0
No flower or bud. No inflorescence and not flowering at all
A. Lopez-Montes
AnthracInc
yam anthracnose disease incidence computation %
IITA
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber dry rot incidence computation in %
S_Bri
Boiled yam black spots presence scale 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
IITA
Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation estimation 0-3
A.Amele
Symptom on >51% of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue and covering a signifcant proprotion of the leaf surface. Areas with less than 1 cm width are coalescing to bigger spots also. Yellowing of green tissue is intense around the spots areas.
4
IITA
First sprout emergence time computation in days
Emerday
A.Amele
A.Amele
Fruit maturity time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
0
Non sticky
IITA
yam anthracnose disease severity estimation in 1-5
AnthracSev
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Boiled yam color estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
Color_BY
IITA
Tuber flesh texture estimation 1-3
A.Amele
IITA
Btbrwt
Weight of big tubers per plot measurement in kg
A.Amele
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Tuber shape estimation 1-4
TUBSHA
A.Amele
IITA
Polldate
Crossing date esimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
Spine base color estimation nominal 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
yam starch breakdown RVT
IITA
IITA
True seeds harvested/cross counting
Botseed
A.Amele
Aroma_BY
IITA
Boiled yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
Purplish green
4
IITA
Bulbil weight per plot measurement in kg
Aetubwtp
A.Amele
IITA
Plant stand harvested count
No_stdh
A. Lopez-Montes
Seed germination rate percentage
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
GR
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
A.Amele
Inflorescence type estimation
IITA
Small tubers per plant compuatation
A.Amele
IITA
IITA
TDMC
A. Lopez-Montes
Dry matter content percentage
1
aborted flower. Presence of small or rudimentary inflorescences/flowers that can show an abortion or abscission point at joint of the pedicel
IITA
Pollmech
Pollination type estimation 1-4
A.Amele
A.Amele
Cormtype
IITA
Corm type estimation 1-3
M_Bi
IITA
Mealybug incidence computation %
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
pounded yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
Aroma_PY
A.mele
A.Amele
IITA
stemdim
Stem diameter computation in mm
A. Lopez-Montes
VRSI
Virus incidence computation %
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber dry rot severity estimation 0-4
IITA
S_Brs
Leaf density estimation 1-7
A.Amele
IITA
5
Medium (50% of the plants are still green or on the onset of senescence. Only 50% plants in a plot with 25% of the leaves showing senescence or slight yellowing
A.Amele
IITA
TBRL
Average tuber length measurement in cm
Fruit setting estimation 0&1
frtform
A.Amele
IITA
IITA
Tuber dormancy period estimation
A. Lopez-Montes
Dorm
A.Amele
50% sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
DtFemer
Male flower
1
IITA
Matfrt
A. Lopez-Montes
Fruits harvested per cross counting
Mature leaf color estimation 1-5
A.Amele
IITA
Leaf width measurement in cm
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
DtFFlr
Flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
Presence of tuber dry rot estimation in 0&1
A.Amele
Btbrwidth
A.Amele
IITA
Big tuber width computation in cm
IITA
Medium tuber width computation in cm
Mtbrwidth
A.Amele
A.Amele
IITA
Stem height measurement in m
A.Amele
Petiole length measurement in cm
IITA
IITA
DtFlrin
A. Lopez-Montes
Flower initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Leaf beetle damage severity estimation in 1-5
A. Lopez-Montes
Btl_S
IITA
DAEGR
A.Amele
IITA
End of seeds germination time estiamtion in yy/mm/dd
Purple
100
MatC
IITA
Senescence class estimation 1-9
A.Amele
A.Amele
IITA
Total tuber weight per plot computation in kg
1
dislikeextremely
A.Amele
Upper surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
Number of internodes to first branching computation/plot
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber beetle severity estimation in 1-5
Tbets
IITA
IITA
Springness estimation 1-2
Strepdym
A.Amele
Stickiness estimation 1-3
Con_Stick_PY
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Fruit harvest time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Oxid
IITA
Tuber oxidation estimation 1-3
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam bitterness 0-100
IITA
Twining direction estimation 1-2
A. Amele
Thorn
IITA
Tuber thorniness estimation 0&1
A. Lopez-Montes
Dayendflr
A. Lopez-Montes
End of flowering time computation in days
IITA
Tuber flesh color measurement
Tbrflcolr
A.Amele
IITA
Spherical
1
Plant type estimation 1-3
A.Amele
GH
IITA
A.Amele
50% sprout emergence time computation in days
DyFemer
IITA
High
100
A.Amele
IITA
First leaf emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
5
like extremely
IITA
Stem color estimatiion 1-5
A.Amele
A.Amele
Medium size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
Pollinated florets counting
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
3
few thorns or spines on tuber surface
DATS
A.Amele
IITA
Time to 50% foliage senescence estimation in yy/mm/dd
Big tubers per plant computation
A.Amele
IITA
Big tuber length computation in cm
A.Amele
IITA
No purple
0
A.Amele
IITA
Fruit setting time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Appearance_BY
Boiled yam appearance estimation 1-5 scale
IITA
A.mele
Very Late (all the plants in a plot still show green foliage (green leaf and vine)
1
Absent
0
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Con_Taste_PY
Taste estimation 1-5
Easy to cut
0
IITA
Total tuber yield computation in t/ha
A.Amele
TubYld
A.Amele
IITA
Lower surface vein color estimation 1-4
Twining habit estimation 0-1
IITA
A.Amele
TWNH
5
Moderate (producing some flowers mostly 10-29 inflorescences per plant)
A.Amele
IITA
Small tubers per plot counting number
IITA
Scale insect infestation estimation 0-2
A.Amele
dislike
2
A.Amele
IITA
Spines on sprout presence estimation nominal 0&1
Oval
2
SPRTL
A.Amele
IITA
Sprout length measurement in cm
A.Amele
Sprout hairiness estimation nominal 0&2
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
Weight of big tubers per plant measurement in kg
MTWPL
Emerged plants counting/plot
A.Amele
IITA
Not crumby
0
Seedling establishment rate percentage
IITA
sder
A. Lopez-Montes
End of flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A. Lopez-Montes
DtendFlr
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Big tuber yield computation in t/ha
IITA
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam bitter after taste 0-100
AetbrYld
IITA
Bulbil yield estimation in t/ha
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Internode length computation in cm
INODL
A.Amele
IITA
AetbrwtPl
A.Amele
Bulbil yield per plant measurement in kg
2
oxidizes between 1 and 2 minure after cutting
A.Amele
Estbp-ratio
IITA
Field establishment rate compuation in %
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Sprout color estimation 1-5
SPCOLO
FrtN
A. Lopez-Montes
Fruits developed per cross counting
IITA
3
51-75% tuber skin showing symptoms
Rough
1
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam brownness scale 0-100
IITA
Tuber size estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
TUBSIZE
DM
Time to 50% foliage senescence computation in days
A.Amele
IITA
Aetbrshap
A.Amele
Shape of bulbil estimation 1-4
IITA
DateHS
Foliage senescence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
IITA
Weight of small tubers per plot measurement in kg
A.Amele
IITA
Stbrwt
A.Amele
IITA
Seeds sown/family counting
Boiled yam stickness scale 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Bulbils per plant computation
