Skip to main content

Definition of End-to-end Encryption

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual in sec area)
Authors Mallory Knodel , Sofia Celi , Olaf Kolkman , Gurshabad Grover
Last updated 2023-04-20
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Informational
OPSDIR Early Review Incomplete, due 2022-10-03
OPSDIR Telechat Review Incomplete, due 2022-10-18
Additional resources GitHub Repository
Stream WG state (None)
Document shepherd (None)
IESG IESG state AD Evaluation::AD Followup
Action Holders
Consensus boilerplate Yes
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD Paul Wouters
Send notices to (None)
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
sec                                                            M. Knodel
Internet-Draft                                                       CDT
Intended status: Informational                                   S. Celi
Expires: 22 October 2023                                           Brave
                                                              O. Kolkman
                                                        Internet Society
                                                               G. Grover
                                                           20 April 2023

                  Definition of End-to-end Encryption


   This document provides a definition of end-to-end encryption (E2EE)
   from both the perspective of a regular internet user as well as from
   the perspective of required properties for implementers.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 22 October 2023.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 1]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Formal definition of end-to-end encryption  . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  End point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  End-to-end principle  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.3.  Encryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.4.  Concise definition of end-to-end encryption . . . . . . .   4
   3.  End-to-end encryption implementations . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.1.  Necessary properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.2.  Optional/desirable properties and features  . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Challenges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  End-user expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.1.  A conversation is confidential  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  Providers are trustworthy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.3.  Access by a third-party is impossible . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  The software of the end-to-end encrypted system can be
           trusted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.5.  Pattern inference is minimised  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.6.  The end-to-end encryption is not compromised  . . . . . .  11
   5.  Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   End-to-end encryption is an application of cryptography mechanisms
   and properties in communication systems between endpoints.  End-to-
   end encrypted systems are exceptional in providing both security and
   privacy properties through confidentiality, integrity and
   authenticity features for users.  Improvements to end-to-end
   encryption strive to maximize the user's security and privacy while
   balancing usability and availability.  Users of end-to-end encrypted
   communications expect trustworthy providers of secure implementations
   to respect and protect them.

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 2]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   This document describes that end-to-end encryption MUST provide both
   security and privacy properties.  It provides a definition of which
   specific security and privacy properties end-to-end encryption should

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Formal definition of end-to-end encryption

   End-to-end encryption, irrespective of the content or the specific
   methods employed, relies on two important and rigorous technical
   concepts: the end-to-end principle as defined in the IETF; and
   encryption, an application of cryptographic mechanisms and the
   primary means employed by the IETF to secure internet protocols and
   maintain the confidentiality of content delivered via these internet
   protocols.  Where end-to-end encryption is comprised of these
   necessary constituent parts, a systems approach also defines their
   interplay.  In the field of cryptography it is also possible to
   achieve a concise definition of end-to-end encrypted security.

2.1.  End point

   An "end" either sends messages or receives them, usually both.  Other
   systems on the path are just that: other systems.  Other systems MAY
   be used to facilitate the sending of messages between both "ends",
   but are not "ends" themselves.

   It is, however, not trivial to establish the definition of an end
   point in isolation. [hale] Depending on the context, an "end" may be
   a user; a device colocated with the user; or a set of devices
   controlled by a user that want to simultaneously participate in the

2.2.  End-to-end principle

   The end-to-end principle is a core architectural guideline of the
   Internet.  [RFC3724]

   The principle has evolved to an understanding that the "network's job
   is to transmit datagrams as efficiently and flexibly as possible",
   and the rest should be done at the ends.  [RFC1958] This principle
   can also be extended to the design of applications itself.

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 3]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

2.3.  Encryption

   Encryption is the process of using cryptographic methods to convert
   plaintext to ciphertext that is decipherable only by authorized
   parties.  Encryption can help extend the end-to-end principle in
   application design, where now (as before) the function of the network
   is limited to efficiently transporting messages, but additionally the
   network cannot access any part of the message itself.

