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BGP signaled MPLS namespaces
draft-kaliraj-bess-bgp-sig-private-mpls-labels-05

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This is an older version of an Internet-Draft whose latest revision state is "Active".
Authors Kaliraj Vairavakkalai , Jeyananth Minto Jeganathan
Last updated 2023-02-03
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draft-kaliraj-bess-bgp-sig-private-mpls-labels-05
Network Working Group                                   K. Vairavakkalai
Internet-Draft                                              M. Jeyananth
Intended status: Standards Track                  Juniper Networks, Inc.
Expires: 7 August 2023                                   3 February 2023

                      BGP signaled MPLS namespaces
           draft-kaliraj-bess-bgp-sig-private-mpls-labels-05

Abstract

   The MPLS forwarding layer in a core network is a shared resource.
   The MPLS FIB at nodes in this layer contains labels that are
   dynamically allocated and locally significant at that node.  These
   labels are scoped in context of the global loopback address.  Let us
   call this the global MPLS namespace.

   For some usecases like upstream label allocation, it is useful to
   create private MPLS namespaces (virtual MPLS FIB) over this shared
   MPLS forwarding layer.  This allows installing deterministic label
   values in the private FIBs created at nodes participating in the
   private MPLS namespace, while preserving the "locally significant"
   nature of the underlying shared global MPLS FIB.

   This specification describes the procedures to create such virtual
   private MPLS forwarding layers (private MPLS namespaces) using a new
   BGP family.  And gives a few example use-cases on how this private
   forwarding layers can be used.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 7 August 2023.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Constructs and building blocks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Context Protocol Nexthop Address  . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  MPLS context FIB  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Context Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  Roles of nodes in a MPLS plane  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.4.1.  Edge-nodes (PLER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.4.2.  Transit-nodes (PLSR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.5.  Sending traffic into the MPLS plane . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  BGP families, routes and encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  New address-families for "MPLS namespace signaling" . . .   8
       5.1.1.  AFI: 16399, SAFI: 128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       5.1.2.  AFI: 16399, SAFI: 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  Routes and Operational procedures . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.2.1.  "Context-Nexthop" discovery route . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.2.2.  MPLS namespace "Private Label" routes . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Example of Usecases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.1.  Improve scaling and convergence of a Seamless MPLS
           network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.2.  Service Forwarding Helper usecase . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.3.  Standard BGP API to a MPLS network's forwarding-plane . .  14
     6.4.  Traffic engineering and Security advantages . . . . . . .  14
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

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   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   10. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   The MPLS forwarding layer in a core network is a shared resource.
   The MPLS FIB at nodes in this layer contains labels that are
   dynamically allocated and locally significant at that node.  These
   labels are scoped in context of the global loopback address.  Let us
   call this the global MPLS namespace.

   For some usecases like upstream label allocation, it is useful to
   create private MPLS namespaces (virtual MPLS FIB) over this shared
   MPLS forwarding layer.  This allows installing deterministic label
   values in the private FIBs created at nodes participating in the
   private MPLS namespace, while preserving the "locally significant"
   nature of the underlying shared global MPLS FIB.

   This document defines new address families (AFI: 16399, SAFI: 128, or
   1) and associated signaling mechanisms to create and use MPLS
   forwarding contexts in a network.

   The mechanism described in this document reuse [RFC4364] and
   [RFC8277] procedures to implement Upstream label allocation.  The
   MPLS Namespace family uses BGP VPN style NLRI where the FEC is a MPLS
   Label, instead of IP prefix.  The concepts of MPLS Context tables and
   upstream allocation are described in [RFC5331].

   A BGP speakers participating in a private MPLS namespace creates
   instance of "MPLS forwarding context" FIB, which is identified using
   a "Context Protocol Nexthop (CPNH)".  A Context label MAY be
   advertised for the Context Protocol Nexthop (CPNH) using a transport
   layer protocol or BGP family to other nodes.

2.  Motivation

   A provider's core network consists of a global-domain (default
   forwarding-tables in P and PE nodes) that is shared by all tenants in
   the network and may also contain multiple private user-domains (e.g.
   VRF route tables).

   The global MPLS forwarding-layer can be viewed as the collection of
   all default MPLS forwarding-tables.  This global MPLS Fib layer
   contains labels locally significant to each node.  The "local-

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   significance of labels" gives the nodes freedom to participate in
   MPLS-forwarding with whatever label-ranges they can support in
   forwarding hardware.