A.Amele
IITA
Aetbrpl
Purple
5
A.Amele
Fiber estimation 1-2
IITA
IITA
Appearance of tuber surface estimation 1-4
A. Lopez-Montes
Number of dry rot tubers count
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
Number of leaves per plant count
IITA
Color_PY
A.mele
pounded yam color estimation 1-5 scale
Seeds set/fruit computation
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
6
creamy
A.Amele
Estbp-N
IITA
Established plants counting/plot
A.Amele
IITA
Fruit index computation 0 to 1
Internode length measurement in cm
A.Amele
IITA
IITA
Leaf apex shape estimation 1-3
A.Amele
Non flowering
0
4
like
IITA
Hairiness of tuber estimation 1-3
TBR_Hairy
A. Lopez-Montes
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam sweetness 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
No visible symptoms of anthracnose disease or infection spot on the leaf surface
1
2
slightly sticky
Neither like nor dislike
3
2
26-50% tuber skin showing symptoms
Leaf beetle damage incidence computation %
IITA
Btl_I
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber flesh color middle portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_middle
IITA
Rot_Wt
A. Lopez-Montes
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers per plot measurement in kg
Leaf length measurement in cm
A.Amele
IITA
1
oxidizes less than a minure
A.Amele
Fruit development status estimation 1-2
IITA
A.Amele
DAFGR
Seeds germination start time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
100
Bitter
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam whiteness scale 0-100
3
Late (75% of the plants in a plot with still green foliage but few plants (upto 25% plants in a plot) showing up to 25% of leaves senescence
Yam ontology
Yellow
3
Monoecious female(f>m)
4
0
not uniform
fruit set number percentage
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
A.Amele
IITA
Seeds germinated counting
Txt_BY
IITA
Boiled yam texture estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
Thorny (small prominences ending in a small thorn)
3
IITA
tbrwidth
Average tuber width computation in cm
A.Amele
A.Amele
Secondary sprouting estimation nominal 0&1
SECSP
IITA
5
like extremely
Root position estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
Vine cutting establishment rate percentage
A.Amele
IITA
Taste_BY
IITA
Boiled yam taste estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
IITA
Tuber beetle incidence computation %
Tbeti
A. Lopez-Montes
orange
9
Extremely pofuse (plant producing with abundant flowring mostly more than 50 inflorescences per plant)
9
IITA
Bulbil presence estimation 0&1
A. Lopez-Montes
AeTuber
A. Lopez-Montes
DAYHS
IITA
Foliage senescence time computation in days
0
No brown
Easy
100
Flowering intensity estimation 0-9
FLRI
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Profuse (plant producing many more flowers mostly 30 to 50 inflorescences per plant)
7
A.Amele
IITA
Total tubers per plant computation
Maturity time estimation GGD
A.Amele
IITA
IITA
SETW
Weight of planted tubers computation/ gm
A. Lopez-Montes
0
Absent
IITA
Canopy architecture estimation 1-4
Canopy
A. Lopez-Montes
like
4
Corm size estimation 1-3
A.Amele
Cormsize
IITA
Small tuber width computation in cm
Stbrwidth
A.Amele
IITA
Medium tubers per plant computation
A.Amele
IITA
A.mele
Appearance_PY
Pounded yam appearance estimation 1-3 scale
IITA
moderately attractive
2
A.Amele
IITA
Total tubers per plot computation
A. Lopez-Montes
virus severity estimation in 1-5
IITA
VRSS
Boiled yam chewingness scale 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Many
2
R_Kni
A. Lopez-Montes
Root knot nematode incidence computation %
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
First inflorescence initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Smoothness estimation 1-3
A.Amele
IITA
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber flesh color lower portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_tail
A.Amele
IITA
Upper surface vein color estimation 1-4
Spines on stem estimation 0-2
A.Amele
IITA
2
Hairy (few scattered or many roots in the surface of the tuber)
IITA
Tuber flesh color upper portion estimation 1-9
A. Lopez-Montes
Flcolr_head
100
Difficult to cut
flrsex
A.Amele
plntsex
IITA
Plant sex estimation 0-4
Emerdt
First sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
IITA
IITA
Leaf position estiamtion 1-3
A.Amele
Ratiosp
A.Amele, A. Lopez-Mentes
IITA
Proportion of emerged plants (sprouts) computation/%
3
Neither like nor dislike
IITA
Tuber surface crack estimation 0-3
A.Amele
A.Amele
IITA
Crazy roots presence estimation 0&1
Stems per plant computation per plant
stnp
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Female flowering intensity per spike estimation 1-4
fflrab
A.Amele
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Aetbrp
IITA
Bulbils per plot count
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam hardness scale 0-100
very sweet
5
Seedling survival rate percentage
A.Amele
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Pollinated spikes counting
NPOLS
IITA
5
like extremely
A.Amele
Small size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
IITA
Flesh oxidation color estimation 1-4
A.Amele
IITA
Fruit set number estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
FRTINT
3
Low (flowering is scare with the presence of few flowers mostly less than 10 inflorescences per plant)
A.Amele
Time to first leaf emergence computation
IITA
highly oxidizing
3
Granular
100
dislikeextremely
1
Absent
0
deep purple
8
A. Lopez-Montes
Bulbil initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Aetbrin
IITA
100
Sticky
1
Yes
IITA
Root knot nematode severity estimation in 1-5
A. Lopez-Montes
R_kns
Weight of medium tubers per plant computation kgplt
IITA
A.Amele
A.Amele
IITA
Big tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
2
dislike
7
High
IITA
Times to bulbil initiation computation
Dayaetbrin
A.Amele
A.Amele
IITA
Young leaf color estimation 1-5
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber surface texture estimation 1-2
IITA
A.Amele
flcol_uni
IITA
Uniformity of tuber flesh color estimation binary 0&1
1
Yellowish
A.Amele
IITA
Weight medium tubers per plot measurement in kg
Mtbrwt
1
Smooth
A.Amele
IITA
First inflorescence initiation time computation
no thorns or spines on tuber surface
0
NRDT
A.Amele
Rotten tubers per plot counting number
IITA
4
Long (More than 50% of the tubers sprouted at three month after harvesting time)
1
very bitter
A.Amele
IITA
Total tuber weight per plant computation in kg
Irregular
4
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam granuleness 0-100
Boiled yam odour scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
A. Lopez-Montes
Plant vigor estimation 1-3
PLNV
IITA
Creamy white
2
Medium tubers per plot counting number
A.Amele
IITA
7
early (The plants have senescent foliage (75% of the plants in a plot with 50% leaves showing sign of yellowing but the vines still green)
cormsep
Separability of corm estimation binary 0&1
A.Amele
IITA
Pounded yam texture estimation 1-3 scale
IITA
Txt_PY
A.mele
DF
A.Amele
Flowering time computation in days
IITA
Difficult
0
Boiled yam crumbness scale 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Pure white
100
A.Amele
IITA
Corm estimation binary 0&1
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam fibrousness scale 0-100
acronym
4
like
3
very attractive
Average tuber weight computation in kg
A.Amele
IITA
Intermediate
5
0
Low
1
not attractive
M_Bs
IITA
Mealybug severity estimation in 1-5
A. Lopez-Montes
Vine cuttings planted count
A.Amele
IITA
Severe necrosis and death of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue more than 1.5 cm of diameter and covering a great proprotion of the leaf surface. Yellowing of the gree tissue is generalised in the leaf blade.
