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Recommendations for the Remediation of Bots in ISP Networks
RFC 6561

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                      J. Livingood
Request for Comments: 6561                                       N. Mody
Category: Informational                                     M. O'Reirdan
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                  Comcast
                                                              March 2012

      Recommendations for the Remediation of Bots in ISP Networks

Abstract

   This document contains recommendations on how Internet Service
   Providers can use various remediation techniques to manage the
   effects of malicious bot infestations on computers used by their
   subscribers.  Internet users with infected computers are exposed to
   risks such as loss of personal data and increased susceptibility to
   online fraud.  Such computers can also become inadvertent
   participants in or components of an online crime network, spam
   network, and/or phishing network as well as be used as a part of a
   distributed denial-of-service attack.  Mitigating the effects of and
   remediating the installations of malicious bots will make it more
   difficult for botnets to operate and could reduce the level of online
   crime on the Internet in general and/or on a particular Internet
   Service Provider's network.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6561.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

Livingood, et al.             Informational                     [Page 1]
RFC 6561           Remediation of Bots in ISP Networks        March 2012

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
      1.1. Key Terminology ............................................3
           1.1.1. Malicious Bots, or Bots .............................3
           1.1.2. Bot Networks, or Botnets ............................4
           1.1.3. Host ................................................5
           1.1.4. Malware .............................................5
           1.1.5. Fast Flux ...........................................5
   2. Problem Statement ...............................................6
   3. Important Notice of Limitations and Scope .......................7
   4. Detection of Bots ...............................................8
   5. Notification to Internet Users .................................12
      5.1. Email Notification ........................................13
      5.2. Telephone Call Notification ...............................13
      5.3. Postal Mail Notification ..................................14
      5.4. Walled Garden Notification ................................14
      5.5. Instant Message Notification ..............................16
      5.6. Short Message Service (SMS) Notification ..................16
      5.7. Web Browser Notification ..................................17
      5.8. Considerations for Notification to Public Network
           Locations .................................................18
      5.9. Considerations for Notification to Network
           Locations Using a Shared IP Address .......................18
      5.10. Notification and End User Expertise ......................19
   6. Remediation of Hosts Infected with a Bot .......................19
      6.1. Guided Remediation Process ................................21
      6.2. Professionally Assisted Remediation Process ...............22
   7. Failure or Refusal to Remediate ................................23
   8. Sharing of Data from the User to the ISP .......................23

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