   In emerging usecases some applications using the MPLS-network may
   benefit from a "static labels" view of the MPLS-network.  In some
   other usecases, a standard mechanism to do Upstream label-allocation
   is beneficial.

   It is desirable to leave the global MPLS FIB layer intact, and build
   private MPLS FIB-layers on top of it to achieve these requirements.
   The private MPLS FIBs can then be used by the applications as
   desired.  The private MPLS FIBs need to be created only at the nodes
   in the network where predictable label-values (external label
   allocation) is desired.  E.g.  P-routers that need to act as a
   "Detour-nodes" or "Service-Forwarding-Helpers" that need to mirror
   service-labels.

   In other words, provisioning of these private MPLS FIBs can be
   gradual and can co-exist with nodes not supporting the feature
   described in this document.  These private MPLS FIBs can be stitched
   together using either the Context labels over the existing shared
   MPLS-network tunnels, or 'private' context-interfaces - to form the
   "private MPLS FIB layer".

   An application can then install the routes with desired label-values
   in the private forwarding contexts with desired forwarding-semantics.

3.  Constructs and building blocks

   The building-blocks that construct a private MPLS plane are described
   in this section.

3.1.  Context Protocol Nexthop Address

   A private MPLS plane (just "MPLS plane" here-after) is identified by
   an IP-address called Context Protocol Nexthop (CPNH).  This address
   is unique in the core-network, like any other loopback address.

   A loopback-address uniquely identifies a specific node in the
   network, and we call it Global Protocol Nexthop (GPNH) in this
   document.  The CPNH address uniquely identifies a MPLS plane, aka
   "MPLS namespace".

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   Each node that has forwarding context for a MPLS plane MUST be
   configured with the same CPNH but a different RD, such that the
   RD:CPNH will uniquely identify that node in the MPLS plane.

3.2.  MPLS context FIB

   An instance of a MPLS forwarding-table at a node in the private MPLS
   plane.  This Private MPLS FIB contains the private label routes.

   A node can have context FIB for multiple MPLS planes.  The same
   label-value can have a different forwarding-semantic in each MPLS
   plane.  Thus the applications using that MPLS plane get a
   deterministic label-value independent of other applications using
   other MPLS planes.

   The terms "MPLS Namespace", "MPLS FIB-layer" and "MPLS plane" are
   used interchangeably in this document.

3.3.  Context Label

   A Context label is a non-reserved dynamically allocated label, that
   is installed in the global MPLS FIB, and points to a MPLS-context
   FIB.  The Context Label have forwarding semantics as follows in the
   global MPLS FIB:

   Context Label -> Pop and Lookup in MPLS-context FIB

   Advertising the "context label in conjunction with the GPNH" tells
   the network how to reach a "RD:CPNH".

3.4.  Roles of nodes in a MPLS plane

   The node roles in a MPLS plane can be classified into "edge nodes"
   (call them PLER) or "transit-nodes" (call them PLSR).

3.4.1.  Edge-nodes (PLER)

   Private Label Edge-routers (PLER) have MPLS context FIB that belong
   to the MPLS plane.  They advertise the presence of this context FIB
   using transport layer address families like BGP-CT [BGP-CT] or BGP-
   LU, and private label routes from this FIB are advertused using new
   BGP AFI/SAFI described in this document.

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3.4.2.  Transit-nodes (PLSR)

   These are just Border-nodes that do label-swap forwarding for the
   context labels they see in the Context-Protocol-Nexthop advertisement
   routes (BGP-CT or BGP-LU) going thru them.  They basically stitch/
   extend the label switched path to a PLER's CPNH when they re-
   advertise the CPNH routes with nexthop-self.

   PLSRs dont have MPLS context FIBs.  PLSRs dont have Context Protocol-
   Nexthop.  Because they dont have Private label routes to originate.

   However a node in the network can play both roles, of PLER and PLSR.

3.5.  Sending traffic into the MPLS plane

   At a PLER, MPLS-traffic arriving with private label hits the correct
   private MPLS FIB by virtue of either arriving on a "private network-
   interface" that is attached to the MPLS context FIB, or arriving with
   a "Context label" on a network-interface attached to the global MPLS
   FIB.