5
A.Amele
IITA
Sett-N
Tubers planted counting/plot
Few
1
4
Purple
Neither like nor dislike
3
Not sticky
3
sticky
1
IITA
Weight of small tuber per plant computation kgplant
A.Amele
Monoecious male (m>f)
3
intermediate
2
IITA
Tuber thorniness intensity estimation 0-7
A.Amele
0
no oxidization
Purplish white
5
A.Amele
Number of branches per plant count
IITA
White
1
A.Amele
IITA
Leaf shape estimation 1-7
Stem hairiness estimation 0-2
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
Big tuber average weight computation in kg
3
Dark green
IITA
DFM
Times to fruit maturity computation in days
A.Amele
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam purpleness scale 0-100
slightly oxidizing
1
0
No
3
Neutral
like extremely
5
2
Rough
A.Amele
Cohesiveness estimation 1-3
IITA
Many thorns or spines on tuber surface
7
3
oxidizes more than 3 minutes
76-100% tuber skin showing symptoms
4
sweet
4
Absent
0
dislike
2
uniform
1
IITA
Fower initiation time computation in days
A. Lopez-Montes
Dayflrin
Absent
0
3
soft or smooth
A.Amele
Lower surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
attribute
9
very early (The plants are completely senescent, yellowing is complete and uniform (both leaves and vines 100% senescence)
4
like
A.Amele
IITA
Seed index computation 0 to 1
Pale green
2
7
brownish white
Big tubers per plot counting number
A.Amele
IITA
0
Not granular
4
Fully smooth
Crumby
100
2
Slightly bitter
100
Fibers
No fibers
0
1
1-25% tuber skin showing symptoms
2
female flower
100
Sweet
1
dislikeextremely
Anthracnose symptoms covering ~26 t0 ~50% of the plant. One or two spots of more than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface. Small dark and no dried spots with more than 1 cm width, are present
3
Few anthracnose spots or sysmptoms on 1 t0 ~25% of the plant. One or two spots of less than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface
2
100
Brown
0
Abesnt
Present
100
entity
Low
3
strong or hard or lumpy
1
No symptoms
0
1
Present
Present
100
3
Cylindrical
Off white
0
Corm separability from tuber
Corm separation from tuber
separation
corsep
Hardness scale 0-100
GDDâˆžC
YADS
Anthracnose severity caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. The reaction of plants in a plot to anthracnose infestation (blight or leaf spot) under screenhouse or in the field under natural infestation or artificial inoculation
Yam anthracnose disease severity
Anthracnose severity
method_of
number
NVP
Vine cuttings planted
Vine cuttings planted
Emerged sprouts -Counting
Count the emerged plants (sprouts) per plot every week starting from first plant/sprout emergence date till the last plant or spourt emerge in a plot
Record weight of rotten and/or diseased tubers harvested in a net plot
Rotten tuber fresh weight per plot - Measurement
Rotten tubers in a plot number-counting
Count the number of rotten and/or diseased tubers in effective plot
bulbil/plant
Big size tubers per plant-computation
Compute the number of big size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of big size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Senescence time
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
Datfsen
Foliage senescence time
Survival rate
Establishment rate of seedlings four weeks after transplanting operation
Tsurvrat
Seedling transplant survival rate
Twining habit
TWNH
Tendency of climbing or trailling
twining habit
%
1-4 scale
NINFB
Number of internodes to first branching
Number of internodes to first branchs on a plant
number
Record the twining or climbing direction of the vine
Twining direction-Estimation
number of spikes
0-1 scale
1-3 scale
Total tuber fresh weight per plot -computation
Compute the sum all category or size of tubers (Big, medium, small size, and rotten and diseased) fresh weight per plot
Record the method used to transfer the pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same or different plant of the same species
Pollination type-Estimation
Taste of boiled yam-Estimation
Feel the taste of boiled yam in mouth and make sensory score using scale how pleasing to the taste
kg/plot
Score corm status of tubers using a binary scale
Corm on tubers-Estimation
Total tuber yield
Total tuber yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
yield
TTYNA
Secondary sprouting
SecSP
Secondary sprouting
Emergence of secondary sprouts on a plant
Density of spines on stem base of a plant-Etimation
Visual assessment of spines on a stem (vine) above the base of mature plants in a plot
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of pouned yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Appearance of pounded yam-Estimation
Plant Vigor
PVigor
vigor
The vigour of the vine and leaves of the new plant.
Stmcol
color
The surface color of stem
Stem color
Record corm size in relation to tuber size using three scale
Corm size-Estimation
days
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Dryrot
Number
fruiting ratio
Fruit index is an estimation of pollinated flowers developing physiologically mature fruits
Fruit index
Reaction of the total plants per plot to the virus infection, producing yellow mottle, mosaic and leaves deformation
Virus incidence
Virus incidence
VirusInc
0-1 binary scale
1-4 score
Times to the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Computation
Compute the number of days required from first sprout emergence to the first leaf to emerge on a sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
Number
Number of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) per plant
NMTPL
Medium size tubers per plant
Computing the number of days required from 50% of sprout emergence to when plant does not produce more new flowers.
End of flowering time - Computation
Tuber number/plot
gm/sett
Weight
RDTW
Rotten tuber weight
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers
Medium size tuber width
Average width of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Mtbrwd
Vestrat
Proportion of vine cuttings established well that producing shoots
Vine cutting establishment rate
establishment rate
Fruit set number - Computation
Compute the fruit set number as proportion of pollinated flowers developing or setting a fruit and expressed in %
cm
Width of big size tubers-Computation
Measure the width of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using vernier calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Leaf shape of plants
Lfshp
shape
Leaf shape
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of big size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Big size yam fresh weight per plant- computation
Flowering intensity - Estimation
Record the abundance or intesity of flowering when more than 50% of the plants are flowered in a plot
Tbrwd
Tuber width
Average width of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Wideth
Number of stems (vines) with leaves and branches per plant
number
Stems per plant
Nstem
End of flowering time or when a plant does not produce new flower in a plot
Time to end of flowering
end of flowering time
TIMEF
Number
branch
Branch number
Number of branches above ground
Assess the leaf beetle infestation at two and five months after planting and record its severity
Leaf beetle severity - Estimation
Fruits harvested number - Counting
Record the number of harvested fruits per cross
Tubtlsev
Tuber beetle severity
Tuber beetle severity
Severity of tuber beetle damage.
