Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
RFC 2338

Document Type RFC - Proposed Standard (April 1998; No errata)
Obsoleted by RFC 3768
Last updated 2013-03-02
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Network Working Group                                          S. Knight
Request for Comments: 2338                                     D. Weaver
Category: Standards Track                    Ascend Communications, Inc.
                                                              D. Whipple
                                                         Microsoft, Inc.
                                                               R. Hinden
                                                               D. Mitzel
                                                                 P. Hunt
                                                                   Nokia
                                                            P. Higginson
                                                                M. Shand
                                                 Digital Equipment Corp.
                                                               A. Lindem
                                                         IBM Corporation
                                                              April 1998

                   Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This memo defines the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP).
   VRRP specifies an election protocol that dynamically assigns
   responsibility for a virtual router to one of the VRRP routers on a
   LAN.  The VRRP router controlling the IP address(es) associated with
   a virtual router is called the Master, and forwards packets sent to
   these IP addresses.  The election process provides dynamic fail over
   in the forwarding responsibility should the Master become
   unavailable.  This allows any of the virtual router IP addresses on
   the LAN to be used as the default first hop router by end-hosts.  The
   advantage gained from using VRRP is a higher availability default
   path without requiring configuration of dynamic routing or router
   discovery protocols on every end-host.

Knight, et. al.             Standards Track                     [Page 1]
RFC 2338                          VRRP                        April 1998

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction...............................................2
   2.  Required Features..........................................5
   3.  VRRP Overview..............................................6
   4.  Sample Configurations......................................8
   5.  Protocol...................................................9
      5.1  VRRP Packet Format....................................10
      5.2  IP Field Descriptions.................................10
      5.3  VRRP Field Descriptions...............................11
   6.  Protocol State Machine....................................13
      6.1  Parameters............................................13
      6.2  Timers................................................15
      6.3  State Transition Diagram..............................15
      6.4  State Descriptions....................................15
   7.  Sending and Receiving VRRP Packets........................18
      7.1  Receiving VRRP Packets................................18
      7.2  Transmitting Packets..................................19
      7.3  Virtual MAC Address...................................19
   8.  Operational Issues........................................20
      8.1  ICMP Redirects........................................20
      8.2  Host ARP Requests.....................................20
      8.3  Proxy ARP.............................................20
   9.  Operation over FDDI and Token Ring........................21
      9.1  Operation over FDDI...................................21
      9.2  Operation over Token Ring.............................21
   10. Security Considerations...................................23
      10.1  No Authentication....................................23
      10.2  Simple Text Password.................................23
      10.3  IP Authentication Header.............................24
   11. Acknowledgments...........................................24
   12. References................................................24
   13. Authors' Addresses........................................25
   14. Full Copyright Statement..................................27

1.  Introduction

   There are a number of methods that an end-host can use to determine
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