   To send data traffic into this private MPLS plane, the sender MUST
   use as handle either a "Context label" advertised by a node or a
   "Private interface" owned by the MPLS context FIB at the node.  The
   MPLS context FIB is created for an application that needs a private
   MPLS plane.

   The Context label is the only dynamic label-value the application
   needs to learn from the network (PLER node it is connected to), to be
   able to use the private MPLS plane.  The application can chose
   predictable value for the labels to be programmed in the private MPLS
   FIBs.

   Once the packet enters the private MPLS plane at an edge-node (PLER),
   the node will forward the packet to the next node (PLSR or PLER), by
   pushing the Context label advertised by that next-node, and the
   transport-label to reach that node's GPNH.  This will repeat until
   the packet reaches the PLER's private MPLS FIB that originated that
   private MPLS-label.

   At each PLER in the MPLS plane, the private label value remains the
   same, and points towards the same resource attached to the MPLS
   plane.  This allows the applications using the MPLS-network a static-
   labels view of the resourses attached to the private MPLS plane.

   At each PLSR in the MPLS plane, the Context label value will change
   (be swapped in forwarding), but is transparent to the application.

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4.  Terminology

   P-router : A Provider core router, also called a LSR

   LSR : Label Switch Router (pure transport node speaking LDP, RSVP
   etc)

   PLSR: a BGP-CT or BGP-LU transit node in a private MPLS plane, that
   does label-swap forwarding for Context label.

   PLER: an edge node in a private MPLS plane.  It has a forwarding
   context for private labels.

   Detour-router : A BGP border node that is used as a loose-hop in a
   traffic-engineered path

   PE-router : Provider Edge router, that hosts a service (Internet,
   L3VPN etc)

   SE-router : Service Edge router.  Same as PE.

   SFH-router : Service Forwarding Helper.  A node helping an SE-router
   with service-traffic forwarding, using service routes mirrored by the
   SE.

   MPLS FIB : MPLS Forwarding table

   Global MPLS FIB : Global MPLS Forwarding table, to which shared-
   interfaces are connected

   Private MPLS FIB : Private MPLS Forwarding table, to which private
   interfaces are connected

   Private MPLS FIB Layer (Private MPLS plane): The group of Private
   MPLS FIBs in the network, connected together via Context labels

   Context label : Locally-significant Non-reserved label pointing to a
   private MPLS FIB

   Context nexthop IP-address (CPNH) : An IP-address that identifies the
   "Private MPLS FIB Layer".  RD:CPNH identifies a Private MPLS FIB at a
   specific BGP node.

   Global nexthop IP-address (GPNH) : Global Protocol Nexthop address.
   E.g. a loopback address used as transport tunnel end-point.

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5.  BGP families, routes and encoding

   This section describes the new constructs defined by this document.

5.1.  New address-families for "MPLS namespace signaling"

   This document defines a new AFI: "MPLS Namespaces" (IANA code 16399).
   And two new address-families, using SAFIs 128 and 1.  These address
   families are used to signal "MPLS namespaces" in BGP.  To send or
   receive routes of these address families, these AFI, SAFI pair of
   values MUST be negotiated in Multiprotocol Extensions capability
   described in RFC4760 [RFC4760]

5.1.1.  AFI: 16399, SAFI: 128

   This address-family is used to exchange private label-routes in
   private MPLS FIBs at routers that are connected using a common
   network interface.  The private label route has NLRI prefix format
   "RD:PrivateLabel" and contains Route-Target extended-community
   identifying the private FIB Layer (VPN) the route belongs to.  The
   nexthop of these routes is set to either the GPNH or the CPNH of the
   BGP-speaker advertising the RFC-8277 label.

   Any transport layer protocol is used to advertise the Context label
   that the receiving router uses to send traffic into the private MPLS
   FIB.  The Context label installed in the global MPLS FIB points to
   the private MPLS FIB.  The Context label is required when the
   connecting-interface is a shared common interface that terminates
   into the global MPLS FIB.

   Routes of this address-family can be sent with either IPv4 or IPv6
   nexthop.  The type of nexthop is inferred from the length of the
   nexthop.

   When the length of Next Hop Address field is 24 (or 48) the nexthop
   address is of type VPN-IPv6 with 8-octet RD set to zero (potentially
   followed by the link-local VPN-IPv6 address of the next hop with an
   8-octet RD).