   Encryption can be applied in an end-to-end context in many ways.  For
   example, applications may use the double-ratchet algorithm (which
   uses an authenticated encryption scheme) and of an Authenticated Key
   Exchange (AKE).  The usage of these algorithms (or variants of these)
   is present in many modern messenger applications such as those
   adopted in the IETF Messaging Layer Security working group, whose
   charter is to create a document that satisfies the need for several
   internet applications for group key establishment and message
   protection protocols [mls].  OpenPGP, mostly used for email, uses a
   different technique to achieve security and privacy.  It is also
   chartered in the IETF to create a specification that covers object
   encryption, object signing, and identity certification [openpgp].
   Both protocols rely on the use of asymmetric and symmetric
   encryption, and exchange long-term identity public keys amongst end

2.4.  Concise definition of end-to-end encryption

   An end-to-end-encryption service provides confidentiality, integrity,
   and authenticity between ends.  Another concise definition already
   exists for messaging: "End-to-end instant message encryption would
   conceal communications between one user's instant messaging
   application through any intermediate devices and servers all the way
   to the recipient's instant messaging application." [dkg]

   Confidentiality is broken if content can be decrypted at any
   intermediate point.

   As for integrity and authenticity, permission of data manipulation or
   creation of pseudo-identities for third parties to allow access under
   the user's identity also violate end-to-end encryption.  In other
   words, the application functions only for the end user and does not
   perform functions for any other entity coverly, nor overtly, say even
   if that entity claims to have obtained the consent of the end user.
   Thus, end point authenticity MUST be established as (sub-)identities
   of the end user, and end-to-end integrity MUST also be maintained by
   the system.  There is considerable system design flexibility
   available in the mechanisms for authentication and integrity,
   specifically data authentication, that still meet this requirement.

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 4]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

3.  End-to-end encryption implementations

   When looking at implementations of end-to-end encryption from a
   design perspective, the first consideration is the list of
   fundamental features that distinguish an end-to-end encrypted system
   from one that does not employ end-to-end encryption.  Secondly, one
   must consider the development goals for improving the features of
   end-to-end encryption, in other words, the challenges defined by the
   designers, developers and implementers of end-to-end encryption.

   The features and challenges listed below are framed comprehensively
   rather than from the perspective of their design, development,
   implementation or use.

3.1.  Properties

   This section defines the security properties of an end-to-end
   encrypted system.  The properties of end-to-end encryption from an
   implementation perspective can be split into two categories: 1) the
   required core properties of confidentiality, integrity and
   authenticity and 2) recommended additional properties for improved
   security, such as availability, deniability, forward secrecy, and
   post-compromise security, which are desirable enhancements.

3.1.1.  Necessary properties

   Confidentiality  A system provides message confidentiality if only
      the sender and intended recipient(s) can read the message
      plaintext, i.e. messages sent between participants can only be
      read by the agreed upon participants in the group and all
      participants share the identical group member list.

   Integrity  A system provides message integrity when it guarantees
      that messages have not been modified in transit.  If a message has
      been modified, it must be detected in a reliable way by the

   Authentication  A system provides authentication if the recipient and
      sender attest to each other's identities in relation to the
      contents of their communications.

3.1.2.  Optional/desirable properties and features

   There is a set of optional/desirable features that a end-to-end
   system can provide.  These properties can be related to the network,
   to the user interface or specialized variants of the previous

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 5]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   Availability  A system provides high availability if the user is able
      to access the contents of the message (decrypt them) when they so
      desire and potentially from more than one device.  For example, a
      message can arrive to a recipient even after they have been
      offline for a long time.  Note that applications that use this
      feature often implement a threshold for this property: number or
      aggregate size of messages; or messages from a month ago can be
      read by a user that has been offline, but not messages from a year

   Loss Resilience  If a message is permanently lost by the network,
      sender(s) and/or recipient(s) should still be able to communicate.

   Deniability  Deniability ensures that anyone able to decrypt a record
      of the transcript, including message recipients, cannot
      cryptographically prove to others that a particular participant of
      a communication authored a specific message.  As demonstrated by
      widely implemented protocols, this optional property must exist in
      conjunction with the necessary property of authentication, i.e.
      participants in a communication must be assured that they are
      communicating with the intended parties but this assurance cannot
      be transmitted to any other parties.

   Forward secrecy  Forward secrecy is a security property that prevents
      attackers from decrypting encrypted data they have previously
      captured over a communication channel before the time of
      compromise, if the attacker compromises one of the endpoints.
      Forward secrecy is usually achieved by regularly deriving new
      encryption/decryption keys, and destroying old keys that are no
      longer required to encrypt or decrypt messages.