Total fresh tuber weight per plot
weight
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers harvested in a net plot
TTWP
Quantity of Female spikes where flowers has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
NPollSpk
Pollinated spikes number
number
Assess the fruit number as fruiting intensity in categorical scale when more than 50% of the plants set fruits
Fruit set number - Estimation
Sprout length
Spleng
Length of sprouted shoots (vines)
length
Tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation rate
Enzymatic oxidation rate
Tuber flesh oxidation
Tfoxd
Time when 50% of the plants flower in a plot
TIMFL
50% flowering time
Time to 50% flowering
Foliage senescence time
Senescence time
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
TIMfsen
Stem diameter
Stem diameter of a mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
STMDM
diameter
Number of plant
Color of the sprout (vine and leaves).
color
SprtCol
Sprout color
Height or the length of stem
Stem height
Stmht
height
Date (yyyymmdd)
Purpleness scale 0-100
germRate
germination rate
Seed germination rate
A proportion of sown true (botanical) seed which germinate and produce seedling
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing less than 500 gm harvested per effective plot
Small size tubers harvested per plot number - counting
Tuber flesh color lower or tail portion- Estimation
Observe and record fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the tail portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
Time of first seed germination-Estimation
Record date the first seed germination observed per cross or family
50% emergence time
50% sprout emergence time
TIMSE
Time to 50% sprouts (plants) emerge in a plot
Growing degere days to maturity-Estimation
Compute number of growing degree days required from planting (or 50% emergence) to 50% foliage senescence or maturity.
Dry rot tuber number-counting
Take count of dry rot tubers per plot at harvest
number of seed
Hairiness of stem
hairiness
stmhair
Stem hairiness
Texture in the mouth method
Put the product between the molars and mash it to assess the number of chews before swallowing
Big size tubers per plant
NBTPL
Number of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) per plant
number
tuber number/plant
Root knot nematode severity estimation in a range from no symptoms to highly severe galling scored in secondary roots of the plant and tubers adventitious roots.
Root knot nematode severity - Estimation
Maturity class
Senescence
SE
Foliage senescence or maturity class
Granuliness 0-100
Yield
Bulbil yield
Bulbyld
Yield of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Fruiting ability
Time to fruit setting
Times fruit formation or set on monoeciuse or femal flowers of dioeciouse yam plants
Frtset
Width of medium size tubers-Computation
Measure the width of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg )from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Score the distance to which the deformed material can be or degree of stretchabiliy pounded yam in intesity scale
Springiness of pounded yam-Estimation
Tuber oxidation-Estimation
Record time in minutes lasted for cut tuber flesh to become or not oxidized and score in scale
Medium size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of medium size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Seeds germinated
sdgerm
Number
Quanity of sown true (botanical) seeds germinated per cross or family
Compute the number of days required from sprout emergence or planting to when all plants had fully senesced
Foliage senescence time - Computation
Seedling Establishment rate
sderat
Establishment rate of seedlings
Establishment rate
1-7 general scale
Fruit maturity time - Estimation
Record the date 90% of the developed fruits shows sign of physiological maturity (turning brown)
1-5 scale
Compute the number of days required from fruit set to fruit phyisological maturity
Fruit maturity time - Computation
Score the presence or absence of ?ber strands on pounded yam
Presence of fiber strand-Estimation
Fibrousness of pounded yam
fbrpdym
Presence of fiber strands
Presenceof ?ber strands
Percentage
NTP
Number
Number of seed tubers planted in a plot or unit area
Tubers planted
Petiole length - Computation
Measure the length of petiole using measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average length
number of fruits
Record time (date) when the plant does not produce more new flowers in a plot
End of flowering time - Estimation
Quantity of developed fruits per crosses
Nfrts
Number
Fruit developed number
Weight
Weight of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Bulbwtp
Bulbil weight
Pounded yam texture
texture
txtpoundedyam
The physical attributes of pounded yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
Length
Tbrleng
Tuber length
Average length of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Time of first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Estimation
Record time of the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vine)
petlngth
Petiole length
Lengh
Length of petiole
Assess the small or odour the boiled yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the boiled yam to eat
Aroma of boiled yam-Estimation
WMTPL
Weight of medium size tuber yam per plant
weight
Medium size tuber weight per plant
1-3 scale
TastePndedYam
Taste of pounded yam
taste
Taste of pounded yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
The degree to which the pounded yam is adhesive or stick to the fingure, mouth surface and teeth
Stickiness of pounded yam
StickPndedYam
Stickiness
Record the date when all plants in a plot shows a sign of 100% foliage senescence
Foliage senescence time - Estimation
Boiled yam brownness
Brownness
Brown colour of product after cooking
BoilYamBrow
1-5 scale
Leaf beetle damage severity
Lfbtsev
Severity of leaf beetle damage.
Leaf beetle severity
Length of medium size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg ) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Measure the width from the widest part of leaf using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average width
Leaf width - computation
Bitterness after taste 0-100
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of all categroy/size tubers taken in a plot to the number of harvested plant in a net plot
Total tuber fresh weight per plant-computation
Length of time toward crop maturity
Mat
Maturity time
Time to maturity
Emerged sprouts or plants proportion-Computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of plants/sprouts emerged as the number of emerged plants/sprouts divided by the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted in a plot multiplied by 100
Boiled yam crumbness
BoilYamHdCrum
Crumbness in hand
Property of the product to crumble or break between the fingers
SPBCOL
Presence of spot on spine base
colored spot
Presence of colored spots at the spine base of sprouted shoots (vine) with spines
Score the degree of fruit development in scale
Fruit development intensity-Estimation
Compute the proportion of seedlings per family (cross) establish well and ready for transplanting, usually recorded at five weeks after sowing.
