +---------+--------+
   |                             |            V     |     Security     |
   |     Security Controller     +------------+---->|       Audit      |
   |                             |            ^     |      System      |
   +--------------+--------------+            |     +---------+--------+
                  |  NSF-Facing Interface     |               ^
                  |                           |  Remote       |
      Low-level Security Policy               |  Attestation  |
                  |                           |  Interface    |
                  V                           |               |
   +--------------+--------------+            |      +--------+-------+
   |            NSF(s)           +------------+      | I2NSF Analyzer |
   |                             +------------------>|                |
   +-----------------------------+    Monitoring     +----------------+
                                      Interface

           Figure 4: Activity Auditing with Security Audit System

   Figure 4 shows activity auditing with a security audit system in the
   I2NSF framework.  All the components in the I2NSF framwork report its
   activities (such as configuration commands and monitoring data) to
   Security Audit System as transactions through Remote Attestation
   Interface [I-D.yang-i2nsf-remote-attestation-interface-dm].  The
   security audit system can analyze the reported activities from the
   I2NSF components to detect malicious activities such as an insider
   attack and a supply chain attack.  Note that such a security audit
   system can be implemented by remote attestation [I-D.ietf-rats-archit
   ecture][I-D.yang-i2nsf-remote-attestation-interface-dm] or Blockchain
   [Bitcoin].  The details of the implementation of the system audit
   system are out of the scope of this document.

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   In order to determine a minimum set of controls required to reduce
   the risks from either an insider attack or a supply chain attack, the
   security audit system should analyze the activities of all the
   components in the I2NSF framework periodically, evaluate possible
   risks, and take an action to such risks since vulnerabilities and
   threats may change in different environments over time.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require any IANA actions.

7.  Security Considerations

   The same security considerations for the I2NSF framework [RFC8329]
   are applicable to this document.

   The development and introduction of I2NSF Analyzer and Security Audit
   System in the I2NSF Framework may create new security concerns that
   have to be anticipated at the design and specification time.  The
   usage of machine learning to analyze monitoring data of malicious
   NSFs may add a risk to its model to be attacked (e.g., adversarial
   attack) and can result in a bad security policy that is deployed into
   the I2NSF system.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC8192]  Hares, S., Lopez, D., Zarny, M., Jacquenet, C., Kumar, R.,
              and J. Jeong, "Interface to Network Security Functions
              (I2NSF): Problem Statement and Use Cases", RFC 8192,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8192, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8192>.

   [RFC8329]  Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
              Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
              Functions", DOI 10.17487/RFC8329, RFC 8329, February 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8329>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, RFC 8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

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   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, RFC 6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]
              Jeong, J. P., Chung, C., Ahn, T., Kumar, R., and S. Hares,
              "I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-
              facing-interface-dm-21, June 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-
              consumer-facing-interface-dm-21.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]
              Kim, J. T., Jeong, J. P., Park, J., Hares, S., and Q. Lin,
              "I2NSF Network Security Function-Facing Interface YANG
              Data Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-29, June 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-
              facing-interface-dm-29.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-registration-interface-dm]
              Hyun, S., Jeong, J. P., Roh, T., Wi, S., and J. Park,
              "I2NSF Registration Interface YANG Data Model", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-registration-
              interface-dm-18, 16 June 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-
              registration-interface-dm-18.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model]
              Jeong, J. P., Lingga, P., Hares, S., Xia, L. F., and H.
              Birkholz, "I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data
              Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-20, June 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-
              monitoring-data-model-20.txt>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-applicability]
              Jeong, J. P., Hyun, S., Ahn, T., Hares, S., and D. R.
              Lopez, "Applicability of Interfaces to Network Security
              Functions to Network-Based Security Services", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-
              18, 16 September 2019, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/
              draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-18.txt>.

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   [I-D.irtf-nmrg-ibn-concepts-definitions]
              Clemm, A., Ciavaglia, L., Granville, L. Z., and J.
              Tantsura, "Intent-Based Networking - Concepts and
              Definitions", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              irtf-nmrg-ibn-concepts-definitions-09, 24 March 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-irtf-nmrg-ibn-
              concepts-definitions-09.txt>.

   [I-D.yang-i2nsf-security-policy-translation]
              Jeong, J. P., Lingga, P., Yang, J., and J. Kim,
              "Guidelines for Security Policy Translation in Interface
              to Network Security Functions", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-yang-i2nsf-security-policy-
              translation-11, 28 April 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-yang-i2nsf-
              security-policy-translation-11.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-rats-architecture]
              Birkholz, H., Thaler, D., Richardson, M., Smith, N., and
              W. Pan, "Remote Attestation Procedures Architecture", Work
              in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-rats-architecture-
              19, 24 July 2022,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/api/v1/doc/document/draft-
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Appendix A.  Acknowledgments

   This work was supported in part by Institute of Information &
   Communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant funded
   by the Korea Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) (2020-0-00395-003,
   Standard Development of Blockchain based Network Management
   Automation Technology).  This work was supported by the IITP grant
   funded by the Korea MSIT (R-20160222-002755, Cloud based Security
   Intelligence Technology Development for the Customized Security
   Service Provisioning).

Appendix B.  Contributors

   This document is made by the group effort of I2NSF working group.
   Many people actively contributed to this document, such as Linda
   Dunbar, Yoav Nir, and Qin Wu.  The authors sincerely appreciate their
   contributions.

   The following are co-authors of this document:

   Jeonghyeon Kim - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
   Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do
   16419, Republic of Korea.  EMail: jeonghyeon12@skku.edu

   Yunchul Choi - Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute,
   218 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 34129, Republic of Korea.
   EMail: cyc79@etri.re.kr

   Younghan Kim - School of Electronic Engineering, Soongsil University,
   369, Sangdo-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06978, Republic of Korea.  EMail:
   younghak@ssu.ac.kr

Appendix C.  Changes from draft-jeong-i2nsf-security-management-
             automation-03

   The following changes are made from draft-jeong-i2nsf-security-
   management-automation-03:

   *  This version replaces "Application Interface" with "Analytics
      Interface" to deliver analytics information from I2NSF Analyzer to
      Security Controller.

   *  This version enhances the description of Security Policy
      Transation and Security Audit System.

Authors' Addresses

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   Jaehoon Paul Jeong (editor)
   Department of Computer Science and Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon
   Gyeonggi-Do
   16419
   Republic of Korea
   Phone: +82 31 299 4957
   Email: pauljeong@skku.edu
   URI:   http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-jaehoon-jeong.php

   Patrick Lingga
   Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon
   Gyeonggi-Do
   16419
   Republic of Korea
   Phone: +82 31 299 4957
   Email: patricklink@skku.edu

   Jung-Soo Park
   Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
   218 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu
   Daejeon
   305-700
   Republic of Korea
   Phone: +82 42 860 6514
   Email: pjs@etri.re.kr

   Diego R. Lopez
   Telefonica I+D
   Jose Manuel Lara, 9
   41013 Seville
   Spain
   Phone: +34 682 051 091
   Email: diego.r.lopez@telefonica.com

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   Susan Hares
   Huawei
   7453 Hickory Hill
   Saline, MI 48176
   United States of America
   Phone: +1-734-604-0332
   Email: shares@ndzh.com

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