   Post-compromise security  Post-compromise security is a security
      property that seeks to guarantee future confidentiality and
      integrity in the face of a passive end-point compromise (and
      consequently that communication sent post-compromise is protected
      with the same security properties that existed before the
      compromise).  It is usually achieved by adding new ephemeral key
      exchanges (new randomness) to the derivation of encryption/
      decryption keys every 'x' amount of time or after 'n' messages
      sent.  Note that post-compromise security is not met in the face
      of active attackers that compromise an end-point.  This property
      can add a level of complexity to a protocol as deriving new key
      material can be expensive, and, therefore, it has to be carefully
      evaluated as part of a system's design.

   Metadata obfuscation  Digital communication inevitably generates data

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 6]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

      other than the content of the communication itself, such as IP
      addresses, group memberships, and date and time of messages.  To
      enhance the privacy and security of end-to-end encryption, steps
      should be taken to minimize metadata.  Additional steps should be
      taken to prevent leakage such as hiding users' IP addresses,
      reducing non-routing metadata, and avoiding extraneous message

   Disappearing messages  For confidential conversations, deleting one-
      by-one sensitive messages typically depends on a level of client-
      side security that is unsustainable.  For example, endusers can
      still copy text or screenshot images outside the secured client
      application.  A certain level of trust among users of the system
      is required.  That said, features like "delete for me", "delete
      for everyone" or "disppearing messages" which is time based
      automated deletion of content do still provide a valuable defense
      amongst trusted parties in the event of a compromise of a device
      of one of the participants.

3.2.  Challenges

   Below is a best effort list of the challenges currently faced by
   protocol designers of end-to-end encrypted systems.  Problems that
   fall outside of this list are likely 1) unnecessary feature requests
   that negligibly, or do nothing to, achieve the aims of end-to-end
   encrypted systems, or are 2) in some way antithetical to the goals of
   end-to-end encrypted systems.

   *  Making messaging applications interoperable is an important goal
      for a healthy and user-centric internet ecosystem, however it
      requires careful design of protocols and systems, such as content
      type negotiation; provisions of global services, such as
      discovery; and a great deal of cooperation amongst implementers.

   *  Public key verification is very difficult for users to manage.
      Authentication of the two ends is required for secure and private
      conversations.  Therefore, solving the problem of verification of
      public keys is a major concern for any end-to-end encrypted system
      design.  Some applications bind together the account identity and
      the key, and leave users to establish a trust relationship between
      them, assisted by public key fingerprint information.

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 7]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   *  Users want to smoothly switch application use between devices, but
      this comes at a cost to the security and privacy of the
      communication.  Thus, there is a problem of availability in end-
      to-end encrypted systems because the account identity's private
      key is generated by and stored on the end-user's original device
      and to move the private key to another device can compromise the
      security of one of the end-points of the system (by opening the
      door to key-impersonation attacks, for example).

   *  Existing protocols are vulnerable to metadata analysis, even
      though metadata is often as sensitive as message content.
      Metadata is unencrypted (and often unencryptable) information that
      travels through the network and includes delivery-relevant details
      that servers require such as the account identity of end-points,
      timestamps, message size or more.  Metadata is difficult to
      eliminate or obfuscate entirely.

   *  Confidential and secure communications systems should also
      maintain the privacy of users but this is necessarily balanced
      with authentication and is related to the metadata problem for
      account identity.

   *  Users need to communicate in groups, but this presents scalability
      problems for traditional end-to-end encryption systems.  Message
      Layer Security protocol [mls] is a modern end-to-end encrypted
      message protocol that addresses this scalability concern.

   *  The whole communication should remain secure if only one message
      is compromised.  However, for encrypted communication, in some
      schemes, you must currently choose between forward secrecy or the
      ability to fully communicate asynchronously.  This presents a
      problem for application design that uses end-to-end encryption for
      asynchronous messaging over email, RCS, etc.