Seedling establishment rate-computation
Seeds germination end time
Time last seed germination occurred
germination ending time
germend
Compute the weight to harvested bulbils per plant
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per plant-computation
Record date of first spout emergence in a plot
Time first sprout emergence-Estimation
Average length of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Stbrleng
Small size tuber length
Established plants
Number
Number of well established plants ( plants growing with good vigour and without severe constraints) in a plot
NESP
Anthracnose severity - Estimation
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by yam anthracnose disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected.It is visual score in scale under screenhouse, artificial inoculation or under field natural infestation. For artificial inoculation use a suspension of three most virulent strains of Colletothrichum gloeosporioides and inoculate the plants raised from vine cutting in vertical sack or other means by spraying. For natural infestation, scores can be taken 10 to 12 weeks after planting and second scoring about 4-6 weeks before harvesting . Artificial inoculation should be scored at 3 days after inoculation(DAI) , and repeated at 7DAI, 11DAI and 15DAI
Black points presence
Boiled yam surface black points presence
BoilYamBlackspo
Refers to the presence of small black points on the surface of product
Compute the average tuber width of all size measurement taken in a net plot
Tuber wideth-computation
Total tuber harvested number-computation
Compute the sum of all category/size tubers (big, medium, small and rotten/diseased) in a net plot
Compute the proportion tubers infested with mealybugs from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot at time of harvesting.
Mealybug tuber incidence - Computation
Record time (date) of first flower initiation in a plot or the date any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
Flower initaition time - Estimation
number of fruit
Times to 50% spout emergence-Computation
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date 50% of sprouts or plants in a plot emerged
YADI
Yam anthracnose disease incidence
Anthracnose incidence
Anthracnose incidence caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. % of anthracnose ?blight? or leaf spotaffected plants in a plot
lfpst
arrangement
Arrangement of leaves on stem or vine
Leaf position
Taste of pounded yam - Estimation
Score taste of pounded yam using sensory test panalist
Measure the length or height of stem or vine of at least five mature plants in a plot using measuring tape at five to six months after sprout emergence and record the average
Stem height - computation
Determination of predominant canopy architecture
Canopy architecture - Estimation
kg/plant
Tuber beetle incidence
Tuber beetle incidence
Tubtlinc
Incidence of tuber beetle damage.
Oxidation intensity
Intensity of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation (degree of flesh color change or browning of cut yam tuber)
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity
Intoxd
Refers to the presence of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
Fibrousness in hand
Boiled yam fibrousness
BoilYamHdFibr
Leaf beetle incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion of plants with leaf beetle damage from the total number of plants in the effective plots on leaf beetle damange record taken twice(at two and five months after planting date)
Boiled yam aroma
arombldyam
aroma
The sense of smell or odor of boiled yam that reaches the nose before eating or the boiled yam reaches the mouth
Virus severity
Virus severity
Grade of reaction of the plant to the viruses infection, varying from mottle, mosaics until total leaves deformation
VirusSev
Stickness scale 0-100
Weight of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
Big size tubers weight per plot
BTW
Weight
Compute as the total number of tubers in a net plot divided by the number of harvested plant per net plot
Total tubers per plant-computation
Tuber dry matter content
Dry matter content
Proportion of dry matter in the tuber.
TubDMC
Dormancy period -Estimation
Assess the proportion of sprouted tubers at different time interval (once a week) from harvesting up to three months after harvesting and rate the dormancy period in scale
Smoothness of pounded yam- Estimation
Score the smoothnessof the pounded yam , i.e., absence of lumps by finger feeling and using intensity scale
Leaf hairiness
hairiness
llfhair
Hairiness of leaf surface
MTW
Weight of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
Weight
Medium size tubers weight per plot
number
Number of plants harvested
NPH
Stand harvested number
Bulbil shape
Shape
Predominant shape of the bulbils
Bulbsp
Property related to the adhesion of the product between the fingers
Stickness in hand
Boiled yam stickness
BoilYamHdStick
Count the number of pollinated spikes per female parent per cross
Pollinated spike number - Estimation
Root knot nematode incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion tubers showing root knot nematode symptoms from the total number of harvested tubers in effective plot
0-3 scale
Texture in the hand method
After breaking or cutting, breaking or crumbling, evaluate the intensity of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
Boiled yam appearance
appboiledyam
The optical appearance of boiled yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of boiled yam structure
appearance
Observe the occurance or presence of dry rot caused by nematods (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) on harvested tubers and record the presence and absence
Dry rot presence on harvested tubers-Estimation
Record emergence of new secondary sprouts from the planted seed tuber/sett in a plot at three months after planting
Secondary sprouting - estimation
width
Width of leaf
lfwdt
Leaf Width
Vines established-computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of vines cuttings survive and producing shoots from the total of planted vine cuttings
Whiteness scale 0-100
Taste method
After swallowing, observe the feeling or sensation of the bitter taste on the tongue and assess its intensity
Distance to which the deformed material can be sretchable
Springiness of pounded yam
sprgpdym
Springiness
Record the date crossing made in particular flower of a plant.
Date crossing-Estimation
Sprout length-computation
Compute the average sprout length of five representative plants measurement taken in a plot
Bulbil initiation time - Computation
Compute number of days required from sprout emergence to 50% of plants in a plot start forming bulbils or aerial tubers
Cracks on the tuber surface-Estimation
Record appearance of cracks on tuber surface as absent, few and many
Number of harvested fruits per cross after physiological maturity
Number
Fruits harvested number
FrtHvstN
Bulbil yield (Plot weight) - Measurement
Record the fresh weight of harvested bulbil or aerial tuber per net plot
Plant or flower sex-Estimation
Scoring the most frequent flower sex type when more than 50% of the plants are flowered
Surface color resulting of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation
Tuber flesh oxidation color
Foxdc
Oxidation color
Compute the proportion of virus symptomatic individuals or their parts or commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Take virus incidence recording thrice: First inspection at 8 to 10 weeks after planting and second inspection after 4 to 6 weeks after first inspection for virus symptoms and the third and final inspection 4 to 6 weeks after the second inspection .
Viruses infection incidence - Computation
Times to first sprout emergence-Computation
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date first sprout or plant in a plot or unit area emerged
Big size tuber yield adjusted
Big size tubers yield adjusted tons per hectare
yield
BTYA
Record the date of fruits harvest in a crossing block or from plant
Fruit harvesting time- Estimation
Observe the leaf abundance or mass on a mature plant and rate the density
Leaf density - Estimation
Calculated as total tuber weight per plot divided by total number of tubers per plot
Average tuber weight -computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of small size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Small size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Place of roots on tubers
Roots position
Position of appearance of roots at surface of tubers
Prtbs
Small size tubers per plant-Computation
Compute the number of small size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of small size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Leaf position - Estimation
Observe the arrangement of leaves on stem or vine and rate it
Tuber flesh cross section color uniformity-estimation
Record the uniformity of tuber flesh cross-section color using visual scale at fresh cut during harvest
Visual assessment of the tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain mature height and spread
Plant type-Estimation
Tuber thorniness intensity
Intensity of thorns on the tuber surface
ThornInt
Thorn or spine intesity
Record the date fruit set in 50% of plants in a plot
50% fruit set time-Estimation
BoilYamBitt
Basic bitter taste like small quantity of quinine or caffeine in water
Bitterness
Boiled yam bitterness
number of leaf
Tuber dry matter content - Computation
Select at least five random whole tubers from a net plot and cut small slices (1-2 mm) from proximal, middle and distal portion and mixed thoroughly. Record fresh weight and determin dry weight of samples by drying at 70âˆžC for 72 h in a forced air oven. A proportion between the dry weight and the fresh weight is calculated.
