Security Requirements of Time Protocols in Packet Switched Networks
RFC 7384

 
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Type RFC - Informational (October 2014; No errata)
Last updated 2014-10-16
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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        T. Mizrahi
Request for Comments: 7384                                       Marvell
Category: Informational                                     October 2014
ISSN: 2070-1721

                Security Requirements of Time Protocols
                      in Packet Switched Networks

Abstract

   As time and frequency distribution protocols are becoming
   increasingly common and widely deployed, concern about their exposure
   to various security threats is increasing.  This document defines a
   set of security requirements for time protocols, focusing on the
   Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
   This document also discusses the security impacts of time protocol
   practices, the performance implications of external security
   practices on time protocols, and the dependencies between other
   security services and time synchronization.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7384.

Mizrahi                       Informational                     [Page 1]
RFC 7384           Time Protocol Security Requirements      October 2014

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
   2. Terminology .....................................................5
      2.1. Requirements Language ......................................5
      2.2. Abbreviations ..............................................6
      2.3. Common Terminology for PTP and NTP .........................6
      2.4. Terms Used in This Document ................................6
   3. Security Threats ................................................7
      3.1. Threat Model ...............................................8
           3.1.1. Internal vs. External Attackers .....................8
           3.1.2. Man in the Middle (MITM) vs. Packet Injector ........8
      3.2. Threat Analysis ............................................9
           3.2.1. Packet Manipulation .................................9
           3.2.2. Spoofing ............................................9
           3.2.3. Replay Attack .......................................9
           3.2.4. Rogue Master Attack .................................9
           3.2.5. Packet Interception and Removal ....................10
           3.2.6. Packet Delay Manipulation ..........................10
           3.2.7. L2/L3 DoS Attacks ..................................10
           3.2.8. Cryptographic Performance Attacks ..................10
           3.2.9. DoS Attacks against the Time Protocol ..............11
           3.2.10. Grandmaster Time Source Attack (e.g., GPS Fraud) ..11
           3.2.11. Exploiting Vulnerabilities in the Time Protocol ...11
           3.2.12. Network Reconnaissance ............................11
      3.3. Threat Analysis Summary ...................................12
   4. Requirement Levels .............................................13
   5. Security Requirements ..........................................14
      5.1. Clock Identity Authentication and Authorization ...........14
           5.1.1. Authentication and Authorization of Masters ........15
           5.1.2. Recursive Authentication and Authorization
                  of Masters (Chain of Trust) ........................16
           5.1.3. Authentication and Authorization of Slaves .........17

Mizrahi                       Informational                     [Page 2]
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