   *  Users of end-to-end encrypted systems should be able to
      communicate with any medium of their choice, such as text, audio,
      video, or miscellaneous files.  However, there is often a resource
      problem because there are no open protocols to allow users to
      securely share the same resource in an end-to-end encrypted

   *  Usability, accessibility and internationalisation features often
      need careful design and implementation with respect to security
      and privacy, such as message read status, typing indicators, URL/
      link previews, third-party input/output applications.

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 8]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   *  End user security tools like anti-virus plugins, spam filters,
      fraud protections are in conflict with the security and privacy
      considerations of the end-to-end application.

   *  Deployment is notoriously challenging for any software application
      where maintenance and updates can be particularly disastrous for
      obsolete cryptographic libraries.

4.  End-user expectations

   While the formal definition and properties of an end-to-end encrypted
   system relate to communication security and privacy, they do not draw
   from a comprehensive threat model or speak to what users expect from
   end-to-end encrypted communication.  It is in this context that some
   designs and architectures of end-to-end encryption may ultimately run
   contrary to user expectations of end-to-end encrypted systems
   [GEC-EU].  Although some system designs do not directly violate "the
   math" of encryption algorithms, they do so by implicating and
   weakening other important aspects of an end-to-end encrypted

4.1.  A conversation is confidential

   Users talking to one another in an end-to-end encrypted system should
   be the only ones that know what they are talking about [RFC7624].
   People have the right to data privacy as defined in international
   human rights law, and within the right to free expression and to hold
   opinions is inferred the right to whisper, whether or not they are
   using digital communications or walking through a field.

4.2.  Providers are trustworthy

   Trustworthy  A system is completely trustworthy if and only if it is
      completely resilient, reliable, accountable, and secure in a way
      that consistently meets users’ expectations.

   This definition is complete in its positive and negative aspects:
   what it is, e.g.  "Worthy of confidence" and what it is not, e.g. in
   RFC 7258: "behavior that subverts the intent of communicating parties
   without the agreement of those parties" [RFC7258].

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023                [Page 9]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   Therefore, a trustworthy end-to-end encrypted communication system is
   the provider of the set of functions needed by two or more parties to
   communicate among each other in a confidential, authenticated and
   integrity-preserving fashion without any third party having access to
   the content of that communication where the functions that offer the
   confidentiality, integrity and authenticity-preservation are
   providing these services to only the participants whom all know who
   are in the conversation.

4.3.  Access by a third-party is impossible

   No matter the specifics, any methods used to access to the content of
   the messages by a third party would violate a user's expectations of
   end-to-end encrypted messaging.  "[T]hese access methods scan message
   contents on the user’s [device]", which are then "scanned for matches
   against a database of prohibited content before, and sometimes after,
   the message is sent to the recipient" [GEC-EU].  Third party access
   also covers cases without scanning -- namely, it should not be
   possible for any third-party end point, even those under the user's
   identity as per Section 2.1, to access the data regardless of reason.

   If a method makes secure and private communication, intended to be
   sent over an encrypted channel between end points, available to
   parties other than the sender and intended recipient(s), that method
   violates the understood expectation of that security property.

4.4.  The software of the end-to-end encrypted system can be trusted

   A way by which users can reduce the risk of their system containing a
   "backdoor" and confirm their system is performing in accordance to
   cryptographic protocols' specifications is using systems that are
   releasing their software as open source.  Open source software allows
   technical users to analyse the system and be assured of its
   functioning.  While most users will not be able to do so, as typical
   users lack the technological knowledge needed to analyse source code,
   technilogical communities can do so.  It is vital that systems
   provide public security analyses of their source code enabling
   reproducible builds and audits and investigations that can be
   published and peer reviewed.

4.5.  Pattern inference is minimised

   Analyses such as traffic fingerprinting or other (encrypted or
   unencrypted) data analysis techniques, outside of or as part of end-
   to-end encrypted system design, allow third parties to draw
   inferences from communication that was intended to be confidential.
   "By allowing private user data to be scanned via direct access by
   servers and their providers," the use of these methods should be

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023               [Page 10]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   considered an affront to "the privacy expectations of users of end-
   to-end encrypted communication systems" [GEC-EU].

   Not only should an end-to-end encrypted system value user data
   privacy by not explicitly enabling pattern inference, it should
   actively be attempting to solve issues of metadata and traceability
   (enhanced metadata) through further innovation that stays ahead of
   advances in these techniques.