Number of medium size tubers that weighing ? 0.5kg and <1 kg in a net plot or unit area
Number
NMTP
Medium size tubers per plot
Intensity or proportion of fruit set or development under open or controlled pollination.
Fruit set number
NFrtSet
Proportion
Count the number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils produced per net plot.
Number of bulbil - Counting
Tuber flesh color reading -measurement
Measure the flesh surface color of tuber (head, middle and tail portion) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using colorimeter (a color spectrophotometer) or standard color chart.
Small size tubers per plot
Number
NSTP
Number of small size tubers that weighing <0.5kg in a net plot or unit area
Record date when 50% of plants in a plot begin producing bulbils or aerial tubers
Bulbil initiaition time - Estimation
Record the weight of medium size ( ? 500 gm and <1 kg) tubers in a net plot
Medium size tubers fresh weight per plot -measurement
Record the number of developed fruits or fruit set in pollinated flowers/inflorescence
Fruits developed number - Counting
Vein color - Estimation
Assess the color of leaf vein on the upper surface
appearance
Pounded yam appearance
apppoundedyam
The optical appearance of pouned yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of pounded yam structure
Bulbp
Number
Number of bulbil
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Tuber dormancy period
Dormancy period
Tuber dormancy period
TubDorm
Tuber surface texture - Estimation
Record the smoothness or roughness of tuber skin in visual scale
Length
Big size tuber width
Btbrwd
Average width of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Seed index
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing seeds
Small size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
Record the weight of small size ( < 500 gm) tubers in a net plot
Thorniness
Exsistence of thorns on the tuber surface
Tuber thorniness
Thorn
Record the weight of big size ( ?1 kg) tubers in a net plot
Big size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
0-2 scale
Record the presence or absence of thorns or spines on the tuber skin in visual scale
Tuber thorniness - Estimation
Score the intensity of tuber flesh oxidation (flesh surface color change) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using scale
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity-Estimation
Twining direction
Twining direction
twndir
twining direction
lveincol
Color or pigmentation of leaf vein
vein color
Vein color
Root knot nematode severity
Root knot severity caused by Meloidogyne spp.
RKNSev
Root knot nematode severity
Boiled yam whiteness
BoilYamWhit
Whiteness
Both inner and outer colour can range from light yellowish (off-white) to white (pure white)
kg
fflrint
abondance
Intensity or abudance of female flowers on spikes/infloresences
Female flowering intensity
Flrint
flowering intensity
Flowering intensity
Abundance or degree of flowering
Compute the number of days required to first inflorescence emergence in a plot
First inflorescence time - Compuation
Weight
Small size tubers weight per plot
Weight of small size tubers ( <0.5kg ) in a net plot or unit area
STW
Femal flowers abundance or intensity per inflorescence-Estimation
Observe the femal flowering intensity or abudance per inflorences and rate
Compute the proportion tubers with tubers beetle damage from the total number of harvested tubers in the effective plot at harvesting time.
Tuber beetle incidence - Computation
Number of branchs - computation
Count the number of branches above ground on at least five mature plants in a plot and record the average
Weight of small size yam per plant
WSTPL
Weight
Small size tuber weight per plant
NpollF
Quantity of Female Flowers which has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
Pollinated florets number
number
Dryrot
Yam tuber dry rot presence
Dry rot presence
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Compute average of the number of stems (vines) per established plants in a plot
Number of stems per plant-computation
1-5 general scale
Medium size tubers per plant-computation
Compute the number of medium size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of medium size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Compute the number of days required from 50% of sprouts in plot emerged to 50% of plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
50% flowering time - Computation
RKNInc
Root knot incidence caused by Meloidogyne spp.
Root knot nematode damage incidence
Root knot nematode incidence
Computed the yield of bulbil per hectare using the formula.
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per hectar- Computation
arompoundedyam
Pounded yam aroma
The sense of smell or odor of pounded yam that reaches the nose before eating or the pounded yam reaches the mouth
aroma
Harvesting ime
Time to fruit harvesting
DateFH
Time of fruit harvesting
A 1.7 g portion of starch was mixed with 25 g of distilled water in the RVA sample can, after correction for the original moisture contents of the starches
Starch breakdown-Estimation
50% Senescence time
Time when 50% of the plants in a plot are showing signs of foliage senescence
TIMsen
Time to 50% foliage senescence
Bulbpl
Number of bulbil
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Number
Hairiness of sprout - Estimation
Record existance of hairs on a sprout (vine)
Texture of pounded yam-Estimation
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when pouned yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
Count the numeber vine cuttings planted
Vine cuttings planted -counting
Measure the stem diameter at 15 cm above the base of five plants before senescence in a plot and record the average
Stem diameter-computation
colbldyam
color
Boiled yam color
Optical color or pigmentation of boiled yam
Fruits/cross
Number
Sdsown
Seeds sown
Quantity of botanical or true seeds sown per family or cross
Proportion of plants /sprouts emerged in a plot
PPE
Proportion
Proportion of emerged plants
Hairiness of tuber bark - Estimation
Record the intensity of tuber hairs or secondary roots on the surface of harvested tubers
Shape
Tuber predominant shape
Tuber shape
TbrSh
variable_of
Scalisec
Scale insect infestation
scale insect infestation
Scale insect infestation on tubers at harvest
Inflorescence type-Estimation
Observe the type of inflorescence and score it
Boiled yam texture
The physical attributes of boiled yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
texture
txtboiledyam
m
weight
WBTPL
Big size tuber weight per plant
Weight of big size tubers per plant
corsz
Corm size
Size
Size of corm in relation to tuber
Observe the appearance of roots, thones and srout buds on surface of harvested tubers and make visual score using scale
Tuber surface appearance - Estimation
1-2 scale
Seedling tranplant survival rate-computation
Compute the proportion of seedlings survived or established well after transplant operation
Smoothnessof the material, i.e., absence of lumps
Smoothness
Smoothness of pounded yam
smthpdym
Assess the color of leaf on a young plant
Leaf color - Estimation
Canopy architecture
architecture
Organisation or structural arrangements of branchs and leaves distribution giving a specific shape to the above ground part of the plant
Canarc
Incidence of mealybug tuber infestation.