   When the length of Next Hop Address field is 12 the nexthop address
   is of type VPN-IPv4 with 8-octet RD.

5.1.2.  AFI: 16399, SAFI: 1

   This address-family is used to exchange private label-routes in
   private MPLS FIBs to routers that are connected using a private
   network-interface.

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   Because the interface is private, and terminates directly into the
   private MPLS FIB, a Context label is not required to access the
   private MPLS FIB and NLRI prefix format is just "PrivateLabel/24",
   without the RD.

   Routes of this address-family can be sent with either IPv4 or IPv6
   nexthop.  The type of nexthop is inferred from the length of the
   nexthop.

   When the length of Next Hop Address field is 16 (or 32) the nexthop
   address is of type IPv6 (potentially followed by the link-local IPv6
   address of the next hop).

   When the length of Next Hop Address field is 4 the nexthop address is
   a 4 octet IPv4 address.

5.2.  Routes and Operational procedures

5.2.1.  "Context-Nexthop" discovery route

   The Context-NH discovery route may be a BGP-LU or [BGP-CT] family
   route that carries CPNH in the "Prefix" portion of the NLRI.  And the
   Context label is carried in the "Label" field in the [RFC8277] format
   NLRI.

   This route is advertised with the following path-attributes:

   *  BGP Nexthop attribute (code 14, MP_REACH) carrying GPNH address.

   *  Route-Target extended community, identifying the Transport class,
      if applicable.

   The "Context-Nexthop discovery route" is originated by each speaker
   who acts as a PLER.  The "RD:Context-nexthop" uniquely identifies the
   private MPLS FIB at the speaker.  The "Context-nexthop address"
   uniquely identifies the private MPLS plane in the network.  The
   Context label advertised in this route has a local forwarding
   semantic of "Pop, Lookup in Private MPLS FIB".

   A BGP speaker readvertising a BGP-CT Context-Nexthop for RD:CPNH
   discovery-route MUST follow the mechanisms described in [BGP-CT].
   Specifically when re-advertising with "next-hop self" MUST allocate a
   new Label with a forwarding semantic of "Swap Received-Context-Label,
   Forward to Received-GPNH".  This extends reachability to the CPNH
   across tunnel domains.

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5.2.2.  MPLS namespace "Private Label" routes

   The Private Label routes are carried in the new address-family "MPLS
   VpnUnicast" (AFI:16399, SAFI:128) aka "MPLS namespace signaling",
   defined in this document.

   The NLRI format follows the specifications in [RFC8277], with the
   "Prefix" portion of the NLRI comprising of the RD and "Private MPLS
   Label" encoded as shown below.

   In a MP_REACH_NLRI attribute whose AFI/SAFI is MPLS/128, the "Length"
   field will be 112 bits or less, comprising of the Label, RD and
   "Private MPLS Label".

   In a MP_REACH_NLRI attribute whose AFI/SAFI is MPLS/1, the "Length"
   field will be 48 bits or less, comprising of the Label, and "Private
   MPLS Label".

   NLRI Prefix (Private Label route, AFI:16399, SAFI:128)

    This picture shows NLRI format when the RFC-8277 Multiple Labels
    Capability is not used:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Length     |                 Label                 |Rsrv |S|
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |               Route Distinguisher (RD) (8 octets)             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |               Route Distinguisher (RD cont.)                  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Private MPLS Label               |Rsrv |S|
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Fig 1: RFC-8277 NLRI with one Label.

   - Length:
         The Length field consists of a single octet.  It specifies the
         length in bits of the remainder of the NLRI field.

        In a MP_REACH_NLRI attribute whose AFI/SAFI is MPLS/128, the
        "Length" field will be 112 bits or less, comprising of the
        Label, RD and "Private MPLS Label".

        As specified in [RFC4760], the actual length of the NLRI field
        will be the number of bits specified in the Length field,

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        rounded up to the nearest integral number of octets.

   - Label:
        The Label field is a 20-bit field containing an MPLS label value
        (see [RFC3032]). This label is locally significant, downstream
        allocated at the speaker identified in the BGP Nexthop field
        in MP_REACH_NLRI (code 14). This label is pushed in nexthop of
        the route installed in MPLS context FIB at receiving router.

   - Route Distinguisher (RD):
        The 8 byte Route Distinguisher as specified in [RFC4760].