4.6.  The end-to-end encryption is not compromised

   RFC 3552 talks about the Internet Threat model such as the assumption
   that the user can expect any communications systems, but perhaps
   especially end-to-end encrypted systems, to not be intentionally
   compromised [RFC3552].  Intentional compromises of end-to-end
   encryption are usually referred to as "backdoors" but are often
   presented as additional design features under terms like "key escrow"
   or "exceptional access".  Users of end-to-end encryption would not
   expect a front, back or side door entrance into their confidential
   conversations and would expect a provider to actively resist --
   technically and legally -- compromise through these means.

5.  Conclusions

   From messaging to video conferencing, there are many competing
   features in an end-to-end encrypted implementation that is secure,
   private and usable.  The most well designed system cannot meet the
   expectations of every user, nor does an ideal system exist from any
   dimension.  End-to-end encryption is a technology that is constantly
   improving to achieve the ideal as defined in this document.

   Features and functionalities of end-to-end encryption should be
   developed and improved in service of end user expectations for
   privacy preserving communications.

6.  Acknowledgements

   Fred Baker, Stephen Farrell, Richard Barnes all contributed to the
   early strategic thinking of this document and whether it would be
   useful to the IETF community.

   The folks at Riseup and the LEAP Encryption Access Project have
   articulated brilliantly the hardest parts of end-to-end encryption
   systems that serve the end users' right to whisper.

   Ryan Polk at the Internet Society has energy to spare when it comes
   to organising meaningful contributions, like this one, for the
   technical advisors of the Global Encryption Coalition.

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023               [Page 11]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   Adrian Farrel, Eric Rescorla and Paul Wouters are acknowleded for
   their review, comments, or questions that lead to improvement of this

   Chelsea Komlo and Britta Hale have contributed their deep expertise
   and consice and rigourous writing to this draft.

7.  Security Considerations

   This document does not specify new protocols and therefore does not
   bring up technical security considerations.

   Because some policy decisions may affect the security of the
   internet, a clear and shared definition of end-to-end encryption is
   important in policy related discussions.  This document aims to
   provide that clarity.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

9.  Informative References

   [dkg]      Gillmor, D., "Human Rights Protocol Considerations
              Glossary", 2015,

   [GEC-EU]   Global Encryption Coaliation, "Breaking encryption myths:
              What the European Commission’s leaked report got wrong
              about online security", 2020,

   [hale]     "On End-to-End Encryption", 2021.

   [mls]      IETF, "Messaging Layer Security", 2018,

   [openpgp]  IETF, "Open Specification for Pretty Good Privacy", 2020,

   [RFC1958]  Carpenter, B., Ed., "Architectural Principles of the
              Internet", RFC 1958, DOI 10.17487/RFC1958, June 1996,

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023               [Page 12]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC3238]  Floyd, S. and L. Daigle, "IAB Architectural and Policy
              Considerations for Open Pluggable Edge Services",
              RFC 3238, DOI 10.17487/RFC3238, January 2002,

   [RFC3552]  Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC
              Text on Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3552, July 2003,

   [RFC3724]  Kempf, J., Ed., Austein, R., Ed., and IAB, "The Rise of
              the Middle and the Future of End-to-End: Reflections on
              the Evolution of the Internet Architecture", RFC 3724,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3724, March 2004,

   [RFC3935]  Alvestrand, H., "A Mission Statement for the IETF",
              BCP 95, RFC 3935, DOI 10.17487/RFC3935, October 2004,

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, DOI 10.17487/RFC7258, May
              2014, <>.

   [RFC7624]  Barnes, R., Schneier, B., Jennings, C., Hardie, T.,
              Trammell, B., Huitema, C., and D. Borkmann,
              "Confidentiality in the Face of Pervasive Surveillance: A
              Threat Model and Problem Statement", RFC 7624,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7624, August 2015,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <>.

   [saltzer]  Saltzer, et al, J. H., "End-to-end arguments in system
              design", 1984,

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023               [Page 13]
Internet-Draft                    e2ee                        April 2023

Authors' Addresses

   Mallory Knodel

   Sofía Celi

   Olaf Kolkman
   Internet Society

   Gurshabad Grover

Knodel, et al.           Expires 22 October 2023               [Page 14]