TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA), A Simple Proposal for Internet Addressing and Routing
RFC 1347

Document Type RFC - Historic (June 1992; No errata)
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Network Working Group                                  Ross Callon
        Request for Comments: 1347                                     DEC
                                                                 June 1992

                    TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA),
              A Simple Proposal for Internet Addressing and Routing

        Status of the Memo

        This memo provides information for the Internet community. It
        does not specify an Internet standard. Distribution of this
        memo is unlimited.

        1 Summary

        The Internet is approaching a situation in which the current IP
        address space is no longer adequate for global addressing
        and routing. This is causing problems including: (i) Internet
        backbones and regionals are suffering from the need to maintain
        large amounts of routing information which is growing rapidly in
        size (approximately doubling each year); (ii) The Internet is
        running out of IP network numbers to assign. There is an urgent
        need to develop and deploy an approach to addressing and routing
        which solves these problems and allows scaling to several orders
        of magnitude larger than the existing Internet. However, it is
        necessary for any change to be deployed in an incremental manner,
        allowing graceful transition from the current Internet without
        disruption of service. [1]

        This paper describes a simple proposal which provides a long-term
        solution to Internet addressing, routing, and scaling. This
        involves a gradual migration from the current Internet Suite
        (which is based on Internet applications, running over TCP or
        UDP, running over IP) to an updated suite (based on the same
        Internet applications, running over TCP or UDP, running over CLNP
        [2]). This approach is known as "TUBA" (TCP & UDP with Bigger

        This paper describes a proposal for how transition may be
        accomplished. Description of the manner in which use of CLNP,
        NSAP addresses, and related network/Internet layer protocols
        (ES-IS, IS-IS, and IDRP) allow scaling to a very large ubiquitous
        worldwide Internet is outside of the scope of this paper.

        Originally, it was thought that any practical proposal needed to
        address the immediate short-term problem of routing information
        explosion (in addition to the long-term problem of scaling to a
        worldwide Internet). Given the current problems caused by
        excessive routing information in IP backbones, this could require
        older IP-based systems to talk to other older IP-based systems
        over intervening Internet backbones which did not support IP.
        This in turn would require either translation of IP packets into

        Callon                                                    [Page 1]

        RFC 1347   TUBA: A Proposal for Addressing and Routing   June 1992

        CLNP packets and vice versa, or encapsulation of IP packets
        inside CLNP packets. However, other shorter-term techniques (for
        example [3]) have been proposed which will allow the Internet to
        operate successfully for several years using the current IP
        address space. This in turn allows more time for IP-to-CLNP
        migration, which in turn allows for a much simpler migration

        The TUBA proposal therefore makes use of a simple long-term
        migration proposal based on a gradual update of Internet Hosts
        (to run Internet applications over CLNP) and DNS servers (to
        return larger addresses). This proposal requires routers to be
        updated to support forwarding of CLNP (in addition to IP).
        However, this proposal does not require encapsulation nor
        translation of packets nor address mapping. IP addresses and NSAP
        addresses may be assigned and used independently during the
        migration period. Routing and forwarding of IP and CLNP packets
        may be done independently.

        This paper provides a draft overview of TUBA. The detailed
        operation of TUBA has been left for further study.

        2 Long-Term Goal of TUBA

        This proposal seeks to take advantage of the success of the
        Internet Suite, the greatest part of which is probably the use of
        IP itself. IP offers a ubiquitous network service, based on
        datagram (connectionless) operation, and on globally significant
        IP addresses which are structured to aid routing. Unfortunately,
        the limited 32-bit IP address is gradually becoming inadequate
        for routing and addressing in a global Internet. Scaling to the
        anticipated future size of the worldwide Internet requires much
        larger addresses allowing a multi-level hierarchical address

        If we had the luxury of starting over from scratch, most likely
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