Including Recipients in DKIM Signatures

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Last updated 2017-05-19 (latest revision 2016-11-15)
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The DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) protocol applies a domain-level cryptographic signature to an e-mail message. DKIM only guarantees authenticity of the message content and does not consider the message envelope. This allows for replay attacks by recycling a signed message with an arbitrary new set of recipients. This document presents a protocol extension that can include original envelope information in the signature data, so that an altered that information renders the signature invalid.


Murray Kucherawy (

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