MbugInc
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
Record the presence and absence of bulbils (aerial tubers) in the vines of yam plant
Presence of bulbil - Estimation
Mealybug tuber severity estimation on infested tubers at time harvesting
Mealybug tuber severity - Estimation
Variation in leaf mass of the plant
Leaf density
Lfden
density
Total tubers per plant
TNTPL
Number
Number of tubers harvested per plant
Record the corm type as regular, transversally elongated or brached using scale
Corm type-Estimation
taste
Taste of boiled yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
Tastebldyam
Boiled yam taste
50% flowering time - Estimation
Record time (date) 50% plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
Presence
Corm on tuber
Presence or absence of corm on tuber
corm
Record the total number of true seed or botanical seed harvested or obtained per cross or family
Quantity of true seed harvested -Counting
plants per plot
Small size tubers per plant
Number of small size tubers ( <0.5kg) per plant
NSTPL
Number
seed set ratio
Seed index is an estimation of pollinated flowers producing seeds
Seed index
Tuber flesh oxidation color-Estimation
Record the flesh enzymatic oxidation color using color scale
Leaf apex shape
shape
Lfapx
Leaf apex shape
Measure the weight of N planted tubers (seed yams or setts) and record the average
Setts or seed yams planted weight - Computation
1-9 scale
Bulbil initiation time
Time to bulbil initiation
TIMbulb
duration
Inflorescence initiation time
Inflorescence initiation time
Time of first inflorescence initiation
TIMinflor
Number of total (all size) tubers in a net plot or unit area
Number
TNTP
Total tubers per plot
Observe the surface of product and evaluate the frequency/number of the black points
Appearance method
Cohesiveness of pounded yam- Estimation
Score the degree to which particles of a pounded yam stick together or how moldable it is using intensity scale
First inflorescence time - Estimation
Record date when plant/s having the first inflorescence in a plot
Weight
Average weight of big size tubers in kg
AWBT
Average weigth of big size tuber
Weight of planted tubers
Weight of seed tubers (whole seed yams or setts ) planted in a plot or per unit area. Planting material from a tuber is called sett. Seed tuber could be either small, healthy whole tuber or large tubers cut into pieces (sett)
Weight
WTP
Time 50% of sprout emergence-Estimation
Record date 50% of sprouts in a plot emerged
1-5 scale
Degree to which particles of a sample stick together or how moldable it is
cohpdym
Cohesiveness of pounded yam
Cohesiveness
Twining habit-Estimation
Record the tendency of vine to twine or climb
pollination time
Date crossing or pollination attempted
Crossing date
datcross
number of florets
Average length of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Btbrleng
Big size tuber length
Length
Average length of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Mtbrleng
Medium size tuber length
Big size tubers yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
yield
BTYld
Big size yam yield
Color of boiled yam-Estimation
Observe the optical color or pigementation of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Hairs on sprout (vines)
hairiness
HAIRSP
Sprout hairiness
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dryrot
Dry rot severity
Yam tuber dry rot severity
Internode length -computation
Measure the internode length of five plants before senescence at 1 meter height and record the average
Yam starch breakdown
starch
starchbrk
The breakdown of yam starch extracted from fresh tubers were determined using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA-TecMaster, Perten Instruments, Australia)
Boiled yam bitter after taste
Bitterness after taste
BoilYamBitteraft
During chewing, bitter taste after swallowing, eg there is a light bitter aftertaste
Internode length
Intndlngth
Internode length
length
Number of true seeds sown-counting
Record the number of true seeds sown per cross or family
SPNSP
Presence of spines on sprout (vines)
Spines on sprout presence
Presense
Granuliness in mouth
Refers to the presence of small grains during chewing
Boiled yam granuleness
BoilYamMthGran
Assess the small or odour the pounded yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the pounded yam to eat
Aroma of pounded yam-Estimation
1-3 general scale
Tuber flesh color head portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the head portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
Plant harvested number - Counting
Counting the number of plants where tubers were harvested in a plot
Fibrousness scale 0-100
Texture of boiled yam-Estimation
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when boiled yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
0-7 scale
growth habit
Plant type
A tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain a certain mature height and spread
Plntype
Count number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils on plants in a net plot and compute the average number bulbils per plant
Number of bulbil - Computation
Record the degree of thorns or spines on tuber surface in visual scale
Tuber thorniness intensity-Estimation
Seeds germination start time
germination starting time
Time the first seed germination occurred
germstart
Calculated as weight of big size tubers per plot divided by total number of big size tubers per plot
Big yam tuber average weight-computation
Number
MbugSev
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
Severity of mealybug tuber infestation.
Flower initaition time - Computation
Computing the number of days required from first sprout emergence to first flower initiation
Inflorescence type
Inft
type
The arrangement of flowers on stem or twig of a plant
Bulbil presence
Presence of bulbils or aerial tubers in the nodes of the vines
Presence of bulbil
Bulbil
Computed as total tuber weight per plot divided by size of net or effective harvest plot and result multiplied by 10
Tuber yield no adjusted- Computation
True seeds harvested
Tsdh
Number of true seed harvested or obained per cross or family
Number
Polltyp
pollination type
Mode of plant to plant pollen transfer
Pollination type
Tuber flesh texture-Estimation
Record the texture of tuber flesh using scale
Seeds set - Comp
Take count of the number of seeds set on each fruits and record the average seeds per fruit
Boiled yam hardness
BoilYamHdHard
Hardness of cutting or breaking
Force required to cut/break with fork
Record the number of germinated seedlings per cross or family
Number of germinated seedling-Counting
Measure the width of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Width of small size tubers-Computation
Compute the proportion of anthracnose damaged individuals or their parts , commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Count anthracnose disease ?blight? or leaf spot affected plants in plot twice (First inspection at 10 to 12 weeks post planting and second inspection after 2 to 4 weeks before harvesting ) and compute the proportion of damanged
Anthracnose incidence - Estimation
0-4 scale
Txf
Texture of tuber flesh
Tuber flesh texture
texture
lflngth
Leaf length
Length of leaf
length
Sweetness
Basic light sugary taste like a little glucose or sucrose in water solution
Boiled yam sweetness
BoilYamSweet
Record shape of bulbils or aerial tubers in scale
Bulbil shape-Estimation
Number of emerged plants
Number
NEP
Number of an emerged plants (sprouts) in a plot
Tubers (seed yams or setts) planted - Counting
Count the number of tubers (seed yams or setts) planted per plot (unit area)
Leaf apex shape-Estimation
Record leaf apex shape of mature plants in a plot
Measure the length of internode at 1m height on five (5) plants and record the average
Internode length - computation
Leaf shape-Estimation
Record leaf shape of mature plants in a plot
Medium size tubers harvested number- counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ? 500 gm and <1 kg harvested per effective plot
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by virus disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected using visual five ordinal scale . Predominant severity per plot must be registered at least thrice : 8 to 10 weeks after planting, 4 to 6 weeks after first scoring and the last scoring at 4 to 6 weeks after the second scoring
Viruses infection severity - Estimation
TbrSz
Tuber size
Size
Tuber size
Tuber surface texture
Tuber surface smoothness
texture
Tbrtxtur
Seeds set per fruit
Number of seeds developed per fruit after hand flowers pollination
SdSet
number
Boiled yam purpleness
BoilYamPurp
Purpleness
Purple colour tending to pink after cooking
Big size tubers per plot
NBTP
Number of big size tubers that weighing ?1 kg in a net plot or unit area
Number
Total tuber yield adjusted-computation
Computed as total tubers weight per plant multiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ?1 kg harvested per effective plot
Big size tubers harvested number - counting
plant per plot
Count the number of pollinated florets per female parent per cross
Floret pollinated number - Counting
Chewingness scale 0-100
Number of well established plants -Counting
Take count of well established plants in a plot usually at two months after planting
Number
Number of leaves
The number of leaves on a plant
Nlfyp
0-9 scale
Plant Vigor - Estimation
Visual assessment of the plant vigour in a plot at two month after planting
color
Tbrfclr
Tuber flesh color
The surface color of the yam tuber flesh
Record date the last seed germination observed per cross or family
Date end of seed germination-Estimation
Observe the presence or absence of hairs on stem surface
Hair on stem - Estimation
Compute the proportion or ratio of well-established plants in a plot from the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted
Field establishment-Computation
presence
Appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface
CRZROOT
Crazy roots presence
number of tubers
Compute the proportion of sown true or botanical seed which germinate and produce seedling ready for transplant , usually observed at three weeks after sowing.
