Internet of Things (IoT) Security: State of the Art and Challenges
RFC 8576

Document Type RFC - Informational (April 2019; No errata)
Last updated 2019-04-26
Replaces draft-garcia-core-security
Stream IRTF
Formats plain text pdf html bibtex
IETF conflict review conflict-review-irtf-t2trg-iot-seccons
Stream IRTF state Published RFC
Consensus Boilerplate Yes
Document shepherd Jim Schaad
Shepherd write-up Show (last changed 2018-11-13)
IESG IESG state RFC 8576 (Informational)
Telechat date
Responsible AD (None)
Send notices to ietf@augustcellars.com, t2trg-chairs@ietf.org, allison-mankin@gmail.com, Jim Schaad <ietf@augustcellars.com>
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
IANA action state No IANA Actions
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)                    O. Garcia-Morchon
Request for Comments: 8576                                       Philips
Category: Informational                                         S. Kumar
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                  Signify
                                                                M. Sethi
                                                                Ericsson
                                                              April 2019

   Internet of Things (IoT) Security: State of the Art and Challenges

Abstract

   The Internet of Things (IoT) concept refers to the usage of standard
   Internet protocols to allow for human-to-thing and thing-to-thing
   communication.  The security needs for IoT systems are well
   recognized, and many standardization steps to provide security have
   been taken -- for example, the specification of the Constrained
   Application Protocol (CoAP) secured with Datagram Transport Layer
   Security (DTLS).  However, security challenges still exist, not only
   because there are some use cases that lack a suitable solution, but
   also because many IoT devices and systems have been designed and
   deployed with very limited security capabilities.  In this document,
   we first discuss the various stages in the lifecycle of a thing.
   Next, we document the security threats to a thing and the challenges
   that one might face to protect against these threats.  Lastly, we
   discuss the next steps needed to facilitate the deployment of secure
   IoT systems.  This document can be used by implementers and authors
   of IoT specifications as a reference for details about security
   considerations while documenting their specific security challenges,
   threat models, and mitigations.

   This document is a product of the IRTF Thing-to-Thing Research Group
   (T2TRG).

Garcia-Morchon, et al.        Informational                     [Page 1]
RFC 8576                      IoT Security                    April 2019

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Research Task Force
   (IRTF).  The IRTF publishes the results of Internet-related research
   and development activities.  These results might not be suitable for
   deployment.  Documents approved for publication by the IRSG are not
   candidates for any level of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC
   7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8576.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

Garcia-Morchon, et al.        Informational                     [Page 2]
RFC 8576                      IoT Security                    April 2019

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  The Thing Lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Security Threats and Managing Risk  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  State of the Art  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.1.  IP-Based IoT Protocols and Standards  . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.2.  Existing IP-Based Security Protocols and Solutions  . . .  16
     4.3.  IoT Security Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.  Challenges for a Secure IoT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     5.1.  Constraints and Heterogeneous Communication . . . . . . .  21
       5.1.1.  Resource Constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       5.1.2.  Denial-of-Service Resistance  . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.1.3.  End-to-End Security, Protocol Translation, and the
               Role of Middleboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       5.1.4.  New Network Architectures and Paradigm  . . . . . . .  25
     5.2.  Bootstrapping of a Security Domain  . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     5.3.  Operational Challenges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       5.3.1.  Group Membership and Security . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       5.3.2.  Mobility and IP Network Dynamics  . . . . . . . . . .  27
     5.4.  Secure Software Update and Cryptographic Agility  . . . .  27
     5.5.  End-of-Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     5.6.  Verifying Device Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     5.7.  Testing: Bug Hunting and Vulnerabilities  . . . . . . . .  31
     5.8.  Quantum-Resistance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
Show full document text