Use of BGP for Routing in Large-Scale Data Centers
RFC 7938

Document Type RFC - Informational (August 2016; No errata)
Last updated 2016-08-10
Replaces draft-lapukhov-bgp-routing-large-dc
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Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication (wg milestone: Jul 2015 - Submit Document on O... )
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IESG IESG state RFC 7938 (Informational)
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IANA action state No IC
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                       P. Lapukhov
Request for Comments: 7938                                      Facebook
Category: Informational                                        A. Premji
ISSN: 2070-1721                                          Arista Networks
                                                        J. Mitchell, Ed.
                                                             August 2016

           Use of BGP for Routing in Large-Scale Data Centers

Abstract

   Some network operators build and operate data centers that support
   over one hundred thousand servers.  In this document, such data
   centers are referred to as "large-scale" to differentiate them from
   smaller infrastructures.  Environments of this scale have a unique
   set of network requirements with an emphasis on operational
   simplicity and network stability.  This document summarizes
   operational experience in designing and operating large-scale data
   centers using BGP as the only routing protocol.  The intent is to
   report on a proven and stable routing design that could be leveraged
   by others in the industry.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7938.

Lapukhov, et al.              Informational                     [Page 1]
RFC 7938               BGP Routing in Data Centers           August 2016

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Network Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Bandwidth and Traffic Patterns  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  CAPEX Minimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.3.  OPEX Minimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.4.  Traffic Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.5.  Summarized Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Data Center Topologies Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Traditional DC Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Clos Network Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.2.  Clos Topology Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.3.  Scaling the Clos Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.2.4.  Managing the Size of Clos Topology Tiers  . . . . . .  10
   4.  Data Center Routing Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  L2-Only Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Hybrid L2/L3 Designs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.3.  L3-Only Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  Routing Protocol Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.1.  Choosing EBGP as the Routing Protocol . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.2.  EBGP Configuration for Clos Topology  . . . . . . . . . .  15
       5.2.1.  EBGP Configuration Guidelines and Example ASN Scheme   15
       5.2.2.  Private Use ASNs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       5.2.3.  Prefix Advertisement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       5.2.4.  External Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       5.2.5.  Route Summarization at the Edge . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   6.  ECMP Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     6.1.  Basic ECMP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     6.2.  BGP ECMP over Multiple ASNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.3.  Weighted ECMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.4.  Consistent Hashing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

Lapukhov, et al.              Informational                     [Page 2]
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