   - Private MPLS Label:
        The "Private MPLS Label" field is a 20-bit field containing an
        MPLS label value (see [RFC3032]). This is an upstream assigned
        MPLS label, used as destination of route installed in MPLS
        context FIB at the receiving router.

   - Rsrv:
         This 3-bit field SHOULD be set to zero on transmission and
         MUST be ignored on reception.

   - S:
         This 1-bit field MUST be set to one on transmission and MUST
         be ignored on reception.

   Attributes on this route:

   *  BGP Nexthop attribute (code 14, MP_REACH) carrying a GPNH address.
      (OR)

   *  The Multi-nexthop attribute [MULTI-NH] with forwarding-semantic:

      -  "Forward to RD:CPNH"

   *  Route-Target extended-community, identifying the private FIB-layer

   MultiNexthop BGP-attribute (Private Label route)

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                    +--------------------------------------------+
                    |  MultiNH.Num-Nexthops = 1                  |
                    +--------------------------------------------+
                    |  FwdSemanticsTLV.FwdAction = Forward       |
                    +--------------------------------------------+
                    |  NHDescrTLV.NhopDescrType = RD:CPNH or GPNH|
                    +--------------------------------------------+

                    Fig 2: MultiNexthop attr of Private Label route

   A speaker MAY readvertise a private label route without changing the
   Nexthop (RD:CPNH) carried in it, if the speaker is a pure PLSR.

   If it does alter the nexthop to SelfRD:CPNH, it SHOULD act as a PLER,
   and for e.g. originate a "Context-Nexthop discovery route" for prefix
   "SelfRD:CPNH".

   Even if the speaker sets nexthop-address to Self because of regular
   BGP readvertisement-rules, Label Prefix MUST NOT be altered, and the
   received NLRI "RD:Private-Label1" MUST be re-advertised as-is.  Such
   that value of label "Private-Label1" doesn't change while the packet
   traverses multiple nodes in the private MPLS FIB layer.

   The Route target attached to the route is the one identifying the
   private MPLS FIB layer (VPN).  The Private label routes resolve over
   the Context-nexthop route that belong to the same VPN.

   A node receiving a "Private Label route" RD:L1 MUST install the label
   L1 in the private MPLS Forwarding-context idenfied by the Route-
   Target attached to the route.

   The label route MUST be installed with forwarding-semantic as
   specified in the received Multi-nexthop attribute.  As an example, a
   Detour node MAY receive the private label route with a forwarding-
   semantic of "Forward to RD:CPNH" operation.  And an Egress node MAY
   receive a private label route with a forwarding-semantic pointing to
   a resource it houses.  Note that such a Private label BGP route MAY
   be received from external-application also.

5.2.2.1.  Resolving received Private Label-routes

   A node receiving a "Context-nexthop discovery route" MUST be capable
   of using either the CPNH or the RD:CPNH carried in the NLRI, to
   resolve other routes received with this CPNH address or RD:CPNH in
   the "Nexthop-attributes".

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   The receiver of a private label route MUST recursively resolve the
   received nexthop (RD:CPNH) over the Context-Nexthop discovery-route
   for prefix "RD:CPNH" to determine the label stack "Context Label,
   Transport Label" to push, so that the MPLS packet with private label
   reaches the private MPLS FIB originating the route.

   If a node receives multiple "Context-nexthop discovery route" for a
   CPNH, it SHOULD run path-selection after stripping the RD, to find
   the closest ingress to the private MPLS plane identified by the CPNH.
   This best path SHOULD be used to resolve a received private label
   route.

6.  Example of Usecases

6.1.  Improve scaling and convergence of a Seamless MPLS network

   MPLS Namespaces can be used to improve scaling and convergence
   properties of a scaled BGP MPLS network.  It acts like a Mezanine
   transport layer that decouples the service layer from the actual
   transport layer.

   Typically service routes in a MPLS network bind to the following
   entities that identify point-of-presence of a service:

   *  Protocol Nexthop - PE loopback address (GPNH)

   *  Service Label - PE advertised locally signifcant label that
      identifies the service

   In this model, whenever a PE is taken out of service the GPNH
   changes, and Service-Label changes - which causes maintenance a heavy
   convergence event.  Because the service routes with massive-scale
   need to be readvertised with new service-label or PE-address.