Germination rate - Computation
ATW
Weight
Average tuber weight
Average tuber weight in kg
Measure the length from lobes to the tip using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant and at leat five plants on a plot), and record the average length
Leaf length - computation
Predominat plant or flower sex
Sex
Plant sex
sex
Observe the optical color or pigementation of pounded yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Color of pounded yam-Estimation
Observe fruit setting or formation of female flowers of monoeciouse and dieciouse plants and rate the ability set for form fruits
Ability to set or form fruts-Estimation
Big size yam yield no adjusted- Computation
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per plot divided by size of effective harvest plot mutiplied by 10
status
FrtDev
Fruit development status on monoecious and female flower of dioeciouse yam plant
Status of fruit development
Bitterness 0-100
Total tuber weight per plant
TTWPL
weight
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers per plant
tons/ha
Number of internode-computation
Compute average number of internodes to first branching of at least five plants internode counts taken in a plot
Compute the number of days required for 50% of the plants in a plot showing foliage senescence
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Computation
Sprout color - estimation
Record the predominant color of the sprouts (plant) per plot at 20 days after emergence
colpoundedyam
Optical color or pigmentation of pounded yam
Pounded yam color
color
Record of the existance of colored spot at base of spines on a sprout (vine)
Colored spots on spine base-Estimation
Leaf color
The leaf surface color or pigmentation
color
mlfcol
Observe and score scale insect infestation on tuber at harvest
Scale insect infestation - Estimation
Tuber flesh cross-section color uniformity
Utfc
color
Uniformity of tuber flesh surface color in cross-section ( from cortex to center)
Corm type
cortyp
Type
Corm type
Yam odour scale 0-100
Small size tuber width
Length
Stbrwd
Average width of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing mature fruits
Fruit index
First emergence time
Time to the first sprout (plant) emerge in a plot
First sprout emergence time
TIMFSE
Time of the first flower initiation on a plant/s in a plot or any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
Time to flower initiation
Flower initiation time
TIMFlrin
Stickiness of pounded yam - Estimation
Score the sticknes or adhesiveness of pounded yam to consumern fingur using sensory test panelist
Measure the length of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Length of big size tubers-Computation
Tuber length-Computation
Compute average tuber length of all size tubers measurement taken in a net plot
scale_of
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Dryrot
Dry rot incidence
Odour method
Take a whiff and evaluate the intensity of yam odour
Tuber dry rot severity - Estimation
Score the severity of dry rot in harvested tubers
1-3 scale
Boiled yam Yam flavor
BoilYamOdor
Odour of boiled yam
Yam odour
Black spots presence scale 0-100
Tuber surface look in relation to presence or absence of roots, thorns and sprouted buds on the tuber surface
Tuber appearance
Appearance
Tbrappr
Length of small size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Record the corm ability to be separated from tuber in a binary scale
Corm separation from tuber-Estimation
Position of root appearance on tubers-Estimation
Record position of appearance of roots at surface to tubers
1-5 scale
Incidence of leaf beetle damage.
Lfbtinc
Leaf beetle incidence
Leaf beetle damage incidence
number of branch
Total tuber yield adjusted tons per hectare
yield
TTYA
Total tuber yield adjusted
CTBRS
Cracks on tuber surface
Tuber cracks
Cracks
Proportion
Proportion of plants in a plot well established (plantsgrowing with good vigour and without severe constraints)
Proportion of established plants
STRATE
0-4 general scale
Times 90% of fruits attain physiological maturity
Time to fruit maturity
TIMFrtM
Maturity time
Record absence or presence of spines on a sprout (vine)
Spines on sprout base-estimation
0-1 scale
Assess hairiness of leaf surface (lower part)
Leaf hairiness - Estimation
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Appearance of boiled yam-Estimation
Stem color - Estimation
Record the predominant color of stem on mature plant at five to six month after emergence using a five color scale
rvt
emergence time
Time to the first leaf emergence on a plant or sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
TIMLE
Time to first leaf emergence
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per per plant mutiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Big size yam yield adjusted-computation
Determination of predominant size of the tuber in the entire family
Tuber size - Estimation
Spines on stem density
density
Intensity of spines on stem (vine) above base of mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
SPNAB
Tuber flesh color middle portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut flesh surface color at the middle part of the tuber at harvesting time.
Determination of the predominant shape in the entire family/plot as a unit
Tuber shape - Estimation
Crumbness scale 0-100
Tuber beetle severity or intensity estimated usually as number of nymph present in tubers at harvesting time.
Tuber beetle severity - Estimation
Crazy roots presence on tubers at harvest-Estimation
Record appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface at harvest
Count the number of leaves on at least five young plants in a plot at 30 days after emergence and record the average
Number of Leaves - Computation
1-7 scale
Tuber hairiness
hairiness
Presence of secondary roots on the tuber bark
RTBS
Brownness scale 0-100
Property related to the number of chews necessary to swallow the product
BoilYamMthChew
Boiled yam easiness to chew
Ease of chewing
Compute the proportion dry rot tubers from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot
Tuber dry rot incidence - Computation
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Estimation
Record date of 50% plants in a plot are showing foliage senescence
Sweetness 0-100
Observe the status of foliage senescence (leaf or vine yellowing) of plants in plot at 6 month onward and rate the maturity status
Senescence- Estimation
number of bulbils
1-5 scale