   An alternate model could be: to advertise the service routes with a
   protocol-nexthop of CPNH (without RD), with a forwarding-semantic of:

   *  "Push <Private-Label>, and Forward to CPNH"

   This model fully decouples the service-layer from the transport-layer
   identifiers, by making the Service routes refer to the CPNH and
   Private Labels.  Thus the underlying transport layer can change
   (nodes representing a Private label can be added or removed) without
   any changes to the service routes.  Which present good scaling
   properties for the network.

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   This model also allows anycast traffic forwarding to any resource in
   the network.  Multiple PEs can advertise the same Private label to
   identify a specific service (e.g. peering with an AS) they are
   offering.

   Once the service route traffic enters the private FIB layer, at the
   closest entry-point determined by path-selection of CPNH auto-
   discovery routes; then the Private Labels (with pre determined
   values) pushed will determine the loose hop path taken by the traffic
   and also the destination-resource.

6.2.  Service Forwarding Helper usecase

   In a virtualized environment a Service-PE node (that comprises of a
   vCP and multiple vFPs) can mirror MPLS labels (GL1) in its global
   MPLS FIB to a private forwarding context at an upstream node (SFH)
   with information on which vFPs are optimal exit-points for that
   label.  Such that the SFH can optimally forward traffic to GL1 to the
   right vFPs, thus avoiding intra fabric traffic hops.

   To do this, the service PE advertises a private label route with
   RD:GL1 to the SFH node.  The route is advertised with a Multi-nexthop
   attribute with one or more legs that have a "Forward to SEPx"
   semantics.  Where SEPx is one of many exit-points at the Service-PE
   node.

6.3.  Standard BGP API to a MPLS network's forwarding-plane

   This mechanism facilitates predictable (external-allocator
   determined) label-values, using a standard BGP-family as the API.  It
   gives the external applications a separate MPLS FIB to play with,
   totally separate from other applications.

   This also avoids vendor specific-API dependencies for external-
   allocators (controller softwares), and vice-versa.

   This mechanism also increases the overal MPLS label-space available
   in the network, because it creates per application label forwarding
   contexts (namespaces), instead of reserving/splitting the global MPLS
   FIB among various applications.

6.4.  Traffic engineering and Security advantages

   *  Ability of ingress to steer mpls-traffic thru specific detour
      loose-hop nodes using predictable-labels' stack.

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   *  Provide label-spoofing protection at edge-nodes - by virtue of
      using separate mpls forwarding contexts

   *  Allow private MPLS label usage to spread across multiple-domains/
      AS and work seamlessly with existing technologies like Inter-AS
      VPN option C.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes following requests of IANA.

   New BGP AFI code ("Address Family Numbers" registry):

   *  16399 for "MPLS Namespaces"

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
   RFC.

8.  Security Considerations

   Using separate mpls forwarding contexts for separate applications and
   stitching them into separate MPLS planes increases the security
   attributes of the MPLS network.

9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Jeffrey (Zhaohui) Zhang, Ron Bonica, Jeff Haas and
   John Scudder for the valuable discussions.

10.  Normative References

   [BGP-CT]   Vairavakkalai, K., "BGP Classful Transport Planes", 6
              September 2022, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-ietf-idr-bgp-ct#name-limiting-scope-of-visibilit>.

   [MULTI-NH] Vairavakkalai, K., "BGP MultiNexthop attribute", 5
              November 2022, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-kaliraj-
              idr-multinexthop-attribute-04>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4364]  Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
              Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, DOI 10.17487/RFC4364, February
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4364>.

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   [RFC4760]  Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., and Y. Rekhter,
              "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 4760,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4760, January 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4760>.

   [RFC5331]  Aggarwal, R., Rekhter, Y., and E. Rosen, "MPLS Upstream
              Label Assignment and Context-Specific Label Space",
              RFC 5331, DOI 10.17487/RFC5331, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5331>.

   [RFC8277]  Rosen, E., "Using BGP to Bind MPLS Labels to Address
              Prefixes", RFC 8277, DOI 10.17487/RFC8277, October 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8277>.

Authors' Addresses

   Kaliraj Vairavakkalai
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   1133 Innovation Way,
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   United States of America
   Email: kaliraj@juniper.net

   Minto Jeyananth
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   1133 Innovation Way,
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   United States of America
   Email: minto@juniper.net

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